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1

Health care cost containment: an overview of policy options.  

PubMed

While health care has become one of the leading policy concerns of the American public, cost containment has emerged as the most prominent underlying factor. Components of health care cost escalation include societal problems, consumer demand, an aging population, the technology explosion, administrative inefficiencies, the malpractice crisis, fraud and abuse, the lack of health promotion and disease prevention, the rising number of uninsured, and regulatory issues. The three major categories of health reform proposals, with characteristic cost containment features, are discussed. A comprehensive listing of available cost containment interventions is summarized in ten categories. PMID:8273941

Pane, G A; Taliaferro, E H

1994-01-01

2

A Comparison of Cost-Containment Instruments for US Carbon Reduction Policies  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy ABSTRACT A cap-and-trade programA Comparison of Cost-Containment Instruments for US Carbon Reduction Policies by Lisa M. Jakobovits B.S., Science, Technology and Society Stanford University, 2004 Submitted to the Engineering Systems

3

The attitudes of physicians toward health care cost-containment policies.  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed physician attitudes toward a variety of health care cost-containment policies, based on a national survey of 500 practicing doctors in 1984. Reactions to 23 policies were simplified to nine common themes using factor analysis. Although there was great diversity in views, physicians generally favored policies that increased responsibilities or costs for patients and disfavored policies that decreased physicians' autonomy of practice. For most policies, practice characteristics (specialty; type of practice, e.g., solo or group, salaried or self-employed; membership in medical societies; or percent of time in direct patient care) were not significant determinants of attitudes. Physicians who were more "conservative" with respect to the health care system tended to favor policies that shifted cost to patients, while more "liberal" doctors were more supportive of using prepaid health care, reducing the intensity of care, or selecting efficient providers. Overall, this study indicates that physicians still place a high value on their professional autonomy. PMID:2329048

Ku, L; Fisher, D

1990-01-01

4

The nature and consequences of policies intended to contain costs in outpatient drug insurance programs.  

PubMed

Outpatient drug insurance programs play an important role in making drugs affordable. Public and private program policy-makers often respond to fiscal pressures by reducing benefit coverage or pharmacy reimbursement levels. These reductions defeat both coverage and cost-containment goals. A more prudent approach is to adopt a comprehensive policy for outpatient drug coverage that protects patients and ensures fair and prompt reimbursements to pharmacy providers. These issues are well illustrated by the economic situation in Illinois, resultant state budget problems, and the consequences for the Illinois Medicaid outpatient drug program and the Illinois state-only pharmaceutical assistance program for low-income elderly patients. The questions examined in this paper have important implications for patients, pharmacists, physicians, the pharmaceutical industry, public and private policymakers, and society as a whole. PMID:8221825

Reutzel, T J

1993-01-01

5

Length of hospital stay in Japan 1971-2008: hospital ownership and cost-containment policies.  

PubMed

The average length of stay (LOS) is considered one of the most significant indicators of hospital management. The steep decline in the average LOS among Japanese hospitals since the 1980s is considered to be due to cost-containment policies directed at reducing LOS. Japan's hospital sector is characterised by a diversity of ownership types. We took advantage of this context to examine different hospital behaviours associated with ownership types. Analysing government data published from 1971 to 2008 for the effect of a series of cost-containment policies aimed at reducing LOS revealed distinctly different paths behind the declines in LOS between privately owned and publicly owned hospitals. In the earlier years, private hospitals focused on providing long-term care to the elderly, while in the later years, they made a choice between providing long-term care and providing acute care with reduced LOS and bonus payments. By contrast, the majority of public hospitals opted to provide acute care with reduced LOS in line with public targets. PMID:24462343

Kato, Naoko; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

2014-04-01

6

Cost Containment for Higher Education: Strategies for Public Policy and Institutional Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses long term strategies for cost containment for higher education that are currently in use or could be employed. Some of the strategies discussed are applicable at various levels of government, some relate to interinstitutional arrangements and some are options of the individual institutions. The chapters are as follows: (1)…

Simpson, William Brand

7

Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms  

E-print Network

provisions, a hard cap and a soft cap, on compliance credit prices. We show numerically that both fuel Workshop and at the Stanford University Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation intensity standard. We study the effects of each policy on key market outcomes including fuel prices

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

8

Costing for Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost behavior analysis, a costing process that can assist managers in estimating how certain institutional costs change in response to volume, policy, and environmental factors, is described. The five steps of this approach are examined, and the application of cost behavior analysis at four college-level settings is documented. The institutions…

National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

9

Containing health costs in the Americas.  

PubMed

In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost containment. In various countries, large-scale reorganization processes have been undertaken to eliminate costly duplications of resources, personnel, and services that resulted from the multiplicity of providers in the public subsector. Given the pluralistic character of the region's health systems, an important challenge for policy-makers is to find ways to redefine the role of state intervention in health from the simple provision of services to one that involves the 'management' of health care in the entire sector. PMID:10113451

Márquez, P

1990-01-01

10

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

2003-05-09

11

The containment of cost of health care.  

PubMed

The cost of health care services has become increasingly important to society. Although hospital physicians are traditionally not involved in cost calculation and cost containment, they bear the consequences of budget restrictions. Since 1987, the reimbursement for clinical laboratories in Belgian hospitals has changed towards an envelope based system. Clinical biologists became aware that new resources can only be obtained mainly through cost reductions. But to contain cost, one must understand how it is generated. Activity based costing (ABC) is a new technique developed for strategic management in the industry. By analyzing the cost of all activities involved in the production process, this technique is very well suited to calculate cost in service organizations like medical departments. Using the principles of ABC, we performed a detailed analysis of the cost of a microbiology laboratory, determining the full cost as well as the proportion of each cost sorts (materials, labor, ...) for each laboratory test. This analysis illustrates that cost can effectively be calculated in a hospital department and guide doctors in the evaluation of alternative medical techniques, investments in automation, and the decision on medical priorities. In our opinion, cost containment of hospital care must start from within each medical department. Responsibility and participation of physicians in the discussion on budget allocation are essential in the process of cost containment of the hospital health care. PMID:8686402

Gordts, B

1996-04-01

12

Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.  

PubMed

This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable. PMID:10961833

Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

2000-01-01

13

Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy  

E-print Network

Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy If a barcoded bottle breaks, remove the barcode or take note of the number after safely cleaning up any chemical release. Provide the number to EH be obtained at Chemstores or Biostores. Grossly contaminated glassware (with chemical residue that can

Jia, Songtao

14

The Effectiveness of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Containing Costs  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Although cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) have been advocated as a tool to critically appraise the value of health expenditures, it has been widely hoped that they might also help contain health care costs. To determine how often they discourage additional expenditures, we reviewed the conclusions of recently published CEAs. DATA SOURCES A search of the Abridged Index Medicus (a subset of MEDLINE designed to afford rapid access to the literature of “immediate interest” to the practicing physician) between 1990 and 1996. STUDY SELECTION We only included articles that reported an explicit cost-effectiveness (CE) ratio (a cost for some given health effect) in the abstract. DATA ABSTRACTION From each abstract, we collected the value for the incremental CE ratio and the measure of health effect (life-years, quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs], other). We then categorized the authors' conclusion into one of three categories: supports strategy requiring additional expenditure, no firm conclusion, and supports low-cost alternative. Finally, we obtained the article and collected information on funding source. DATA SYNTHESIS Among the 109 eligible articles, the authors' conclusion supported strategies requiring additional expenditure in 58 (53%) and supported the low-cost alternative in 28 (26%). We then focused on the 65 articles reporting either life-years or QALYs. Cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $400 to $166,000 (per life-year or QALY) in the 39 articles (60%) in which authors supported additional expenditure, and ranged from $61,500 to $11,600,000 in the 13 articles (20%) in which authors supported the low-cost alternative. Despite identifying similar CE ratios, authors arrived at different conclusions in the overlapping range ($61,500 to $166,000). Of the 10 articles acknowledging industry funding, 9 supported a strategy requiring additional expenditure (p = .01 as compared with those without such funding). CONCLUSIONS Authors of CEAs are more likely to support strategies requiring additional expenditure than the low-cost alternative. There is no obvious consensus about how small the CE ratio should be to warrant additional expenditure. Finally, concerns about funding source seem to be warranted. PMID:9798812

Azimi, Nassir A.; Welch, H. Gilbert

1998-01-01

15

Cost containment and KSC Shuttle facilities or cost containment and aerospace construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has the objective to show examples of Cost Containment of Aerospace Construction at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), taking into account four major levels of Project Development of the Space Shuttle Facilities. The levels are related to conceptual criteria and site selection, the design of construction and ground support equipment, the construction of facilities and ground support equipment (GSE), and operation and maintenance. Examples of cost containment are discussed. The continued reduction of processing time from landing to launching represents a demonstration of the success of the cost containment methods. Attention is given to the factors which led to the selection of KSC, the use of Cost Engineering, the employment of the Construction Management Concept, and the use of Computer Aided Design/Drafting.

Brown, J. A.

1985-01-01

16

Quantifying the cost uncertainty of climate stabilization policies  

E-print Network

Climate change researchers are often asked to evaluate potential economic effects of climate stabilization policies. Policy costs are particularly important because policymakers use a cost/benefit framework to analyze ...

Franck, Travis Read

2005-01-01

17

Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports  

E-print Network

savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due...

Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

1989-01-01

18

Benefit-cost assessment of aviation environmental policies  

E-print Network

This thesis aids in the development of a framework in which to conduct global benefit-cost assessments of aviation policies. Current policy analysis tools, such as the aviation environmental portfolio management tool (APMT), ...

Gilmore, Christopher K. (Christopher Kenneth)

2012-01-01

19

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-print Network

) and 37 percent complex (medical buildings and power plants). Allowing for the influence of one large facility which received less-extensive treatment due to previous work, thorough audits were obtained for an average cost of $0.050/SF. Large medical...

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01

20

Cost Effective Rumor Containment in Social Networks  

E-print Network

The spread of rumors through social media and online social networks can not only disrupt the daily lives of citizens but also result in loss of life and property. A rumor spreads when individuals, who are unable decide the authenticity of the information, mistake the rumor as genuine information and pass it on to their acquaintances. We propose a solution where a set of individuals (based on their degree) in the social network are trained and provided resources to help them distinguish a rumor from genuine information. By formulating an optimization problem we calculate the optimum set of individuals, who must undergo training, and the quality of training that minimizes the expected training cost and ensures an upper bound on the size of the rumor outbreak. Our primary contribution is that although the optimization problem turns out to be non convex, we show that the problem is equivalent to solving a set of linear programs. This result also allows us to solve the problem of minimizing the size of rumor outb...

Kotnis, Bhushan

2014-01-01

21

Australia's pharmaceutical cost sharing policy: reducing waste or affordability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that Australia's pharmaceu- tical cost sharing policy has been applied as if cost sharing is unproblematic for medicine afford- ability and good health outcomes. Australian and international experience with pharmaceutical cost sharing strongly suggests a negative impact on affordability and quality use of medicines, dispro- portionately affecting low income patients. We argue that Australia's use

Evan Doran; Jane Robertson

2009-01-01

22

Mitigation and health: Climate policy not so costly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change mitigation can benefit human health by reducing air pollution. Research now shows that the economic value of health improvements can substantially outweigh mitigation costs, and that more flexible policies could have higher benefits.

Buonocore, Jonathan

2014-10-01

23

76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

2011-11-10

24

76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP...

2011-09-29

25

EFFECTS OF RISING FUEL COSTS ON CONTAINER SHIPPING NETWORKS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cost increase forces liner shipping companies to bear higher ship operation costs and subsequently a lager total cost. To cope with such a fuel cost increase, they attempt to reduce the ship speed to maintain the low operation costs, even resulting in increase of the transit time. This study examines effects of ship speed reduction on fuel savings as well as profit increase, by using a mathematical model for a container liner service network design with a consideration o f empty container repositioning. Throughout numeric al experiments for the Asia-North America trade, the ship speed reduction is effective in fuel cost savings. Furthermore, it was found that the reduction of ship dwell time at port offset the longer transit time resulting from the cruising speed reduction.

Shintani, Koichi; Imai, Akio

26

Autos, tires, aluminum, oil--and cost containment.  

PubMed

Faced with massive increases in the costs of the health care benefits they provide for their employees, many large U.S. corporations are becoming increasingly involved in efforts to contain health care costs. Often seeing their efforts as posing an alternative to direct federal government intervention, business leaders are implementing a wide range of programs, including specific arrangements with providers, education of hospital trustees who are also employees, and fitness and preventive medicine programs. PMID:10238290

Friedman, E

1978-09-01

27

The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs.  

PubMed

Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49-100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies are worth bearing even when these constitute a substantial proportion (70% or more) of the payments that would otherwise have been given to farmers. PMID:22385501

Armsworth, Paul R; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin; Gaston, Kevin J; Hanley, Nick; Wilson, Paul

2012-05-01

28

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)  

E-print Network

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute congestion is considered one of the most significant transportation problems. The capacity of a road depends, Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, 13th Edition, Institute of Transportation Studies, UBC (Berkeley; www

O'Donnell, Tom

29

Induced Technical Change and the Cost of Climate Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides an economic analysis of a specific climate change policy: a carbon tax. The analysis attempts to gauge the potential for a carbon tax to create an incentive for research and development, and subsequently lower the cost of technologies responding to climate change.

Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-

2008-04-01

30

Policy Brief Private and Government Fiscal Costs and Benefits  

E-print Network

Policy Brief Private and Government Fiscal Costs and Benefits of the Maryland Dream Act T. H2 The Maryland Dream Act3 allows undocumented immigrants who graduate from Maryland high schools and public universities (see Box 1). Specifically, under the Dream Act eligible students who begin

Adali, Tulay

31

Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.  

PubMed Central

The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be applied logically to the high-cost patient and particularly toward the complex patient. The complex patient is especially suited for consideration, since it is postulated that these patients are endemic to all general hospitals and to all clinical services. Strategies to be developed should include: 1) a managerial system in which physicians have an incentive to contain costs, 2) an online data system, 3) an accurate, efficient way to identify prospective high-cost and complex patients and, 4) awareness by physicians, patients, and society that less expensive modes of diagnosis and therapy are an appropriate response to rationed health resources. PMID:6412640

Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

1983-01-01

32

Vaccines: A Cost-Effective Strategy to Contain Antimicrobial Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is rapid spread of infectious disease globally. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance has made it difficult to contain\\u000a the spread and the associated escalating costs of treatment. Rational use of antibiotics and an effective infection control\\u000a strategy in health-care facilities can reduce the growing spread of infectious disease dramatically but these are often not\\u000a possible in developing countries due to

Richard A. Adegbola; Debasish Saha

33

Competition and health cost containment: cautions and conjectures.  

PubMed

Market approaches based on reformed incentives and newly vigorous competition are increasingly proposed as reliable, preferable alternatives to public regulation in the quest for health care cost containment. Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are often said to provide both theoretical and empirical support for market approaches and are expected to be important vehicles for the exercise of market forces in a "reformed" health care system. Yet experience in the 1970s with federal efforts to increase the number and enrollment of HMOs suggests that serious problems of organization, expectations, and political interest will arise even in a reformed marketplace. PMID:6908948

Brown, L D

1981-01-01

34

Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?  

SciTech Connect

Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2005-11-15

35

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01

36

A dynamic model for costing disaster mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The optimal level of investment in mitigation strategies is usually difficult to ascertain in the context of disaster planning. This research develops a model to provide such direction by relying on cost of quality literature. This paper begins by introducing a static approach inspired by Joseph M. Juran's cost of quality management model (Juran, 1951) to demonstrate the non-linear trade-offs in disaster management expenditure. Next it presents a dynamic model that includes the impact of dynamic interactions of the changing level of risk, the cost of living, and the learning/investments that may alter over time. It illustrates that there is an optimal point that minimises the total cost of disaster management, and that this optimal point moves as governments learn from experience or as states get richer. It is hoped that the propositions contained herein will help policymakers to plan, evaluate, and justify voluntary disaster mitigation expenditures. PMID:23601023

Altay, Nezih; Prasad, Sameer; Tata, Jasmine

2013-07-01

37

U.S. Pharmacy Policy: A Public Health Perspective on Safety and Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and “cost-sharing”

Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau; Lincy S. Lal; Jay H. Glasser

2009-01-01

38

Cost containment and quality of care in Japan: is there a trade-off?  

PubMed

Japan's health indices such as life expectancy at birth are among the best in the world. However, at 8·5% the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health is 20th among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries in 2008 and half as much as that in the USA. Costs have been contained by the nationally uniform fee schedule, in which the global revision rate is set first and item-by-item revisions are then made. Although the structural and process dimensions of quality seem to be poor, the characteristics of the health-care system are primarily attributable to how physicians and hospitals have developed in the country, and not to the cost-containment policy. However, outcomes such as postsurgical mortality rates are as good as those reported for other developed countries. Japan's basic policy has been a combination of tight control of the conditions of payment, but a laissez-faire approach to how services are delivered; this combination has led to a scarcity of professional governance and accountability. In view of the structural problems facing the health-care system, the balance should be shifted towards increased freedom of payment conditions by simplification of reimbursement rules, but tightened control of service delivery by strengthening of regional health planning, both of which should be supported through public monitoring of providers' performance. Japan's experience of good health and low cost suggests that the priority in health policy should initially be improvement of access and prevention of impoverishment from health care, after which efficiency and quality of services should then be pursued. PMID:21885098

Hashimoto, Hideki; Ikegami, Naoki; Shibuya, Kenji; Izumida, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Haruko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Acuin, Jose M; Reich, Michael R

2011-09-24

39

Health Maintenance Organizations as an Instrument for Cost Containment Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A health maintenance organization (HMO) is any public or private organization that provides a comprehensive range of health care services, either directly or under arrangements with others, to an enrolled population for a fixed prepaid per capita fee. The...

S. Coleman

1979-01-01

40

Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.  

PubMed

In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. PMID:22043828

Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

2012-03-01

41

Important Notice: Implementation of the New NSF Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... gov/bfa/cpo/policy/start.htm>. The new policy is effective immediately and will be incorporated as ... any questions regarding the policy should be directed to policy@nsf.gov>. Rita R. Colwell Director ...

42

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

43

Cost Sharing in Higher Education in Kenya: Examining the Undesired Policy Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost sharing in higher education is a policy that comes from the United States. The policy advocates that costs of higher education should be shared between the government, parents, students and/or donor organizations. Proponents of the policy (such as the World Bank) have over the years been advocating for its implementation in African countries.…

Ngolovoi, Mary S.

2010-01-01

44

Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

Stasica, Edward R.

45

Cost-containment and the use of reference laboratories.  

PubMed

Hospital laboratories and hospital-independent reference laboratories will need to change in order to provide comprehensive, medically appropriate, and reasonably priced laboratory services in the cost-containment age we are entering. The change must be economically and technologically innovative and relevant to society's next generation of health care needs. Hospital laboratories and commercial laboratories may become weaker or stronger relative to one another, but our guess is that they will ultimately become more like one another or even may join forces to provide optimal patient care in the future. Until that time comes, hospital laboratories must decide whether to employ reference laboratory services more or less, enter a joint venture with a reference laboratory, or become a reference laboratory. Some of the items that could be considered in arriving at this decision are listed in Table 2. Some items favor hospital laboratories; some favor reference laboratories; some are a toss-up; and some suggest there are advantages in a team approach. For the present, we believe there are many arguments favoring a continuation and possibly even an expansion of hospital laboratory services, but this will likely be most feasible in financially sound and progressive hospitals having forward-looking administrators and imaginative but fiscally minded laboratory directors and managers. If decisions are made to send more tests to reference laboratories, each hospital or user laboratory must seek the best and most cost-effective services available. Various financial, technical, and medical considerations are described that should aid in the evaluation of where to have tests performed. We have provided suggestions on how agreements with reference laboratories can be established in either a formal (contractual) or an informal (verbal) way. Additionally, we have described methods for evaluating (or monitoring) the quality and quantity of services received from a reference laboratory. In general, for any significant agreement with a reputable reference laboratory, little more may be necessary for monitoring purposes than periodic financial and quality assurance audits and follow-up on any clinical complaints regarding test results. With a large contract, the user laboratory is advised to spot check results on submitted blind duplicates of patient samples (to test provider lab precision) and occasionally to split samples between the provider and one or more other reference laboratories (as a first look at possible inaccuracy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085191

Shaw, S T; Miller, J M

1985-12-01

46

Medicare Long-Term CPAP Coverage Policy: A Cost-Utility Analysis  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: CPAP is an effective treatment for OSA that may reduce health care utilization and costs. Medicare currently reimburses the costs of long-term CPAP therapy only if the patient is adherent during a 90-day trial. If not, Medicare requires a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and another trial which seems empirically not cost-effective. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of current Medicare policy compared to an alternative policy (clinic-only) without the adherence criterion and repeat PSG. Design: Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting: U.S. Medicare Population. Patients or Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: We created a decision tree modeling (1) clinic only follow-up vs. (2) current Medicare policy. Costs were assigned based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2012. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test our assumptions. We estimated cumulative costs, overall adherence, and QALY gained for a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of Medicare as the payer. Current Medicare policy is more costly than the clinic-only policy but has higher net adherence and improved utility. Current Medicare policy compared to clinic-only policy costs $30,544 more per QALY. Conclusions: Current CMS policy promotes early identification of those more likely to adhere to CPAP therapy by requiring strict adherence standards. The policy effect is to deny coverage to those unlikely to use CPAP long-term and prevent wasted resources. Future studies are needed to measure long-term adherence in an elderly population with and without current adherence requirements to verify the cost-effectiveness of a policy change. Citation: Billings ME; Kapur VK. Medicare long-term CPAP coverage policy: a cost-utility analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1023-1029. PMID:24127146

Billings, Martha E.; Kapur, Vishesh K.

2013-01-01

47

Cost-Energy Dynamics: An Engineering - Economic Basis for Industrial Energy Conservation Policies  

E-print Network

This paper develops a theory called cost-energy dynamics that can be used to shape policies for industrial energy conservation. It is built on two hypotheses commonly observed in process engineering; namely, cost varies as positive power function...

Phung, D. L.; van Gool, W.

1980-01-01

48

All statements and policies contained in this report are applicable to all  

E-print Network

All statements and policies contained in this report are applicable to all Old Dominion University.....................................................................................01 Old Dominion University Overview............................................................................................02 Old Dominion University Police Department

49

75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Solicitation...The National Institute of Corrections (NIC...the development of a cost containment online resource...developing and implementing systems-level cost...

2010-08-10

50

Energy security policies in EU25—The expected cost of oil supply disruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing the impact on the expected cost of oil disruption by energy policies in EU-25 is developed. The framework takes into account how energy policies affect the oil market, the expected oil price increase, and the disruption costs. OPEC's strategic behavior is modelled as a dominant firm, and the model includes price interdependence between different energy commodities

Fredrik Hedenus; Christian Azar; Daniel J. A. Johansson

2010-01-01

51

Quantifying the Cost Uncertainty of Climate Stabilization Policies Travis Read Franck  

E-print Network

risks. Policies could be designed to share risks by implementing different permit allocation methodsQuantifying the Cost Uncertainty of Climate Stabilization Policies by Travis Read Franck Bachelor in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degrees of Master of Science in Technology and Policy

52

Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

Krutilla, Kerry

2005-01-01

53

Innovation amidst radical cost containment in health care.  

PubMed

The changing health care environment is requiring nurse executives within a hospital setting to design and implement innovative workforce practices that will both improve patient outcomes and lower costs. Since registered nurses comprise the largest percentage of a hospital's workforce, finding ways to incorporate them in these efforts is essential. The Magnet Recognition Program through the American Nurses Credentialing Center is one successful evidence-based strategy that can be adopted to engage nurses in quality improvement processes. This article describes how two community hospitals used the principles of the Magnet Recognition Program to develop and implement new approaches to meet the health care imperative of providing safer, high-quality, cost-effective care. PMID:23454990

Beard, Edward L; Sharkey, Kim

2013-01-01

54

Higher Education Cost Drivers, Including Two Hidden Ones with Cost Containment Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying higher education cost drivers and working to limit their effects appears to be a necessity if higher education is to retain the support historically allocated by society. Costs occur for three groups: students, institutions, and society. This paper summarizes information about cost drivers in higher education and identifies two that…

Micceri, Ted

55

Hospital pharmacy decisions, cost containment, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key hypothesis of the study was that hospital pharmacies under the pressure of managed care would be more likely to adopt process innovations to assure less costly and more cost-effective provision of care. We conducted a survey of 103 hospitals and analyzed secondary data on cost and staffing. Compared to the size of the reduction in length of stay,

Frank A. Sloan; Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein; Alicia Wilson

1997-01-01

56

The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

Turk, Frederick J.

1992-01-01

57

75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY...accepting comments on RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This...provide guidance on eligible labor costs for an applicant's permanent, temporary, and contract employees who perform...

2010-08-13

58

Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.  

PubMed

In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has previously been predicted. The patient's length of stay in the hospital has already been reduced. There will continue to be decreases in laboratory utilization and consumption of resources necessary to provide laboratory services. Cost competitiveness coupled with the laboratory's need for increased productivity will further expand savings. To summarize, the laboratory manager in the mid-1980's will have the following goals. To provide quality, cost-efficient, and timely laboratory services. To sustain and nurture the growth of the clinical laboratory profession as dictated by the needs of society and new scientific trends and discoveries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085189

Martin, B G

1985-12-01

59

Nutrition Policy for the Prevention of Disease: Issues of Cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Governments should implement nutrition policies that will improve population health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These policies include reducing the salt content of processed foods, use of dietary supplements of proven value, eliminating\\u000a hydrogenated oils that contain trans fatty acids from food.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Implementation of the proposed policies would cost relatively little and should achieve significant health benefits within\\u000a a few years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Norman J. Temple

60

Initiatives for Containing the Cost of Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers a comprehensive reform agenda for policymakers interested in cost containment. Massy lays out a series of initiatives that, working in tandem, can promote the larger goal of compelling colleges to spend money wisely. Among the individual reforms Massy proposes are creating a national database of cost-containment

Massy, William F.

2013-01-01

61

The High Cost of Teacher Turnover. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher turnover in five school districts. The selected districts varied in size, location, and demographics enabling exploration of how these variations affected costs. Costs of recruiting, hiring, processing, and training…

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007

2007-01-01

62

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-print Network

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

63

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2011-10-01

64

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2010-10-01

65

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2013-10-01

66

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2012-10-01

67

100% container scanning : security policy implications for global supply chains  

E-print Network

On August 3, 2007, President George Bush signed into law HR1 the "Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007." The 9/11 Act requires 100% scanning of US-bound containers at foreign seaports by 2012 ...

Bennett, Allison C. (Allison Christine)

2008-01-01

68

New Center Applies Cost-Benefit Analysis to Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, at Teachers College, Columbia University. Launched last year by a pair of economists, the center specializes in calculating and comparing the long- and short-term costs--and probable payoffs--of different educational strategies that promise to improve students' lives. Studies…

Viadero, Debra

2008-01-01

69

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28

70

Mowing Smart A Cost-Saving and Eco-Friendly Policy  

E-print Network

Mowing Smart A Cost-Saving and Eco-Friendly Policy This policy is intended for use by state, county. Mow intersection zones for good visibility. 3. Highway directional and warning signs, traffic signals, and other road markers must be kept clearly visible to highway users at all times. Approaches to signs

Minnesota, University of

71

The Cost of Reading Privacy Policies Aleecia M. McDonald and Lorrie Faith Cranor  

E-print Network

-- 1 -- The Cost of Reading Privacy Policies Aleecia M. McDonald and Lorrie Faith Cranor AUTHOR remedy is to use economics rather than legislation to address privacy risks by creating a market place and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Lorrie Faith Cranor is an Associate Professor of Computer

Cranor, Lorrie Faith

72

Cost-effective policies for improving water quality by reducing nitrate emissions from diverse dairy farms: An abatement–cost perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º Studies cost-effective policies to reduce nitrate leaching from 410 dairy farms. â–º Presents flexible framework for analysis of regulation of diverse firms. â–º Differentiated policy more efficient than uniform or threshold policies. â–º Highlights importance of representing firm heterogeneity in policy models.

Graeme J. Doole

2012-01-01

73

Cost Containment Strategies in the United States: Role of Cost-Effectiveness Research*†  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States spends more of its gross domestic product on health care than any other industrialized nation. The benefits of this expenditure, however, are not directly recognized in improved health care. A number of interventions have been instituted throughout the health care system with the objective of improving benefits while reducing costs. Measures taken by Medicare and Medicaid, private

Renée J. Goldberg Arnold; Diana J. Kaniecki; Michael J. Sax; Roger P. Potyk

1996-01-01

74

The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States  

E-print Network

We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

Morris, Jennifer F.

2009-01-01

75

Induced technical change and the cost of climate policy  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the potential for a carbon tax to induce R&D, and for the consequent induced technical change (ITC) to lower the macroeconomic cost of abating carbon emissions. ITC is modelled within a general ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

76

The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States  

E-print Network

We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

Morris, Jennifer F.

77

Cost justification of filmless PACS and national policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expense of installing PACS is high so most Korean hospitals cannot afford to purchase the system easily. We can justify the cost of PACS by considering the visible and invisible benefits. As a visible benefit we can save the cost of films and equipments for film processing. Invisible benefits of PACS is the cost of film handling. Generally, doctors spend some 25 minutes in handling X-ray films everyday and they spend 10 days (84 hours) throughout a year. Radiology technicians, nurses, orderlies and clerks also handle films and the total salary for handling films by doctors and paramedics will be considerable. Considering the visible and invisible benefits, cost of PACS is justified and PACS can be installed in every hospital, whatever their size. The Korean Society of PACS tried to make reimbursement of the cost of PACS and persuaded the government officers and eventually the Ministry of Health and Welfare decided to reimburse the use of PACS in hospitals. Based on the money reimbursed, general hospitals or university hospitals will earn enough money to purchase a PACS in 3 - 5 years. After the Korean government started to reimburse the cost of PACS, many hospitals wanted to install PACS and the number of hospitals installing PACS is soaring.

Lim, Jae H.

2002-05-01

78

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

...FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246.16a Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment....

2014-01-01

79

Playing against nature: formulating cost-effective natural hazard policy given uncertainty  

E-print Network

Playing against nature: formulating cost- effective natural hazard policy given uncertainty Tohoku://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/eqrec.html #12;Developing strategies to mitigate risks posed by natural hazards depends on estimating the hazard and the balance between the costs and benefits of mitigation. The major uncertainty is the probabilities

80

A cost-effective renewables policy can advance the transition to competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surcharge-funded production incentive is the best way to support the renewable energy industry. It`s consistent with a competitive industry framework, has the virtue of capping costs, and uses market mechanisms to maximize cost effectiveness. What policy should there be for renewable energy under new, competitive frameworks? Discussion has focused on a `renewables portfolio standard` (RPS) that would require every

D. Kirshner; B. Barkovich; K. Treleven; R. Walther

1977-01-01

81

Payout Policy, Financial Flexibility, and Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the agency costs of free cash to explain how firms determine their payout policies. Payout methods considered are dividends and open-market stock repur- chase programs. Dividends eliminate the agency costs of free cash by reducing cash under management (insiders) discretion, but could result in underinvestment if the paid out cash is needed later for operations. Stock

Jacob Oded

82

Cost Containment Through Energy Efficiency in Texas State-Owned Buildings  

E-print Network

COST CONTAINMENT THROUGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN TEXAS STATE-OWNED BUILDINGS Willis M. Ponder ACR Energy Engineering, Inc. Austin, Texas ABSTRACT "The Energy Cost Containment Through Energy Efficiency" in Texas State-owned buildings project... initiated an aggressive program to Curb spiraling utility bills using budget personnel and building facilities management. Tne Governor's first action was to direct all agencies to appoint an energy contact and establish energy consumption reduction...

Ponder, W. M.; Verdict, M. E.

1985-01-01

83

Effects of a cost-sharing policy on disenrollment from a state health insurance program.  

PubMed

Subsidized public health insurance programs face financial difficulties and are increasingly implementing policies to pass on greater costs to low-income enrollees. Results of a stratified, random sample of 1,153 enrollees and disenrollees of a state program after introduction of increased cost sharing revealed three main reasons for disenrollment, which varied by enrollee income: finding other coverage, becoming financially ineligible, or dropping coverage as too expensive. Seventeen percent of disenrollees cited cost sharing as a reason for disenrollment. Persons who disenrolled were more likely to be younger adults, male, and have fewer children. Persons who disenrolled reported greater subsequent out-of-pocket costs, more difficulty providing coverage for children, and less access to care than persons who stayed enrolled. Most enrollees stayed enrolled despite the cost sharing increases, and persons who did disenroll left for a variety of reasons, only one of which was cost. Implications for state health insurance policies are discussed. PMID:23145551

Hendryx, Michael; Onizuka, Richard; Wilson, Vicki; Ahern, Melissa

2012-01-01

84

Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.  

PubMed

Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. PMID:22257324

Heslop, Liza

2012-02-01

85

Probabilistic Cost Enforcement of Security Policies Yannis Mallios1  

E-print Network

layer proxies and TCP scrubbers [18]. Both of these convert ambiguous TCP flows to un- ambiguous ones the client and the proxy, and one #12;between the proxy and the server. TCP scrubbers leave the bulk of buffering as the scrubber, which suggests that the proxy is more costly (in terms of computational resources

Bauer, Lujo

86

LOBOT: Low-Cost, Self-Contained Localization of Small-Sized Ground Robotic Vehicles  

E-print Network

threshold. Index Terms--Localization, robot, sensor, GPS. ! 1 INTRODUCTION Small-sized ground robotic-contained positioning system for the robot: ideally, the localization system should be completely integrated onto1 LOBOT: Low-Cost, Self-Contained Localization of Small-Sized Ground Robotic Vehicles Guoxing Zhan

Shi, Weisong

87

Risk informed resource allocation policy: safety can save costs.  

PubMed

During economic doldrums, decision making on investments for safety is even more difficult than it already is when funds are abundant. This paper attempts to offer some guidance. After stating the present challenge to prevention of losses in the process industries, the systematic approach of quantified risk assessment is briefly reviewed and improvements in the methodology are mentioned. In addition, attention is given to the use of a risk matrix to survey a plant and to derive a plan of action. Subsequently, the reduction of risk is reviewed. Measures for prevention, protection, and mitigation are discussed. The organization of safety has become at least as important as technical safety of equipment and standards. It is reflected in the introduction of a safety management system. Furthermore, the design process in a pro-active approach is described and the concept of inherent safety is briefly addressed. The concept of Layer of Protection Analysis is explained and also the reason why it is relevant to provide a cost-benefit analysis. Finally, after comments regarding the cost of accidents, the basics of costing and profitability are summarized and a way is suggested to apply this approach to risk-reducing measures. An example is provided on how a selection can be made from a number of alternatives. PMID:10677670

Pasman, H J

2000-01-01

88

Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.  

PubMed

In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. PMID:24184529

Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

2013-12-15

89

Norms and Costs of Government Domestic Violence Policies: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence and governmental domestic violence policies impact many families and produce considerable economic costs.\\u000a This paper reviews literature related to domestic violence including false claims of domestic violence. Domestic violence\\u000a literature is considered in relation to economic literature on norm theory and the procedural justice concept. Norm theory\\u000a provides a basis to understand and evaluate domestic violence policies and

Benjamin P. Foster

2011-01-01

90

Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (?4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (?7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

2014-10-01

91

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

92

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for U.S. renewable energy policy.  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of 'learning by doing' and developments in 'learning by searching' with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing electricity cost estimates used in energy policy planning models. Sensitivities of the learning rates for global wind and solar photovoltaic technologies to changes in the model parameters are tested. The implications of the results indicate that institutional policy instruments play an important role for these technologies to achieve cost reductions and further market adoption.

Erickson, Jon D. (University of Vermont, Burlington, VT); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Drennen, Thomas E. (William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2004-09-01

93

Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.  

PubMed

This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits. PMID:24306855

Ziebarth, Nicolas R

2014-03-01

94

The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

2014-01-01

95

How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

Welner, Kevin

2011-01-01

96

Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

2014-10-01

97

Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: investing in health systems.  

PubMed Central

The role of health systems infrastructure in studies of cost-effectiveness analysis and health resource allocation is discussed, and previous health sector cost-effectiveness analyses are cited. Two substantial difficulties concerning the nature of health system costs and the policy choices are presented. First, the issue of health system infrastructure can be addressed by use of computer models such as the Health Resource Allocation Model (HRAM) developed at Harvard, which integrates cost-effectiveness and burden of disease data. It was found that a model which allows for expansion in health infrastructure yields nearly 40% more total DALYs for a hypothetical sub-Saharan African country than a model which neglects infrastructure expansion. Widespread use of cost-effectiveness databases for resource allocations in the health sector will require the cost-effectiveness analyses shift from reporting costs to reporting production functions. Second, three distinct policy questions can be treated using these tools, each necessitating its own inputs and constraints: allocations when given a fixed budget and health infrastructure, or when given resources for marginal expansion, or when given a politically constrained situation of expanding resources. Confusion concerning which question is being addressed must be avoided through development of a consistent and rigorous approach to using cost-effectiveness data for informing resource allocations. PMID:7923545

Murray, C. J.; Kreuser, J.; Whang, W.

1994-01-01

98

Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects with Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common reporting of effect sizes has been an important advance in education research in recent years. However, the benchmarks used to interpret the size of these effects--as small, medium, and large--do little to inform educational administration and policy making because they do not account for program costs. The author proposes an approach…

Harris, Douglas N.

2009-01-01

99

Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

Ayalew, Sewale Abate

2013-01-01

100

Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweden has developed an extensive and sound policy framework to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It is now one of the OECD countries with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions per capita and it has successfully managed to decouple GDP growth from emissions growth. However, as Sweden has already significantly lowered its greenhouse gas emissions, the cost of reducing them further could

Stéphanie Jamet

2011-01-01

101

The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side. PMID:22043644

Chang, Li

2011-01-01

102

The costs of raising children and the effectiveness of policies to support parenthood in European countries: a Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to produce an overview of available knowledge about the following issues: ? the costs (to parents) of parenthood and of raising children in European Countries; ? the effectiveness, in the short and long term, of various policy measures in avoiding or compensating for those costs; 8 ? the impact of different policy instruments aimed

Marie-Thérèse Letablier; Angela Luci; Antoine Math; Olivier Thévenon

2009-01-01

103

Determinants of nursing home costs in Florida: policy implications and support in national research findings.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive and econometric analysis of the major nonquality determinants of nursing home costs for Florida shows that mean costs, size, and occupancy rate increased between 1971 and 1976, that per diem costs and occupancy rate were inversely related, and that the per diem cost was lower in rural than in urban areas. Regression of the data shows that--next to inflation, as expressed by the Consumer Price Index--the occupancy rate accounts for most of the variation in per diem costs, followed by size, urban-rural location, and by type of control. The hypothetical "optimal," defined as lowest cost-size range, was calculated to be more than 350 beds. Recent research substantiates most of these findings. Medicaid Cost Reports from Florida's nursing homes were the source of the information analyzed; by 1976, the sixth year of the study, the data base covered nearly 9 of 10 licensed beds in the State. Some policy implications can be drawn from the analysis. Reductions in per diem costs could be achieved by higher occupancy rates, especially in the larger nursing homes, and a reduction in the rate of inflation would reduce the rate of increase in nursing home costs. PMID:6815706

Traxler, H G

1982-01-01

104

A cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a full cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel. We examine all cost elements of the program - storage, collection, and treatment costs of empty containers, and all potential benefits - savings in alternative treatment costs (waste collection and landfill disposal), cleaner public spaces, reduction of landfill volumes, energy-savings externalities associated with use of recycled materials, and creation of new workplaces. A wide variety of data resources is employed, and some of the critical issues are examined via several approaches. The main finding of the paper is that the deposit-refund program is clearly economically worthwhile. The paper contributes to the growing body of literature on deposit-refund programs by its complete and detailed analysis of all relevant factors of such a program, and also specifically in its analysis of the savings in alternative waste management costs. This analysis reveals greater savings than are usually assumed, and thus shows the deposit-refund program to be highly efficient.

Lavee, Doron, E-mail: doron@pareto.co.i [Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel)

2010-02-15

105

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

May, D

2003-03-01

106

Cost Comparison This worksheet contains an itemized list of costs associated with living on and off campus. Pay special attention to the following points  

E-print Network

Cost Comparison Worksheet This worksheet contains an itemized list of costs associated with living with yourself when it comes to the cost of food. If you find yourself "adjusting" the monthly allowance in order life or taking care of those unexpected events(i.e., attending a friend's wedding; paying a plumber

Karonis, Nicholas T.

107

Computer-assisted management of unconsumed drugs as a cost-containment strategy in oncology.  

PubMed

Background Cost-containment strategies are required to deal with rising drug expenditure, also in oncology. Drug wastage related to the preparation of chemotherapy drugs for patients is costly, but solutions exist for optimizing the use of unconsumed anticancer drugs. Objective Our pharmacy department makes use of a computerized drug storage bank, which records stability data and the amounts of unconsumed drugs available, and is connected to prescription software via an interface. We aimed to evaluate the real cost savings generated by this system. Method We assessed the cost savings achieved with this system, for 37 different anticancer drugs, over a 1-year period. French drug pricing and the amounts of drugs from the storage bank potentially re-used were assessed. Results The re-use of unconsumed anticancer drugs generated substantial cost savings, for nine drugs in particular: azacitidine, bevacizumab, bortezomib, cetuximab, docetaxel, liposomal doxorubicin, rituximab, topotecan and trastuzumab. Overall cost savings accounted for about 5 % of total anticancer drug expenditure at our hospital (8.5 M). Conclusion In medical hematology-oncology, drug wastage reduction and a computerized physician order entry system could be applied in routine practice at centralized drug-processing units, with significant financial benefits. PMID:25022715

Respaud, Renaud; Tournamille, Jean-François; Saintenoy, Gael; Linassier, Claude; Elfakir, Claire; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Antier, Daniel

2014-10-01

108

Deposits on single use containers--a social cost-benefit analysis of the Danish deposit system for single use drink containers.  

PubMed

This study compares the social costs and environmental benefits of collecting single use drink containers through the Danish deposit system with the social costs and benefits of treating the containers as part of the municipal waste-disposal system. It focuses on single use polyethylene terphthalate and glass bottles, and steel and aluminium cans. The social costs of handling these containers in the deposit system includes the costs of collection, sorting, and transportation, adjusted against the profit from selling the collected material for recycling. The social cost of incinerating these containers as municipal waste consists of the expenses for the collection, incineration of the containers and disposal of ashes. If there is any income from energy generation accompanying incineration, this is adjusted against costs. The main environmental effects related to both strategies are quantified, valuated and included in the assessment. The results of the analysis show that there are significant social costs compared to the benefits connected with the new deposit system. This is true for all four types of single use drink containers examined. All in all, Denmark bears a net social cost of 6.7 to 8.1 million Euros per year compared to a baseline of incineration with energy recovery. PMID:15666450

Vigsø, Dorte

2004-12-01

109

Strengthening incentives for efficient road safety policy priorities: The roles of cost–benefit analysis and road pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how incentives for setting efficient priorities in road safety policy can be strengthened. Efficient priorities are characterised by the use of cost-effective road safety measures. Cost-effective road safety measures can be identified by means of cost-benefit analyses. Studies of the actual priorities in road safety policy, in particular in the Scandinavian countries, suggest that these priorities are

Rune Elvik

2010-01-01

110

Low-Cost Error Containment and Recovery for Onboard Guarded Software Upgrading and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message-driven confidence-driven (MDCD) error containment and recovery, a low-cost approach to mitigating the effect ofsoftware design faults in distributed embedded systems, is developed for onboard guarded software upgrading for deep-spacemissions. In this paper, we first describe and verify the MDCD algorithms in which we introduce the notion of "confidence-driven" tocomplement the "communication-induced" approach employed by a number of existing checkpointing

Ann T. Tai; Kam S. Tso; Leon Alkalai; Savio N. Chau; William H. Sanders

2002-01-01

111

Sustainability of least cost policies for meeting Mexico City's future water demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meeting future water demand without degrading ecosystems is one important indicator of sustainable development. Using simulations, we showed that compared to existing policy, more sustainable water supply options are similar or cheaper in cost. We probabilistically forecasted the Mexico City metropolitan zone population for the year 2015 to be 23.5 million and total required water supply to be 106 m3 s-1. We optimized existing and potential supply sources from aquifers, surface water, treatment/reuse, and efficiency/demand management by cost to meet future supply needs; the applied source supply limits determined the degree of sustainability. In two scenarios to supply 106 m3 s-1, the business-as-usual scenario (zero sustainability) had an average relative unit cost of 1.133; while for the most sustainable scenario (it includes reducing potential supply basins' exploitation limits by 50%), the value was 1.121. One extreme scenario to supply the forecast's 95% confidence value (124 m3 s-1) showed little unit cost change (1.106). The simulation shows sustainable policies can be cost-effective.

Downs, Timothy J.; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; DomíNguez-Mora, Ramón; Suffet, I. H.

2000-08-01

112

Drug waste minimization as an effective strategy of cost-containment in Oncology  

PubMed Central

Background Sustainability of cancer care is a crucial issue for health care systems worldwide, even more during a time of economic recession. Low-cost measures are highly desirable to contain and reduce expenditures without impairing the quality of care. In this paper we aim to demonstrate the efficacy of drug waste minimization in reducing drug-related costs and its importance as a structural measure in health care management. Methods We first recorded intravenous cancer drugs prescription and amount of drug waste at the Oncology Department of Udine, Italy. Than we developed and applied a protocol for drug waste minimization based on per-pathology/per-drug scheduling of chemotherapies and pre-planned rounding of dosages. Results Before the protocol, drug wastage accounted for 8,3% of the Department annual drug expenditure. Over 70% of these costs were attributable to six drugs (cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab) that we named ‘hot drugs’. Since the protocol introduction, we observed a 45% reduction in the drug waste expenditure. This benefit was confirmed in the following years and drug waste minimazion was able to limit the impact of new pricely drugs on the Department expenditures. Conclusions Facing current budgetary constraints, the application of a drug waste minimization model is effective in drug cost containment and may produce durable benefits. PMID:24507545

2014-01-01

113

Comparative benefit–cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child care and education are to some extent joint products of preschool programs, but public policy and research frequently approach these two goals independently. We present a benefit–cost analysis of a preschool program that provided intensive education during full-day child care. Data were obtained from a randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up through age 21. Study participants were 104 economically disadvantaged

W. S. Barnett; Leonard N. Masse

2007-01-01

114

The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

2010-01-01

115

The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.  

PubMed

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

2010-04-01

116

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Manpower Policies. Proceedings of a North American Conference (May 14-15, 1969).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North American Conference on Cost-Benefit Analysis of Manpower Policies studied the theory and applicability of cost benefit analysis to manpower programs. In the first part of this document various participants at the Conference discussed the theoretical and methodological aspects of cost benefit analysis for investment appraisal. It was…

Somers, G. G., Ed.; Wood, W. D., Ed.

117

A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sozmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

2014-01-01

118

On container versus time based inspection policies in invasive species management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of precluding biological invasions caused by ships transporting internationally traded goods in containers\\u000a between different regions of the world. Using the long run expected net cost (LRENC) of inspections as the apposite managerial\\u000a objective, we address the following important question: given that inspection is a cyclical activity, is the LRENC lower when a port manager’s inspector

Amitrajeet A. Batabyal; Peter Nijkamp

2005-01-01

119

Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a single outpatient visit ranged, according to the different options, from US$2.50 to US$11. Scenario 2 was consistently less costly than scenario 1. The cost per case cured for smear-positive cases was US$16,703 in scenario 1 and US$5946 in scenario 2. The difference in cost between the cheapest option (no DOT) and the more expensive option (DOT, additional staff, incentives) ranged from US$1407 (scenario 1, smear-negative and extrapulmonary cases) to US$1814 (scenario 2, smear-positive cases). The additional cost to society including indirect costs ranged from US$1800 to US$4200. The possible savings at the national level were in the order of US$50 million per year. In conclusion, cost-comparison analysis showed that a relatively minor change in policy can result in significant savings and that the adoption of DOT will represent a relatively modest economic burden, although the real gain in effectiveness resulting from DOT in Italy requires further evaluation. PMID:10427931

Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

1999-01-01

120

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

121

Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future. PMID:23374611

2013-01-01

122

[Cost-benefit analysis of vaccinal prevention of hepatitis B policy].  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality related to hepatitis B (VHB) induce heavy costs even in low endemia countries as France. Recent changes in patterns of virus transmission (increasing heterosexual contamination) lead to discuss the opportunity of re-evaluation of current VHB vaccine policies aiming primarily at most exposed populations (patients under dialysis, hospital workers, infants born to VHB+ mothers). Using cost-benefit methodology, in a context where epidemiological and economical pertinent data are quite rare, this article evaluates different strategies ("no vaccination", "universal vaccination" and "vaccination after screening") for four different populations with contrasted exposure (French general population, young men adults, homosexual men and intravenous drug users). The cost-benefit ratios indicate that thresholds are, for low-risk populations, very far from usually accepted values attributed to epidemiological and economical parameters. If vaccine is administrated to young men adults, the cost-per-hepatitis saved relative to "no vaccination" is 36,000 F. For high-risk exposure groups, vaccination may be considered cost-benefit for attack rates near (homosexual men) or greater (drug users) than that observed; optimal strategy could be obtained if drug users are screened and vaccined. This is the result of combination of relatively low incidence of VHB and variability of medical course and chronic sequalae. Consequently, if universal vaccination has to be chosen, it would mean that the implicit value attributed to the prevention of one hepatitis is very high. PMID:7892516

Kerleau, M; Flori, Y A; Nalpas, B; Lanoé, J L; Berthelot, P; Fardeau-Gautier, M

1995-01-01

123

A Video Replacement Policy based on Revenue to Cost Ratio in aMulticast TV-Anytime System  

E-print Network

by the system during the runtime. Simulation results show that this policy leads to an efficient TV in the TV industry. The simulation results also show that multicasting significantly improves the sys- temA Video Replacement Policy based on Revenue to Cost Ratio in aMulticast TV-Anytime System Xiaobo

Xu, Cheng-Zhong

124

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

125

Shared decision-making as a cost-containment strategy: US physician reactions from a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess US physicians’ attitudes towards using shared decision-making (SDM) to achieve cost containment. Design Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting US medical practice. Participants 3897 physicians were randomly selected from the AMA Physician Masterfile. Of these, 2556 completed the survey. Main outcome measures Level of enthusiasm for “Promoting better conversations with patients as a means of lowering healthcare costs”; degree of agreement with “Decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in my practice” and agreement with “should promoting SDM be legislated to control overall healthcare costs”. Results Of 2556 respondents (response rate (RR) 65%), two-thirds (67%) were ‘very enthusiastic’ about promoting SDM as a means of reducing healthcare costs. Most (70%) agreed decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in their practice, but only 24% agreed with legislating SDM to control costs. Compared with physicians with billing-only compensation, respondents with salary compensation were more likely to strongly agree that decision support tools showing costs would be helpful (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Primary care physicians (vs surgeons, OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) expressed more enthusiasm for SDM being legislated as a means to address healthcare costs. Conclusions Most US physicians express enthusiasm about using SDM to help contain costs. They believe decision support tools that show costs would be useful. Few agree that SDM should be legislated as a means to control healthcare costs. PMID:24430879

Tilburt, Jon C; Wynia, Matthew K; Montori, Victor M; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Egginton, Jason S; Sheeler, Robert D; Liebow, Mark; Humeniuk, Katherine M; Goold, Susan Dorr

2014-01-01

126

A continuous review replenishment-disposal policy for an inventory system with autonomous supply and fixed disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze an inventory system facing stochastic external demands and an autonomous supply (independent return flow) in the presence of fixed disposal costs and positive lead times under a continuous review replenishment–disposal policy. We derive the analytical expressions of the operating characteristics of the system; and, construct the objective function to minimize the total expected costs of

Çerag Pinçe; Ülkü Gürler; Emre Berk

2008-01-01

127

36th Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Sept. 2008 Quantifying the Costs of a Nationwide Broadband Public Safety Wireless  

E-print Network

be built in its place with a small fraction of the tower sites and spectrum. In fact, the cost of building36th Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Sept. 2008 Quantifying the Costs-private partnership in the 700MHz band that serves state and local emergency responders; the future of both projects

Peha, Jon M.

128

Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009  

PubMed Central

We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. We assessed initial 2-day sick leaves plus reassessment until the HCW was asymptomatic (2-day + reassessment policy), and initial 7-day sick leaves (7-day policy). Sick leaves peaked in August 2009: 3% of the workforce received leave for ILI. Costs during May–October reached R$798,051.87 (?US $443,362). The 7-day policy led to a higher monthly rate of sick leave days per 100 HCWs than did the 2-day + reassessment policy (8.72 vs. 3.47 days/100 HCWs; p<0.0001) and resulted in higher costs (US $609 vs. US $1,128 per HCW on leave). ILI affected HCW absenteeism. The 7-day policy was more costly and not more effective in preventing transmission to patients than the 2-day + reassessment policy. PMID:21801619

Mota, Nancy Val y Val P.; Lobo, Renata D.; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio C.; Dias, M. Beatriz Souza; Komagata, Helio

2011-01-01

129

Making Memorial University's Policy Database and Website work for you The policy website at Memorial University of Newfoundland contains a database of policy and procedure  

E-print Network

and press Enter. The Search looks within the Policy title, the Policy Purpose, Policy Scope and all the text, but which may help locate a policy. The search uses both the index of terms as well as string matching. You of browse and search features to help you get the most out of the site. Its navigation is designed to rely

Oyet, Alwell

130

Cost-benefit analysis of the swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.  

PubMed

Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion. PMID:25251946

Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

2014-11-01

131

Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

Jones, E.; Eto, J.

1997-09-01

132

Rollback, Liberation, Containment, or Inaction? U.S. Policy and Eastern Europe in the 1950s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the Eisenhower administration's policy toward Eastern Europe in the years leading up to the 1956 Hungarian revolution. The article first considers the broader context of U.S. Cold War strategy in Eastern Europe, including policies of economic warfare and psychological warfare, as well as covert operations and military supplies. It then examines U.S. policy toward Hungary, particularly during

László Borhi

1999-01-01

133

Cost Containment in Higher Education: Issues and Recommendations. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 5. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides an overview of strategies colleges and universities can use to help contain costs. It also describes a range of strategies that have been used to contain costs and refine budgeting systems in an era of low returns on investment and greater competition. The volume synthesizes research on internal cost containment strategies…

Brown, Walter A.; Gamber, Cayo

134

A comparison of cost-containment instruments for US carbon reduction policies  

E-print Network

A cap-and-trade program, as is used in the European Trading Scheme, is currently the most widely discussed method in the US for reducing greenhouse gases. A basic cap-and-trade program operates by mandating a fixed level ...

Jakobovits, Lisa M. (Lisa Michelle)

2008-01-01

135

Determining the Cost Effectiveness of Training (A Self-Contained Instructional Module).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional module is designed to teach training managers how to calculate training costs, measure the effectiveness of training, and determine the cost effectiveness of training. It is organized in three parts. Part 1 points out why some training managers are reluctant to determine the cost effectiveness of training. It discusses the need…

Decker, Carol A.; Campbell, Clifton P.

136

A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

2005-12-01

137

Increasing Time Costs and Copayments for Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Policy Changes in a Complex Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effect of two separate policy changes in the North Carolina Medicaid program: (1) reduced prescription lengths from 100 to 34 days' supply, and (2) increased copayments for brand name medications. Data Sources/Study Setting Medicaid claims data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for January 1, 2000–December 31, 2002. Study Design We used a pre–post controlled partial difference-in-difference-in-differences design to examine the effect of the policy change on adults in North Carolina; adult Medicaid recipients from Georgia served as controls. Outcomes examined include medication adherence and Medicaid expenditures. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were aggregated to the person-quarter level. Individuals in HMOs, nursing homes, pregnant, or deceased in the quarter were excluded. Principal Findings Both policies decreased medication adherence. The days' supply policy had a much larger effect on adherence than did the copayment increase. Total Medicaid spending declined from the days' supply policy, but the copayment policy resulted in a net increase in Medicaid expenditures. Conclusions Although Medicaid costs decreased with the change in days supply policy, these savings were due to reduced adherence to these chronic medications. Additional research should examine the effect of these policy changes from the perspective of Medicaid enrollees. PMID:21306363

Domino, Marisa Elena; Martin, Bradley C; Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth; Richards, Shirley; Henson, Abel; Carey, Timothy S; Sleath, Betsy

2011-01-01

138

Estimating the Benefits and Costs of a Universal Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment Referral Policy for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal substance exposure poses a significant public health problem in terms of both its economic costs to society and the health and development of those children affected. While substance abusing pregnant women and their children could benefit from early identification and appropriate interventions, drug testing of infants is controversial, and there is currently no national policy regarding the drug testing

Lawrence M. Berger

2003-01-01

139

Biofuels—At What Cost? A review of costs and benefits of U.K. biofuel policies  

E-print Network

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) contributes to sustainable development by advancing policy recommendations on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, and management of natural and social capital, as well as the enabling role of communication technologies in these areas. We report on international negotiations and disseminate knowledge gained through collaborative projects, resulting in more rigorous research, capacity building in developing countries, better networks spanning the North and the South, and better global connections among researchers, practitioners, citizens and policy-makers. IISD’s vision is better living for all—sustainably; its mission is to champion innovation, enabling societies to live sustainably. IISD is registered as a charitable organization in Canada and has 501(c)(3) status in the United States. IISD

Chris Charles; Richard Bridle; Tom Moerenhout; Head Office

2013-01-01

140

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when answering questions regarding research patient care costs. Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided by hospitals

Minnesota, University of

141

Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

Trombella, Jerry

2011-01-01

142

Multifunctional polymer composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel low-cost carbonaceous fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced polymer nanocomposites/composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel carbonaceous fillers were processed and evaluated for the multifunctional purposes. To prepare the high performance conformal coating materials for microelectronic industries, epoxy resin was incorporated with zirconium tungstate (ZrW 2O8) nanoparticles synthesized from hydrothermal reaction to alleviate the significant thermal expansion behavior. Three types of ZrW 2O8 at different loading levels were selected to study their effect of physical (morphology, particle size, surface area, etc.) and thermal (thermal expansivity) properties on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy resin incorporated by Type-1 ZrW2O8 exhibited the overall excellent performance. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets were non-covalently encapsulated by a versatile and mussel-adhesive protein polydopamine through the strong pi-pi* interaction. The high-temperature thermoset bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) reinforced with homogenously dispersed h-BN at different volume fractions and functionalities were processed to investigate their effect on thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Different theoretical and empirical models were also successfully applied for the prediction of CTE, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of h-BN/BECy nanocomposites. On the basis of the improvement in dimensional stability, the enhancement in storage modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions, associated with the increment in thermal conductivity without deterioration of thermal stability, glassy transition temperature and dielectric properties, pristine h-BN/BECy nanocomposites exhibited the prospective application in microelectronic packaging industry. Polydopamine functionalized h-BN significantly increased the dielectric constant of cyanate ester at lower frequency region. Asphaltene, a carbonaceous by-product of crude oil extraction, was studied as a novel and low-cost additives in polymer matrices. Two kinds of asphaltene were extracted and investigated using different analytical techniques for the comparison of their elemental composition, molecular structure, and morphology. One asphaltene underwent the successful molecular functionalization via two silane coupling agents prior to the preparation of epoxy composites. Another asphaltene was incorporated into poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) copolymers (SBS) for the fabrication of hybrid composites using melt compounding technique. Based on it intrinsic rigid molecular structure, the reinforcement effect of asphaltene was recognized to be more pronounced in a softer matrix (SBS) than the rigid one (epoxy).

Wu, Hongchao

143

The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning. Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250 PMID:24496244

Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

2014-01-01

144

Building legitimacy for risky policies: The cost of avoiding conflict in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial nature of urban congestion charging policies makes them politically risky. Urban planners, policy makers and politicians are forced to consider how they can legitimately introduce a policy that the public may not want. Implementation in London, and failure in Edinburgh, raise questions about whether they should seek full citizen support, or work strategically towards implementation in the face

Karolina Isaksson; Tim Richardson

2009-01-01

145

Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated private sector would provide the income insurance these institutions do, these policies may enhance economic

Lawrence M. Kahn

2010-01-01

146

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment  

E-print Network

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States;Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost for the Degrees of Master of Science in Technology and Policy and Master of City Planning ABSTRACT Carbon capture

147

Policy change to improve pathology turnaround time and reduce costs - possible to do both?  

PubMed Central

Background: Overcrowding and prolonged length of stay in emergency departments (ED) are increasing problems in hospitals. Rapid availability of all laboratory results has an impact on clinical decision-making, admissions or discharge decisions and resource utilisation. Increasing number of our urinary drugs of abuse (DOA) screens had a turnaround time (TAT) of up to 33 days after the discharge of the patient. Materials and methods: Following an audit and a consultation period with clinicians using the service, a policy change was implemented to reduce the use of gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS): all requests would have a standard immunoassay (IA) test panel undertaken unless specifically they requested GCMS (including medico-legal) analysis. Results: Almost all of the clinicians interviewed had no understanding of the DOA screening or the difference in the information generated between a confirmatory GCMS urine toxicology screen and IA DOA panel. It appeared none of the patients surveyed in the audit would have had a different clinical decision made if a GCMS had not been undertaken. Post change audit showed only 4.3% of drug requests for IA also received a confirmatory GCMS testing. The estimated saving post change implementation was $127,000 (AU $) in test costs alone over a two year period. The TAT of GCMS results was reduced to 3–4 days. Conclusion: A laboratory-led behavioural change in test requesting is possible and sustainable provided the reason is clinically sound and accompanied by consultation and availability of advice by phone when requested on test requesting or interpretation. PMID:24266298

Dimeski, Goce; Silvester, Breeann; Ungerer, Jacobus; Johnson, Leslie; Martin, Jennifer H.

2013-01-01

148

Cost and Performance Report of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives of this project were to demonstrate improved data quality for metal constituents in surface soils on military training ranges and to develop a methodology that would result in the same or lower cost. The demonstration was conducted at two inact...

A. Bednar, J. L. Clausen, T. Georgian

2013-01-01

149

Catastrophic health insurance and cost containment: restructuring the current health insurance system.  

PubMed

Catastrophic health insurance may be necessary to curb rising health care costs in the United States. A major factor in this rise has been the current structure of the nation's health insurance system, which inadequately protects individuals with expensive illnesses, but encourages over-insurance for less expensive illnesses. This Note examines the current health insurance system, and analyzes its impact on health care costs for individuals and society. It evaluates several proposals to modify the structure of the current health insurance system, and recommends the adoption of a catastrophic health insurance plan based on an economic definition of catastrophe. Such a plan would decrease shallow coverage, and would use coinsurance and deductible rates keyed to the individual's income as means of increasing consumer cost consciousness without making necessary care unreasonably expensive. This Note also recommends that a catastrophic plan only cover treatment that has been determined medically necessary by utilization review, and that this review encourage outpatient rather than costly inpatient treatment. PMID:7435508

Zucker, J L

1980-01-01

150

An Approach to Postsecondary Accreditation with the Efficient Use of Human Resources and Cost Containment Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single self-study method for both institutional and program accreditation was developed and field-tested at New Hampshire Vocational-Technical College in an effort to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of the self-study component of the accreditation process. The first phase in the development of the self-study method involved…

Stoodley, Roland V., Jr.

151

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

152

Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

Kahn, Lawrence M.

2012-01-01

153

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

154

Surgical prophylaxis: the evolution of guidelines in an era of cost containment.  

PubMed

Postoperative infections account for a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections, are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and place a large burden upon the inpatient healthcare budget. Prophylaxis is desirable and is based on a combination of preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative wound care. There is considerable evidence that antibiotics are used excessively and inappropriately in the prevention and treatment of hospital-acquired infections, including surgical-site infections. In the case of the latter, timing of prophylaxis is crucial to success yet antibiotics are often administered at the wrong time or for too long a period, with implications for the cost of patient care. Several studies have shown that the local implementation of practice guidelines can yield significant improvements in antibiotic use and the cost of surgical prophylaxis. More rational use of antibiotics is likely to benefit the treatment of future surgical patients by reducing the pressure to select for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:11993641

Akalin, H Erdal

2002-01-01

155

Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs  

E-print Network

An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

Matthews, Isaac A

2010-01-01

156

The Development of a Cost of Education Index: Some Empirical Estimates and Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines an approach for adjusting state aid for differences in educational costs. The approach focuses on determinants of the variation in the prices of school inputs such as cost of heating fuel, ability of the area to attract teachers, and needs for student transportation. The system attempts to isolate that component of the…

Chambers, Jay G.

157

The Benefits and Costs of Head Start. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review what is known about Head Start's impacts on children and argue that the program is likely to generate benefits to participants and society as a whole that are larger than program costs. Our conclusions differ from those in some previous reviews because we use a more appropriate standard to judge program effectiveness (benefit-cost

Ludwig, Jens; Phillips, Deborah

2007-01-01

158

Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

159

Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

Xie, Yan

2010-01-01

160

Development and evaluation of die and container materials. Low cost silicon solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific compositions of high purity silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and silicon beryllium oxynitride (Sibeon) solid solutions were shown to be promising refractory materials for handling and manipulating solar grade silicon into silicon ribbon. Evaulation of the interaction of these materials in contact with molten silicon indicated that solid solutions based upon beta-Si3N4 were more stable than those based on Si2N2O. Sibeon was more resistant to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Both materials should preferably be used in an inert atmosphere rather than under vacuum conditions because removal of oxygen from the silicon melt occurs as SiO enhances the dissolution of aluminum and beryllium. The wetting angles of these materials were low enough for these materials to be considered as both die and container materials.

Wills, R. R.; Niesx, D. E.

1979-01-01

161

Risk perception, addiction, and costs to others: an assessment of cigarette taxes and other anti-smoking policies.  

PubMed

This paper offers a relatively comprehensive assessment of government anti-smoking policies (both taxation and other regulatory measures). I conclude that interventions to engender in smokers and prospective smokers an accurate perception of tobacco's health risks are justified, that except in the case of adolescents addiction by itself does not justify intervention beyond providing adequate information, that the proper goal of tobacco taxation policy should be to recoup only the extra costs that smokers place on others (at most a $1/pack tax on cigarettes), and that passive smoke's imposition of harm on unconsenting others strongly supports at least the development of a safe-to-others smokeless cigarette, if not direct intervention. PMID:10134366

Menzel, P

1994-02-01

162

Use of Generics--A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuoliene, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Ines; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

2010-01-01

163

Supplement to the Illinois Institute of Technology Faculty Handbook This Supplement is included with the Faculty Handbook for convenience, and it contains policies  

E-print Network

11/12 Supplement to the Illinois Institute of Technology Faculty Handbook This Supplement and students. The policies contained in this Supplement do not include all such administrative policies; rather will make every effort to ensure that this Supplement is updated to reflect any changes, users should check

Heller, Barbara

164

A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation on findings and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is the Task 4 report and final product for "A Study of Metric Conversion of Distilled Spirits Containers: A Policy and Planning Evaluation,' performed by Applied Concepts Corporation for the United States Metric Board (USMB). This report summarizes the results for the entire project, which entailed: conducting a detailed case study of the distilled spirits conversion; developing and analyzing a set of hypothetical scenarios regarding the circumstances of the conversion and USMB's possible role in it; assessing the completeness and clarity of USMB's planning guidelines; conducting a survey of consumer awareness of and attitudes toward the conversion; and analyzing the implications of the findings from all the above for USMB policy. The report presents a brief overview of the major findings from the case study, regarding the actual events, issues, and impacts of the distilled spirits conversion. It traces the impacts of possible USMB intervention strategies under several alternative scenarios, in the context of the distilled spirits conversion. The study assesses the planning guidelines and analyzes the implications for USMB policy and presents a concise summary of findings and "lessons learned' over the course of this project. Consumer survey results are attached in an Appendix.

Simpson, J. A.; Barsby, S. L.

1981-10-01

165

Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the last decade witnessed dramatic progress in refrigerator efficiencies, inefficient, outdated refrigerators are still in operation, sometimes consuming more than twice as much electricity per year compared with modern, efficient models. Replacing old refrigerators before their designed lifetime could be a useful policy to conserve electric energy and greenhouse gas emissions. However, from a life cycle perspective, product replacement

Hyung Chul Kim; Gregory A. Keoleian; Yuhta A. Horie

2006-01-01

166

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

167

Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of windfarm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power

Wen-Qiang Liu; Lin Gan; Xi-Liang Zhang

2002-01-01

168

Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

Marra, Simona

2008-01-01

169

Keeping Teachers on the Job Costs Less than Advertised. Policy Memorandum #168  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A misplaced obsession with the size of federal budget deficits remains the single biggest obstacle to enacting new measures to create jobs on a scale commensurate with the crisis in the American labor market. Even assuming that budget scoring rules can't be changed, at the very least policy makers should be aware of the true impact a given piece…

Bivens, Josh

2010-01-01

170

78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and item C-42 Recruiting Costs. 12. Allowing for the budgeting for contingency funds for certain awards. Section .621 Selected...Contingency Provisions The ANPG discussed clarifying that budgeting for contingency funds associated with a Federal award...

2013-02-01

171

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

172

30 CFR 1218.704 - What is ONRR's policy on interest and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Debt Collection and Administrative...administrative costs on debts that are not subject...compromise of the delinquent debt or if the Director determines...conscience or not in the Government's best...

2012-07-01

173

A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report establishes the historical baseline regarding events that occurred, the reasons for the events, their impacts, and the lessons learned from the conversion. The report consists of eight chapters and an appendix: (1) an overview of the distilled spirits industry, (2) an analysis of the motivation phase of the conversion, (3) an analysis of the planning phase, (4) a description and analysis of the events of the implementation phase, (5) an analysis of the costs and savings resulting from the conversion, (6) an analysis of the impact of the conversion on prices of distilled spirits, (7) an analysis of the impacts on consumption, profitability, industry structure, and size, product and brand preferences, (8) a summary of the findings and conclusions from the assessment of the process, and (9) (the appendix) a detailed chronology of events.

Simpson, J. A.

1981-08-01

174

32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification... Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification...contamination of lands by explosives, military chemical or other dangerous...

2011-07-01

175

32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification... Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification...contamination of lands by explosives, military chemical or other dangerous...

2010-07-01

176

32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification... Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification...contamination of lands by explosives, military chemical or other dangerous...

2012-07-01

177

Using cost-effectiveness analyses to inform policy: the case of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:: Much emphasis is put on providing evidence to assist policymakers in priority setting and investment decisions. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions is one technique used by policymakers in their decisions around the allocation of scarce resources. However, even where such evidence is available, other considerations may also be taken into account, and even over-ride technical evidence. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)

Sripen Tantivess; Gill Walt

2006-01-01

178

A study on return policy considering the disposal cost and efficiency of the dead stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on the pricing and order problem of a decentralized supply chain composed of a manufacturer and a retailer. In this supply chain, the manufacturer acts as the leader of the Stackelberg game and makes decisions for the whole supply chain benefits. Considering the return cost and the disposal efficiency of the dead stock, we built the model of the

Wei Ling

2009-01-01

179

Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

2012-01-01

180

Using Taxpayer Dollars Wisely: The Costs and Benefits of Incarceration and Other Crime Control Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

his cost benefit analysis reveals that policymakers can affect the level of crime by making decisions that influence the rate of incarceration, as well as by making decisions on rehabilitation and prevention strategies. This study finds that a 10% increase in the state incarceration rate leads to a 2% to 4% reduction in the crime rate. Conversely, a 10% decrease

Steve Aos

181

Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

Ash, Katie

2008-01-01

182

Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost  

E-print Network

1 Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost Abstract To improve safety measures of loading containers on double-stack rail cars

Zhou, Xuesong

183

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

184

Going PrivatePublic Opinion, Presidential Rhetoric, and the Domestic Politics of Audience Costs in U.S. Foreign Policy Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates why, despite the potential credibility enhancement associated with generating domestic audience costs, leaders (in this instance, U.S. presidents) frequently opt to “go private” by conducting foreign policy out of the public spotlight. The author argues that they do so for two primary reasons: (1) public scrutiny disproportionately raises the potential political price of a bad outcome, and

Matthew A. Baum

2004-01-01

185

Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol\\/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols\\/-stanols were given only to

Simone R. B. M. Eussen; Talitha L. Feenstra; Ido B. Toxopeus; Jeljer Hoekstra; Olaf H. Klungel; Hans Verhagen; Henk J. van Kranen; Cathy J. M. Rompelberg

2011-01-01

186

Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

Titus, James G.

1991-01-01

187

Costs of Introducing and Delivering HPV Vaccines in Low and Lower Middle Income Countries: Inputs for GAVI Policy on Introduction Grant Support to Countries  

PubMed Central

Background In November 2011, the GAVI Alliance made the decision to add HPV vaccine as one of the new vaccines for which countries eligible for its funding (less than $1520 per capita income) could apply to receive support for national HPV vaccination, provided they could demonstrate the ability to deliver HPV vaccines. This paper describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI policymakers for this decision regarding GAVI HPV vaccine support. The paper reviews why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are different from other vaccines and what is known about the cost components from available data that originated primarily from HPV vaccine delivery costing studies in low and middle income-countries. Methods Financial costs of HPV vaccine delivery were compared across three sources of data: 1) vaccine delivery costing of pilot projects in five low and lower-middle income countries; 2) cost estimates of national HPV vaccination in two low income countries; and 3) actual expenditure data from national HPV vaccine introduction in a low income country. Both costs of resources required to introduce the vaccine (or initial one-time investment, such as cold chain equipment purchases) and recurrent (ongoing costs that repeat every year) costs, such as transport and health personnel time, were analyzed. The cost per dose, cost per fully immunized girl (FIG) and cost per eligible girl were compared across studies. Results Costs varied among pilot projects and estimates of national programs due to differences in scale and service delivery strategy. The average introduction costs per fully immunized girl ranged from $1.49 to $18.94 while recurrent costs per girl ranged from $1.00 to $15.69, with both types of costs varying by delivery strategy and country. Evaluating delivery costs along programme characteristics as well as country characteristics (population density, income/cost level, existing service delivery infrastructure) are likely the most informative and useful for anticipating costs for HPV vaccine delivery. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the importance of country level cost data to inform global donor policies for vaccine introduction support. Such data are also valuable for informing national decisions on HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:24968002

Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A.; Levin, Carol; Tsu, Vivien; Hutubessy, Raymond

2014-01-01

188

Optimal control of a dam using P M ?,? policies and penalty cost when the input process is a compound Poisson process with positive drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the optimal control of an infinite dam using\\u000aPM<\\/sup>?,?<\\/sub> policies assuming\\u000athat the input process is a compound Poisson process with a non-negative\\u000adrift term, and using the total discounted cost and long-run average cost\\u000acriteria. The results of Lee and Ahn (1998) as well as other well-known\\u000aresults are shown to follow from our

Mohamed Abdel-Hameed

2000-01-01

189

An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.  

PubMed

Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

2014-01-13

190

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

191

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation  

E-print Network

Deforestation and Forest Degradation By Jieun Kim Masters of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Cornell Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation by Jieun Kim Submitted to the Engineering Systems trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take

192

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09

193

An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Expenditure Alternatives. Learning Packages in the Policy Sciences, PS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revised edition of PS-14, "An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Programs," presents concepts and techniques of benefit-cost analysis as tools that can be used to assist in deciding between alternatives. The goals of the new edition include teaching students to think about the possible benefits and costs of each…

LaPlante, Josephine M.; Durham, Taylor R.

194

76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP),...

2011-08-26

195

Sulfamic acid as a cost-effective catalyst instead of metal-containing acids for acetolysis of cyclic ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfamic acid has been used as an efficient catalyst and green alternative for metal-containing acidic materials to promote the acetolysis reaction of THF to produce 1,4-diacetoxybutane. This method is also applicable to the acetolysis of other cyclic ethers, such as methyl substituted THF and tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane, which is less reactive.

Bo Wang; Yanlong Gu; Weizhong Gong; Yuru Kang; Liming Yang; Jishuan Suo

2004-01-01

196

Purchasing Policies University Policies  

E-print Network

purchase order, UCD Buy order, Bookstore order, campus purchase requisition, or the departmental purchasing quality and price. Materials purchased through the use of personal funds or personal credit cards bypass in the campus Policy and Procedure Manual section 350-10 and as such there is no guarantee that these costs

Kolner, Brian H.

197

The Costs of Implementing Federally Mandated Social Programs at Colleges and Universities. Policy Analysis Service Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federally mandated social programs that apply to colleges and universities because they are treated as business entities are covered in this report. These programs have contributed to the continually increasing operating costs of colleges and universities over the last decade. This study aims at providing quantified examples of these cost

Van Alstyne, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

198

Evaluation and Cost Analysis of National Health Policy of Thalassaemia Screening in West-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Thalassaemia is one of the most common Mendelian disorders in Mediterranean area. Iran has about 26,000 Thalassaemic patients, so it is one of the most affected countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening program and cost analysis of Thalassaemia prevention program in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of Health system's Thalassaemia prevention program with a sensitivity analysis for its costs. The second five years of the program was evaluated. The economic burden of Thalassaemia is determined by the birth prevalence of the affected infants and the cost that is accrued to treat the infected individuals and was compared with the total cost of screening the couples for thalassemia trait. Results: The average incidence rate of major Thalassaemia was 19.8 per 100,000 live births and mean coverage rate of program was 74%. The rate of canceling the marriage among carrier couples was 53%. Cost analysis showed that the cost of screening and prenatal diagnosis program was much lower than the cost of treatment in potential thalassaemic patients. Conclusions: The prevention program of Thalassaemia including a premarital and pre-natal screening in west Azerbaijan province is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Taking some actions in order to increase the coverage of pre-marital screening, providing pre-natal diagnosis in private and public sector, complete insurance coverage for the high-risk couples to perform the investigations more easily, were recommended. PMID:23112894

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Jahani, Farshid Fayyaz; Hatami, Sanaz; Kargar, Catauon; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

199

Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes prevention and control plan. PMID:24564974

2014-01-01

200

Policies, Policies, Policies! What Antibiotic Policies Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ntibiotics should be used rationally in order to improve patient outcome; to contain the cost of treatment and most importantly to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, inappropriate use of antibiotics appears to be a universal phenomenon and numerous surveys from around the world have shown high rates of inappropriate prescribing. There is abundant circumstantial evidence linking emergence of

Victor Lim

2005-01-01

201

Biofuel Production in Italy and Europe: Benefits and Costs, in the Light of the Present European Union Biofuel Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and critically evaluate in this paper biofuel production options in Italy, in order to provide the reader with\\u000a the order of magnitudes of the performance indicators involved. Also, we discuss biofuel viability and desirability at the\\u000a European level, according to the recent EU regulations and energy policy decisions.\\u000a \\u000a Fuels from biomass are most often proposed as substitutes for

Sergio Ulgiati; Daniela Russi; Marco Raugei

202

University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002  

E-print Network

University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002 Effective Date: June 1, 2009 Policy Statement that are outlined in this document. Reason for Policy Boston University is committed to effective records retention requirements, optimize the use of space, minimize the cost of record retention, and ensure that outdated

Xia, Yu "Brandon"

203

Profit sharing bonuses and the cost of debt: Business finance and compensation policy in Japanese electronics firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profit sharing bonuses can be thought of as a buffer to protect a firm's uncertain future cash flow. When positive cash flows are threatened, firms can reduce the cost of doing business by reducing the size of bonuses paid to employees. Such an action increases the likelihood that firms will be able to pay fixed debt obligations without the secondary

Jay B Barney

1990-01-01

204

Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number

DAN CHISHOLM; CHRIS DORAN; KENJI SHIBUYA; J URGEN REHM

2006-01-01

205

A systems approach to analyse the effects of Flemish manure policy on structural changes and cost abatement in pig farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production in the Flemish region and pig production in particular is intensive and causing external problems related to manure disposal. At a regional level, manure disposal can be regarded as a problem of distributing the manure from farms with a surplus to farms with a shortage or to disposal alternatives. Total disposal costs will depend on the amount of

L. Lauwers; G. Van Huylenbroeck; L. Martens

1998-01-01

206

Value for the Money Spent? Exploring the Relationship Between Medicaid Costs and Quality. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the value of state Medicaid program spending by exploring the relationship between both sides of the efficiency coin—costs and outcomes. The authors create measures that relate spending per beneficiary to quality indicators, compare states’ performance, and build a foundation for a more comprehensive assessment of Medicaid efficiency when more data become available.

Debra Lipson; Margaret Colby; Tim Lake; Su Liu; Sarah Turchin

2010-01-01

207

Optimal pricing and inventory control policy in periodic-review systems with fixed ordering cost and lost sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a periodic-review pricing and inventory control problem for a retailer, which faces stochastic price- sensitive demand, under quite general modeling assumptions. Any unsatisfied demand is lost, and any leftover inventory at the end of the finite selling horizon has a salvage value. The cost component for the retailer includes holding, shortage, and both variable and fixed ordering

Saibal Ray; Yuyue Song

2006-01-01

208

Appendix B: Measuring the Cost of Climate Policy* Sergey Paltsev, John M. Reilly, Henry D. Jacoby and Jennifer F. Morris  

E-print Network

only and do not consider climate benefits and potential ancillary non-climate benefits of greenhouse as, for example, the price of a gallon of milk does not provide an indication of the total cost Report 173 Appendix B ­ page 1 #12;milk produced in the country. That is, prices convey no information

209

THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE UPON SCHOOL COSTS, POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE UPON SCHOOL COSTS WAS INVESTIGATED. FINDINGS INDICATED THAT (1) THE SIZE OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT POPULATION WAS DIRECTLY RELATED TO POTENTIAL EFFICIENCY, (2) VERY SMALL OR VERY LARGE DISTRICTS WERE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY SIZE, AND (3) DISTRICTS WITH A TOTAL POPULATION BETWEEN 20 AND 50 THOUSAND WERE NOT ADVERSELY…

SWANSON, AUSTIN D.

210

Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

Somerset, Anthony

2011-01-01

211

77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards...

2012-07-25

212

The High Cost of Compromise: Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Control Policy in Virginia, 1977-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in Virginia, taking more than 9,200 lives each year. Tobacco-induced healthcare costs are $1.92 billion annually, including $369 million in Medicaid payments. • The growth of tobacco, and its importance to the economy of Virginia, has declined significantly. In 2008, tobacco was only the fifth most harvested and valuable crop,

Alex JD Kierstein; Richard L. JD Barnes

2010-01-01

213

The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities. PMID:17562103

Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

2007-08-01

214

POLICY SECTIONS POLICY OFFICE  

E-print Network

POLICY SECTIONS POLICY OFFICE POLICIES FORMS PROCEDURES UNIVERSITY POLICY #12;guide to WRITING POLICIES Administrative policies align opera- tions, set behavior expectations across the University system and communicate policy roles and responsibilities. You, as the policy owner or writer, have the important task

Minnesota, University of

215

Health Care Technology Assessment. Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Health Cost Containment Issue: Health Technology Assessment; General Cost Containment Strategies; and Cost Implications of Defensive Medicine and Medical Malpractice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This committee hearing was held to consider factors in federal suport of health care services, including the roles of professional organizations, insurance companies, and hospitals. The process of evaluating whether the use of medical technology, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic procedures are cost-effective and beneficial is identified as…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

216

76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION:...

2011-10-05

217

Assessment and Educational Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

Smith, Virginia B.

1975-01-01

218

The Effect of State Cost Containment Strategies on the Insurance Status and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for HIV Infected People  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to balance their budgets many states are considering reducing eligibility for Medicaid. Using variation in state policies, this paper models the effect of more stringent eligibility criteria for Medicaid on the insurance status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for people living with HIV, a group heavily dependent on Medicaid. Using nationally representative data from the

Arkadipta Ghosh; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

2007-01-01

219

Markets and childhood obesity policy.  

PubMed

In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies. Researchers, however, have as yet undertaken few such studies of obesity-related policy options. Such analyses, once available, will help policymakers achieve the greatest benefit from a fixed budget. PMID:16532659

Cawley, John

2006-01-01

220

Pure and modified base-stock policies for the lost sales inventory system with negligible set-up costs and constant lead times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studied inventory system with continuous review has an easily computed optimal (S?1,S) policy when unsatisfied demands are backlogged. We assume that unsatisfied demands are lost and then it is also easy to compute the best (S?1,S) policy. But, as demonstrated by Roger Hill at the ISIR Symposium in 1996, this pure base-stock policy can never be optimal if S?2.

Søren Glud Johansen

2001-01-01

221

7 CFR 29.9221 - Policy statement.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy statement. 29.9221 Section 29...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing...Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Policy Statement § 29.9221 Policy...

2014-01-01

222

Climate policy: Bucket or drainer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, industry is responsible for about 40% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making it an important target for climate policy. Energy-intensive industries may be particularly vulnerable to higher energy costs caused by climate policy. If companies cannot offset rising energy costs and would face increased competition from countries without climate policy, they may decide to relocate their industrial production to

Vlasis Oikonomou; Martin Patel; Ernst Worrell

2006-01-01

223

From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy.  

PubMed

In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of Europeanization. This process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lisbon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision. PMID:17625641

Gerlinger, Thomas; Urban, Hans-Jürgen

2007-01-01

224

The low-level waste handbook: A user's guide to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. [Contains glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a detailed, section-by-section analysis of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Appendices include lists of relevant law and legislation, relevant Congressional committees, members of Congress mentioned in the report, and exact copies of the 1980 and 1985 Acts. (TEM)

1986-01-01

225

Policy V.6.1.1 Responsible Official: Vice President  

E-print Network

Policy V.6.1.1 Responsible Official: Vice President for Research Effective Date: July 1, 2012 Cost Policy on Sponsored Agreements Policy Statement Direct, indirect and allowable costs shall and the University's cost accounting standards. Reason for the Policy This policy statement and the guidelines

Hayden, Nancy J.

226

Costs Associated with a Strict Policy to Eradicate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Dutch University Medical Center: A 10Year Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Although the Dutch policy to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very strict compared to policies employed in other countries, it has proven to be successful epidemiologically\\u000a (incidence of MRSA in the Netherlands, <0.5%). The present study was performed to investigate both the financial and the logistical\\u000a consequences of this strict, so-called \\

M. Vriens; H. Blok; A. Fluit; A. Troelstra; C. van der Werken; J. Verhoef

2002-01-01

227

ConSil: Low-cost Thermal Mapping of Data Centers Justin Moore, Jeffrey S. Chase, and Parthasarathy Ranganathan  

E-print Network

, containing temperature and airflow information at a fine-grained resolution. For example, recent work in data costs [12, 7]. Implement- ing this policy requires an accurate reading of the inlet temperature at every" or reducing cool- ing costs through intelligent workload placement -- re- quire ambient air temperature

Chase, Jeffrey S.

228

76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

2011-08-26

229

76 FR 79545 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy 48 CFR Parts 9901 and 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Final rule...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board...

2011-12-22

230

University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

Needham, John K.

2010-01-01

231

Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

2000-01-01

232

Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Economic Development Institute Seminar Background Papers (Washington, D.C., April 1987). EDI Seminar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discusses the major options decisionmakers face when they are dealing with teacher career and remuneration policies. The document deals with a central question: how can remuneration and managerial policies help improve teacher effectiveness? The book is divided into three parts containing 15 papers. The first part, "The Cost and…

Farrell, Joseph P., Ed.; Oliveira, Joao B., Ed.

233

Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?  

PubMed

For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy. PMID:11809012

Wörz, M; Wismar, M

2001-01-01

234

Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

1979-01-01

235

Safety Policy LEAD IN PAINT POLICY  

E-print Network

Safety Policy (10/96) LEAD IN PAINT POLICY://ehs.unl.edu/) Purpose: Lead is a recognized health hazard, and consequently, regulations have been developed to assure protection from excessive exposure to lead. Paints and coatings manufactured prior to 1978 often contained

Powers, Robert

236

An Evidence-Based Approach to Estimating the National and State Costs of PreK-3rd. FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3rd. No.10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the costs of providing a high-quality PreK-3rd education approach in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Relying on an Evidence-Based approach to school finance adequacy, it identifies the staffing resources needed to offer high-quality integrated PreK-3rd programs and then estimates the costs of those resources. By…

Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Goetz, Michael

2009-01-01

237

Estimating Costs of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the theory, methods, and evidence on estimating the costs of crime. Criminal justice policy analysts\\u000a increasingly want to know more about an intervention or project: not only “does it work?” but also “is it cost effective?”\\u000a or “does it contribute positive net benefits?” To answer many questions of this kind, requires estimates of the costs of different

Mark A. Cohen; Roger Bowles

238

"But what is the object of educating these children, if it costs their lives to educate them?": federal Indian education policy in western Canada in the late 1800s.  

PubMed

Debates in the Canadian House of Commons in the last two decades of the nineteenth century revealed persistent differences between the Conservatives and the Liberals over federal Indian education policy and the administration of industrial schools. Until their defeat in 1896, the Conservatives supported a denominational industrial school system and a policy of rapid assimilation. The Liberals generally opposed denominational schools and believed the industrial school system was too costly and was not leading to rapid assimilation. After gaining power, the Liberals stopped construction of industrial schools in favour of boarding and day schools, but denominational influence remained strong. The Conservative emphasis on assimilation was replaced by measures that supported reserve-based segregation as earlier hopes for rapid assimilation diminished. Despite policy differences, neither the Conservatives nor the Liberals held Aboriginal cultures in high regard, and debates regarding the means and intent of Indian education played out against well-known, high mortality rates and often abysmal conditions in the schools. PMID:20715327

Enns, Richard A

2009-01-01

239

The Retail City in Greater Birmingham – The changing face of urban retail districts as a result of retail-led regeneration and containment policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper critically reviews retail-led regeneration and retail containment polices and their effects on the urban retail in the UK by analysing the effect that retail-led mega-schemes regeneration projects have on the economic growth of inner cities. There is significant controversy whether mega-schemes in retail-led regeneration initiatives contribute to the growth of local economies or whether it leads to the

Hermanus Geyer Jr

2011-01-01

240

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

241

Booking and Rental Policies Deposit and Payment Policy  

E-print Network

to half the cost of your Wedding Reception Package, in addition to your signed Space Usage AgreementWedding Booking and Rental Policies Deposit and Payment Policy A non-refundable deposit equal Hotel requires payment in full of the estimated food and décor costs a minimum of four business days

Arnold, Jonathan

242

Future American energy policy  

SciTech Connect

People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B. (eds.)

1982-01-01

243

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2011-10-01

244

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2012-10-01

245

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

246

Cross-sectional study of morbidity, morbidity-associated factors and cost of treatment in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, with implications for health policy in developing countries and development assistance policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In a population-based epidemiological study in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, we studied cross-sectional child morbidity and the cost of necessary investigation and treatment. METHODS: Three teams of two to three health workers visited haphazardly selected households in all major housing quarters. We asked permission to enter for a health survey. Children with cough, fever or weight loss as well as sick

Knut Holtedahl; Harald Hurum

2002-01-01

247

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

2011-01-01

248

The Benefits and Costs of Good Child Care: The Economic Rationale for Public Investment in Young Children. A Policy Study. Monograph No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details an assessment of the economic impact of a major investment of public money in good quality child care for Canadian children 2 to 5 years of age. Chapter 1 provides an extended discussion of the background and techniques of economic analysis used to make judgments about the economic benefits and costs of child care. Chapter 2…

Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

249

Collision Course: Rising College Costs Threaten America's Future and Require Shared Solutions--A Policy Brief from Lumina Foundation for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most critical issues affecting higher education access today is the rising cost of going to college. Symptoms of the trend include dramatic increases in tuition and fees, reduced state higher education budgets, declines in the purchasing power of student grant aid, increasing student debt burdens and heightened demand for institutional…

Dickeson, Robert C.

2004-01-01

250

7 CFR 923.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: ...Secretary a revised marketing policy report setting forth the information prescribed in...

2010-01-01

251

7 CFR 929.46 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Handling Regulations § 929.46 Marketing policy. Each season prior...Secretary a report setting forth its marketing policy for the crop year. Such marketing policy shall contain the following information for the current crop year:...

2010-01-01

252

7 CFR 922.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: ...Secretary a revised marketing policy report setting forth the information prescribed in...

2010-01-01

253

7 CFR 924.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuring season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: ...Secretary a revised marketing policy report setting forth the information prescribed in...

2010-01-01

254

7 CFR 915.49 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to...Secretary a revised marketing policy report setting forth the information prescribed in...

2010-01-01

255

Administration Policy Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: McMaster University Alcohol Policy Policy Number, 1998 Supersedes/Amends Policy dated: May 11, 1998 Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration policy and the written copy held by the policy owner, the written copy prevails. INTRODUCTION Mc

Haykin, Simon

256

Could a policy of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents result in cost savings in acute hip fracture care? The case of Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hip fractures are an important problem in nursing homes. Hip protectors are external devices that decrease the risk of hip\\u000a fracture in elderly nursing home residents. We estimated the overall healthcare cost savings from a hypothetical strategy\\u000a of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents in Ontario, Canada. In a recent meta-analysis, we determined\\u000a that a strategy of

A. M. Sawka; A. Gafni; P. Boulos; K. Beattie; A. Papaioannou; A. Cranney; D. A. Hanley; J. D. Adachi; A. Cheung; E. A. Papadimitropoulos; L. Thabane

2007-01-01

257

Politicians, the Media, and Domestic Audience Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic audience costs can help leaders establish credible commit- ments by tying their hands. Most studies assume these costs without explaining how they arise. I link domestic audience costs to the citizens' ability to sanction the leadership for pursuing a policy they would not want if they had the same information about its quality. How can citizens learn about policy

BRANISLAV L. SLANTCHEV

2006-01-01

258

Managing international medical costs.  

PubMed

Many countries are experiencing medical cost increases exceeding those in the United States, both in real terms and as a percentage of GDP. Although in most foreign countries the majority of medical costs are directly borne by governmental programs, there is a growing trend to cost shift more of this responsibility onto the corporate sector, perhaps leading multinational corporations to consider devising international cost-containment strategies. PMID:10121852

Richerson, M C

1992-01-01

259

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as an element of the cost of capital assets under...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

2010-10-01

260

On the accuracy of the GIAO-DFT calculation of 15N NMR chemical shifts of the nitrogen-containing heterocycles--a gateway to better agreement with experiment at lower computational cost.  

PubMed

The main factors affecting the accuracy and computational cost of the gauge-independent atomic orbital density functional theory (GIAO-DFT) calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts in the representative series of key nitrogen-containing heterocycles--azoles and azines--have been systematically analyzed. In the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts, the best result has been achieved with the KT3 functional used in combination with Jensen's pcS-3 basis set (GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3) resulting in the value of mean absolute error as small as 5?ppm for a range exceeding 270?ppm in a benchmark series of 23 compounds with an overall number of 41 different (15)N NMR chemical shifts. Another essential finding is that basically, the application of the locally dense basis set approach is justified in the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts within the 3-4?ppm error that results in a dramatic decrease in computational cost. Based on the present data, we recommend GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3//pc-2 as one of the most effective locally dense basis set schemes for the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts. PMID:24573615

Samultsev, Dmitry O; Semenov, Valentin A; Krivdin, Leonid B

2014-05-01

261

Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

262

On flexible containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doctrine of containment has been a principal element of American foreign policy for four decades. But there has been a major change in the Communist world; it is no longer a monolithic bloc. Many Marxist governments, including some Communist regimes, are not satellites or allies of the Soviets. Indeed, some are more anti?Soviet than many noncommunist states. Yugoslavia and

S. Maxwell Finger; Mieczyslaw Maneli

1988-01-01

263

Fraud Policy Governance Policy  

E-print Network

and Conduct Policy for the processes involved where academic fraudulent activities are suspected. 2 persons (such as technical experts with IT or forensic accounting skills) as well as external agencies (e

Frean, Marcus

264

POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES: APPENDIX: Approved: April 1, 2013 Revised: Cross References: Purchasing Policy Capital Projects and Renovations Policy Conflict of Interest Policy Sustainability Policy Green Procurement Policy 1 of 9 PROCEDURES: Purchasing Policy AUTHORITY: University

Martin, Jeff

265

Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems. Methods Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify ADR from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin (AS) use. ADR were identified by trained clinicians at health facilities (passive surveillance) and through cross-sectional household surveys (active surveillance). Potential cases were followed up at home, where a complete history and physical examination was undertaken, and household cost data collected. Patients were classified as having ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ ADR by a physician. Results A total of 95 suspected ADR were identified during a two-year period, of which 79 were traced, and 67 reported use of SP and/or AS prior to ADR onset. Thirty-four cases were classified as ‘probable’ and 33 as ‘possible’ ADRs. Most (53) cases were associated with SP monotherapy, 13 with the AS/SP combination (available in one of the two areas only), and one with AS monotherapy. Annual ADR incidence per 100,000 exposures was estimated based on ‘probable’ ADR only at 5.6 for AS/SP in combination, and 25.0 and 11.6 for SP monotherapy. Median ADR treatment costs per episode ranged from US$2.23 for those making a single provider visit to US$146.93 for patients with four visits. Seventy-three per cent of patients used out-of-pocket funds or sold part of their farm harvests to pay for treatment, and 19% borrowed money. Conclusion Both passive and active surveillance methods proved feasible methods for anti-malarial ADR surveillance, with active surveillance being an important complement to facility-based surveillance, given the widespread practice of self-medication. Household costs associated with ADR treatment were high and potentially catastrophic. Efforts should be made to both improve pharmacovigilance across Africa and to identify strategies to reduce the economic burden endured by households suffering from ADR. PMID:23844934

2013-01-01

266

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2013-04-01

267

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2012-04-01

268

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2010-04-01

269

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2014-04-01

270

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2011-04-01

271

76 FR 40817 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy 48 CFR Parts 9901 and 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability...Negotiations Act Threshold AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board...

2011-07-12

272

Restoration advisory board (RAB) policy implementation  

SciTech Connect

Public involvement is an integral part of the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The IRP focuses on assessing and remediating environmental contamination caused by past waste management practices at Air Force installations. Since the IRP is concerned with toxic or hazardous waste, people feel personally involved in the process particularly if they live near a contaminated site. Public involvement in the IRP is required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and Air Force policy and guidance. Air Combat Command (ACC) is committed to a public involvement program that encourages mutual two-way communication. ACC seeks to partner with and incorporate inputs from all stakeholders in order to efficiently and cost effectively implement the IRP. IRP stakeholders include Air Force personnel, local citizens, local and state governments, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other Federal agencies. ACC policy is to incorporate community involvement, participation, consultation, and advice into the IRP at each installation. This paper contains an overview of the ACC policy, an evaluation of how the RAB policy differs from previous public involvement efforts, and an overview of ACC experiences with RAB policy implementation.

Ross, J. [Air Combat Command, Langley AFB, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

273

Technology and international climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

2009-05-01

274

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

275

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

276

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy.  

PubMed

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K

2009-07-01

277

American energy policies  

SciTech Connect

US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

Goldmuntz, L.

1982-02-22

278

Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual cost- function learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policy-language biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve. In particular, we induce high-quality domain-specific plan ners for clas- sical planning domains (both deterministic and stochastic variants) by

Alan Fern; Sung Wook Yoon; Robert Givan

2003-01-01

279

Passengers in containers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A futuristic vision of future passenger and cargo transport is presented. To speed up lengthy transit operations, passengers would be accomodated in comfortable, compartment-like containers. Several diagrams show how such containers can be accomodated aboard an aircraft or a helicopter, on a truck, or in a railroad car. A system would result in great economy in both cost and time. Of particular importance is such a system for cargo traffic.

Tarkhanovskiy, V.

1977-01-01

280

Policy for the Net and the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on Internet information policy: an awareness of new policy issues, attempts to apply existing legal regulations to new processes, and the need for new policies for the Net. Explores policy issues that affect the structure of government, the economy, society, designers of the Net, and international issues. Contains 658…

Braman, Sandra

1995-01-01

281

National Drought Policy Commission Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 16, 2000, the National Drought Policy Commission (NDPC) released its final report and recommended improved preparedness and coordination in anticipation of the threat of droughts in the US. The NDPC's site offers two documents, the Report of the National Drought Policy Commission and the National Drought Policy Commission Executive Summary. The reports were drafted in response to the severe droughts in recent years that have cost the US approximately $6 billion per year in economic losses.

2000-01-01

282

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

283

Evaluating Pollution Control Policies Using a Farm-level Dynamic Model: An Application to Large Dairy Farms in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal waste from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a significant contributor to the nitrate contamination of groundwater. Some manures also contain heavy metals and salts that may build up either in cropland or groundwater. To find cost-effective policies for pollution reduction at the farm level, an environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs is developed, where the owner of the

Jingjing Wang; Kenneth A. Baerenklau

2012-01-01

284

STS pricing policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

1982-01-01

285

Costs of groundwater contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1990-01-01

286

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in the university's Laser Safety Manual. Reason for Policy/Purpose If improperly used or controlled, lasers can produce multiple injuries, including burns, blindness, and electrocution. This policy and the university

Vertes, Akos

287

Deriving a Standard Cost Base for Cost/Benefit Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a standard costing model appropriate for determining real costs of programs which are not entirely self-contained. Central to the model is the concept of allocation pools involving resources which are not attributable to a single program or program component, but whose costs must be shared by any given program which is part of…

McGurn, Wealtha Collins

288

NIH and NCI Grants-Related Policies  

Cancer.gov

This section contains links compiled by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI policies related to grant applications and has FAQs related to grants policies.

289

Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium  

EPA Science Inventory

The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

290

7 CFR 916.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the committee shall submit to the Secretary a report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing marketing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: (1) The estimated total production of nectarines...

2010-01-01

291

7 CFR 925.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the committee shall submit to the Secretary a report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing marketing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: (a) The estimated total shipments of grapes...

2010-01-01

292

7 CFR 920.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the committee shall submit to the Secretary a report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing marketing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative to: (1) The estimated total production of kiwifruit...

2010-01-01

293

Turkmenistan - The Burden of Current Agricultural Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the economic costs of current agricultural policies in Turkmenistan. It argues that the opportunity cost of continuing with these policies is very high for the budget, the average farmer, and the economy as a whole. The paper calls for the development of nontraditional agricultural crops, which are more profitable than wheat and cotton in the international commodity

Gonzalo C. Pastor; Ron van Rooden

2000-01-01

294

2 CFR 200.400 - Policy guide.  

...2014-01-01 false Policy guide. 200.400 Section 200...Provisions § 200.400 Policy guide. The application of these...allocation plans or indirect cost proposals, the cognizant agency for...negotiation of indirect cost proposals. Where wide variations...

2014-01-01

295

A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

1988-02-01

296

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol policy at the State government level. Minimum Legal Drinking Age Even with this flexibility for the States, Congress ... promote certain alcohol policies, such as the minimum legal drinking age. The Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act of 1984 ...

297

Life cycle costing with a discount rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.

Posner, E. C.

1978-01-01

298

Policy Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores some aspects of the relations between literacy education and the processes and history of thinking about public policy making. Discusses two broad abstractions--knowledge and power--that constitute a heuristic of the policy moment. Argues that a critical understanding of policy is required to enable literacy educators and researchers to…

Lo Bianco, Joseph

2001-01-01

299

48 CFR 9904.407 - Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of standard costs for direct material...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

2010-10-01

300

48 CFR 9904.418 - Allocation of direct and indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...direct and indirect costs. 9904.418 Section...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

2010-10-01

301

Cost of capital for oil stockpiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of capital for public and private investments in petroleum stockpiles is addressed. The concept underlying the cost of capital and why it is important for investment decisions are explained. Empirical studies of the rates of return available from different classes of risks assets are reviewed. Estimates of the costs of capital for specific policy options being considered by

1982-01-01

302

EFEITO DO TIPO DE SUBSTRA TO E DA PRESENÇA DE ADUBAÇÃO SUPLEMENT AR SOBRE O CRESCIMENT O VEGETATIVO, NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL, CUSTO DE PRODUÇÃO E INTENSIDADE DE CERCOSPORIOSE EM MUDAS DE CAFEEIRO FORMADAS EM TUBETES Effects of substrate type and supplementary fertilization on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production costs, and brown eye spot of coffee seedlings in stiff plastic containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of stiff plastic containers for producing coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.) is a reality. Aiming to evaluate the effects of substrate type enriched or not with slow-release fertilizer on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production cost and, brown eye spot of coffee seedlings, an experiment was conducted in the plant nursery. The experimental design was a factorial scheme with

Adélia Aziz; Alexandre Pozza; Paulo Tácito; Gontijo Guimarães; Edson Ampélio Pozza; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Marcelo Montanari; Renato Ferreira de Souza

303

Benefit-Cost Analysis and Family Planning Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefit-cost analysis, describes two applications of benefit-cost analysis to human resources programs, evaluates difficulties in applying benefit-cost analysis to human resources programs, examines the effect of benefit-cost analysis on human resources programs and on public policy decisions. Also discusses applying benefit-cost

Haveman, Robert H.

1976-01-01

304

Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.  

PubMed

We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium. PMID:17054538

Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

2006-10-01

305

Policy instruments for environmental innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question how different environmental policy instruments in- duce innovation and to what extent market-driven innovation can lead to lowering envi- ronmental impacts of products and processes. It contains the results of a literature review and four case studies. In the case studies, the innovation impact of different policy ap- proaches and instruments is assessed relating

Frans Oosterhuis; Onno Kuik

306

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

307

Analyzing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity  

PubMed Central

Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a recommendation about childhood obesity screening policies. PMID:23956465

Yang, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.

2013-01-01

308

Audit of health benefit costs at the Department`s Management and Operating Contractors  

SciTech Connect

The audit disclosed that the Department and certain of its contractors had initiated several positive actions to contain health benefit costs: improving data collection, increasing training, reviewing changes to health plans, improving the language in one contract, increasing the employees, share of health costs at one contractor, and initiating self-insurance at another contractor. Despite these actions, further improvements are needed in the administration of the contractor employee health benefit plans. It was found that the Department did not have the policies and procedures necessary to ensure that the health benefit costs met the tests for reasonableness. The audit of $95 million in health benefit costs incurred at six Management and Operating contractors showed that $15.4 million of these costs were excessive compared to national norms.

Not Available

1994-06-23

309

Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear

W. Jr. Davis; R. E. Blanco; B. C. Finney; G. S. Hill; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

2011-01-01

310

Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low

J. W. Roddy; R. E. Blanco; G. S. Hill; R. E. Moore; R. D. Seagren; J. P. Witherspoon

1976-01-01

311

Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

Gale, Trevor

2001-01-01

312

CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

313

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

314

Affirmative Action: Psychological Data and the Policy Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses psychological research to examine affirmative action policy, noting that many studies indicate that affirmative action as a policy has more benefits than costs. Discusses issues of merit, asserting that affirmative action policy conforms to the American ideal of fairness and is a necessary policy. Suggests that affirmative action is superior…

Crosby, Faye J.; Iyer, Aarti; Clayton, Susan; Downing, Roberta A.

2003-01-01

315

Troubleshooting Costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

316

Health care technology as a policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

he rapidly rising costs of health care became the most im- portant health policy issue in many countries during the 1980s and early 1990s. These costs are now threatening the prospects for providing higher quality services to broader population groups, especially in the United States. The reasons for rising costs clearly include the aging of the popula- tion, with associated

H. David Banta

1994-01-01

317

INTERIM POLICY JANUARY 9, 2004  

E-print Network

INTERIM POLICY JANUARY 9, 2004 CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY Health and Safety POLICY 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ POLICY STATEMENT. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ REASON FOR POLICY

Chen, Tsuhan

318

Defining the Policy Space for Disaster Management: A System Dynamics Approach to U.S. Flood Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines a policy space for a natural hazard policy analysis using a system dynamics approach. In this paper, I present a dynamic hypothesis of problems faced by decision-makers in a flood hazard community. While current policy analysis for hazard mitigation focuses on benefit-cost analysis, I argue that system dynamics can be used to improve the quality of policy

Michael A Deegan

319

BOSTON UNIVERSITY Policy BU-100-003  

E-print Network

, movement, and removal of hardware, software, and electronic media that contain electronic Protected Health and Media Control Policy Policy ID: BU-100-003 HIPAA Section: 164.310(d) Version: 1.1 Effective Date: April sticks, and all other forms of media and storage devices. 2. Device and Media Control Policy ­ All e

Guenther, Frank

320

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2004, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy offered recommendations for a coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy. Commission regional working groups included state governors, scientists and stakeholders. The Commission's final report, "An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century," contains 212 recommendations addressing all aspects of ocean and coastal policy. Report results are presented here.

321

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2010-01-01

322

Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings  

E-print Network

A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

323

Energyenvironment policy modeling of endogenous technological change with personal vehicles  

E-print Network

- producing activity (notably fossil fuel consumption) and the level of emissions. They define abatement cost in contrasting policy prescriptions as well, with bottom-up modelers suggesting policies to eliminate barriers

324

A comparison of public policies for lead recycling  

E-print Network

Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

Sigman, Hilary

1992-01-01

325

Immobilization of heavy metals contained in incinerator fly ash by application of soluble phosphate—Treatment and disposal cost reduction by combined use of “High Specific Surface Area Lime”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation results of combined application of “High Specific Surface Area Lime” and soluble phosphate as heavy metals immobilizing agent for fly ash intermediate treatment can help to reduce output of incinerator fly ash amount and total fly ash treatment and diposal costs. “High Specific Surface Area Lime“ injection rate to achieve same outlet HCL concentration will be reduced to about

Toshihito Uchida; Ichiro Itoh; Koji Harada

1996-01-01

326

Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly  

E-print Network

In the Medicare program, increases in cost sharing by a supplemental insurer can exert financial externalities. We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public ...

Chandra, Amitabh

327

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Faculty Reduced Workload Policy Policy. INTENT OF POLICY The intent of this policy is to allow faculty members to reduce their workload as much-President (Academic), and the President, and #12;Faculty Reduced Workload Policy Page 2 October 25, 2001 require

Haykin, Simon

328

English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy  

E-print Network

English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This policy sets out UTS's requirements their courses of study. Dates Policy or amendment approved Policy or amendment takes effect Policy is due for review (up to 5 years) 03/11/2010 22/11/2010 11/2015 Policy amendment approved 02/11/2011 Approved

University of Technology, Sydney

329

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy  

E-print Network

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy Responsible Executive Vice President of Information Technology and CIO Jay Dominick Responsible Office Office of Information Technology, Operations and Planning Endorsed by Information Security Policy Committee Contact Chief Information Security

Rowley, Clarence W.

330

Some Thoughts on Cost Sharing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various policy considerations related to the sharing by universities of the costs of federally funded research in the context of government expectations that research universities will carry out the vital functions of training the next generation of scientists and engineers, performing a large fraction of federally funded basic research,…

Bienenstock, Arthur

2000-01-01

331

OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS  

E-print Network

The investor incurs costs for each decision of purchasing or selling stock toward bond as the following: ..... way to implement optimal dynamic investment policies. Thus, we suppose that under ..... The aT-1 right derivative of 1T. ? ? involves the

Admin

2009-03-25

332

Social Costs of Mass Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to leading economic theorists, creating capitalism out of communism requires rapid privatization. In this article we empirically test the welfare implications of privatization policies in Post-Soviet countries by using cross-national panel mortality data as an indicator of social costs. We find that rapid privatization – whether measured by a novel measure of mass privatization program implementation or Enterprise Bank

David Stuckler; Lawrence P. King

2007-01-01

333

Transition-cost recovery and trueup mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Designing a workable and policy-responsive cost-recovery and trueup mechanism may be the key unresolved issue related to the transition costs (TCs) facing US electric utilities. This report first discusses the general issues associated with the design and implementation of such mechanisms. It then presents the results of quantitative analyses that show how seven mechanisms perform against six public-policy objectives.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1998-03-01

334

Policy Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Policy institutions around the United States spend a staggering $1.5 billion on research each year. Many of them do an excellent job in terms of putting their policy papers, working papers, factsheets, and so on online for use by the public and scholars. Of course, it can be very difficult to locate some of them, and that's where the Policy Archive steps in. Sponsored by the Center for Governmental Studies (CGS) and the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Library, the Policy Archive site brings together thousands of full text documents, reports, videos, and multimedia material generated by these various think tanks and institutions. Additionally, policy institutions and the like can learn how to submit their own work to the archive. Visitors can also sign up to receive email newsletters about the latest research in the topic areas that are of interest to them.

335

NORM disposal options, costs vary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). NORM can be disposed of both on the lease site and at offsite commercial disposal facilities.

J. A. Veil; K. Smith

1999-01-01

336

Five Important Lessons about the Cost of E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes strategies for containing and reducing the costs of e-learning through cost identification, appropriate instructional roles, course development, program scale, and course redesign.

Scarafiotti, Carol

2004-01-01

337

Science policy vs. technology policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the higher stage of cognitive evolution, the concept of innovation management shifts toward a strategic design of the conscious socio-technical evolutionary movement. The paper investigates the question of why on this higher stage of human development, conventional science policy confronts engineering concept of technology development? Also, why, despite this, are science and technology policy one in its intention?The concept

Borisz Szántó

1996-01-01

338

7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

2010-01-01

339

How to Cut Publications Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

340

48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904...Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE...PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

2010-10-01

341

Administration Policy Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

given for a special occasion, for instance, a religious holiday, a birthday, a wedding, a farewell may receive such a gift. The University will not cover the cost of the gift. The cost of the gift such a gift. The University may cover the cost of the gift upon submission of original receipt

Haykin, Simon

342

Container Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for middle school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges students to "come up with a NEW appealing juice container, one that will help sell their product. During this lesson, students will use math, science and engineering to work through the constraints they are given." The page here gives all the background and supporting materials an educator needs: a Florida-based company overview, videos about manufacturing and a particular juice company, the lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation (also available in printer-friendly PDF form), and the scenario which gives the context of the project and detailed instructions for students. This excellent resource has all the components to make it ready-to-use in the classroom.

2009-10-07

343

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

environmentally friendly products and services in their purchasing decisions. The above policy statementPolicies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Policy on Environmentally Green" goods and services. Environmentally responsible or "green" procurement is the selection of products

Haykin, Simon

344

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIH Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

345

Policy Handout  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NCI Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

346

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIDA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

347

Policy Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hoover Institution at Stanford University publishes a number of important and widely read publications, and perhaps one of its best known periodicals is Policy Review. Under the guidance of editor Tod Lindberg, Policy Review continues to publish a wide range of pieces on topics ranging from affirmative action to eminent domain. On their site, visitors can learn about the mission of the publication and they can browse their extensive archive, which dates back to 1995. A section titled âÂÂSpecialâ features interviews with Dick Cheney from 1993 and Joseph Lieberman from 1990. The most recent issue of Policy Review available on the site features pieces on the current state of Russia and how America might effectively restore its image around the world. Many pieces in Policy Review will be both thought-provoking and potentially controversial, and for those reasons, they are definitely worth a look.

348

Estimation of health care costs and cost recovery: the case of Rafidya Hospital in Palestine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop an estimation model for health care costs and cost recovery, and evaluate service sustainability under an uncertain environment. The Palestinian National Authority's recent focus on improving financial accountability supports the need to research health care costs in the Palestinian territories. We examine data from Rafidya Hospital from 2005-2009 and use step-down allocation to distribute overhead costs. We use an ingredient approach to estimate the costs and revenues of health services, and logarithmic estimation to prospectively estimate the demand for 2011. Our results indicate that while cost recovery is generally insufficient for long-term sustainability, some services can recover their costs in the short run. Our results provide information useful for health care policy makers in setting multiple-goal policies related to health care financing in Palestine, and provide an important initiative in the estimation of health service costs. PMID:24003761

Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer F K; Plante, Catherine; Forgione, Dana A

2013-01-01

349

Labor Demand and the Source of Adjustment Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most models of dynamic labor demand are written in terms of costs of adjusting employment (net adjustment costs). A few are based on the costs of hiring and firing (gross adjustment costs). This study derives several models containing both types of adjustment costs. A dynamic-programming model with quadratic adjustment costs generates an estimate of the lower bound on the fraction

Daniel S. Hamermesh

1995-01-01

350

Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non-traded inflation produces a unique solution so long as the nominal interest rate is raised more than one for one with increases in non-traded inflation. A policy of stabilizing core inflation, however, produces a unique solution only if the response is greater than one for one and less then one divided by one minus the share of the non-traded good in the CPI. In the third chapter I consider monetary and fiscal policy responses to oil price shocks in a low income oil importing country. The model used in this chapter differs from the model in the second chapter in that there is currency substitution, household demand for oil products, and a potential subsidy on the purchase of oil products by households. I examine the dynamic properties and the welfare implications of a set of inflation targeting policies and a group of policies that subsidize the price of oil and finance the subsidy through a combination of raising lump sum taxes and printing money. The dynamic properties of the inflation targeting policies are similar in many regards to those in the second chapter as the key assumptions driving the results are the same in the two models. For the policies which subsidize the price of oil I show that both the choice to have the subsidy and how to finance it matter a great deal for the behavior of the macroeconomic variables. In terms of welfare, for most calibrations there are only minor differences between the inflation targeting polices, the policy with a subsidy funded by lump sum taxes, and the baseline policy with no subsidy. The policy with a subsidy financed by the inflation tax generally causes significant welfare losses compared to the policy with no pass through.

Plante, Michael

351

Fat Tails, Thin Tails, and Climate Change Policy  

E-print Network

Climate policy is complicated by the considerable uncertainties concerning the benefits and costs of abatement. We do not even know the probability distributions for future temperatures and impacts, making benefit–cost ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2012-01-01

352

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2012-10-01

353

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2013-10-01

354

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. ...for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the...

2012-10-01

355

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. ...for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the...

2011-10-01

356

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. ...for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the...

2013-10-01

357

UNLV RESEARCH MISCONDUCT POLICY Policy: Research Misconduct  

E-print Network

UNLV RESEARCH MISCONDUCT POLICY Policy: Research Misconduct Purpose: To comply with federal an administrative policy for handling allegations of research misconduct. This Policy revises and supersedes the UNLV Policy on Ethical Standards in the Conduct of Research adopted in 1993. Policy Authority: Federal

Hemmers, Oliver

358

18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a) General Policy...b) Costing Emissions Allowances in Coordination Sales. If a public...

2013-04-01

359

18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a) General Policy...b) Costing Emissions Allowances in Coordination Sales. If a public...

2011-04-01

360

18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.  

...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a) General Policy...b) Costing Emissions Allowances in Coordination Sales. If a public...

2014-04-01

361

18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a) General Policy...b) Costing Emissions Allowances in Coordination Sales. If a public...

2010-04-01

362

18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2...the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a) General Policy...b) Costing Emissions Allowances in Coordination Sales. If a public...

2012-04-01

363

10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...Policy Act: (a) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated...products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective....

2011-01-01

364

10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...Policy Act: (a) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated...products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective....

2010-01-01

365

10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. ...Policy Act: (a) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated...products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective....

2013-01-01

366

Standard cost elements for technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

1992-01-01

367

Satisfaction, Alternatives, Investments, and the Microfoundations of Audience Cost Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest that the Investment Model of Commitment, developed in social psychology, offers a solution to an important microfoundational issue in audience cost theory. Audience cost models are useful for thinking about the foreign policy behaviors of democratic and nondemocratic states. However, they often assume that citizens reliably penalize leaders who break their foreign policy promises even

Aaron M. Hoffman; Christopher R. Agnew; Justin J. Lehmiller; Natasha T. Duncan

2009-01-01

368

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library  

E-print Network

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library Collection Management Policy 1. Introduction The University of Sussex Library contains 800,000 books, to which about 15,000 new items are added each year. The Library also provides access to over 20,000 print and online

Sussex, University of

369

Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments in large reservoirs.

Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

2014-05-01

370

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIVERSITY POLICY  

E-print Network

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIVERSITY POLICY FACULTY UNIVERSITY POLICY STUDENT UNIVERSITY POLICY Issue stakeholder list "Log-In" of Proposed University Policy with the University Compliance Committee (UCC) UCC identifies which track (i.e., Administrative, Faculty, or Student) the proposed University Policy

371

A welfare analysis of spectrum allocation policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis of spectrum policy focuses on government revenues derived via competitive bidding for licenses. Auctions generating high bids are identified as successful and those with lower receipts as fiascoes. Yet spectrum policies that create rents impose social costs. Most obviously, rules favoring monopoly predictably increase license values but reduce welfare. This article attempts to shift analytical focus to efficiency

Thomas W. Hazlett; Roberto E. Muñoz

2009-01-01

372

Lumpy Investment and Corporate Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the impact of corporate tax policy on the economy in the presence of both convex and nonconvex capital adjustment costs in a dynamic general equilibrium model. We show that corporate tax policy generates both intensive and extensive margin effects via the channel of marginal Q. Its impact is determined largely by the strength of the extensive margin

Jianjun Miao; Pengfei Wang

373

The Signaling Effect of Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the signaling value of a tax when agents are less informed than the government on the effect of their consumption. The policy making process is analyzed as a game in which the government wants to influence consumers' behaviors through tax policy, consumers being rational and Bayesian. The marginal cost of public funds induces the government to

FRANCESCA BARIGOZZI; BERTRAND VILLENEUVE

2006-01-01

374

Campus Publicity Policies and Procedures  

E-print Network

indicators of the vitality of campus life here at Northwestern. There is much to see and do. Effective are encouraged to publicize and promote their activities to the University community and to exercise good with aesthetics, effectiveness and efficiency with cost. Questions about publicity policies should be addressed

375

Globalisation and social policy.  

PubMed

This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods. PMID:12219761

Langmore, J

2001-01-01

376

Economic aspects of addiction policy.  

PubMed

One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

Maynard, A

1986-05-01

377

Uncertainty Quantification and Calibration in Well Construction Cost Estimates  

E-print Network

The feasibility and success of petroleum development projects depend to a large degree on well construction costs. Well construction cost estimates often contain high levels of uncertainty. In many cases, these costs have been estimated using...

Valdes Machado, Alejandro

2013-08-05

378

Continuous Review (s, S) Policies with Lost Sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed to calculate an (s, S) policy that minimizes the average stationary cost in an inventory system with: constant lead time, fixed order cost, linear holding cost per unit time, linear penalty cost per unit short, discrete compound Poisson demand, and lost sales. It is assumed that at most one order is outstanding, or equivalently that S

Blyth C. Archibald

1981-01-01

379

Cost and Cost Effectiveness of Venous and Pressure Ulcer Protocols of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To meet the challenge of an aging population, providers and payors must optimize chronic wound care outcomes and contain costs. Objective: To explore the costs, outcomes, and effects of outcomes on costs of pressure and venous ulcer woundcare protocols. Design: Modeling study using outcomes from a literature review. Methods: The cost of 12 weeks of wound care was modeled

Morris D. Kerstein; Eric Gemmen; Lia van Rijswijk; Courtney H. Lyder; Tania Phillips; George Xakellis; Katharine Golden; Catherine Harrington

2001-01-01

380

Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Reduction in United States Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship in college administration between cost effectiveness/cost reduction and planning, management, and evaluation is explored, and approaches to cost accounting and financial ratio analysis are discussed. It is concluded that it is important to emphasize institutional mission and people rather than cost containment and productivity.…

Miller, Richard I.; Miller, Peggy M.

1991-01-01

381

Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development  

SciTech Connect

State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

2009-07-01

382

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

383

7 CFR 1940.551 - Purpose and general policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program...administration policies. Allocation formulas ensure that program resources are available on an equal...contains clarifications of allocation policies and provides...

2010-01-01

384

Policy Iteration / Optimistic Policy Iteration Least-Squares Policy Iteration Experiments Least Squares Policy Iteration  

E-print Network

Policy Iteration / Optimistic Policy Iteration Least-Squares Policy Iteration Experiments Least Squares Policy Iteration Bias-Variance Trade-o in Control Problems Christophe Thiéry and Bruno Scherrer/27 #12; Policy Iteration / Optimistic Policy Iteration Least-Squares Policy Iteration Experiments Markov

Scherrer, Bruno

385

Social context and personal expenditures for health care: federal policy and the experience of older adults in the 1970s.  

PubMed

The relationship between the intent and the outcome of legislated social policy is discussed. Specifically, this study documents some effects of federal health reimbursement and income policy in the late 1960s and early 1970s on health care behavior and expenditures in the decade 1970-1980. The Longitudinal Retirement History Study (LRHS), containing information on a panel of 6,270 men and unmarried women aged 58 to 63 in 1969, was used to provide information on the personal health expenditures in this decade. Medicare and Medicaid and the indexing of Social Security became operational at the beginning of the study, which permitted the exploration of intended and observed effects of legislation designed to make health care more accessible and affordable for older adults. As policy intended, utilization increased over the decade as indicated by both increases in the number of panelists with health care bills and increases in the size of total bills (constant dollars). Consistent with federal policy to reduce personal costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and the proportion of total bills paid out of pocket decreased. However, the effects of these federal policy initiatives were constrained by reimbursement rules and the social location of users. For instance, even at the end of the 1970s, out-of-pocket health care expenditures across subpopulations persisted. The 1980s and early 1990s have brought increased concern over the cost of health care and renewed concern over access. Data suggest that future proposals aimed at providing universal coverage along with high out-of-pocket costs may not result in equitable programs, and are likely to have a limited impact on constraining health care costs. The LRHS data indicate that utilization increased despite continued high out-of-pocket costs for all except the lower-income groups, who may be limited in their ability to purchase increasingly costly care. PMID:10186819

Clark, D O; Maddox, G L

1992-01-01

386

Policy Procedure Administrative Directive Policy No.  

E-print Network

Policy � Procedure � Administrative Directive Title: Policy No.: Effective Date or Date of Last President See also: Related Policies, Procedures and Agreements: Relevant Legislation and Regulations: Background and Purpose: CLEAR DATA #12;Policy *A University Policy is a principle-based statement with broad

Northern British Columbia, University of

387

Informatics Policies  

Cancer.gov

NIH Data Sharing PolicyNIH expects and supports the timely release and sharing of final research data from NIH-supported studies for use by other researchers. Investigators submitting an NIH application will be required to include a plan for data sharing

388

Energy Policy ] (  

E-print Network

, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050, USA b Goldman School of Public Policy, University, USA, El Salvador, Thailand, and Kenya. These countries exhibit a dramatic range of energy profiles disaggregated energy consumption data). However, the significance of energy distribution trends

Jacobson, Arne

389

Housing Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the variegated terrain of local and state housing policies is key for urban planners, geographers, and others with an interest in the built environment and public policy. This site was created by the Center for Housing Policy (the research affiliate of the National Housing Conference) in order to provide information for "expanding the availability of homes for working families and others in your community." The site was launched in 2008, and includes sections such as Toolbox, Building a Strategy, and Forum. The Getting Started area provides answers to basic questions such as "What is 'affordable housing'?" and "What is 'subsidized housing'?" Moving on, the Toolbox area includes documents and summaries on specific policy tools designed for a variety of reasons, from meeting the housing needs of older adults to improving residential energy efficiency. Visitors won't want to miss the Building a Strategy area. Here they will find information about how to create a successful housing strategy that will provide residential units for a range of community members.

2012-04-20

390

The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost–benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of

Andrea Baranzini; Marc Chesney; Jacques Morisset

2003-01-01

391

Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of

Gregory F. Nemet

2006-01-01

392

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs listed here are based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you document guaranteed funds for  

E-print Network

for immigration purposes upon your arrival in the United States. Certification of Finances­For F-1 Student Visas 1 summer costs. c) Dependents (spouse and/or children): $3,750 per dependent for 5 months, $6,750 per statement stating that the required funds are available. Bank statements must be issued by the bank

Galles, David

393

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs listed here are estimated and based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you document  

E-print Network

already includes summer costs.) c) Dependents (spouse and/or children), $6,750 per dependent for 9 months Catholic Educational Leadership (MA) (18 units in first year / 9 month budget) Counseling Psychology--Marriage & Family Therapy (MA) (27 units in first year / 12 month budget) All Other Master's Programs (18 units

Galles, David

394

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs below are estimated and based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you verify funds for your  

E-print Network

estimates which do include summer costs. c) Dependents (spouse and/or children), $6,750 per dependent for 9 statement from your sponsor that states: "I agree to financially support [your full name] during, International and Development Economics, Public Affairs, Urban Affairs and Web Science (18 UNITS; 9 MONTH BUDGET

Galles, David

395

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

superintendent and project manager. (c) Include projected annual capital project costs in the annual budget that will add to the capitalized cost of the building or plant. Such work includes roof replacements and majorPHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE PP/OP 08.11: Utilities Capital Projects

Gelfond, Michael

396

Optimal Dividend Policy with Random Interest Rates Erdinc Akyildirim  

E-print Network

dividend policy problem for a company that is not allowed to issue new securities or obtain a new loan from interest rates are high and less when issuing costs are high. Key words: Dividend Policy, Business Cycles of this problem is to investigate how the optimal dividend policy is modified when the profitability of the firm

Soner, Halil Mete

397

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01

398

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01

399

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Fraternities, Sororities and Honour 12 1989, approved the following motion concerning fraternities and sororities: "that the existing Senate policy not to grant official University recognition to fraternities and sororities remain in place

Haykin, Simon

400

National labour market policies and international trade: Does policy coordination pay? ?  

E-print Network

National labour market institutions interact across national boundaries when product markets are global. Labour market policies can thus entail spill-overs, a fact widely ignored in the academic literature. This paper studies the effects of wage subsidies in an international duopoly model with unionised labour markets. We document both positive and negative spill-over effects and discuss the benefits and costs from international policy coordination. While such coordination has been discussed among policy makers, especially within the European Union, little progress has been made in its implementation. Our results suggest that institutional differences could sign responsible for the slow speed at which labour market policy coordination has progressed so far. Not only does cooperation reduce the capability of governments to adapt their policies to country-specific institutions, the benefits and costs are also unevenly distributed among cooperating countries. International policy cooperation can thus be difficult to enforce, even if it increases aggregate welfare.

Sebastian Braun; Christian Spielmann

2010-01-01

401

Alcohol Industry & Policy Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

Problems., Marin I.

402

Global Policy Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has a number of policy initiatives occurring in all parts of the globe, and some might ask the question: Who evaluates the effectiveness of such programs? The United Nations does some of this work themselves, but the Global Policy Forum is also intimately concerned with monitoring their programs, along with "promoting accountability of global decisions." Visitors who know what types of material they are looking for will want to search through the headings which include such themes as globalization, international justice, and UN reform. Each one of these sections contains a brief essay on their work, along with a smattering of reports, tables, and charts that highlight their analyses, past and present.

403

Policy Title: Electronic Privacy Statement Policy Policy Number: IS-1000  

E-print Network

for their privacy practices or policies. INFORMATION COLLECTED BY UA Email and Form Information UA does not obtainIS-1000 1 Policy Title: Electronic Privacy Statement Policy Policy Number: IS-1000 Responsible and services to students, employees and the public to supplement services provided on campus. This privacy

Ziurys, Lucy M.

404

Research and Funding Policies  

Cancer.gov

Research and Funding Policies General NCI Grant Policies NIH Grants Policy and Guidance NIH Data Sharing Policy Human Subjects Protection of Human Subjects Certificates of Confidentiality Simplification of Informed Consent Documents Inclusion

405

ANU POLICY FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

the authority to approve policies and procedures for publication. POLICY FRAMEWORK HIERARCHY 4. The figure below1 | ANU POLICY FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION 1. The Australian National University governs its operations through Government legislation and University legislation (statutes, rules, orders), policies, procedures

Botea, Adi

406

Airline Deregulation and Public Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

1989-08-01

407

Internet Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

408

Understanding variations in hospital costs: An economics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of factors that cause hospital costs to vary. Examples of public policy issues and strategic management issues related to hospital cost variations are presented. Two commonly used theoretical perspectives for studying costs, microeconomic theory and industrial organization theory, are briefly reviewed. The article concludes with suggestions for future research including the application of a different

Michael D. Rosko

1996-01-01

409

Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

410

The cost of residential addiction treatment in public housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of providing addiction treatment services in a variety of settings is useful information for program administrators, policy makers, and researchers. This study estimates the economic costs of providing substance abuse treatment services at Safeport, a three-phase residential treatment program focusing on addicted women living in public housing. Economic (opportunity) costs are estimated for each phase separately and for

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre; M. Christopher Roebuck; Michael T. French; Maryann Barry

2003-01-01

411

The Cost and Price Dilemma of Scholarly Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines overall costs of the scientific scholarly journal system and finds that relative system costs have not increased since the late 1970s. Describes scholarly publishing costs; factors that have contributed to spiraling price increases and changes in journal subscription demand; and alternative pricing policies that might help in the future.…

King, Donald W.; Tenopir, Carol

2000-01-01

412

Understanding project costs and building costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early estimate of the potential costs of building a new library is an essential part of the construction planning process. Historical data detailing construction costs for buildings are widely available, but effective use of these data requires an understanding of the difference between “project cost” and “building costs”. Knowledge of the techniques employed to turn generic cost information into

Rick McCarthy

2004-01-01

413

America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

Morse, Ann, Ed.

414

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

415

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

416

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01

417

NUMA Policies and Their Relation to Memory Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor memory reference traces provide a wealth of information on the behavior of parallel programs. We have used this information to explore the relationship be- tween kernel-based NUMA management policies and mul- tiprocessor memory architecture. Our trace analysis tech- niques employ an o-line, optimal cost policy as a baseline against which to compare on-line policies, and as a policy- insensitive

William J. Bolosky; Michael L. Scott; Robert P. Fitzgerald; Robert J. Fowler; Alan L. Cox

1991-01-01

418

Report explores Congress' science policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists interested in understanding how Congress develops science policy would find it useful to read a recent report by the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. ``Science, Technology and Congress: Analysis and Advice from the Congressional Support Agencies'' contains revealing insights about the often hard-pressed system that Congress uses to analyze science and technology issues.``Congress is on the front

Richard Jones

1991-01-01

419

Taxation and Corporate Pension Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section I introduces the material in the context of existing research. In Section II the effects of the tax structure on the desirability of having pension plans and on the funding and investment policies of such plans is discussed. Section III discusses the discrepancies between the prescriptions presented above and current practice. The Appendix contains a detailed analysis of each

Irwin Tepper

1981-01-01

420

Grantee Research Highlight: Developing Innovative Methods to Estimate Costs of Cancer Care  

Cancer.gov

Estimating the total cost of cancer care, from diagnosis to death, is an important goal for researchers and policy makers. These costs generally follow a U-shaped curve, in which initial costs around diagnosis and primary treatment are very high. Costs then diminish during survivorship. If the cancer recurs, costs escalate again because of renewed treatment and end-of-life care.

421

48 CFR 1301.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorized to prescribe the CAR is set forth in the Commerce Acquisition Manual (CAM) 1301.70. (b) The DOC internal operating guidance and procedures are contained in the CAM and other policy guidance documents issued by the Procurement Executive...

2012-10-01

422

48 CFR 1301.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorized to prescribe the CAR is set forth in the Commerce Acquisition Manual (CAM) 1301.70. (b) The DOC internal operating guidance and procedures are contained in the CAM and other policy guidance documents issued by the Procurement Executive...

2010-10-01

423

48 CFR 1301.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authorized to prescribe the CAR is set forth in the Commerce Acquisition Manual (CAM) 1301.70. (b) The DOC internal operating guidance and procedures are contained in the CAM and other policy guidance documents issued by the Procurement Executive...

2013-10-01

424

48 CFR 1301.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...authorized to prescribe the CAR is set forth in the Commerce Acquisition Manual (CAM) 1301.70. (b) The DOC internal operating guidance and procedures are contained in the CAM and other policy guidance documents issued by the Procurement Executive...

2011-10-01

425

Policy & Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can

Mary Ellen Schneider; R Booy; HL Bock; J Clemens; SK Datta; BW Lee; S Lolekha; H Peltola; TA Ruff; M Santosham

2008-01-01

426

Parametric Cost Deployment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

Dean, Edwin B.

1995-01-01

427

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Faculty Reduced Workload Policy ­ Phase of this policy is to allow faculty members to reduce their workload by as much as 50% as a phase-in to retirement workload normally will be instituted at the faculty member's request, and any faculty member intending

Haykin, Simon

428

Policy actors: doing policy work in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the ‘policy work’ of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the ‘problem of meaning’ and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get ‘enacted’. It argues that ‘policy work’ is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both creative and disciplinary

Stephen J. Ball; Meg Maguire; Annette Braun; Kate Hoskins

2011-01-01

429

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

. The following alternatives are permitted, ranked in terms of preference: 1. Reusable bags made from biodegradable or cloth material 2. Reusable bags made from non-biodegradable material 3. Paper bags 4Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Plastic Bag Policy Policy Number (if

Haykin, Simon

430

Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY  

E-print Network

Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY CEP encourages all undergraduate to formalize these guidelines by implementing a policy that restricts qualification to one or more majors. CEP of the major qualifications policy on other undergraduate programs; · discuss the potential effects

California at Santa Cruz, University of

431

UNIVERSITY POLICY ON EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Policy Statement  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY POLICY ON EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Policy Statement The university is an Equal Employment, or on any other basis prohibited by applicable law in any of its programs or activities. Reason for Policy/Purpose This policy is necessary to re-affirm the university's commitment and for compliance with Title VII

Vertes, Akos

432

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

a community where the effects of alcohol abuse and the problems of behaviour associated with it are minimal Alcohol Policy Policy Number (if applicable): Approved by: Senate Date of Most Recent Approval: March 11 Community Alcohol Policy Page 1 May 1, 2009 RESIDENCE COMMUNITY ALCOHOL POLICY McMaster University

Haykin, Simon

433

Policy archaeology: a new policy studies methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy archaeology is a radically different approach to policy studies in education, drawn from the post?structuralist work of Foucault, which completely reconceptualizes policy studies and, thus, significantly expands it as a critical problematic. Rather than beginning after social and education problems have emerged into social visibility, policy archaeology studies the social construction of these problems. Rather than acquiescing to the

James Joseph Scheurich

1994-01-01

434

Determination of optimal LWR containment design, excluding accidents more severe than Class 8  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented concerning the restrictive effect of existing NRC requirements; definition of possible targets for containment; possible containment systems for LWR; optimization of containment design for class 3 through class 8 accidents (PWR); estimated costs of some possible containment arrangements for PWR relative to the standard dry containment system; estimated costs of BWR containment.

Cave, L.; Min, T.K.

1980-04-01

435

Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop  

PubMed Central

Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

2012-01-01

436

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

437

Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

Not Available

2011-11-01

438

Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

Engle, J.

1994-04-01

439

On the suboptimality of ( S?1, S) lost sales inventory policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers replenishment policies for the continuous review inventory model with Poisson demand, a fixed lead time on replenishment and lost sales during a stockout. There is a time-dependent stockholding cost and a cost per unit of sale lost but there is no (or negligible) cost associated with placing a replenishment order. The standard policy is to specify a

Roger M. Hill

1999-01-01

440

Globally optimal vaccination policies in the SIR model: smoothness of the value function and  

E-print Network

and all possible side-effects and rI the unitary cost incurred by infected persons. The costGlobally optimal vaccination policies in the SIR model: smoothness of the value function focuses on optimal vaccination policies for a SIR model; the total cost of the disease is optimized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

New England Public Policy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in January 2005, the New England Public Policy Center at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston provides high-quality analysis of important policy and economic issues that affect the entire New England region. The materials on their site are contained within five primary sections, which include "Publications", "Conferences & Events", and "Data & Resources". On their homepage, the "What's New" section provides information about recent publications and calls for visiting scholar applications. In the "Publications" area, visitors can browse around by topic, author, and series. Additionally, the "Data & Resources" area provides access to the monthly publication "New England Economic Indicators" and interactive data sets contained in the form of tables and charts. This same section also contains links to resources within the Boston Federal Reserve, such as community development indicators.

442

A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development  

PubMed Central

Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

2014-01-01

443

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

444

Incorporating risk assessment and benefit - cost analysis in environmental management  

SciTech Connect

Current public sector programs for managing environmental risks contain two key sources of variation: organizational mandates and other structural factors; and the individual perceptions and values of decision makers themselves. Research to date has focused almost exclusively on the organizational dimension. There is a paucity of systematic analysis focusing on the individual dimension of risk policy making within an institutional context. Limited intraagency evaluation of individual and collective judgments of environmental risk issues is a second major shortcoming. This is striking because some of the most controversial environmental decisions have featured highly visible, internal disputes such as the conflict between the Environmental Protection Agency's political and technocratic sides in considering alternative strategies for improving air quality in the late 1970s. Using data from interviews with a key set of individuals at the US Environmental Protection Agency, this study examines intraagency views about the incorporation of risk assessment and benefit-cost analysis in environment management.

Rycroft, R.W.; Regens, J.L.; Dietz, T.

1988-09-01

445

Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  

PubMed

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

446

Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

447

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

448

Demand for masters of public policy in public service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This piece was written to assist those who lead schools of public policy and administration in evaluating their pedagogies and examining their curricula. The perspectives contained in this piece reflect those of the author, who has spent the last 35 years practicing and leading public policy research and analysis in the Congressional Research Service (CRS)-the public policy agency created by

Angela M. Evans

2008-01-01

449

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL...PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions...1) How must a State agency structure the bid solicitation? ...How must the State agency structure the bid...

2010-01-01

450

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL...PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions...1) How must a State agency structure the bid solicitation? ...How must the State agency structure the bid...

2011-01-01

451

Population Policy, 2 September 1988.  

PubMed

On September 2, 1988, El Salvador adopted a population policy, key measures (Chapters 4-8) of which are reproduced in the appendix of this document. Chapter 4 defines the policy as a group of measures which aim to harmonize demographic evolution and development and to promote the individual and the family to full and equal participation in this process. Chapter 5 bases the policy directives on 1) conceptual interpretations of the relationships between population and development; 2) philosophical and political directives; 3) the legal context; and 4) orientations and programs contained in the general plan of government. The objectives of the policy are outlined in general and specific terms in Chapter 6 and include improvement of health services, promotion of responsible fatherhood, strengthening the family, promoting the development of women, balancing population distribution, protecting internal and international migrants, fostering population education, improving employment opportunities, improving the work force, protecting the environment through balanced population growth, and strengthening population planning systems. Chapter 7 sets out specific policy measures and strategies in the areas of population and health; population and family; spatial distribution and migration; population, education, and communication; population and the work force; and population and the environment. Chapter 8 discusses the operation of the policy, its implementation measures, and strategies for implementation involving community participation, support for participation of the family, and efficient administration. PMID:12344288

1989-01-01

452

On the Optimality of the Bayes Prediction Policy in Two-Echelon Multistation Inventory Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present paper provides a proof that the Bayes prediction ordering policy is an optimal policy, in the sense that it minimizes the total expected discounted cost of ordering for any finite planning horizon.

S. Zacks

1974-01-01

453

Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

Walker, W. Reed

454

Very Fast Containment of Scanning Worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer worms — malicious, self-propagating pro- grams — represent a significant threat to large networks. One possible defense, containment, seeks to limit a worm's spread by isolating it in a small subsection of the network. In this work we develop containment algorithms suitable for deployment in high-speed, low-cost network hardware. We show that these techniques can stop a scanning host

Nicholas Weaver; Stuart Staniford; Vern Paxson

2004-01-01

455

Advanced insulations for refrigerated shipping containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a research project that was recently conducted to find a cost effective insulation for refrigerated shipping containers (reefers) that avoids the environmental problems associated with CFCs currently used in foam insulated reefers. Advanced vacuum insulations (which contain no CFCs and have high thermal resistances) have been studied at U.S. National Laboratories and at several companies in

K. T. Jr

1993-01-01

456

Solar array cost reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief description is given of the cost of solar power systems over the last decade and means by which cost reductions may be achieved in the future. Costs were broken down into nonrecurring and recurring costs for solar array, battery, and power conditioning. Correlation of costs with power were poor; however, costs correlated reasonably well with the array area.

Bernatowicz, D. T.

1972-01-01

457

Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

1998-01-01

458

Policy Statement and Interim  

E-print Network

1 Policy Statement and Interim Procedures CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY POLICY 8.3 Volume: 8 Emergency Planning POLICY STATEMENT Cornell University organizes, coordinates, and directs available of this effort is dependent on the development of periodic review of comprehensive plans. This policy includes

Hemami, Sheila S.

459

The Federal Energy Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no federal energy policy. There is a fuel use policy of sorts, but that policy is related as much to foreign policy as to domestic needs, with the United States public paying the large bill. Neither presidential candidate has yet offered a plan for a coherent energy policy. (Editor/BT)

Novick, Sheldon

1976-01-01

460

Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

Coles, L.

2011-06-01

461

The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan  

E-print Network

This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

462

A transaction cost approach to unilateral presidential action  

E-print Network

when presidents will act unilaterally through executive orders and when they will instead seek legislative avenues to policy change. This project develops a parsimonious theory grounded in the transaction costs framework that explains how a president...

Marchbanks, Miner Peek, III

2006-04-12

463

O.R. Applications Methodological contrasts in costing greenhouse gas  

E-print Network

the market inertia that is incorporated in a CIMS simulation, it estimates higher costs of emission reduction of policies that seek to move mar- kets slightly further in one direction or another. Electric utilities

464

Calculating Cost Savings from FY08 Pollution Prevention Projects Purpose: To ensure a standard and credible method is used to compare the cost savings of all pollution prevention  

E-print Network

Project Savings = all savings that can be documented, including reduced disposal costs*, labor savings, material savings, reduced administrative costs (e.g., for inspections, compliance, etc.) * "Disposal Cost" is determined by adding actual disposal costs, container costs and transportation costs. It does not include

465

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.

Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

1985-01-01

466

Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.  

PubMed

An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports. PMID:3348229

Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

1988-01-01

467

16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT... Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for...

2011-01-01

468

16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners  

...2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for...SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION...Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost...

2014-01-01

469

16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT... Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for...

2012-01-01

470

16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT... Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for...

2013-01-01

471

48 CFR 970.5232-5 - Liability with respect to cost accounting standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING...Contract Clauses for Management and Operating...with respect to cost accounting standards...Administration of Cost Accounting Standards...DOE financial management policies...

2010-10-01

472

48 CFR 970.5232-5 - Liability with respect to cost accounting standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS...Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts...with respect to cost accounting standards. As prescribed...Administration of Cost Accounting Standards,” if...published DOE financial management policies and...

2011-10-01

473

Policy Procedure Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________  

E-print Network

Policy ­ Procedure ­ Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________ Policy-President _____________ See also: Related Policies, Procedures and Agreements: Relevant Legislation and Regulations: ____________________________________________________________________________ Background and Purpose: ____________________________________________________________________________ Policy

Northern British Columbia, University of

474

Thoreau's Pencil and Baumol's Cost Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows perfectly well that tuitions have outpaced inflation every year since Homer was a pup. Tuition sticker shock, that ineluctable annual rise in school costs, causes the nation sporadic fits of hand wringing, belt tightening, and taxpayer revolt. Most troubling of all, it has inspired an industry of policy wonks, efficiency experts,…

Buxton, Bruce E.

2004-01-01

475

2012 NASA Cost Estimating Handbook Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goal is to ensure that appropriate policy is adopted and that best practices are being developed, communicated, and used across the Agency. -- Accomplished by engaging the NASA Cost Estimating Community representatives in the update. Scheduled to be complete by the end of FY 2012. Document has been through 3 detailed reviews across NASA.

Rosenberg, Leigh; Stukes, Sherry

2012-01-01

476

COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

477

Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

Baker, Keith

1983-01-01

478

Rate Regulation as a Policy Tool: Lessons From New York State  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, New York State has used hospital rate regulation (the New York Prospective Hospital Reimbursement Methodology [NYPHRM]) as a policy tool to achieve three objectives: containing costs, supporting financially stressed hospitals, and financing access to care for the uninsured. This case study of NYPHRM suggests that the regulatory approach, if pursued with vigor, can achieve any one of these goals. On the other hand, the New York experience also shows that these are competing goals, and that achieving all of them over a period of time can prove to be difficult. PMID:10142575

Fraser, Irene

1995-01-01

479

LABORATORY POLICY WORKING ALONE  

E-print Network

& Responsibilities Template Issued By: Environmental Health &Safety Template Revision #: --Part: Laboratory Policy: ______________________________________________________________ Building and Room #'s under supervision of Dr working alone policy. 1. Policy: The following operations/experiments/conditions (specified by principal

Garousi, Vahid

480

2010 Guidelines, Policy & Clarification  

Cancer.gov

2010 Guidelines, Policy & Clarification SF 424 PHS 2590 eRA Commons The Cancer Control Planet NCI Fact Book NIH Office of Extramural Research Home > Grants & Funding > Policies & Clarifications Policies

481

Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

Lekakis, Joseph N.

1990-07-01

482

The life cycle cost of integrated logistic support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling of preventive maintenance within the general context of the life cycle cost of integrated logistic support is discussed. The principal categories of support cost are considered and a procedure of optimizing the total cost for the evaluation of a fundamental logistic parameters is developed using Markov models. The Markov approach allows the examination of the functional relationships between system reliability, maintenance policies and the costs of integrated logistic support. The life cycle cost of the logistic support is optimized, and the results permit a correct cost/efficiency scaling of the support.

Florio, U. G.

483

VI, Policies & Government Regulation Compliance CHAPTER VI: POLICIES AND GOVERNMENT REGULATION  

E-print Network

CRIME AND SECURITY ACT As required by federal law, a Campus Crime and Security Report, which contains concerning criminal offenses and arrests, and sexual assault policies and procedures is available upon

Gering, Jon C.

484

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

485

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

486

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

Carleton University

487

No Smoking Policy 1. Policy Statement  

E-print Network

No Smoking Policy 1. Policy Statement The University's policy on smoking is designed to secure a healthy and safe environment for students and staff as well as eliminating passive smoking from its premises in keeping with the Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 ("the 2005 Act

Edinburgh, University of

488

EMAIL COMMUNICATION POLICY I. Policy Statement  

E-print Network

EMAIL COMMUNICATION POLICY I. Policy Statement It is the policy of Portland State University that the University E-Mail System is an appropriate medium for Official Communications from the University to employees and students. It is the responsibility of employees and students to receive such communications

Bertini, Robert L.

489

Policy #2009EE001 Campus Sustainability Policy--  

E-print Network

Policy #2009EE001 Campus Sustainability Policy-- Efficient Computing Phase I Resource Efficiency in implementing the policy. Energy Desktop computers can draw 50-100 W when in full operation and a laptop between manufacture entering the atmosphere through incineration or ground water through landfill. Economy The energy

Heller, Barbara

490

DIRECT POLICY SEARCH AND UNCERTAIN POLICY EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement learning based on direct search in policy space requires few assumptions about the environment. Hence it is applicable in certain situations where most traditional reinforcement learning algorithms based on dynamic programming are not, especially in partially observable, deterministic worlds. In realistic settings, however, reliable policy evaluations are complicated by numerous sources of uncertainty, such as stochasticity in policy and

Jiirgen Schmidhuber; Jieyu Zhao

1998-01-01

491

Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs  

E-print Network

Watson, Chair Gary Cox Vincent Crawford Joel Sobel Christopher Woodru? The dissertation of JamesWatson and Vincent Crawford vii ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Contracting with Reading Costs and Renegotiation Costs by James

Brennan, James R.

2007-01-01

492

Ethics and equity in Canadian health care: policy alternatives.  

PubMed

Four interrelated phenomena are at work in Canadian health care. First, in Canada as all over the world, there is growing momentum toward greater cost containment and imposition of tighter ceilings on health expenditures. Second is the demography of a falling birth rate and a greater number of elderly. Third, the failure of ratification by the provinces of the Canadian Meech Lake accord has created a constitutional structure that strongly favors provincial and not federal powers, and further guarantees widened regional and local disparities. Fourth, the economic union implicit in the United States-Canada free trade agreement of late 1988 will serve to weaken east-west ties within Canada in favor of north-south ties, and is likely to lead to taxation policy in Canada to favor the rich, with pressures toward privatization and restrictions on universal entitlement programs. PMID:1769755

Wolfe, S

1991-01-01

493

No Child Left Behind: Costs and Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes cost and benefits of No Child Left Behind Act based on projected costs for 10 states. Finds that state and federal funding falls far short of that required to make No Child Left Behind a reality. (Contains 43 references.) (PKP)

Mathis, William J.

2003-01-01

494

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01

495

Costs of Adopting  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

496

University Policy Process Style Guidelines for University Policy Documents  

E-print Network

University Policy Process Style Guidelines for University Policy Documents 1 S:\\4every1\\Policy\\Univ Policy Improvement\\Final Docs\\Style Guidelines-UPP.docx Policy Name Do not include "Policy" or "Policy on specific applications such as "anyone operating university owned or operated vehicles". POLICY (required

Jones, Michelle

497

KSC Construction Cost Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

Brown, J. A.

1983-01-01

498

Lunch & Learn Cost Sharing  

E-print Network

as spending on the sponsored project #12;Cost Sharing in OMNI "Child" Budget Checking Parent Direct Child for a transaction to "pass" budget checking #12;Cost Sharing in OMNI Project examples with cost sharing child Parent certain types of auxiliaries are allowable as cost share #12;Cost Sharing Transactions Attachment 1 #12

McQuade, D. Tyler

499

Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

McCurdy, K. M.

2007-12-01

500

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series Time and the Cost of Children  

E-print Network

National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #05-4 April 2005 Time and the Cost of Children Bruce of Children Bruce Bradbury Bruce Bradbury Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney 2052, Australia b' method to estimate the full costs of children. Full costs include both expenditure and time costs. Adult

Shyy, Wei