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1

The nature and consequences of policies intended to contain costs in outpatient drug insurance programs.  

PubMed

Outpatient drug insurance programs play an important role in making drugs affordable. Public and private program policy-makers often respond to fiscal pressures by reducing benefit coverage or pharmacy reimbursement levels. These reductions defeat both coverage and cost-containment goals. A more prudent approach is to adopt a comprehensive policy for outpatient drug coverage that protects patients and ensures fair and prompt reimbursements to pharmacy providers. These issues are well illustrated by the economic situation in Illinois, resultant state budget problems, and the consequences for the Illinois Medicaid outpatient drug program and the Illinois state-only pharmaceutical assistance program for low-income elderly patients. The questions examined in this paper have important implications for patients, pharmacists, physicians, the pharmaceutical industry, public and private policymakers, and society as a whole. PMID:8221825

Reutzel, T J

1993-01-01

2

Length of hospital stay in Japan 1971-2008: hospital ownership and cost-containment policies.  

PubMed

The average length of stay (LOS) is considered one of the most significant indicators of hospital management. The steep decline in the average LOS among Japanese hospitals since the 1980s is considered to be due to cost-containment policies directed at reducing LOS. Japan's hospital sector is characterised by a diversity of ownership types. We took advantage of this context to examine different hospital behaviours associated with ownership types. Analysing government data published from 1971 to 2008 for the effect of a series of cost-containment policies aimed at reducing LOS revealed distinctly different paths behind the declines in LOS between privately owned and publicly owned hospitals. In the earlier years, private hospitals focused on providing long-term care to the elderly, while in the later years, they made a choice between providing long-term care and providing acute care with reduced LOS and bonus payments. By contrast, the majority of public hospitals opted to provide acute care with reduced LOS in line with public targets. PMID:24462343

Kato, Naoko; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

2014-04-01

3

Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... to the revised NSB- approved cost sharing policy: 1. The new cost sharing policy, as approved by the ... specific cost sharing, and requires only the existing statutory cost sharing requirement (1%). The ...

4

Special Education in First Nations Schools in Canada: Policies of Cost Containment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of First Nations students in Canada on reserve is the legal responsibility of the federal government. This article reviews and critiques the federal government's past and current special education policies and practices in regard to First Nations schools throughout Canada. The author has found that rather than establishing a…

Phillips, Ron

2010-01-01

5

Cost containment: the Americas. Argentina.  

PubMed

For many years, the evolution of Argentina's healthcare system has been influenced by political and economic instability. Inflation and hyperinflation have led to anarchic development of both health administration systems and hospitals. Critical care grew in a similar manner, resulting in a mix of > 500 critical care units with very different levels of technology and trained personnel. Cost-containment policies have been implemented mainly by health administration systems. Public institutions (university and large provincial and county hospitals) have suffered hard budget cuts that have resulted in a decrease in the quality of care and the loss of trained human resources. Union organizations, which cover the healthcare costs of > 60% of the population, implemented a low reimbursement policy that resulted in low standards of care for critically ill patients. The country's private hospital system is extremely heterogenous, ranging from little, simple institutions with a 20- to 30-bed capacity to great private institutions with international standards of care. Cost-containment efforts have been sporadic and isolated, and statistical data to analyze the results are lacking. In order to formulate a strategy of cost-containment in the near future, accreditation and categorization of critical care units and human resources training are being implemented by health authorities and the Argentine Society of Critical Care Medicine. PMID:8087593

Pálizas, F; Gallesio, A; Wainsztein, N; Ceraso, D; Apezteguía, C; Pacín, J

1994-08-01

6

Containing Health Care Costs  

PubMed Central

As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists.

Derzon, Robert A.

1980-01-01

7

Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and their applications to educational policy are discussed. Recommendations are made to increase the capacity of evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use these tools appropriately for resource allocation. (SLD)

Levin, Henry M.

1988-01-01

8

Cost Comparisons of Selected Inventory Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Background and Assumptions; Current or Base Case; Equal Service Policy; Equal Shortage Policy; Alternative Cost Curves; Current Inventory List; Chi-Square Statistics; Item Inventory Statistics; Current Item Safety Factors and Service Levels; Equ...

R. G. Friedl

1979-01-01

9

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

2003-05-09

10

Social Policy Accountability through Cost Savings Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy evaluation is one of the mechanisms through which society holds the state accountable. This paper will develop a conceptual framework to explain the historic development and consequences of cost savings evaluation in social policy. 1 The last decade (1991-2001) was a critical time for Australian social policy in terms of new public management reforms (financial efficiency, new contractualism and

Karen Fisher

2002-01-01

11

Patent Policy and Costly Imitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of optimal patents to allow for costly imitation of patented innovations. With costly imitation, a rival's decision to imitate depends on the length of patent protection awarded to the patentee: the longer the patent life, the more likely it is that rivals will \\

Nancy T. Gallini

1992-01-01

12

Lessons for Teaching Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program for medical and surgical house staffs and for medical students designed to reduce unneeded orders for low cost, high volume ancillary and nursing services is discussed. The program components include lectures, medical record audits and reviews, and group feedback in the form of cost summaries. (Author/MLW)

McPhee, Stephen J.; And Others

1984-01-01

13

Utility and energy cost containment  

SciTech Connect

One of the most lucrative areas for improving bottom line profitability is related to an organization`s costs for utilities and energy. Such things as gas, electric, water, and telephones are treasure chests of cost reduction opportunities. In the past, these items have been viewed as a fixed expense or basic mundane commodity. In recent years, these items have become a large portion of product cost and now must be examined on a continual basis. A formal income improvement program to capture and report on the savings is a requirement for remaining competitive in a global economy. This paper describes areas of potential inefficiency in terms of energy useage and resulting costs to industry.

Newhouse, R. [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)] [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

14

Cost Containment Cookbook for Public School Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to be a "cookbook" of the numerous elements which collectively influence the cost containment of school construction projects. Each element is meant to indicate an action in the process that the school district should pay attention to and ensure is properly accomplished. The elements influencing cost containment are…

2001

15

Britain's Full-Cost Policy for Overseas Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of the history, advantages, and disadvantages of Great Britain's full-cost policy for overseas students. Discusses the institutional policy and provision for students from abroad on the part of the last educational system. (SB)

Williams, Peter

1984-01-01

16

Cost containment and KSC Shuttle facilities or cost containment and aerospace construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has the objective to show examples of Cost Containment of Aerospace Construction at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), taking into account four major levels of Project Development of the Space Shuttle Facilities. The levels are related to conceptual criteria and site selection, the design of construction and ground support equipment, the construction of facilities and ground support equipment (GSE), and operation and maintenance. Examples of cost containment are discussed. The continued reduction of processing time from landing to launching represents a demonstration of the success of the cost containment methods. Attention is given to the factors which led to the selection of KSC, the use of Cost Engineering, the employment of the Construction Management Concept, and the use of Computer Aided Design/Drafting.

Brown, J. A.

1985-01-01

17

A strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three possible energy strategies are described and each is analyzed in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial benefits; the synfuels policy

H. Davitian; R. J. Goettle IV; P. J. Groncki; E. A. Hudson; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski

1979-01-01

18

Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: Comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyses each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first strategy no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e.,

H. Davitian; P. J. Groncki; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski; R. J. Goettle IV; E. A. Hudson

1979-01-01

19

Sleeping policy cost analysis for sensor nodes collecting heterogeneous data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleeping policies are widely used in many contexts to reduce energy consumption in sensor nodes, ad-hoc terminals or mobile cell phones. Although there is extensive literature on energy saving in sensor networks, little has been done with respect to comparing additional costs, such as packet drop probability and buffer occupancies of sleeping versus non-sleeping policies, especially for multiple classes of

Zhen Zhao; A. Elancheziyan; J. C. de Oliveira

2009-01-01

20

Health Care Cost Containment. A Seminar on Health Cost Containment, March 14-15, 1985, Washington, D.C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the texts of speeches from a conference on health care cost containment. Topics presented include Medicare solvency, capitated programs, diagnostic related groups (DRGs), Medicaid restructuring, long term care financing, private sector cost containment strategies, British health cost containment, health maintenance…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

21

A team approach to cost containment.  

PubMed

Strategies for involving clinicians in efforts to reduce labor and supply chain expenses include: Working with nurse managers to develop an operations or productivity report that is truly useful. Establishing biweekly reporting of labor utilization per unit. Adding clinicians to your materials management and finance teams. Helping physicians understand the cost profiles of the products they are using and their impact on cost of care. Being patient while securing buy-in. PMID:18441971

Williams, Jeni

2008-04-01

22

Signaling Foreign Policy InterestsTying Hands versus Sinking Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author distinguishes between two types of costly signals that state leaders might employ in trying to credibly communicate their foreign policy interests to other states, whether in the realm of grand strategy or crisis diplomacy. Leaders might either (a) tie hands by creating audience costs that they will suffer ex post if they do not follow through on their

James D. Fearon

1997-01-01

23

Indiana School Transportation: A Review of Policies, Procedures, and Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This detailed report and analysis of school bus transportation in Indiana is divided into the following topics: transportation policies; bus utilization; the bus driver and his terms of employment; bus ownership; insurance, storage, maintenance, and fuel costs; bus ownership and costs; and the transportation director. A strong case is made for…

Sanders, Frank, Jr.

24

Containing the costs of the EMF problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty surrounding possible health effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF's) is fueling a costly controversy over the safety of high voltage transmission lines, neighborhood power-distribution circuits, home and office wiring, elelctrical appliances, and office equipment. Mounting public concerns are driven primarily by a number of epidemiological studies that show increased risks of cancer among populations thought to

H. Florig

1992-01-01

25

The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs.  

PubMed

Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49-100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies are worth bearing even when these constitute a substantial proportion (70% or more) of the payments that would otherwise have been given to farmers. PMID:22385501

Armsworth, Paul R; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin; Gaston, Kevin J; Hanley, Nick; Wilson, Paul

2012-05-01

26

Containing the costs of the EMF problem  

SciTech Connect

The uncertainty surrounding possible health effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF's) is fueling a costly controversy over the safety of high voltage transmission lines, neighborhood power-distribution circuits, home and office wiring, elelctrical appliances, and office equipment. Mounting public concerns are driven primarily by a number of epidemiological studies that show increased risks of cancer among populations thought to experience unusual patterns of EMF exposure. Because the scientific evidence on EMF bioeffects is both complicated and contradictory, regulatory bodies and scientific standard-setting organizations have been unable to reach consensus on prescriptive approaches to EMF risk management. Although scientific opinion varies widely about whether the EMF-cancer connection is real, public apprehension over potential EMF hazards has prompted a host of political, legal, and market reactions.

Florig, H.K. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-07-24

27

The cost of non-compliance: when policies fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employees are the greatest threat to an organization's security. Their non-compliance with security policies not only threatens the integrity of the system, it also costs the organization a significant amount of money due to the loss of information or the man-hours spent fixing problems that the user causes. This paper looks at the man-hour cost due to non-compliance at a

Elinor M. Madigan; Corey Petrulich; Kelly Motuk

2004-01-01

28

Induced Technical Change and the Cost of Climate Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides an economic analysis of a specific climate change policy: a carbon tax. The analysis attempts to gauge the potential for a carbon tax to create an incentive for research and development, and subsequently lower the cost of technologies responding to climate change.

Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-

2008-04-01

29

Optimal Holding, the Cost of Capital, and Tax Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of tax policy on the user cost of capital for real estate, a significant secondhand market which involves the measurement of economic depreciation, are examined. In the absence of taxes, the value of a property to an investor is equal to the s...

C. D. MacRae

1980-01-01

30

Priorities of health policy: cost shifting or population health  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is an edited version of an invited paper submitted to the Australian Health Care Summit on 17–19 August 2003. It comments upon the policies which have dominated recent debate and contrasts their importance with the importance of five issues which have received relatively little attention. Methods Policy is usually a response to identified problems and the paper examines the nature and size of the problems which heave led to recent policy initiatives. These are contrasted with the magnitude and potential cost effectiveness policies to address the problems in five areas of comparative neglect. Results It is argued that recent and proposed changes to the financing and delivery of health services in Australia have focused upon issues of relatively minor significance while failing to address adequately major inequities and system deficiencies. Conclusion There is a need for an independent review of the health system with the terms of reference focusing attention upon large system-wide failures.

Richardson, Jeff RJ

2005-01-01

31

An Approach to Cost-Containment in Health Care  

PubMed Central

Economic and political repercussions throughout the nation follow the unprecedented rise in the cost of delivering health care. The physician is not only a part of the problem, but also must be an active part of the solution. The author presents an approach to cost containment in health care delivery.

Wright, Charles H.

1980-01-01

32

Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?  

PubMed

Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. PMID:16323750

Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

2005-11-15

33

Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

Jensen, J?rgen D; Smed, Sinne

2007-01-01

34

Containing costs of antimicrobials in the hospital: a critical evaluation.  

PubMed

Because reimbursement of hospitals from patient sources for the cost of antimicrobial agents varies considerably according to the nature of the patient population, the actual savings potential of cost-containment efforts is proportional to the extent that costs are not reimbursed. Meaningful cost estimations include calculations for drug preparation, administration, necessary laboratory tests, toxicity, and acquisition. Savings in surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis may be estimated according to the type and volume of operations, history of usage excesses, and anticipated degree of cooperation of surgeons. In therapy, savings generally derive from restricting use of costly drugs. Studies that demonstrate similar outcomes of patient care in restricted and unrestricted settings are presently lacking. Such studies are essential for programs that promote change from parenteral to oral antimicrobials, because they may shorten the length of hospitalization. The outcome of antimicrobial cost-containment efforts in patient care should be monitored as a surveillance activity to be conducted by infection control practitioners involved with quality assessment. PMID:2683889

Ehrenkranz, N J

1989-10-01

35

Honoring the Trust: Quality and Cost Containment in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book asserts that improvements in quality and cost containment are required not only for the well-being of individual institutions of higher education, but also to honor the trust placed in academe by society. The book outlines a practical program for improvement. The chapters of part 1, "The Case for Change," are: (1) "The Erosion of Trust";…

Massy, William F.

36

Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.  

PubMed Central

The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be applied logically to the high-cost patient and particularly toward the complex patient. The complex patient is especially suited for consideration, since it is postulated that these patients are endemic to all general hospitals and to all clinical services. Strategies to be developed should include: 1) a managerial system in which physicians have an incentive to contain costs, 2) an online data system, 3) an accurate, efficient way to identify prospective high-cost and complex patients and, 4) awareness by physicians, patients, and society that less expensive modes of diagnosis and therapy are an appropriate response to rationed health resources.

Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

1983-01-01

37

Comparison of the hospital cost of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty after cost containment.  

PubMed

This study compared the hospital cost of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) after the introduction of cost-containment programs (clinical pathway, hip implant standardization, and competitive bid purchasing of hip implants). Hospital financial records for 290 primary and 85 revision THAs performed from October 1993 through September 1995 were analyzed. A cost-accounting system provided actual hospital cost data for each procedure. Accurate calculation of hospital income or loss was determined. Average hospital length of stay was 4.9 days for primary THA and 5.9 days for revision THA. Average hospital cost was $11,104 for primary THA and $14,935 for revision THA. Average net income (hospital revenue hospital expense) for primary THA was $2486. Average loss from revision THA was $401. The payer mix included commercial insurance, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, managed care, Medicare, Medicaid, and workmen's compensation. For primary THA, all payers were profitable except Medicaid and selected managed care contracts. For revision THA, profit was achieved with payment from commercial insurance only. Despite the introduction of cost-containment programs, revision THA did not achieve profitability at our institution. PMID:10037332

Iorio, R; Healy, W L; Richards, J A

1999-02-01

38

Comparison of the hospital cost of primary and revision total knee arthroplasty after cost containment.  

PubMed

Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) consumes more time, more work, and more supplies than primary TKA. This study compared the hospital cost of primary and revision TKA after the introduction of cost-containment programs (implant standardization, clinical pathway, and competitive bid implant purchasing) at our hospital. Hospital financial records of 207 primary unilateral TKA operations and 32 revision TKA operations performed from October 1993 through September 1995 were analyzed. A cost-accounting system provided actual hospital cost data for each procedure. Accurate calculation of hospital income or loss was determined for all 239 procedures. The average hospital length of stay was 4.7 days for primary unilateral TKA and 5.1 days for revision TKA. There were 26 three-component revision operations and 6 one- or two-component revision operations. The average hospital cost was $10,421 for primary TKA and $11,906 for revision TKA. The average net hospital income (hospital revenue - hospital expense) was $3211 for primary TKA and $1853 for revision TKA. The payer mix included indemnity insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, managed care, and workmen's compensation. All payers were profitable except for Medicaid and selected managed care contracts for both primary and revision TKA. As a result of cost-containment programs, revision TKA can be profitable at our institution. PMID:10037333

Iorio, R; Healy, W L; Richards, J A

1999-02-01

39

Medicare Long-Term CPAP Coverage Policy: A Cost-Utility Analysis  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: CPAP is an effective treatment for OSA that may reduce health care utilization and costs. Medicare currently reimburses the costs of long-term CPAP therapy only if the patient is adherent during a 90-day trial. If not, Medicare requires a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and another trial which seems empirically not cost-effective. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of current Medicare policy compared to an alternative policy (clinic-only) without the adherence criterion and repeat PSG. Design: Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting: U.S. Medicare Population. Patients or Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: We created a decision tree modeling (1) clinic only follow-up vs. (2) current Medicare policy. Costs were assigned based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2012. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test our assumptions. We estimated cumulative costs, overall adherence, and QALY gained for a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of Medicare as the payer. Current Medicare policy is more costly than the clinic-only policy but has higher net adherence and improved utility. Current Medicare policy compared to clinic-only policy costs $30,544 more per QALY. Conclusions: Current CMS policy promotes early identification of those more likely to adhere to CPAP therapy by requiring strict adherence standards. The policy effect is to deny coverage to those unlikely to use CPAP long-term and prevent wasted resources. Future studies are needed to measure long-term adherence in an elderly population with and without current adherence requirements to verify the cost-effectiveness of a policy change. Citation: Billings ME; Kapur VK. Medicare long-term CPAP coverage policy: a cost-utility analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1023-1029.

Billings, Martha E.; Kapur, Vishesh K.

2013-01-01

40

75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

2010-06-17

41

Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

Krutilla, Kerry

2005-01-01

42

Quality-Adjusted Cost Functions and Policy Evaluation in the Nursing Home Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper evaluation of cost-quality trade-offs inherent in regulatory policy requires identifying the structure of production from the behavioral response of quality to the policy change. However, estimating the structure of production with endogenous quality is difficult because of both measurement problems and data availability. The authors develop a simple method for identifying and estimating cost functions in the presence of

Paul J. Gertler; Donald M. Waldman

1992-01-01

43

Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

Stone, Barbara A.

1984-01-01

44

Energy policy: The fair cost of renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-efficient use of climate funds in developing countries requires rigorous assessment of local mitigation costs. Now research presents a novel way to estimate the increase in energy costs involved in scaling up solar photovoltaic and wind power.

Jakob, Michael

2012-07-01

45

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...comparable stamps. These include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Costs of stamp design (including market research); (2) Costs of stamp production and printing; (3) Costs of stamp shipping and distribution; (4)...

2013-07-01

46

Cost containment through pharmaceutical procurement: a Caribbean case study.  

PubMed

This article discusses the potential for health sector cost containment in developing countries through improved pharmaceutical procurement. By describing the specific example of the Eastern Caribbean Drug Service (ECDS), which provides a pooled procurement service to nine ministries of health in the small island nations of the Caribbean, it examines the elements of the procurement operation that allowed ECDS to reduce unit costs for pharmaceuticals by over 50 per cent during its first procurement cycle. The analysis of ECDS considers: (1) political will, institutional alliances, and the creation of a public sector monopsony; (2) pooling demand; (3) restricted international tendering and the pharmaceutical industry; (4) estimating demand and supplier guarantees; (5) reducing variety and increasing volume through standardizing pack sizes, dosage forms and strengths; (6) generic bidding and therapeutic alternative bidding; (7) mode of transport from foreign suppliers; (8) financing mechanisms, including choice of currency, foreign exchange, and terms of payment; (9) market conditions and crafting and enforcing supplier contracts; and, (10) the adjudication process, including consideration of suppliers' past performance, precision requirements in the manufacturing process, number of products awarded to suppliers, and issues of judgment. The authors consider the relevance of this agency's experience to other developing countries by providing a blueprint that can be adopted or modified to suit other situations. PMID:10172681

Huff-Rousselle, M; Burnett, F

1996-01-01

47

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

48

Renewable electricity production costs—A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional,

Valentina Dinica

2011-01-01

49

75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for managing cost containment interventions at the systems level; (2) gather supplemental materials designed to provide concrete and practical strategies for planning, implementing, and sustaining cost containment interventions (The intent is to...

2010-08-10

50

European hospital reforms in times of crisis: Aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?  

PubMed

Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe. PMID:24703855

Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

2014-07-01

51

Japan's universal long-term care system reform of 2005: containing costs and realizing a vision.  

PubMed

Japan implemented a mandatory social long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care services a universal entitlement for every senior. Although this system has grown rapidly, reflecting its popularity among seniors and their families, it faces several challenges, including skyrocketing costs. This article describes the recent reform initiated by the Japanese government to simultaneously contain costs and realize a long-term vision of creating a community-based, prevention-oriented long-term care system. The reform involves introduction of two major elements: "hotel" and meal charges for nursing home residents and new preventive benefits. They were intended to reduce economic incentives for institutionalization, dampen provider-induced demand, and prevent seniors from being dependent by intervening while their need levels are still low. The ongoing LTCI reform should be critically evaluated against the government's policy intentions as well as its effect on seniors, their families, and society. The story of this reform is instructive for other countries striving to develop coherent, politically acceptable long-term care policies. PMID:17767690

Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko

2007-09-01

52

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Pollution Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The editors and 17 other authors probe the state of the art of cost-benefit analysis as related to water pollution. They survey the existing literature on costs and benefits, discuss the difficulties of measuring both costs and benefits, and suggest measu...

E. P. Seskin H. M. Peskin

1975-01-01

53

The High Cost of Teacher Turnover. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher turnover in five school districts. The selected districts varied in size, location, and demographics enabling exploration of how these variations affected costs. Costs of recruiting, hiring, processing, and training…

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007

2007-01-01

54

Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

Stasica, Edward R.

55

Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative.

Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

2011-01-01

56

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2013-10-01

57

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28

58

A strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: Detailed projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three possible energy strategies are described and each is analyzed in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first strategy no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e.,

H. Davitian; R. J. Goettle IV; P. J. Groncki; E. A. Hudson; P. Kleeman; J. Lukachinski

1979-01-01

59

Benefits and Costs of Antismoking Policies: Executive Summary and Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project studies the effects of anti-smoking policies on cigarette consumption and the tobacco-producing economy, and attempts to assess the total costs and benefits of these policies. The limitations of some of the numerical estimates are stressed by...

K. E. Warner

1982-01-01

60

Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation  

PubMed Central

Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

2014-01-01

61

Prisoner Healthcare Co-Payment Policy: A Cost-Cutting Measure that Might Threaten Inmates' Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective provision of adequate healthcare to prisoners is a core problematic issue in contemporary correctional healthcare settings. An increasingly popular policy for reducing prison healthcare costs is prisoner co-payment systems for health services. Advocates of this policy assert that it facilitates efficient healthcare delivery in prison settings. This article examines the appropriateness and consequences of prisoner healthcare co-payment systems in

Niyi Awofeso

2005-01-01

62

New Center Applies Cost-Benefit Analysis to Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, at Teachers College, Columbia University. Launched last year by a pair of economists, the center specializes in calculating and comparing the long- and short-term costs--and probable payoffs--of different educational strategies that promise to improve students' lives. Studies…

Viadero, Debra

2008-01-01

63

Tittel: Costs Savings of a Flexible Multi-Gas Climate Policy Title: Costs Savings of a Flexible Multi-Gas Climate Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current climate policies are based on the use of the Global Warming Potential (GWP) index to compare various greenhouse gases. Yet, from an economic point of view, more efficient methods exist. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential cost savings from applying an efficient and more flexible metric as compared to using GWPs, given some long- term

Asbjørn Aaheim; Jan S. Fuglestvedt; Odd Godal; Gunnar Eskeland

64

Costs and Benefits of Recycling Liquid Board Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of packaging material has become more or less mandatory in many European countries, including Norway. Through so-called voluntary agreements quantitative targets are set for the proportion of total waste to be recycled. At the same time the strategic objective for Norwegian waste policy is that there should be a socio-economic balance between different waste treatment options. On the basis

Karin Ibenholt; Henrik Lindhjem

2003-01-01

65

CRRT in the area of cost containment: is it justified?  

PubMed

Intensive care accounts for at least 25% of health care costs. One third of this goes to 10% of patients who, in general, have combined respiratory and renal failure. The cost of renal replacement therapy is, therefore, of major importance. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has many potential advantages over intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). These include better nutritional support, better volume maintenance, reduction of extravascular lung water, and potential clearance of inflammatory mediators. To date, noncomparative trials have suggested a trend toward decreased mortality. Randomized trials have suggested a CRRT mortality and morbidity benefit, but only when comparing long-term renal recovery. Acute mortality benefit has not been clearly established and, as such, cost comparison is of increased interest. Cost comparison trials are complicated, but some recent studies have led to the conclusion that costs are comparable. Others have concluded that CRRT is slightly more expensive. When comparing randomized patients in a recent prospective trial, aggregate costs for renal replacement therapy were comparable. The advantages of better nutrition, better fluid balance, easier management of hemodynamics, and more complete renal recovery, as suggested by this study, should continue to make it valuable. Physician acceptance of CRRT advantages has been established and suggests clinical benefit despite any potential increased cost. PMID:9372987

Hoyt, D B

1997-11-01

66

External Costs of Domestic Container Transportation: Short?Sea Shipping versus Trucking in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the external costs of domestic container transportation in Taiwan by analysing the origin and destination of current container cargoes. After reviewing an extensive literature survey of methods of external cost, a comparison of external costs between trucking and short sea shipping (SSS) by corridor is made by using a model developed in this paper. Based on the

Tao Chen

2010-01-01

67

Openness of agriculture market, trade-induced adjustment cost and China's agriculture trade policy after WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's WTO accession has brought concerns over its agricultural sector, where the realization of comparative advantage by free trade will lead to economic efficiency, and at the same time bring sizable trade-induced adjustment cost to the agricultural industry. Adjustment cost could be explained in a certain degree that why countries tend to adopt constrained market liberalization policy, and trade protection

Zhang Shu; Zhu Jing; Cao Li-juan

2010-01-01

68

Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.  

PubMed

Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. PMID:22257324

Heslop, Liza

2012-02-01

69

Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates risk, well-being and energy based indices to provide realistic cost/reliability measures of utilizing renewable energy. The concepts presented and the examples illustrated in this thesis will help system planners to decide on appropriate installation sites, the types and mix of different energy generating sources, the optimum operating policies, and the optimum generation expansion plans required to meet increasing load demands in small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy sources.

Karki, Rajesh

70

Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a

Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

1994-01-01

71

The US Environmental Protection Agency's contained-in'' policy and its impact on groundwater issues at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the contained-in policy governing the regulation of hazardous wastes. The policy has evolved as an internal US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy that essentially allows the Agency to regulate materials that are outside the scope of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's (RCRA) jurisdiction. The contained-in policy was originally developed to cover soil and groundwater issues, but

C. A. Schrof; T. M. Bonine; J. K. Jr. Greer

1992-01-01

72

Costs Containment on Large Fires: Efficient Utilization of Wildland Fire Suppression Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The burgeoning problem of containing suppression costs for large wildland fires was first recognized by the federal wildland firefighting agencies in 1994. During that year, wildfire suppression costs neared $1 billion dollars. In 1997, an analysis of 25 ...

2000-01-01

73

Cost containment and new priorities in the European community.  

PubMed

This article reports on the author's survey of the cost-control measures for health care in 12 European countries during the period from 1983 to 1990. Among these countries the greatest convergence was in the use of the budget as a system of control, reinforced by manpower controls. Budgets were constructed to restrict hospital costs and payments to doctors practicing outside of hospitals. Another strategy was cost sharing for purchase of drugs and, in some cases, for dentistry. Most countries took steps to control expensive medical equipment; others, to restrict entry to medical schools. The European experience demonstrates the technical feasibility of the government's controlling health care costs by regulating supply rather than demand. The key to Europe's success in the use of monopsony power, whereby one purchaser dominates the market. The author contends that regulation works in Europe and questions whether the United States can exert similar control over its coalition of insurers and providers in order to rein in its health care expenses. PMID:1406493

Abel-Smith, B

1992-01-01

74

Transfusion Cost Containment for Abdominal Surgery with Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typing and crossmatching blood is a significant cost for most hospitals, regardless of whether the blood is actually transfused. Many hospitals have implemented a Maximum Surgical Blood Order Schedule, MSBOS, to control over-ordering of blood units for surgery. The research presented in this article examines the use of neural networks for predicting the quantity of blood required by individual patients

Steven Walczak; John E. Scharf

2000-01-01

75

Hospital pharmacy decisions, cost containment, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key hypothesis of the study was that hospital pharmacies under the pressure of managed care would be more likely to adopt process innovations to assure less costly and more cost-effective provision of care. We conducted a survey of 103 hospitals and analyzed secondary data on cost and staffing. Compared to the size of the reduction in length of stay,

Frank A. Sloan; Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein; Alicia Wilson

1997-01-01

76

Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.  

PubMed

In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. PMID:24184529

Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

2013-12-15

77

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

78

Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis: a cost-effectiveness analysis: Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objective To facilitate the choice of the best visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment strategy for first-line health services in (VL)-endemic areas, we compared in a formal decision analysis the cost and the cost- effectiveness of the different available options. methods We selected four drug regimens for VL on the basis of frequency of use, feasibility and reported efficacy studies. The

V. Vanlerberghe; G. Diap; P. J. Guerin; F. Meheus; S. Gerstl; P. Van der Stuyft; M. Boelaert

2007-01-01

79

Travel policies and practices of Department of Energy grantees. [Travel costs for US DOE grantees  

SciTech Connect

The fiscal year 1980 travel activities, particularly trips to annual conventions, of Department of Energy grantees were reviewed. DOE made 9987 grants during fiscal year 1980. Ten grantees, i.e., educational institutions, governmental entities, companies, etc. were selected for the travel review. Information is included on the cost and purpose of trips, applicable travel policies, cost reporting, and auditing of travel vouchers. The results showed that the 10 selected grantees made 1194 trips costing a total of $170,974, or about 1% of their grant funds. Grantees travel costs ranged from $331 to $46,512 and the number of trips ranged from 1 to 471. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-09-30

80

How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

Welner, Kevin

2011-01-01

81

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for U.S. renewable energy policy.  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of 'learning by doing' and developments in 'learning by searching' with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing electricity cost estimates used in energy policy planning models. Sensitivities of the learning rates for global wind and solar photovoltaic technologies to changes in the model parameters are tested. The implications of the results indicate that institutional policy instruments play an important role for these technologies to achieve cost reductions and further market adoption.

Erickson, Jon D. (University of Vermont, Burlington, VT); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Drennen, Thomas E. (William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2004-09-01

82

Supply of renewable energy sources and the cost of EU climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the excess costs of a separate 20% target for renewable energy as a part of the EU climate policy for 2020? We answer this question using a computable general equilibrium model, WorldScan, which has been extended with a bottom-up module of the electricity sector. The model set-up makes it possible to directly use available estimates of costs and

Stefan Boeters; J. Koornneef

2010-01-01

83

Lessons from cost-effectiveness research for United States public health policy.  

PubMed

The application of cost-effectiveness analysis to health care has been the subject of previous reviews. We address the use of economic evaluation methods in public health, including case studies of population-level policies, e.g., environmental regulations, injury prevention, tobacco control, folic acid fortification, and blood product safety, and the public health promotion of clinical preventive services, e.g., newborn screening, cancer screening, and childhood immunizations. We review the methods used in cost-effectiveness analysis, the implications for cost-effectiveness findings, and the extent to which economic studies have influenced policy and program decisions. We discuss reasons for the relatively limited impact to date of economic evaluation in public health. Finally, we address the vexing question of how to decide which interventions are cost effective and worthy of funding. Policy makers have funded certain interventions with rather high cost-effectiveness ratios, notably nucleic acid testing for blood product safety. Cost-effectiveness estimates are a decision aid, not a decision rule. PMID:17222080

Grosse, Scott D; Teutsch, Steven M; Haddix, Anne C

2007-01-01

84

Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweden has developed an extensive and sound policy framework to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It is now one of the OECD countries with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions per capita and it has successfully managed to decouple GDP growth from emissions growth. However, as Sweden has already significantly lowered its greenhouse gas emissions, the cost of reducing them further could

Stéphanie Jamet

2011-01-01

85

Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects with Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common reporting of effect sizes has been an important advance in education research in recent years. However, the benchmarks used to interpret the size of these effects--as small, medium, and large--do little to inform educational administration and policy making because they do not account for program costs. The author proposes an approach…

Harris, Douglas N.

2009-01-01

86

Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

Ayalew, Sewale Abate

2013-01-01

87

The Cost-Effectiveness of Education Interventions in Poor Countries. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor countries need development programs that are both effective and cost-effective. To assess effectiveness, researchers are increasingly using randomized trials (or quasi-experimental methods that imitate randomized trials), which provide a clear picture of which outcomes are attributable to the program being evaluated. This "Policy Insight"…

Evans, David K.; Ghosh, Arkadipta

2008-01-01

88

Optimising age-replacement and extended non-renewing warranty policies in lifecycle costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the life cycle cost of equipment protected by both base and extended warranty policies from a consumer's perspective. We assume that the equipment has two types of failure: minor and catastrophic. A minor failure can be corrected with minimal repair whereas a catastrophic failure can only be removed by a replacement. It is assumed that equipment is

Shaomin Wu; Phil Longhurst

2011-01-01

89

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price increases and other tobacco- control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides conservative estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco-control policies. Using a model of the cohort of smokers alive in 1995, we find that tax increases that would raise the real price of cigarettes by 10% worldwide would cause about 42 million of these smokers to quit. This price increase would prevent a minimum of 10 million

Kent Ranson; Prabhat Jha; Frank J. Chaloupka

90

Marketing Policy and Its Cost in a College of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of advertising and publicity strategies and policy for student recruitment purposes at a college of education in the United Kingdom between 1972 and 1982. Covers changes in staff attitudes, selection of media, organization of administration, and cost factors. (PGD)

Riley, Eric

1984-01-01

91

Litigation Costs, Budget Impacts, and Cost Containment Strategies: Evidence from California Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litigation costs are straining many municipalities' budgets and creating more uncertainty and flux in their annual budgetary processes. A 1996 mail survey of California cities conducted by the League of California Cities, to which 210 cities (45 percent) responded, shows that the level of litigation-driven budgetary strain is intensifying. The budgetary impacts of litigation have been quite substantial, no matter

Susan A. MacManus

1997-01-01

92

Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability

Johannes Schmidt; Sylvain Leduc; Erik Dotzauer; Erwin Schmid

2011-01-01

93

Practice patterns, case mix, Medicare payment policy, and dialysis facility costs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of case mix, practice patterns, features of the payment system, and facility characteristics on the cost of dialysis. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The nationally representative sample of dialysis units in the 1991 U.S. Renal Data System's Case Mix Adequacy (CMA) Study. The CMA data were merged with data from Medicare Cost Reports, HCFA facility surveys, and HCFA's end-stage renal disease patient registry. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated a statistical cost function to examine the determinants of costs at the dialysis unit level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between case mix and costs was generally weak. However, dialysis practices (type of dialysis membrane, membrane reuse policy, and treatment duration) did have a significant effect on costs. Further, facilities whose payment was constrained by HCFA's ceiling on the adjustment for area wage rates incurred higher costs than unconstrained facilities. The costs of hospital-based units were considerably higher than those of freestanding units. Among chain units, only members of one of the largest national chains exhibited significant cost savings relative to independent facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Little evidence showed that adjusting dialysis payment to account for differences in case mix across facilities would be necessary to ensure access to care for high-cost patients or to reimburse facilities equitably for their costs. However, current efforts to increase dose of dialysis may require higher payments. Longer treatments appear to be the most economical method of increasing the dose of dialysis. Switching to more expensive types of dialysis membranes was a more costly means of increasing dose and hence must be justified by benefits beyond those of higher dose. Reusing membranes saved money, but the savings were insufficient to offset the costs associated with using more expensive membranes. Most, but not all, of the higher costs observed in hospital-based units appear to reflect overhead cost allocation rather than a difference in real resources devoted to treatment. The economies experienced by the largest chains may provide an explanation for their recent growth in market share. The heterogeneity of results by chain size implies that characterizing units using a simple chain status indicator variable is inadequate. Cost differences by facility type and the effects of the ongoing growth of large chains are worthy of continued monitoring to inform both payment policy and antitrust enforcement.

Hirth, R A; Held, P J; Orzol, S M; Dor, A

1999-01-01

94

Evaluation of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System Demonstration. Second Outcome Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second outcome report on the Arizona Long Term Care System (ALTCS) addresses outcome issues through September 1991. The first outcome report showed savings for the acute care program of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS) for the ...

N. McCall J. Korb L. Paringer D. Balaban C. W. Wrightson

1993-01-01

95

Pressure sores and specialty beds: cost containment and ensurance of quality care.  

PubMed

The monitoring of specialty bed use by the certified ET nurse and the NQAC has been in full implementation since June 1989 with significant yearly cost reductions in the use of specialty care beds. The $238,000 costs from fiscal year 1987 (July 1986 to June 30, 1987) were reduced to $60,000 in fiscal year 1989 with an approximate cost savings of 75%. Additional cost savings have been achieved through the implementation of the other recommendations in this study. Although cost savings would have resulted from a stricter policy in specialty bed approval and utilization alone, such savings probably would have affected the quality of patient care. This project allowed nursing and medical staff members to work with the departments of Administration and Finance to ensure that patient care would not be significantly affected. Significant cost savings were obtained through use of the five interventions that are indicated in the introduction. Nursing was permitted to examine its own practice and implement changes in documentation, nursing standards, skin-care products, policies and procedures, and in other areas to strive for clinical excellence as monitored through its quality assurance plan. The addition of a certified ET nurse to coordinate a hospital-wide multidisciplinary approach that is consistent with and clinically relevant to current practice standards is essential to a successful program for pressure-sore prevention and management within the current reimbursement systems. PMID:1954298

Lubin, B S; Powell, T

1991-01-01

96

Modeling Resource, Infrastructure, and Policy Cost Layers for Optimizing Renewable Energy Investment and Deployment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system impact on infrastructure, and policy incentives. The framework is intended as an enabler for visualization, optimization and decision making across diverse dimensions while searching for lucrative investment-plans.

Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Protopopescu, Vladimir A [ORNL; Malinchik, Sergey [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ives, Barry [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2010-01-01

97

Mitigation Costs in a Globalized World: Climate Policy Analysis with REMIND-R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within this paper, we present the novel hybrid model REMIND-R and its application in a climate policy context based on the\\u000a EU target to avoid a warming of the Earth’s atmosphere by more than 2°C compared to the pre-industrial level. This paper aims\\u000a to identify necessary long-term changes in the energy system and the magnitude of costs to attain such

Marian Leimbach; Nico Bauer; Lavinia Baumstark; Ottmar Edenhofer

2010-01-01

98

Supply of renewable energy sources and the cost of EU climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the excess costs of a separate 20% target for renewable energy as a part of the EU climate policy for 2020? We answer this question using a computable general equilibrium model, WorldScan, which has been extended with a bottom-up module of the electricity sector. The model set-up makes it possible to base the calibration directly on available estimates

Stefan Boeters; Joris Koornneef

2011-01-01

99

The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.

French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

2010-01-01

100

The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

2014-01-01

101

State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.

2002-10-01

102

State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation; Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.

2002-10-01

103

Waste pricing policies and cost-efficiency in municipal waste services: the case of Flanders.  

PubMed

Major changes in municipal solid waste (MSW)-related services, such as the collection system, often require important initial investments, while the benefits on the output side typically occur over a longer time perspective. However, when analyzing the association between such policy choices and cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal, the time horizon is often not taken into account. This article advocates the use of the Malmquist Productivity Index approach to measure and analyze cost efficiency changes over time after the introduction of the relative new weight-based waste collection and billing system in Flanders. The results and robustness checks indicate that introducing weight-based pricing does not lead to lower cost efficiency of MSW service provision. PMID:23585501

De Jaeger, Simon; Rogge, Nicky

2013-07-01

104

Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.  

PubMed

This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits. PMID:24306855

Ziebarth, Nicolas R

2014-03-01

105

Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future.

2013-01-01

106

The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side. PMID:22043644

Chang, Li

2011-01-01

107

Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009  

PubMed Central

We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. We assessed initial 2-day sick leaves plus reassessment until the HCW was asymptomatic (2-day + reassessment policy), and initial 7-day sick leaves (7-day policy). Sick leaves peaked in August 2009: 3% of the workforce received leave for ILI. Costs during May–October reached R$798,051.87 (?US $443,362). The 7-day policy led to a higher monthly rate of sick leave days per 100 HCWs than did the 2-day + reassessment policy (8.72 vs. 3.47 days/100 HCWs; p<0.0001) and resulted in higher costs (US $609 vs. US $1,128 per HCW on leave). ILI affected HCW absenteeism. The 7-day policy was more costly and not more effective in preventing transmission to patients than the 2-day + reassessment policy.

Mota, Nancy Val y Val P.; Lobo, Renata D.; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio C.; Dias, M. Beatriz Souza; Komagata, Helio

2011-01-01

108

Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate is presented for new supercritical pulverized coal plants, both with and without CCS. The capital cost escalation of recent years can be attributed to rising materials, plant supply,

Michael R. Hamilton; Howard J. Herzog; John E. Parsons

2009-01-01

109

Marginal Cost Pricing of Railway Infrastructure Operation, Maintenance, and Renewal in Sweden: From Policy to Practice Through Existing Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of infrastructure and train operations in Europe’s railway sector has increased the importance of a transparent policy for pricing infrastructure use. This paper reviews the quality of data on the Swedish railway network to allow estimation of the marginal costs of railway track wear and tear. Information about costs, traffic, and infrastructure is examined and assessed in light

Mats Andersson

2006-01-01

110

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

111

Foster Care: Federal Policy on Title IV-E Share of Training Costs. Report to the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses: (1) the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) policy requiring that foster care training costs be allocated proportionately between the Social Security Act Title IV-E foster care program and other programs; (2) adherence to this cost-sharing policy; and (3) the effect of cost-sharing on states' training programs. It…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

112

Tritium accident containment within a large fusion enclosure: cost, benefit, and risk considerations  

SciTech Connect

Containment of a tritium accident within a large fusion device building will be difficult and costly. Complete containment is impossible, and with this fact in mind, the global dispersion and health effects of tritium are reviewed. Atmospheric tritium emissions lead to an estimated population dose to the Northern Hemisphere of 5.6 x 10/sup -3/ man-rem/Ci, which may also be interpreted as 1 cancer fatality per MCi. Updating the NRC $1000 per man-rem criterion to 1982 costs gives 9.5 $/y per Ci/y as the unit annual health benefit rate from averting tritium release at a continuous rate. Present worth considerations lead to an estimate of $100 per Ci/y for the maximum capital investment justified per expected curie per year of tritium release averted. A simplified enclosure model is used to explore the trade-off between processing capacity and recycle time with the health cost of residual tritium release included in the analysis.

Sherwood, A.E.

1983-01-01

113

Paying the medical cost of the HIV epidemic: a review of policy options.  

PubMed

The complex health care needs of people with HIV infection highlight inadequacies in our health care financing system and raise the question of how best to pay for care. AIDS requires a broad continuum of care to maintain high quality and reasonable costs. A simultaneous need is to assure access to care for patients with HIV infection who lack insurance or entitlement to health care benefits. We suggest new and practical payment mechanisms that can encourage the availability of comprehensive care for people with HIV infection. We suggest changes in state and federal payment policies that would make the cost of providing AIDS care more of a collective, community responsibility. We recommend mandated workplace insurance, extension of Medicaid eligibility to all with incomes below the federal poverty level, an opportunity for individuals with incomes to 200% of the poverty level to purchase Medicaid coverage, mechanisms to encourage public and private agencies to pay for continued health insurance after loss of employment, and a shortened waiting period for Medicare disability. PMID:2404099

Makadon, H J; Seage, G R; Thorpe, K E; Fineberg, H V

1990-01-01

114

Diabetes in Argentina: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is an expensive disease in Argentina as well as worldwide, and its prevalence is continuously rising affecting the quality of life of people with the disease and their life expectancy. It also imposes a heavy burden to the national health care budget and on the economy in the form of productivity losses. Aims To review and discuss a) the reported evidence on diabetes prevalence, the degree of control, the cost of care and outcomes, b) available strategies to decrease the health and economic disease burden, and c) how the disease fits in the Argentinian health care system and policy. Finally, to propose evidence-based policy options to reduce the burden of diabetes, both from an epidemiological as well as an economic perspective, on the Argentinian society. The evidence presented is expected to help the local authorities to develop and implement effective diabetes care programmes. Methodology A comprehensive literature review was performed using databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences). Literature published from 1980 to 2011 was included. This information was complemented with grey literature, including data from national and provincial official sources, personal communications and contacts with health authorities and diabetes experts in Argentina. Results Overall diabetes prevalence increased from 8.4% in 2005 to 9.6% 2009 at national level. In 2009, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death with a mortality rate of 19.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, and it accounted for 1,328,802 DALYs lost in the adult population, mainly affecting women aged over fifty. The per capita hospitalisation cost for people with diabetes was significantly higher than for people without the disease, US$ 1,628 vs. US$ 833 in 2004. Evidence shows that implementation of combined educative interventions improved quality of care and outcomes, decreased treatment costs and optimised the use of economic resources. Conclusions Based on the evidence reviewed, we believe that the implementation of structured health care programmes including diabetes education at every level, could improve quality of care as well as its clinical, metabolic and economic outcomes. If implemented across the country, these programmes could decrease the disease burden and optimise the use of human and economic resources.

2013-01-01

115

Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition. PMID:3083133

Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

1986-01-01

116

The moral psychology of rationing among physicians: the role of harm and fairness intuitions in physician objections to cost-effectiveness and cost-containment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Physicians vary in their moral judgments about health care costs. Social intuitionism posits that moral judgments arise from gut instincts, called “moral foundations.” The objective of this study was to determine if “harm” and “fairness” intuitions can explain physicians’ judgments about cost-containment in U.S. health care and using cost-effectiveness data in practice, as well as the relative importance of those intuitions compared to “purity”, “authority” and “ingroup” in cost-related judgments. Methods We mailed an 8-page survey to a random sample of 2000 practicing U.S. physicians. The survey included the MFQ30 and items assessing agreement/disagreement with cost-containment and degree of objection to using cost-effectiveness data to guide care. We used t-tests for pairwise subscale mean comparisons and logistic regression to assess associations with agreement with cost-containment and objection to using cost-effectiveness analysis to guide care. Results 1032 of 1895 physicians (54%) responded. Most (67%) supported cost-containment, while 54% expressed a strong or moderate objection to the use of cost-effectiveness data in clinical decisions. Physicians who strongly objected to the use of cost-effectiveness data had similar scores in all five of the foundations (all p-values?>?0.05). Agreement with cost-containment was associated with higher mean “harm” (3.6) and “fairness” (3.5) intuitions compared to “in-group” (2.8), “authority” (3.0), and “purity” (2.4) (p?cost-containment (OR?=?1.2 [1.0-1.5]; OR?=?1.7 [1.4-2.1], respectively) but were not associated with degree of objection to cost-effectiveness (OR?=?1.2 [1.0-1.4]; OR?=?0.9 [0.7-1.0]). Conclusions Moral intuitions shed light on variation in physician judgments about cost issues in health care.

2013-01-01

117

A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

2005-12-01

118

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

119

Toward More Comprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity Restructuring Policies: A Review of Recent Benefit-Cost Studies of RTOs  

SciTech Connect

Definitive assessment of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission policies on regional transmission organizations is not currently possible because of uncertainties in the data and methods used in recent benefit-cost studies as well as lack of investigation of key impacts of the formation of RTOs. (author)

Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas R.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

2006-12-15

120

The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning. Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250

Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

2014-01-01

121

The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling.  

PubMed

Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks.Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity.Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated.Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10-25 times greater than costs.Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning.Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335-344;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250. PMID:24496244

Macmillan, Alexandra; Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

2014-04-01

122

Strategic Trade Policy with Endogenous Choice of Quality and Asymmetric Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the strategic trade policy incentives for investment policies towards quality improvements in a vertically differentiated exporting industry. Firms first compete in qualities and then export to a third country market based on Bertrand or Cournot competition. Optimal policies are asymmetric across the two producing countries. Under Bertrand competition, the low-quality country subsidizes investment to raise export quality,

Dongsheng Zhou; Barbara J. Spencer; Ilan Vertinsky

2000-01-01

123

The US Environmental Protection Agency`s ``contained-in`` policy and its impact on groundwater issues at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the contained-in policy governing the regulation of hazardous wastes. The policy has evolved as an internal US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy that essentially allows the Agency to regulate materials that are outside the scope of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act`s (RCRA) jurisdiction. The contained-in policy was originally developed to cover soil and groundwater issues, but

C. A. Schrof; T. M. Bonine; J. K. Jr. Greer

1992-01-01

124

Pharmaceutical expenditure in Spain: evolution and cost containment measures during 1998-2001.  

PubMed

Significant changes in the Spanish pharmaceutical market were introduced during the period 1998-2001. Cost containment has been a major priority for all publicly financed medicines. Its measures included a voluntary contribution from Farmaindustria, a negative list, wholesale and pharmacists margin reductions, generic substitution, a reference price system and price reduction for certain active principles. However, the changes in the Spanish pharmaceutical market have not produced significant savings in public expenditure. The main reason for the continuing rise in this expenditure is the introduction of new, more expensive drugs, which often fail to offer real therapeutic advantages over products already on the market. Measures such as prescribing guidelines, incentives to physicians to meet prescribing budgets, pharmacotherapeutic guides and regular bulletins could be implemented with the aim of prescribing value for money medicines. PMID:15609181

Darbà, Josep

2003-09-01

125

Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

Trombella, Jerry

2011-01-01

126

The controversy over employment policy: Low labor costs and openness, or demand policy? A sectoral analysis for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of labor cost, openness, and demand side variables on employment for the case of Turkey using the panel data of private manufacturing industry at three digit level for 25 sectors for the period of 1973-2001. We use a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model, which allows for cross-sectoral heterogeneity. The estimation

Özlem Onaran; Nursel Aydiner-Avsar

2006-01-01

127

Global and regional estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price increases and other tobacco control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide conservative estimates of the global and regional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies. Using a static model of the cohort of smokers alive in 1995, we estimated the number of smoking-attributable deaths that could be averted by: (1) price increases, (2) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and (3) a package of non-price

M. Kent Ranson; Prabhat Jha; Frank J. Chaloupka; Son N. Nguyen

2002-01-01

128

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health Policy Decision Making:Direct Methods for Progressive MultiState Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete-event simulation (DES) techniques are commonly used for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in health policy decision making. This paper develops direct approaches for conducting CEA under a progressive multi-state framework, with a focus on semi-Markov processes. Analytical expressions are developed for the stationary case, and sensitivity analysis is considered. The advantages of these direct methods over DES are discussed, with most

Megan DeFauw; Vijayan N. Nair; Yang Yang

2012-01-01

129

Cost-effectiveness analysis in health policy decision making: Direct methods for progressive multi-state processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete-event simulation (DES) techniques are commonly used for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in health policy decision making. This paper develops direct approaches for conducting CEA under a progressive multi-state framework, with a focus on semi-Markov processes. Analytical expressions are developed for the stationary case, and sensitivity analysis is considered. The advantages of these direct methods over DES are discussed, with most

Megan DeFauw; Vijayan N. Nair; Yang Yang

2012-01-01

130

Can Parents Afford to Work?: Childcare Costs, Tax-Benefit Policies and Work Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a suitable balance of work and family life is not an easy task for parents who face multiple, and potentially conflicting, demands. Childcare policies play a crucial role in helping parents reconcile care and employment-related tasks. But inconsistent or poorly implemented policies can also introduce additional barriers that make it harder for families to arrange and share their responsibilities

Herwig Immervoll; David Barber

2005-01-01

131

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

132

Municipal Solid Waste Costs: A Comparative Analysis of Local Authority Policies in Attica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from a comparative study of solid waste costs of the municipal authorities in Attica. At first, it attempts to estimate the economic cost of solid waste for a number of municipal authorities of the Attica region. The solid waste costs are determined by a number of factors, including the quantity and composition of the solid

Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou

2006-01-01

133

The Policy Implications of the Cost Structure of Home Health Agencies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the cost structure of home health agencies by estimating an empirical cost function for those that are Medicare-certified, ten years following the implementation of prospective payment. Design and Methods 2010 national Medicare cost report data for certified home health agencies were merged with case-mix information from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS). We estimated a fully interacted (by tax status) hybrid cost function for 7,064 agencies and calculated marginal costs as percent of total costs for all variables. Results The home health industry is dominated by for-profit agencies, which tend to be newer than the non-profit agencies and to have higher average costs per patient but lower costs per visit. For-profit agencies tend to have smaller scale operations and different cost structures, and are less likely to be affiliated with chains. Our estimates suggest diseconomies of scale, zero marginal cost for contracting with therapy workers, and a positive marginal cost for contracting with nurses, when controlling for quality. Implications Our findings suggest that efficiencies may be achieved by promoting non-profit, smaller agencies, with fewer contract nursing staff. This conclusion should be tested further in future studies that address some of the limitations of our study.

Mukamel, Dana B; Fortinsky, Richard H; White, Alan; Harrington, Charlene; White, Laura M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

2014-01-01

134

24 CFR 891.670 - Cost containment and modest design standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containment and modest design standards. 891.670...and Urban Development OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT...containment and modest design standards. (a) Restrictions...accommodations exclude offices, halls, mechanical...containment and modest design standards of...

2013-04-01

135

The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1980-01-01

136

Policies  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

137

Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of driving a collection of mobile robots to a given target location is studied in the context of partial difierence equa- tions. In particular, we are interested in achieving this transfer while ensuring that the agents stay in the convex polytope spanned by dedi- cated leader-agents, whose dynamics will be given by a hybrid Stop-Go policy. The resulting

Giancarlo Ferrari-trecate; Magnus Egerstedt; A. Buffa; Meng Ji

2006-01-01

138

The Benefits and Costs of Head Start. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review what is known about Head Start's impacts on children and argue that the program is likely to generate benefits to participants and society as a whole that are larger than program costs. Our conclusions differ from those in some previous reviews because we use a more appropriate standard to judge program effectiveness (benefit-cost

Ludwig, Jens; Phillips, Deborah

2007-01-01

139

Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

Xie, Yan

2010-01-01

140

Modeling resource, infrastructure, and policy cost layers for optimizing renewable energy investment and deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system

Sreenivas R. Sukumar; Mohammed M. Olama; Mallikarjun Shankar; Stanton W Hadley; James J. Nutaro; Vladimir A Protopopescu; Sergey Malinchik; Barry Ives

2010-01-01

141

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for U.S. renewable energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of 'learning by doing' and developments in 'learning by searching' with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing

Jon D. Erickson; Peter Holmes Kobos; Thomas E. Drennen

2004-01-01

142

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of ‘learning by doing’ and developments in ‘learning by searching’ with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing

Peter H. Kobos; Jon D. Erickson; Thomas E. Drennen

2006-01-01

143

Cost and CO 2 aspects of future vehicle options in Europe under new energy policy scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

New electrified vehicle concepts are about to enter the market in Europe. The expected gains in environmental performance for these new vehicle types are associated with higher technology costs. In parallel, the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrids is continuously improved, which in turn advances their environmental performance but also leads to additional technology costs versus today’s

Christian Thiel; Adolfo Perujo; Arnaud Mercier

2010-01-01

144

Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

145

Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue  

SciTech Connect

For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

NONE

1996-05-01

146

High-precision, cost-effective cutting system for producing thin sections of oral tissues containing dental implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-precision, cost-effective cutting system, able to produce thin (20–30 ?m) sections of oral tissues, containing dental implants, is presented. With this system the authors have been able to obtain, in a reproducible and consistent way, thin slides containing biomaterials and biological tissues. Very high cellular detail was possible, even at high magnifications (× 1200). Histochemical reactions (e.g. acid

A. Piattelli; A. Scarano; M. Quaranta

1997-01-01

147

Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

Marra, Simona

2008-01-01

148

Strategic trade policy with endogenous choice of quality and asymmetric costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines strategic trade and joint welfare maximizing incentives towards investment in the quality of exports by an LDC and a developed country. Firms first compete in qualities and then export to an imperfectly competitive, third country market. Under Bertrand competition, unilateral policy involves an investment subsidy by the low-quality LDC and an investment tax by the developed country,

Dongsheng Zhou; Barbara J. Spencer; Ilan Vertinsky

2002-01-01

149

Costs and Benefits to Taxpayers, Consumers, and Producers from U.S. Ethanol Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. ethanol industry is lobbying hard for an extension of existing ethanol import tariffs and blenders tax credits before they expire at the end of 2010. The purpose of this study is to examine the likely consequences on the U.S. ethanol industry, corn producers, taxpayers, fuel blenders, and fuel consumers if current policy is not extended. Impacts of different

Bruce A. Babcock; Kanlaya J. Barr; Miguel Carriquiry

2010-01-01

150

Blue Cross market share, economies of scale, and cost containment effort.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economies of scale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness.

Feldman, R; Greenberg, W

1981-01-01

151

Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.  

PubMed

Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use. PMID:20453343

Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

2010-01-01

152

External Validity of Policy Related Research on Development Controls and Housing Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is organized in three parts. The first part is a broad review of the literature on development controls and housing costs from three perspectives: urban guidance, residential investment and reasonable protection. The second part systematically...

E. M. Bergman P. C. Emmi C. H. Green E. E. Malizia D. C. Niehus

1974-01-01

153

Advance Land Acquisition by Local Governments: Benefit-Cost Analysis as an Aid to Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzes the costs and benefits of advance land acquisition for public facilities. It describes the setting for advance acquisition and presents evidence on its present (1968) use, with attention to the results of two questionnaire surveys cond...

D. C. Shoup, R. P. Mack

1968-01-01

154

Counting only the hits? The risk of underestimating the costs of stringent climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper warns against the risk of underestimating the costs—and the uncertainty about the costs—of achieving stringent\\u000a stabilization targets. We argue that a straightforward review of integrated assessment models results produces biased estimates\\u000a for the more ambitious climate objectives such as those compatible with the 2°C of the European Union and the G8. The magnitude\\u000a and range of estimates are

Massimo Tavoni; Richard S. J. Tol

2010-01-01

155

The cost implications of waste reduction: factor demand, competitiveness and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing produces both good and “bad” outputs, such as waste, which have negative environmental effects. Economic (e.g., tax) and non-economic (e.g., reputation) incentives encourage firms to reduce waste. However, such practices are costly because decreases in output produced or increases in inputs used may accompany waste reduction. We employ a cost function approach to evaluate patterns of output and waste

Wendy Chapple; Richard Harris; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

2006-01-01

156

Improving nursing morale in a climate of cost containment. Part 2. Program planning.  

PubMed

Declining resources in health care frequently translate into work overload and declining opportunities for nursing staff. Faced with increases in absenteeism and lower morale among staff, nursing administrators must develop low-cost approaches to these problems. Building on the assessment process in Part 1 (October 1984 JONA), the authors present elements of program planning, illustrating the process with a low-cost model program to improve morale that addresses workload, learning opportunities, and organizational rewards for staff nurses. PMID:6436450

Haw, M A; Claus, E G; Durbin-Lafferty, E; Iversen, S M

1984-11-01

157

Investigating the impact of four proxies of agency costs on dividend policy in the context of listed companies of small island economies: a case study of Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the impacts of four agency costs on the dividend policy of firms listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius Ltd. (SEM). It uses least squares regression to test and examine the impact of four Agency Cost Variables (ACVs), namely ownership dispersion, insider ownership, Free Cash Flow (FCF) and leverage ratio, on the Dividend Payout Decisions (DPOD) in

Pran Krishansing Boolaky

2009-01-01

158

Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Implementation guide. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This document provides uniform guidance for implementation of the DOE Order 2250.1, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its purpose is to assist both DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. Compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting should provide increased assurance that a contractor's progress is sufficiently visible to indicate status reliably and to provide the basis for timely and meaningful management decisions. 8 figures. (RWR)

Not Available

1980-05-01

159

Spatial integration, transport costs, and the response of local prices to policy changes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the respective roles of spatial integration and transport costs in explaining price changes in Ghana. We introduce a model of price formation and market integration that incorporates the price transmission process between local and central markets and also captures the implications for volatility of local prices. We explore the implications of the model for the time-path of

Ousmane Badiane; Gerald E. Shively

1998-01-01

160

Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

2012-01-01

161

The Cost Structure of Higher Education: Implications for Governmental Policy in Steady State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical pattern of resource allocation in American higher education as exemplified by public colleges in Colorado was examined. The reliance upon average cost information in making resource allocation decisions was critiqued for the special problems that arise from student enrollment decline or steady state. A model of resource allocation…

Lyell, Edward H.

162

Using cost-effectiveness analyses to inform policy: the case of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:: Much emphasis is put on providing evidence to assist policymakers in priority setting and investment decisions. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions is one technique used by policymakers in their decisions around the allocation of scarce resources. However, even where such evidence is available, other considerations may also be taken into account, and even over-ride technical evidence. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)

Sripen Tantivess; Gill Walt

2006-01-01

163

Optimal replenishment policy for a deteriorating green product: Life cycle costing analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, enterprises are trying to recycle the used products to reduce the negative impact on environment. This results in the need for reverse supply chain model especially for deteriorating items. The proposed model considers vendor managed inventory strategy and conducts a life cycle cost and benefit analysis for green electronic products. The mathematical analytical approach is

Hui-Ming Wee; Ming-Chang Lee; Jonas C. P. Yu; C. Edward Wang

2011-01-01

164

Safety Is 99 Percent Attitude: Strategies to Contain Workers' Compensation Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Denver (Colorado) reduced workers' compensation losses 97 percent in 1990-91 by developing a master safety plan, sponsoring safety training, managing medical costs, providing modified duty for injured employees, screening applicants, orienting new employees, investigating claims thoroughly, performing life-safety audits, and…

Parnell, Janet

1993-01-01

165

Space projects: Astrophysics facility program contains cost and technical risks. Report to Congressional Requesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is developing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) to be one of the mainstays of this nation's space science program during the next decade. It is to be used to investigate important questions such as the age and origin of the universe. The status of the 1992 redesigned AXAF program is reviewed to assess the reasonableness of NASA's estimate of program costs and to determine the extent to which the redesign will provide scientific returns comparable to the original program. It is recognized that a recent congressional direction may affect a portion of this program, but the cost and technical impacts of that decision are uncertain at this time. However, the results of the work in other segments of the program are still relevant.

Warren, David R.

1994-01-01

166

High performance, low cost, self-contained, multipurpose PC based ground systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of embedded processors greatly enhances the capabilities of personal computers when used for telemetry processing and command control center functions. Parallel architectures based on the use of transputers are shown to be very versatile and reusable, and the synergism between the PC and the embedded processor with transputers results in single unit, low cost workstations of 20 less than MIPS less than or equal to 1000.

Forman, Michael; Nickum, William; Troendly, Gregory

1993-01-01

167

Progress in and Technology of Low-Cost Silver Containing Thick-Film Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick-film materials have been proved to possess economic, processing, and functional advantages over other technologies in the high-volume production of miniaturized circuits. Inherent in the adoption of thick-film technology for increasingly diverse applications has been the ability of thick-film materials suppliers to provide progressive performance improvements at lower cost concurrent with circuit manufacturer's needs. Since the first major commercial thick-film

BARRY E. TAYLOR; JOHN J. FELTEN; JOHN R. LARRY

1980-01-01

168

Rethinking U.S. Policy Towards Iraq: Keep Containment, Forget the Sanctions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the wake of the Gulf War, struggling to deal with a still- recalcitrant and hostile Saddam, the Clinton administration fell back on a proven Cold War strategy--containment--as a means to protect American interests in the Persian Gulf. First outlined in...

R. P. King

1995-01-01

169

Low-cost, fly-ash-containing aluminum-matrix composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been considerable activity in the development of metal-matrix composites, especially for aerospace, ground transportation, and the leisure industry. Short-fiber-reinforced pistons and cylinder blocks have been marketed by Japanese companies for several years. It is likely that in the near future cast particulate composites like aluminum-graphite, aluminum-silicon carbide, and aluminum-alumina will find widespread applications as brake rotors, drive shafts, cylinder liners, connecting rods, and wrist pins. The cost of metal-matrix composites has been one of the major barriers toward their widespread application. This paper describes the development of cast aluminum-fly ash particle composites (ash alloy). Incorporation of fly-ash particles, which are a waste by-product of coal-based power generation, reduces the cost of aluminum castings by acting as a filler; decreases their density, and increases their hardness, abrasion resistance, and stiffness. Several prototype castings have been made from aluminum-fly ash composites to demonstrate their castability. With sustained research and the support of manufacturing organizations, these alloys can find widespread applications as low-cost aluminum composite components.

Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

1994-11-01

170

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

171

Cost, Price and Public Policy: Peering into the Higher Education Black Box. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 1, Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a conceptual framework for analyzing costs and prices by evaluating the higher education production function and the determinants of both prices and costs. The framework can be used to strengthen understanding of costs and prices within individual institutions and to inform macro level investments at state and national levels.…

Stringer, William L.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

172

A cost-effective method for detoxification of sludge containing lead.  

PubMed

The industrial wastewater treatment plant discussed in this paper generates sludge containing heavy metals, including lead. Occasionally, the concentration of lead in the Toxic Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract from the sludge exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory limit of 5 mg/l and resulted in the solid waste exhibiting the characteristic of toxicity. The technical and economic feasibility of a process for conditioning the lead-containing sludge was investigated. The results revealed that the lead-laden sludge could be made non-hazardous by chemical conditioning. The lead reduction efficiency of triple super phosphate (TSP) is higher than that of either calcium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide. The laboratory and pilot-scale tests indicated that the conditioning system consistently reduced the lead in the TCLP extract below the regulatory limit of 5 mg/l. The economic feasibility evaluation demonstrated that more than 450,000 US dollars could be saved annually by conditioning the sludge with TSP and disposing it as a non-hazardous material in a landfill. The results obtained from the laboratory as well as from the pilot-scale operation are described and discussed in this paper. PMID:12926695

Banerjee, K; Blumenschein, C D

2003-01-01

173

Use of Generics--A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuoliene, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Ines; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

2010-01-01

174

Development and evaluation of die and container materials. Low cost silicon solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific compositions of high purity silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and silicon beryllium oxynitride (Sibeon) solid solutions were shown to be promising refractory materials for handling and manipulating solar grade silicon into silicon ribbon. Evaulation of the interaction of these materials in contact with molten silicon indicated that solid solutions based upon beta-Si3N4 were more stable than those based on Si2N2O. Sibeon was more resistant to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Both materials should preferably be used in an inert atmosphere rather than under vacuum conditions because removal of oxygen from the silicon melt occurs as SiO enhances the dissolution of aluminum and beryllium. The wetting angles of these materials were low enough for these materials to be considered as both die and container materials.

Wills, R. R.; Niesx, D. E.

1979-01-01

175

Toward More Comprehensive Assessments of FERC ElectricityRestructuring Policies: A Review of Recent Benefit-Cost Studies ofRTO's  

SciTech Connect

Definitive assessment of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission policies on regional transmission organizations is not currently possible because of uncertainties in the data and methods used in recent benefit-cost studies as well as lack of investigation of key impacts of the formation of RTOs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas R.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

2006-11-01

176

Rigorous Program Evaluations on a Budget: How Low-Cost Randomized Controlled Trials Are Possible in Many Areas of Social Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing ability of social policy researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at low cost could revolutionize the field of performance-based government. RCTs are widely judged to be the most credible method of evaluating whether a social program is effective, overcoming the demonstrated inability of other, more common methods…

Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2012

2012-01-01

177

Optimal Capital Policy, the Cost of Capital and Myopic Decision Rules: The Case of Changing Depreciation and Extension to S Commodities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an extension of Professor Arrow's paper on 'Optimal Capital Policy, the Cost of Capital, and Myopic Decision Rules.' First, an alternative method of solution of the renewal equation is given. Then the optimal rule is extended to the case of many c...

C. Castelli

1966-01-01

178

Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

Titus, James G.

1991-01-01

179

Farmer costs and benefits from agroforestry and farm forestry projects in Central America and the Caribbean: implications for policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of an evaluation of the benefits provided by agroforestry and farm forestry projects in Central America and the Caribbean, and the policy implications. Tree planting provided financial benefits to farmers, as well as social, economic and environmental benefits. These justify policy interventions to explicitly recognize the potential of on-farm tree-planting efforts and provide a policy environment

S. J. Scherr

1995-01-01

180

Costs of Introducing and Delivering HPV Vaccines in Low and Lower Middle Income Countries: Inputs for GAVI Policy on Introduction Grant Support to Countries  

PubMed Central

Background In November 2011, the GAVI Alliance made the decision to add HPV vaccine as one of the new vaccines for which countries eligible for its funding (less than $1520 per capita income) could apply to receive support for national HPV vaccination, provided they could demonstrate the ability to deliver HPV vaccines. This paper describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI policymakers for this decision regarding GAVI HPV vaccine support. The paper reviews why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are different from other vaccines and what is known about the cost components from available data that originated primarily from HPV vaccine delivery costing studies in low and middle income-countries. Methods Financial costs of HPV vaccine delivery were compared across three sources of data: 1) vaccine delivery costing of pilot projects in five low and lower-middle income countries; 2) cost estimates of national HPV vaccination in two low income countries; and 3) actual expenditure data from national HPV vaccine introduction in a low income country. Both costs of resources required to introduce the vaccine (or initial one-time investment, such as cold chain equipment purchases) and recurrent (ongoing costs that repeat every year) costs, such as transport and health personnel time, were analyzed. The cost per dose, cost per fully immunized girl (FIG) and cost per eligible girl were compared across studies. Results Costs varied among pilot projects and estimates of national programs due to differences in scale and service delivery strategy. The average introduction costs per fully immunized girl ranged from $1.49 to $18.94 while recurrent costs per girl ranged from $1.00 to $15.69, with both types of costs varying by delivery strategy and country. Evaluating delivery costs along programme characteristics as well as country characteristics (population density, income/cost level, existing service delivery infrastructure) are likely the most informative and useful for anticipating costs for HPV vaccine delivery. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the importance of country level cost data to inform global donor policies for vaccine introduction support. Such data are also valuable for informing national decisions on HPV vaccine introduction.

Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A.; Levin, Carol; Tsu, Vivien; Hutubessy, Raymond

2014-01-01

181

Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

NONE

1997-01-01

182

Policies for Nature and Landscape Conservation in Dutch Agriculture: An Evaluation of Objectives, Means, Effects and Programme Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands the policy for conserving nature and landscape in agriculture is largely prescriptive. Management agreements, the creation of nature reserves and maintenance agreements are the most important instruments the government uses to implement its policy. The government has decided to designate 200,000 hectares as management and reserve areas. This will require a sum of about 2,650 million gilders

L. H. G. Slangen

1992-01-01

183

The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.  

PubMed

In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than 78% of the interviewees are willing to payforwater provided that the tariffs are affordable. Water policy implementation continues slowly: regardless of the fact that more than five years have passed since policy inception, 60% of the villagers in Itumba still have no water services at all. The study shows that government fulfilment of human rights to water has a long way to go, especially in rural areas where people cannot afford to pay for water and some of the villages still depend on water from wells and seasonal rivers. PMID:22049743

Kibassa, Deusdedit

2011-01-01

184

Are Natural Environments Worth It? Using a Cost-Benefit Framework To Evaluate Early Intervention Policies in Community Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utility of cost-benefit analysis in program evaluation is illustrated using hypothetical examples of the consequences of natural environments service provision. Areas for further research related to cost and benefit implications are presented. Early intervention programs can use the cost-benefit framework to evaluate the social impact of…

Keilty, Bonnie

2001-01-01

185

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09

186

Two new replacement policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two replacement policies that can be used in deciding whether one should replace or repair a system are investigated. The first is a local policy where a decision is made based on average lifetime per unit cost of repair. The second is a global policy. Mathematical properties of these policies are developed, and some examples show that the two policies

Nader Ebrahimi; Reader Aids

1993-01-01

187

Evaluation and Cost Analysis of National Health Policy of Thalassaemia Screening in West-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Thalassaemia is one of the most common Mendelian disorders in Mediterranean area. Iran has about 26,000 Thalassaemic patients, so it is one of the most affected countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening program and cost analysis of Thalassaemia prevention program in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of Health system's Thalassaemia prevention program with a sensitivity analysis for its costs. The second five years of the program was evaluated. The economic burden of Thalassaemia is determined by the birth prevalence of the affected infants and the cost that is accrued to treat the infected individuals and was compared with the total cost of screening the couples for thalassemia trait. Results: The average incidence rate of major Thalassaemia was 19.8 per 100,000 live births and mean coverage rate of program was 74%. The rate of canceling the marriage among carrier couples was 53%. Cost analysis showed that the cost of screening and prenatal diagnosis program was much lower than the cost of treatment in potential thalassaemic patients. Conclusions: The prevention program of Thalassaemia including a premarital and pre-natal screening in west Azerbaijan province is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Taking some actions in order to increase the coverage of pre-marital screening, providing pre-natal diagnosis in private and public sector, complete insurance coverage for the high-risk couples to perform the investigations more easily, were recommended.

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Jahani, Farshid Fayyaz; Hatami, Sanaz; Kargar, Catauon; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

188

Optimal replacement policies for non-uniform cache objects with optional eviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement policies for general caching ap- plications and Web caching in particular have been exten- sively addressed in the literature. Many policies that focus on document costs, size, probability of references and tem- poral locality of requested documents, have been proposed. In many cases these policies are ad-hoc attempts to take advantage of the statistical information contained in the stream

Omri Bahat; Armand M. Makowski

2003-01-01

189

Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Mental Disorders: Implications for Public Health Care Funding Policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. Method: We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. Results:

Gail Myhr; Krista Payne

2006-01-01

190

Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes prevention and control plan.

2014-01-01

191

The Reduction of Faculty Reassigned Time as a Community College Cost Containment Initiative: A Case Study of the Maricopa County Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that community colleges can contain costs by reducing faculty reassigned time, defined as a conscious or deliberate management action, either discretionary or mandated, that releases full-time faculty from teaching duties in order to perform other tasks. According to the paper, standard financial accounting systems have a…

Petrowsky, Michael C.

192

25 CFR 513.5 - What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accrued interest, penalty charges, or administrative costs if collection of these charges would be against equity and good conscience or not in the Commission's best interest. (2) A decision to waive interest, penalty charges, or administrative...

2013-04-01

193

The Costs of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada’s Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractCanada has committed itself under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 on average by six per cent from the base 1990 level. As of 2009, however, Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions are far above its 1990 level which calls for stringent short-term policy measures if Canada is to meet its legally binding commitment. This paper

Christoph Böhringer; Thomas F. Rutherford

2010-01-01

194

Biofuel Production in Italy and Europe: Benefits and Costs, in the Light of the Present European Union Biofuel Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and critically evaluate in this paper biofuel production options in Italy, in order to provide the reader with\\u000a the order of magnitudes of the performance indicators involved. Also, we discuss biofuel viability and desirability at the\\u000a European level, according to the recent EU regulations and energy policy decisions.\\u000a \\u000a Fuels from biomass are most often proposed as substitutes for

Sergio Ulgiati; Daniela Russi; Marco Raugei

195

External costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology dependent and for some older power plants are large compared to electricity prices. Global warming and nuclear accidents have very

Nick Eyre

1997-01-01

196

Containing health care costs--a critical test of the public-private joint venture in health.  

PubMed

As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or "gap-filling" role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

Derzon, R A

1980-05-01

197

Costs of Climate Policy when Pollution Affects Health and Labour Productivity. A general Equilibrium Analysis Applied to Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the debate over global climate change involves estimates of the direct costs of global climate change mitigation. Recently this debate has included the issue of ancillary benefits. These benefits consist mainly of health improvements. Although it is generally acknowledged that air pollution affects respiratory health, and that valuations of these impacts make up a significant proportion of the

Göran Östblom; Eva Samakovlis

2004-01-01

198

Optimal pricing and inventory control policy in periodic-review systems with fixed ordering cost and lost sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a periodic-review pricing and inventory control problem for a retailer, which faces stochastic price- sensitive demand, under quite general modeling assumptions. Any unsatisfied demand is lost, and any leftover inventory at the end of the finite selling horizon has a salvage value. The cost component for the retailer includes holding, shortage, and both variable and fixed ordering

Saibal Ray; Yuyue Song

2006-01-01

199

Titrating versus targeting home care services to frail elderly clients: an application of agency theory and cost-benefit analysis to home care policy.  

PubMed

The article summarizes the shortcomings of current home care targeting policy, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the sources of its problems, and proposes an alternative resource allocation method. Methods required for different aspects of the study included synthesis of the published literature, regression analysis of risk predictors, and comparison of actual resource allocations with simulated budgets. Problems of imperfect agency ranging from unclear goals and inappropriate incentives to lack of information about the marginal effectiveness of home care could be mitigated with an improved budgeting method that combines client selection and resource allocation. No program can produce its best outcome performance when its goals are unclear and its technology is unstandardized. Titration of care would reallocate resources to maximize marginal benefit for marginal cost. PMID:12611411

Weissert, William; Chernew, Michael; Hirth, Richard

2003-02-01

200

Closing the youth access gap: the projected health benefits and cost savings of a national policy to raise the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.  

PubMed

Current youth access laws, even if strictly enforced, do not prevent teenagers from obtaining cigarettes through social sources. To reduce the number of legal buyers a typical teenager routinely encounters, and to lessen ambiguity for vendors determining if a teen is of legal purchasing age, legislation raising the minimum legal purchase age (MLPA) for cigarettes to 21 has been discussed in several states. To estimate how a national law raising the smoking age to 21 would impact smoking prevalence, net costs (in terms of compliance enforcement, ID checking, and medical care) and health benefits (in terms of life years and QALYs) to the population over time, a dynamic computer simulation model was developed using publicly available secondary data. The model simulations were carried out for several scenarios assuming varying impacts of the policy change on smoking initiation probability over a 50-year period. One scenario assumes that smoking initiation probabilities for individuals under 21 shift by 3 years so a 18-year old in the simulation, for example, is as likely to initiate smoking as an 15-year old in the status quo. Under this assumption, raising the smoking age would reduce smoking prevalence for adults (age 18+) from the status quo level of 22.1-15.4% after 50 years. Prevalence would drop from 20 to 6.6% for 14-17-year olds, from 26.9 to 12.2% for 18-20-year olds, and from 21.8 to 15.5% for the 21+ group. The policy would produce a net cumulative savings to society of 212 billion US dollars (driven by reduced medical costs), and the accumulation of nearly 13 million additional QALYs over the period. PMID:16298230

Ahmad, Sajjad

2005-12-01

201

Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

Somerset, Anthony

2011-01-01

202

Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.  

PubMed

An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

2004-09-01

203

Spallation Neutron Source high-power Rf transmitter design for high availablility, ease of installation and cost containment  

SciTech Connect

The availability goals and installation schedule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have driven the availability and installation of the SNS linac's high-power RF systems. This paper discusses how the high-power RF systems' availability and installation goals have been addressed in the RF transmitter design and procurement. Design features that allow R1; component failures to be quickly diagnosed and repaired are also presented. Special attention has been given lo interlocks, PLC fault logging and real-time interfaces to thc accelerator's Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) archive system. The availability and cost motivations for the use of different RF transmitter designs in the normalconducting and super-conducting sections of the linac are reviewed. Factory iicceptance tests used to insure fully functional equipment and thereby reduce the time spent on installation and cotnmissioning of the RF transmitters are discussed. Transmitter installation experience and klystron conditioning experience is used to show how these design features have helped and will continue to help the SNS linac to meet its availability and schedule goals.

Bradley, J. T. (Joseph T.), III; Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Roybal, W. T. (William T.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.)

2003-01-01

204

Empirical awakening: the new science on mutual help and implications for cost containment under health care reform.  

PubMed

Over the past 75 years, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has grown from 2 members to over 2 million members. AA and similar organizations (e.g., Narcotics Anonymous [NA]) are among the most commonly sought sources of help for substance-related problems in the United States. It is only relatively recently, however, that the scientific community has conducted rigorous studies on the clinical utility and health care cost-offset potential of mutual-help groups and developed and tested professional treatments to facilitate their use. As a result of this research, AA as an organization has experienced an "empirical awakening," evolving from its peripheral status as a "nuisance variable" and perceived obstacle to progress to playing a more central role in a scientifically informed recovery oriented system of care. Also, professionally delivered interventions designed to facilitate the use of AA and NA ("Twelve-Step Facilitation" [TSF]) are now "empirically supported treatments" as defined by US federal agencies and the American Psychological Association. Under the auspices of health care reform, a rational societal response to the prodigious health and social burden posed by alcohol and other drug misuse should encompass the implementation of empirically based strategies (e.g., TSF) in order to maximize the use of ubiquitous mutual-help recovery resources. PMID:22489579

Kelly, John F; Yeterian, Julie D

2012-01-01

205

Governor's Policy Statement, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Governor's Policy Statement has been written so that Goergians not only can review this Administration's policies but also can see actions taken or proposed in order to implement each policy. Each policy area contains a brief description of the presen...

1977-01-01

206

Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols/-stanols were given only to persons who were eligible for use according to their 10-year absolute risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (SCORE-risk). Intake levels and discontinuation rates as observed in daily practice were included in the model. Two situations were compared: 1) A real-life situation in which persons at high SCORE-risk were identified through clinical case-finding and, 2) A theoretical maximum situation where universal screening was implemented resulting in known SCORE-risks for the whole Dutch population aged 35-75 years (8.4 million people). Sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in the cholesterol-lowering effect and intake level of phytosterols/-stanols, indirect health care costs, time horizon and discount rates. At the model's start year, a total of 1.0 (real-life situation) to 3.3 (maximum situation) million persons qualified for phytosterol/-stanol use based on their SCORE-risk (both statin users and statin non-users). Over the model's time horizon, this resulted in a gain of 2700 to 16,300 quality-adjusted life-years, and yielded cost-effectiveness ratios that ranged between €92,000 and €203,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. This simulation study showed that the cost-effectiveness of phytosterols/-stanols as monotherapy and as add-on to statins is above thresholds for cost-effectiveness, generally ranging between €20,000 and €50,000, and is thus a non-cost-effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:21816151

Eussen, Simone R B M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Toxopeus, Ido B; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

2011-09-01

207

Help with Mammogram Costs  

MedlinePLUS

... regulated? Where can I get help with mammogram costs? Medicare, Medicaid, and all private health insurance policies created after March 23, 2010 cover screening mammogram costs. The new health care law requires that health ...

208

Looking Back, Going Forward: The Carnegie Commission Tuition Policy. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In thinking about the design of public policy for higher education finance, it may be instructive to look back at the evolution of finance policy and how it has worked over the last three decades of U.S. higher education. The vehicle for this exploration is the tuition policy framework developed by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education…

Wellman, Jane V.

209

Ethics committees and cost containment.  

PubMed

Cohen introduces a section of articles on hospital ethics committees that appears twice a year in the Hastings Center Report. Articles by Dan W. Brock, Alan R. Fleischman, Suzanne M. Mitchell and Martha S. Swartz, and Janet Fleetwood support the idea that hospital ethics committees are performing a needed service. Ethics committees have been in existence long enough, however, to begin to explore new issues and activities. PMID:2318627

Brock, D W

1990-01-01

210

Advocacy & Lobbying: Influencing Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue contains nine papers dealing with influencing public policy through advocacy and lobbying. "Influencing Public Policy" (Rajesh Tandon) looks at opportunities nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have for influencing public policy and constraints to advocacy. "Recent Changes in the Global Aid Environment" (Sunimal Fernando) considers…

ASPBAE Courier, 1994

1994-01-01

211

48 CFR 335.070-1 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Policy. 335.070-1 Section 335...DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.070-1 Policy. (a) The use of cost-sharing...promoting sound planning and prudent fiscal policies by the performing...

2009-10-01

212

EFFICIENT, HALIDE FREE SYNTHESIS OF NEW, LOW COST IONIC LIQUIDS: ALKYLIMIDAZOLIUM SALTS CONTAINING METHYL- AND ETHYL-SULFATE ANIONS. (R828257)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

213

Costs Associated with a Strict Policy to Eradicate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Dutch University Medical Center: A 10Year Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Although the Dutch policy to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very strict compared to policies employed in other countries, it has proven to be successful epidemiologically\\u000a (incidence of MRSA in the Netherlands, <0.5%). The present study was performed to investigate both the financial and the logistical\\u000a consequences of this strict, so-called \\

M. Vriens; H. Blok; A. Fluit; A. Troelstra; C. van der Werken; J. Verhoef

2002-01-01

214

Cost-Effectiveness of Moist Exposed Burn Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the increasingly limited health care resources, and as funding for health care is becoming a critical national concern, current reimbursement policies for burn care underscores the importance of cost containment in the management of these injuries. By taking into account both economic and clinical performance, ways to reduce expenditures without adversely affecting the quality of care are

Bishara S Atiyeh; Ruwayda Dham; Mohammed Dib Eid

215

Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

216

Climate Change Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

217

Impact of Two Medicaid Prior-Authorization Policies on Antihypertensive Use and Costs Among Michigan and Indiana Residents Dually Enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare: Results of a Longitudinal, Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background In response to rising pharmaceutical costs, many state Medicaid programs have implemented policies requiring prior authorization for high-cost medications, even for established users. However, little is known about the impact of these policies on the use of antihypertensive medicines in the United States. Objective The aim of this longitudinal, population-based study was to assess comprehensive prior-authorization programs for antihypertensives on drug use and costs in a vulnerable Medicaid population in Michigan and Indiana. Methods A prior-authorization policy for anti-hypertensives was implemented in Michigan in March 2002 and in Indiana in September 2002; Indiana also implemented an antihypertensive stepwise-therapy requirement in July 2003. Our study cohort included individuals aged ?18 years in Michigan and Indiana who were continuously enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare from July 2000 through September 2003. Claims data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. We included all antihypertensive medications, including diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, ?-blockers, ?-blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers. We used interrupted time-series analysis to study policy-related changes in the total number and cost of anti-hypertensive prescriptions. Results Overall, 38,684 enrollees in Michigan and 29,463 in Indiana met our inclusion criteria. Slightly more than half of our cohort in both states was female (53.29% in Michigan and 56.32% in Indiana). In Michigan, 20.23% of patients were aged ?65 years; 77.44% were white, 20.11% were black, and the remainder were Hispanic, Native American, Asian, or of other or unknown race. In Indiana, 20.07% were aged ?65 years; 84.93% were white, 13.64% were black, and the remainder were Hispanic, Native American, Asian, or of other or unknown race. The implementation of both policies was associated with large and immediate reductions in the use of nonpreferred medications: 83.33% reduction in the use of such drugs in Michigan (?84.30 prescriptions per 1000 enrollees per month; P < 0.001) and 35.76% in Indiana (?64.45 prescriptions per 1000 enrollees per month; P < 0.001). As expected, use of preferred medications also increased substantially in both states (P < 0.001). Overall, antihypertensive therapy immediately dropped 0.16% in Michigan (P = 0.04) and 1.82% in Indiana (P = 0.02). Implementation of the policies was also associated with reductions in pharmacy reimbursement of $616,572.43 in Michigan and $868,265.97 in Indiana in the first postpolicy year. Conclusions Prior authorization was associated with lower use of nonpreferred antihypertensive drugs that was largely offset by increases in the use of preferred drugs. The possible clinical consequences of policy-induced drug switching for individual patients remain unknown because the present study did not include access to medical record data. Further research is needed to establish whether large-scale switches in medicines following the inception of prior-authorization policies have any long-term health effects.

Law, Michael R.; Lu, Christine Y.; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Graves, Amy Johnson; LeCates, Robert F.; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Adams, Alyce S.

2013-01-01

218

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

219

Computational algorithmic procedure for optimal inventory policy involving ordering cost reduction and back-order discounts when lead time demand is controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many practical situations, the ordering cost can be reduced by capital investment and the back-order rate is dependent on the amount of shortages and back-order price discounts. Hence, in this paper, we consider an inventory model with random yield in which the ordering cost can be reduced through capital investment, lead time can be shortened at an extra crashing

Wen-chuan Lee; Jong-wuu Wu; Chia-ling Lei

2007-01-01

220

Prescription Drugs for Children with Special Health Care Needs in Commercial Managed Care: Patterns of Use and Cost, 1999-2001. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rapidly rising pharmaceutical costs have contributed to increased health expenditures nationwide, few studies have examined this trend in children with special health care needs. This study used data from two large commercial managed care plans in UnitedHealth Group to examine how many and what kinds of prescription drugs these children used, as well as their costs. The researchers found

Henry T. Ireys; Jennifer Humensky; Steven Wickstrom; Paula Rheault

2004-01-01

221

University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

Needham, John K.

2010-01-01

222

The welfare costs of not being part of the knowledge economy: why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract All forms of knowledge, from advanced science to the simple idea of finding a new use for an old good, con- tribute to economic growth, not by competing for scarce resources in existing markets but by creating new mar- kets. Current agricultural, environmental and develop- ment policies ignore the social welfare generated by new markets because they

Philipp Aerni

223

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities;

G. Zotos; A. Karagiannidis; S. Zampetoglou; A. Malamakis; I.-S. Antonopoulos; S. Kontogianni; G. Tchobanoglous

2009-01-01

224

Mapping public policy on genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of public policies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in public policy development overall – including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote – will help determine the future of public policy on genetics.

N E Weisfeld

2002-01-01

225

Quality of Health Care and Cost Recovery in Africa: Evidence from Niger and Senegal. Phases 2 and 3: Field Work, Research Results, and Policy Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This applied research paper presents findings from comparative research on health care quality and cost recovery in Niger and Senegal. It also draws conclusions applicable to other African countries. Data are presented from provider, patient, and househol...

A. Wouters

1994-01-01

226

An Economic Replacement Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The equipment replacement policy described herein is based on an economic life theory. Additional consideration is given to repair cost in order to develop an operational decision rule. The decision rule is based on a maximum one-time repair cost limit. A...

H. A. Leupp

1971-01-01

227

An Evidence-Based Approach to Estimating the National and State Costs of PreK-3rd. FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3rd. No.10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the costs of providing a high-quality PreK-3rd education approach in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Relying on an Evidence-Based approach to school finance adequacy, it identifies the staffing resources needed to offer high-quality integrated PreK-3rd programs and then estimates the costs of those resources. By…

Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Goetz, Michael

2009-01-01

228

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

229

Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

1984-01-01

230

Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Economic Development Institute Seminar Background Papers (Washington, D.C., April 1987). EDI Seminar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discusses the major options decisionmakers face when they are dealing with teacher career and remuneration policies. The document deals with a central question: how can remuneration and managerial policies help improve teacher effectiveness? The book is divided into three parts containing 15 papers. The first part, "The Cost and…

Farrell, Joseph P., Ed.; Oliveira, Joao B., Ed.

231

Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

2014-05-01

232

Impact of changes in reimbursement policies and institutional practice algorithm for utilization of erythropoietic-stimulating agents on treatment patterns and costs in anemic lymphoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a new evidence-based institutional practice algorithm on the patterns\\u000a and costs of treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) in lymphoma patients prescribed erythropoietic-stimulating agents\\u000a (ESAs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study design was retrospective, with a historical control group. Patient demographic data, clinical data (including chemotherapy\\u000a and hemoglobin values), and cost data were extracted

Lincy Subha Lal; Aditya Raju; Lesley-Ann Miller; Hua Chen; Rebecca Arbuckle; Sujit S. Sansgiry

2010-01-01

233

Cost analysis of revisions to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J, leak tests for primary and secondary containments of light-water-cooled nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report examines the differences between the existing and proposed Appendix J and identifies eleven substantive areas where quantifiable impacts will likely result. The analysis indicated that there are four areas of change which tend to dominate all others in terms of cost impacts. The applicable paragraph numbers from Draft E2 of the Appendix J revision and the nature of

F. Sciacca; W. Nelson; B. Simpkins; B. Riordan; P. Godfrey; S. Cohen; S. Beal; D. Goldin

1985-01-01

234

The new pharmaceutical policy in Italy.  

PubMed

Pressed by an impressive series of corruption scandals and by a change of attitude towards cost-containment, the Italian pharmaceutical sector's regulatory environment was radically changed in 1994. Regulatory power was concentrated on a national technical body (CUF) and a new set of measures was taken, including a nationwide drug expenditure budget, a redefinition of both the positive list and the cost-sharing rules, and new price-setting models. As a result, in the period 1993-1996, nominal expenditures decreased by about L 1600 billion (ECU 83.6 billion at 1997 exchange rate), that is from 13.3% to 11.0% of current National Health Service (NHS) expenditure. While in the 1980s Italy was one of the most generous countries in funding pharmaceuticals, it is now one of the most parsimonious. Although the overall pharmaceutical market shrank in 1994 and 1995, a substantial part of NHS drug-bill savings resulted from cost-shifting from the public sector to patients, mainly because physicians have not aligned their prescribing behaviour to the new positive list. The new Italian approach to containing pharmaceutical costs has been certainly effective, at least in the short run. However, new relevant issues are emerging regarding the fall of NHS pharmaceutical coverage, the centralised nature of the Italian pharmaceutical policy and the gap between scientific based policies and actual prescribing behaviours. PMID:10187653

Fattore, G; Jommi, C

1998-10-01

235

The Beverage Container Problem. Analysis and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study includes 2 principle elements: The analyses of 3 types of environmental concern that might be cited as the rationale for a beverage container policy; and The analyses and evaluation of alternative governmental policies for beverage containers, a...

T. H. Bingham R. H. Ongerth

1972-01-01

236

Policy analysis of workplace rehabilitation policy within workers' compensation arrangements in NSW coal mines from 1987 to 1997: towards improved occupational health outcomes for injured coal miners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace rehabilitation gained greater prominence as a means of both containing the costs of workers’ compensation claims and improving return to work outcomes for injured workers following a period of policy debate and reform from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s. As a result, rehabilitation was integrated into workers’ compensation arrangements throughout Australia. However, coal mines in NSW took a

Natalie Pelham

2005-01-01

237

General Enforcement Policy Compendium  

SciTech Connect

The attached documents contained in the report, are an update of the General Enforcement Policy Compendium. The update consists of policies which have been added, revised or deleted since the issuance of the June 11, 1987, update. Some of the policies are: Issuance of Enforcement Considerations for Drafting and Reviewing Regulations and Guidelines for Developing New or Revised Compliance and Enforcement Strategies, Procedures and Responsibilities for Updating and Maintaining the Enforcement Docket, Final Guidance on Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution Techniques in Enforcement Action, Processing of Consent Decrees, Procedures for Assessing Stipulated Penalties, Case Management Plans, and Guidance on Certification of Compliance with Enforcement Agreements. There are also modifications to existing policies.

Not Available

1988-12-16

238

Could a policy of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents result in cost savings in acute hip fracture care? The case of Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hip fractures are an important problem in nursing homes. Hip protectors are external devices that decrease the risk of hip\\u000a fracture in elderly nursing home residents. We estimated the overall healthcare cost savings from a hypothetical strategy\\u000a of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents in Ontario, Canada. In a recent meta-analysis, we determined\\u000a that a strategy of

A. M. Sawka; A. Gafni; P. Boulos; K. Beattie; A. Papaioannou; A. Cranney; D. A. Hanley; J. D. Adachi; A. Cheung; E. A. Papadimitropoulos; L. Thabane

2007-01-01

239

Family Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive supersedes Secretary of Defense Memorandum, 'Department of Defense Family Policy,' establishes policies, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures on family policy for Department of Defense (DoD) military personnel in Active, Natio...

W. York

1988-01-01

240

Airport and Airway System Costs and User Cost Responsibility. Volume 1. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes research performed by The MITRE Corporation and Administrative Sciences Corporation for FAA's Office of Aviation Policy on present and future airport and airway costs and user cost responsibility. Cost projections and allocations ...

A. N. Sinha

1977-01-01

241

American energy policies  

SciTech Connect

US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

Goldmuntz, L.

1982-02-22

242

Technology and international climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

2009-05-01

243

Is clozapine cost-effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of schizophrenia accounts for approximately 2.5% of national healthcare expenditures, with the majority of this expense concentrated on costly in-patient services. Health policy leaders have expressed concern that these costs create a strain on limited resources. Newer antipsychotic pharmacotherapies, such as clozapine (Clozaril, Leponex; Novartis), may improve patient symptoms and potentially lower hospital use. However, the high cost

M. Seshamani

2002-01-01

244

Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

245

An evaluation of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales, UK: a randomised controlled trial of a public health policy initiative  

PubMed Central

Background The Wales National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) is a 16-week programme including motivational interviewing, goal setting and relapse prevention. Method A pragmatic randomised controlled trial with nested economic evaluation of 2160 inactive participants with coronary heart disease risk (CHD, 1559, 72%), mild to moderate depression, anxiety or stress (79, 4%) or both (522, 24%) randomised to receive (1) NERS or (2) normal care and brief written information. Outcome measures at 12?months included the 7-day physical activity recall, the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results Ordinal regression identified increased physical activity among those randomised to NERS compared with those receiving normal care in all participants (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.43), and among those referred for CHD only (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.60). For those referred for mental health reason alone, or in combination with CHD, there were significantly lower levels of anxiety (OR ?1.56, 95% CI ?2.75 to ?0.38) and depression (OR ?1.39, 95% CI ?2.60 to ?0.18), but no effect on physical activity. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £12?111 per quality adjusted life year, falling to £9741 if participants were to contribute £2 per session. Conclusions NERS was effective in increasing physical activity among those referred for CHD risk only. Among mental health referrals, NERS did not influence physical activity but was associated with reduced anxiety and depression. Effects were dependent on adherence. NERS is likely to be cost effective with respect to prevailing payer thresholds. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47680448.

Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Williams, Nefyn; Raisanen, Larry; Moore, Graham; Linck, Pat; Hounsome, Natalia; Din, Nafees Ud; Moore, Laurence

2012-01-01

246

Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

1979-01-01

247

Cut the Costs on Workman's Comp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ultimate cost of workers compensation is made up of loss costs (the amounts paid to injured employees to compensate for lost wages and medical bills) and administrative costs. This article concentrates on potential savings in loss costs, highlighting indemnity and medical cost drivers, the need for effective policy communication to employees,…

Robinson, Leland L.

1996-01-01

248

Environmental Policy with Pollutant Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities to meet an interactive pollutant constraint at minimum cost have been considered. Efflulent charges, transferable discharge permits and the command and control strategy have been used to represent the environmental policy options. It tur...

A. Endres

1984-01-01

249

Estimating using cost significant global cost models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost significant models have been suggested as one way of overcoming criticisms of the amount of detail contained within the traditional bill of quantities. Recent research into these models reveals a lack of formal rules for the selection of work packages to be used within the models, and a potential to overestimate the cost of projects. This paper presents a

A. K. Munns; K. M. Al-Haimus

2000-01-01

250

Cost of a Ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: High costs and low ridership are the bane of fixed-guideway transit investments. The net capital and operating cost per passenger mile of recent investments ranged from $0.22 to over $10 in 2008. A better understanding of characteristics of the most successful transit investments can help inform future investment policy and improve the performance of existing transit systems.Purpose: We evaluated

Erick Guerra; Robert Cervero

2011-01-01

251

STS pricing policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

1982-01-01

252

Managing international medical costs.  

PubMed

Many countries are experiencing medical cost increases exceeding those in the United States, both in real terms and as a percentage of GDP. Although in most foreign countries the majority of medical costs are directly borne by governmental programs, there is a growing trend to cost shift more of this responsibility onto the corporate sector, perhaps leading multinational corporations to consider devising international cost-containment strategies. PMID:10121852

Richerson, M C

1992-01-01

253

Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications?  

PubMed Central

In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering them. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs, presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety, and concludes with some practical implications of implementing RDP policies.

Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2010-01-01

254

Problems in Life Cycle Support Cost Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to attempt to outline the difficulties in costing out support. These problems dominate the discussion: The influence of management decisions of users (divided into policy and operating decisions) on support costs. The partiti...

A. S. Goldman

1969-01-01

255

Policy Problematization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

Webb, P. Taylor

2014-01-01

256

Review of Australia's Consumer Policy Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Australia's consumer policy framework has considerable strengths, parts of it require an overhaul. The current division of responsibility for the framework between the Australian and State and Territory Governments leads to variable outcomes for consumers, added costs for businesses and a lack of responsiveness in policy making. There are gaps and inconsistencies in the policy and enforcement tool kit

257

Age Replacement With Adjustment and Depreciation Costs and Interest Charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age replacement policy which minimizes the average expected cost per unit time over an infinite time span is obtained in the case where the cost structure involves a term which takes into account adjustment costs, depreciation costs or interest charges which are suffered at fixed intervals of time of equal length. The optimal policy is shown to be nonrandom

R. Cleroux; M. Hanscom

1974-01-01

258

7 CFR 925.50 - Marketing policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Each season prior to making any recommendation pursuant to § 925.51 the committee shall submit to the Secretary a report setting forth its marketing policy for the ensuing marketing season. Such marketing policy report shall contain information relative...

2009-01-01

259

Standardization policy and international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze governments’ incentives to recognize foreign standards when there are potentially both network effects and conversion costs. When government policy is limited to either recognizing all foreign standards or not recognizing any foreign standard, recognition is always the outcome. We then consider a setting in which countries can form standardization unions. When conversion costs are relatively large, two countries

Neil Gandal; Oz Shy

2001-01-01

260

44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct costs â(1) Applicant-owned...

2013-10-01

261

Federal policies and technological problem-solving  

SciTech Connect

The Report addresses the question of whether existing policies either enhance or inhibit the achievement of a new policy's primary objective; namely, to solve public interest problems at the least cost and risk to taxpayers. (See: How to Motivate Private Investment in Public Goods, NTIS Accession No. PB92-106731). The Report's Appendix briefly describes the new policy and its several techno-economic objectives. Only two existing policies are analyzed: OMB Circular 76, Performance of Commercial Activities, and Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs). The Report concludes that both policies are irrelevant to the new policy since neither enhances nor inhibits achievement of the new policy's objectives, and that a new federal policy is needed to cost-effectively solve the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ecological and environmental preservation problems.

Soergel, G.

1992-01-01

262

Government Contracting: Compensation of Defense Contractors' Working Capital Financing Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DOD'S profit policy includes a provision to recognize the millions of dollars defense contractors incur annually in financing working capital costs on fixed-price contracts. Working capital costs consist of the contractor's work in process costs-material,...

1990-01-01

263

The learning curve and the cost of heart transplantation.  

PubMed Central

The effect of learning on hospital outcomes such as mortality or adverse events (the so-called "practice makes perfect" hypothesis) has been studied by numerous investigators. The effect of learning on hospital cost, however, has received much less attention. This article reports the results of a multiple regression model demonstrating a nonlinear, decreasing trend in operative and postoperative hospital costs over time in a consecutive series of 71 heart transplant patients, all treated in the same institution. The cost trend is shown to persist even after controlling for various preoperative demographic and clinical risk factors and the specific experience of individual surgeons. Using a reference case, the model predicts a cost of $81,297 for the first heart transplant procedure performed at the hospital. If this same patient had been the tenth case rather than the first, with the hospital having benefited from the experience gained in nine previous cases, the model predicts the cost would now be only $48,431, or approximately 60 percent of the cost of the first case. Had this patient been the twenty-fifth case, the predicted cost would be $35,352 (43 percent of the original cost), and had this been the fiftieth case, the cost would be $25,458 (31 percent of the original cost). The longitudinal study design used in this analysis greatly reduces the likelihood that the observed cost reduction is due to economies of scale rather than learning. The results have implications for a policy of regionalization as a tactic for containing hospital cost. Whereas others have pointed to a volume-cost relationship as an argument for the regionalization of expensive and complex hospital procedures, the present data isolate a learning-cost relationship as a separate argument for regionalization.

Woods, J R; Saywell, R M; Nyhuis, A W; Jay, S J; Lohrman, R G; Halbrook, H G

1992-01-01

264

Bank Capital, Agency Costs, and Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that banks, like firms, face financial frictions when raising funds. The authors develop a quantitative, monetary business cycle model in which agency problems affect both the relationship between banks and firms and the relationship between banks and their depositors. As a result, bank capital and entrepreneurial net worth jointly determine aggregate investment, and are important determinants of the

Césaire Meh; Kevin Moran

2004-01-01

265

NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

Smith, J. M.

1977-01-01

266

Meeting Continuing Education Needs and Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Continuing Professional Education by Appointment, a service developed and implemented at the School of Nursing at the State University of New York at Stony Brook to assist continuing educators to meet ongoing educational needs of health care professionals. (JOW)

Meyers, Rose

1984-01-01

267

On the accuracy of the GIAO-DFT calculation of 15N NMR chemical shifts of the nitrogen-containing heterocycles--a gateway to better agreement with experiment at lower computational cost.  

PubMed

The main factors affecting the accuracy and computational cost of the gauge-independent atomic orbital density functional theory (GIAO-DFT) calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts in the representative series of key nitrogen-containing heterocycles--azoles and azines--have been systematically analyzed. In the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts, the best result has been achieved with the KT3 functional used in combination with Jensen's pcS-3 basis set (GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3) resulting in the value of mean absolute error as small as 5?ppm for a range exceeding 270?ppm in a benchmark series of 23 compounds with an overall number of 41 different (15)N NMR chemical shifts. Another essential finding is that basically, the application of the locally dense basis set approach is justified in the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts within the 3-4?ppm error that results in a dramatic decrease in computational cost. Based on the present data, we recommend GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3//pc-2 as one of the most effective locally dense basis set schemes for the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts. PMID:24573615

Samultsev, Dmitry O; Semenov, Valentin A; Krivdin, Leonid B

2014-05-01

268

Cost-variability-sensitive preventive maintenance considering management risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional preventive maintenance policies, such as age replacement, periodic replacement under minimal repair, and replacement policy N, are all studied based on the expected cost criteria without considering the management risk due to the cost variability. As a result, these policies could be significantly beyond the anticipated maintenance budget allocation and lead to crisis. In order to solve this problem,

YONG CHEN; JIONGHUA JIN

2003-01-01

269

Affirmative Action: Psychological Data and the Policy Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses psychological research to examine affirmative action policy, noting that many studies indicate that affirmative action as a policy has more benefits than costs. Discusses issues of merit, asserting that affirmative action policy conforms to the American ideal of fairness and is a necessary policy. Suggests that affirmative action is superior…

Crosby, Faye J.; Iyer, Aarti; Clayton, Susan; Downing, Roberta A.

2003-01-01

270

The Shuttle Cost and Price model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

1983-01-01

271

Policy Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Policy institutions around the United States spend a staggering $1.5 billion on research each year. Many of them do an excellent job in terms of putting their policy papers, working papers, factsheets, and so on online for use by the public and scholars. Of course, it can be very difficult to locate some of them, and that's where the Policy Archive steps in. Sponsored by the Center for Governmental Studies (CGS) and the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Library, the Policy Archive site brings together thousands of full text documents, reports, videos, and multimedia material generated by these various think tanks and institutions. Additionally, policy institutions and the like can learn how to submit their own work to the archive. Visitors can also sign up to receive email newsletters about the latest research in the topic areas that are of interest to them.

272

Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

Gale, Trevor

2001-01-01

273

[Alcohol-related public policies].  

PubMed

The article is a review of studies on alcohol-related problems and public policies for consumption reduction addressing recent national and international scientific evidences. In this way, literature review was carried out on alcohol-related public policies through searches in MEDLINE, SCiELO and LILACS databases. Policies for alcohol consumption reduction have been implemented in different countries to minimize its effects on people's health and safety but only recently such strategies and interventions have been scientifically evaluated. It is discussed better cost-effectiveness policies for reducing harmful effects and socioeconomic costs associated with alcohol use through the development of strategies favoring changes in behavior and harmful consumption contexts that can be applicable to different communities. PMID:17923906

Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

2007-10-01

274

Costing: General Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Profit v/s profitability; Elements of cost; Cost classification (functional costs, attributable costs - direct/indirect); Variable/fixed costs; Total cost; Statements of total cost; Cost center and cost unit; Absorption costing v/s marginal cost...

J. Pochun

1984-01-01

275

First Destination Transportation: The Case for a Consistent Funding Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current funding policies for first destination transportation costs distinguish between shipments made under free on board (FOB) origin and those made under FOB destination terms. This paper presents the case for a consistent funding policy for both. Spec...

K. W. Hamm

1995-01-01

276

Health care technology as a policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

he rapidly rising costs of health care became the most im- portant health policy issue in many countries during the 1980s and early 1990s. These costs are now threatening the prospects for providing higher quality services to broader population groups, especially in the United States. The reasons for rising costs clearly include the aging of the popula- tion, with associated

H. David Banta

1994-01-01

277

An analysis of the retail and lifecycle cost of battery-powered electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulators, policy analysts, automobile manufacturers, environmental groups, and others are debating the merits of policies regarding the development and use of battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs). At the crux of this debate is lifecycle cost: the annualized initial vehicle cost, plus annual operating and maintenance costs, plus battery replacement costs. To address this issue of cost, we have developed a detailed

Mark A Delucchi; Timothy E Lipman

2001-01-01

278

Clinical and Economic Effects of a Therapeutic Substitution Policy for Proton Pump Inhibitors in Aboriginal Patients in Northern Communities in Canada's Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are used to treat gastroesophageal symptoms, can vary in price, but are thought not to differ in clinical benefits. Health Canada's Non-Insured Health Benefits Program instituted a therapeutic substitution policy for PPIs as a cost-containment strategy in 2005. The objective of this pilot study was to identify signals of what might be

Kathryn Gaebel; Neda Toeg; Mitchell Levine

2008-01-01

279

National Pharmacare, Reference-Based Pricing, and Drug R&D: A Critique of the National Forum on Health's Recommendations for Pharmaceutical Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1997, the Canadian National Forum on Health presented its recommendations for a pharmaceutical policy for Canada. These recommendations include moving towards a universal coverage, publicly funded drug plan; support for reference-based pricing as a method of containing drug plan costs; and requiring that pharmaceutical companies turn over a portion of their research funds to the national research granting

Robin Lindsey; Douglas S. West

1999-01-01

280

Population distribution policies.  

PubMed

Population distribution policies have received increasing attention in recent years, especially in developing countries. One reason is that, especially in heavily primate developing countries, the spacial distribution of population (and economic activity) has generated conditions that conflict with important societal goals, such as interpersonal and interregional equity, national security, political stability, improvement in the quality of life, optimal resource exploitation, and long-term economic efficiency. Moreover, in many cases, the overall development strategy as reflected in macro and sectoral policies, has strong implicit spatial impacts that have, more often than not, reinforced an "unfavorable" population distribution, that is, one that conflicts with national goals and priorities. The only way to correct that is to modify the overall development strategy or to implement offsetting explicit population distribution policies. Many countries have adopted population distribution policies in recent years, but they have varied greatly in degree of implementation. Clear failures have been very common, and there have been almost no undiluted successes. This indifferent success should not be used as an argument against planned population distribution. The present article provides an overview of population distribution policies with special but not total reference to developing countries. Population goals are analyzed and the argument that rural-metropolitan migration is excessive is critically discussed. Policy instruments to influence the location of both households and firms are evaluated. It is argued that strategies to control primate city growth, to promote small towns and secondary cities and to implement rural-development programs are complementary rather than alternatives. Partial strategies, such as relocation of the national capital, countermagnets, new towns, border region policies and land colonization schemes, should be adopted only in rare cases because of their high costs and minimal impact. Success in population distribution policies has been hampered by implementation problems as well as poorly designed strategies. Nevertheless, policy makers should persevere, expecially in the countries that combine modest urbanization levels with high rates of aggregate population growth, since improvements in the distribution of population may generate a variety of social benefits, such as efficiency, equity, environmental quality, national security and integration. PMID:12265833

Richardson, H W

1983-01-01

281

Tracking Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

Erickson, Paul W.

2010-01-01

282

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

283

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of...

2009-10-01

284

Issues in Agricultural Policy: Mandatory Production Controls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program, as with a...

C. E. Young J. M. Price W. Y. Huang B. T. Hyberg C. Lee

1987-01-01

285

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2013-10-01

286

23 CFR 620.103 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC OPERATIONS ENGINEERING Highway Improvements in the Vicinity of... Policy. (a) Federal-aid highway funds shall not participate in the costs of reconstruction or relocation of any highway to which this section applies...

2013-04-01

287

23 CFR 230.203 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is the policy of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to...enterprises in Federal-aid highway contracts in part through...development and implementation of cost effective supportive services programs through the State highway...

2013-04-01

288

33 CFR 279.5 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administrative cost-sharing policy. Preparation of regional studies and establishment of these objectives will utilize an interdisciplinary team with leadership by planning, and participation from engineering, design, real estate, and...

2013-07-01

289

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy...offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and storage and disposal...

2013-10-01

290

The Institutional Dimension in Policy Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Policy assessment from an institutional perspective follows the concept of institutions for sustainability, which is defined\\u000a as the necessary institutional structure capable of delivering economic, social, and environmental sustainability objectives.\\u000a Thus, the effectiveness of a policy and the cost-effectiveness of its implementation depend to a large extent on the degree\\u000a of compatibility between this policy option and the respective institutional

Insa Theesfeld; Christian Schleyer; Konrad Hagedorn; Jean-Marc Callois; Olivier Aznar; Johanna Alkan Olsson

291

Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy.  

PubMed

The current U.S. policy options on drug use are reviewed in the context of the history of drug policy in the United States. A restrictive drug policy is a deterrent to drug use and helps reduce drug-related costs and societal problems. Although legalization or decriminalization of drugs might reduce some of the legal consequences of drug use, increased drug use would result in harmful consequences. PMID:7639447

DuPont, R L; Voth, E A

1995-09-15

292

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

293

Globalisation and social policy.  

PubMed

This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods. PMID:12219761

Langmore, J

2001-01-01

294

78 FR 25521 - Notice for Data and Information Distribution Policy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Policy for distribution of FAA data & Information; request...of Standard and Technology (NIST) standards. 6. Consider cost and cost recovery in making FAA data/information...

2013-05-01

295

Session: 49 - The Role Of Integrated Assessment Models In Handling Climate Change Oral Presentation S49.01 Updating information across the risk matrix. The role and implications of updated IAMs for policy. Results from the ClimateCost Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This paper summarises the early results from the EC 7FWP project 'ClimateCost', a major research project assessing the Full Costs of Climate Change, including some 20 teams across Europe. The project is using a combination of sectoral bottom-up integrated assessment analysis, general equilibrium models, and global integrated assessment models to provide updated economic costs of climate change for major

Paul Watkiss

296

Economic aspects of addiction policy.  

PubMed

One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

Maynard, A

1986-05-01

297

Population policy.  

PubMed

Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

1987-03-01

298

Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Policies: Section F: Facilities Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Montgomery County Public Schools (Maryland) system has assembled in this document its policies, procedures, criteria, and standards that apply to educational facilities development. The policies it contains are part of a planning process that recognizes the interrelationship of its facilities planning policy with other policies such as those…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

299

Seeking value as cancer drug costs soar.  

PubMed

As significant increases in the costs of cancer drugs cause financial difficulties for many U.S. patients, some oncologists suggest that changes in pricing policies at the federal and state levels are inevitable. PMID:23928760

Bender, Eric

2013-08-01

300

Cost and Benefits of Drinking Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic...

R. M. Clark J. A. Goodrich J. C. Ireland

1984-01-01

301

Transportation Finance, Equity, and Cost Allocation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The four (4) papers in this report deal with the following areas: recent advances in highway cost allocation analysis; proposed fare policy for advance-reservation bus service; income equity of two transit funding sources; and economic analysis of transpo...

D. B. Lee R. P. Warren A. D. Rogers J. Collura R. Beliveau

1981-01-01

302

RCRA Permit Policy Compendium. Volume 9 (9490. 1980-9521. 1990). Standards for managing specific hazardous wastes (Part 266). Permitting policies, permitting procedures (Parts 124 and 270)  

SciTech Connect

The document is a compendium of all OSWER related Policy Directives that deal with RCRA Permit Policy. The volume contains standards for managing specific hazardous wastes, permitting policies, and permitting procedures.

Eberly, D.

1991-08-01

303

Balancing policy objectives in long-term care.  

PubMed Central

The public policy objectives in long-term care--quality, availability, and cost containment--are promoted by different groups with conflicting but legitimate interests. The problem faced by the policymaker is to balance the economic and political consequences for patients, providers, and public funding agencies, and he often does this by partial achievement or selective nonachievement of the policy goals. A multidimensional objective function is described that permits calculation of the optimum extent to which conflicting goals can be achieved. The model allows simulation of the effects, on several simultaneous measures, of an administered change in some or all of the measures. The example given illustrates the complexity of the policymaker's problem and suggests a rational approach to dealing with it.

Christianson, J B

1978-01-01

304

Costing and Financing Education in LDCs: Current Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews two different issues of concern to educational planners and policy-makers involved in the costing and financing of education. The first issue is the financial impossibility of continuing upward trends in educational costs. The second is...

M. Hultin J. P. Jallade

1975-01-01

305

Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development  

SciTech Connect

State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

2009-07-01

306

Informatics Policies  

Cancer.gov

NIH Data Sharing PolicyNIH expects and supports the timely release and sharing of final research data from NIH-supported studies for use by other researchers. Investigators submitting an NIH application will be required to include a plan for data sharing

307

Public policy and healthcare systems.  

PubMed

Public policy in healthcare affects physician and patient choices. In many ways it may limit choices. These choices present conflicts that are discussed here. Some issues depend on the laws enacted to enable either a single-payer system or that mixed with a private-payer system. In each case, the systems attain some cost controls through means such as gatekeepers, long wait lists, authorization processes, national fee schedules, complex coding schemes, or placing physicians on salary. National health systems are compared here. No one system has proven completely satisfactory, and each has its advantages. There are many factors that contribute to the escalating costs of care that lead to many healthcare public policies to constrain costs. Initiatives to incentivize preventive actions are a more positive step, but ones that are difficult to define in detail. PMID:24182385

Nuwer, Marc R

2013-01-01

308

Grade Retention: A Three Part Series. Policy Briefs. Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy [and] Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention [and] Grade Retention: The Gap between Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles a series of three policy briefs focused on the subject of grade retention. The first brief, "Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy," suggests educators and policymakers caution the use of grade retention as a remedy for poor student performance. As concluded by the majority of past studies, grade retention is a failed…

Xia, Claire; Glennie, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

309

Policy Manual - Infection Control Policies - References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Infection Control Policies General Infection Policies Categorization

310

ECOM - ESA's cost modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA, as an international procurement agency dealing with more than 1200 companies at the same time, must have the ability to assess the price for a product independently from other sources. Especially in the today's environment of flat or even declining budgets ESA has to ensure the value of the contributions coming from their member states. The paper presents a software tool developed by the Cost Analysis Division of ESTEC/ESA, which fits exactly the need for precise and retracable cost estimates for space business projects and components. As an introduction the driving needs and basic cost estimation techniques are presented. ECOM was conceived as a tool for independent price assessment and cost estimation. The gem within ECOM is the database, it contains historical data from ESA projects. The items are grouped in classes and the available data comprises the cost breakdown and the technical description, which are the main performance parameter, number of models, design status and beside the comments, also pictures are available. On the estimate part of ECOM it features all the well-known cost estimation techniques, like estimating using analogy, cost estimating relationship, parametric cost modelling, and includes links to commercial products (PCM, Price-H) as well. ECOM is capable of escalating for any given economical condition and any member state. To prepare reliable prize estimates, the cost analysts need the product tree, the work-package description, the technical description and the HW-matrix. The paper shows examples for the important steps of producing an estimate and is enhanced with authentical screen prints. ECOM is used by the Cost Analysis Division as an expert tool for professional cost estimation for space business projects.

Fatelnig, Peter K.

1996-01-01

311

Troubleshooting Costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

312

Costs of pain in Rheumatology.  

PubMed

Chronic pain has been identified as an important issue related to various rheumatic diseases. At the time of a major government spending review, it is appropriate to discuss the pain characterising rheumatic diseases and its related costs. It is clearly essential for healthcare authorities to rationalise their policies on the basis of the increasing expectations of the users of healthcare services while simultaneously balancing their books. There are few published studies concerning the costs of pain of any kind, and the same is true of the costs of the chronic pain associated with diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia. PMID:24938203

Marsico, A; Atzeni, F; Piroddi, A; Cazzola, M; Stisi, S; Sarzi-Puttini, P

2014-01-01

313

Economic assessment of alternative energy policies  

SciTech Connect

Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.

Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

1980-04-01

314

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of

P. C. Sanford; J. L. Stevens; R. Brandt

2002-01-01

315

Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

Deeb, William S.

1998-01-01

316

Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.  

PubMed

We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium. PMID:17054538

Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

2006-10-01

317

Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments in large reservoirs.

Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

2014-05-01

318

Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract We review literature on several types of energy efficiency policies: ap- pliance standards, financial incentive programs, information and voluntary programs, and management of government energy use. For each, we provide a brief synopsis of the relevant programs, along with available existing estimates of energy savings, costs, and cost-effectiveness at a national level. The literature examining,these estimates points to

Kenneth Gillingham; Richard Newell; Karen Palmer

2006-01-01

319

Optimizing cooling policy for power plant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic programing model was developed to minimize the cooling costs of a series of power plants along a tributary discharging into an estuary. Heat production and dissipation equations are utilized. The cooling method studied is a once-through, no recycle system utilizing cooling ponds. Minimal cost policy is subject to several constraints, including stream and estuary standards, land availability, budget

L. Lum; L. W. Mays

1979-01-01

320

Costs of regulatory compliance: categories and estimating techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the categorization scheme and cost estimating approaches presented in this report can make cost estimates of regulation required compliance activities of value to policy makers. The report describes a uniform assessment framework that when used would assure that cost studies are generated on an equivalent basis. Such normalization would make comparisons of different compliance activity cost estimates more

S. C. Schulte; C. L. McDonald; M. T. Wood; R. M. Cole; K. Hauschulz

1978-01-01

321

Effect of prospective reimbursement on nursing home costs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study evaluates the effect of Maine's Medicaid nursing home prospective payment system on nursing home costs and access to care for public patients. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The implementation of a facility-specific prospective payment system for nursing homes provided the opportunity for longitudinal study of the effect of that system. Data sources included audited Medicaid nursing home cost reports, quality-of-care data from state facility survey and licensure files, and facility case-mix information from random, stratified samples of homes and residents. Data were obtained for six years (1979-1985) covering the three-year period before and after implementation of the prospective payment system. STUDY DESIGN. This study used a pre-post, longitudinal analytical design in which interrupted, time-series regression models were estimated to test the effects of prospective payment and other factors, e.g., facility characteristics, nursing home market factors, facility case mix, and quality of care, on nursing home costs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Prospective payment contributed to an estimated $3.03 decrease in total variable costs in the third year from what would have been expected under the previous retrospective cost-based payment system. Responsiveness to payment system efficiency incentives declined over the study period, however, indicating a growing problem in achieving further cost reductions. Some evidence suggested that cost reductions might have reduced access for public patients. CONCLUSIONS. Study findings are consistent with the results of other studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of prospective payment systems in restraining nursing home costs. Potential policy trade-offs among cost containment, access, and quality assurance deserve further consideration, particularly by researchers and policymakers designing the new generation of case mix-based and other nursing home payment systems.

Coburn, A F; Fortinsky, R; McGuire, C; McDonald, T P

1993-01-01

322

Container assembly  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The container assembly is adapted for high speed packaging of perishable items. The container is formed with ribbed walls to add rigidity to the structure. The reinforcing ribs are perforated to allow air to circulate through the packaged goods. The ribs are shaped to maintain the perforations open during stacking and shipping. The mouth of the container has a peripheral flange. The flange has integral hinged closures for securing a separate top.

2003-12-23

323

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

2002-02-26

324

Cost Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

325

Airline Deregulation and Public Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

1989-08-01

326

48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures ...Sharing alternativeâno-cost settlement method. ...should balance the administrative costs of negotiating a...

2013-10-01

327

78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case 2012-D038) AGENCY: Defense...to explicitly state that fringe benefit costs incurred or estimated that are contrary...Defense Pricing policy memo ``Unallowable Costs for Ineligible Dependent Health Care...

2013-02-28

328

American Dual Containment in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

US grand strategy after 9\\/11 turned from post-containment drift to preemption. But the costs are high – suspicion of American power, hedging by traditional allies, expensive, go-it-alone ventures like Iraq. Tried-and-true containment better reflects American values. While forward in the world, containment is also defensive. It reassures skittish partners and reflects liberal, anti-imperial US preferences. In Asia, containment would deter

Robert Edwin Kelly

2010-01-01

329

Cost benefit analysis and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust of the principles enunciated in Arrow et al. is that economic benefits and costs can be a great help in organizing disparate concerns, in identifying issues, and in designing regulatory policies and individual projects with environmental impact. While this true, I must disagree with the authors that 'formal benefit-cost analysis should not be viewed as either necessary or

ANANDARUP RAY

1997-01-01

330

Cost Analysis of CATV Components. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study was conducted for the Office of Telecommunications Policy to determine the capital outlay and operating costs of community antenna television (CATV) systems. Six major tasks were undertaken: 1) the development of a body of technical information about CATV; 2) the production of a complete work breakdown structure; 3) a cost

Weinberg, Gary

331

The Costs of Low Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth weight has emerged as the leading indicator of infant health and welfare and the central focus of infant health policy. This is because low birth weight (LBW) infants experience severe health and developmental difficulties that can impose enormous costs on society. But would the prevention of LBW generate equally sizable cost savings and health improvements? Estimates of the return

Douglas Almond; Kenneth Y. Chay; David S. Lee

2004-01-01

332

Nuclear power: Futures, cost and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an analysis of the costs and benefits of nuclear power, its future prospects and the implications for future policy. It looks at the risks involved; the consequences both locally and elsewhere of an accident (the overall economic costs for nuclear plants of the accident at Three Mile Island are shown to have been at least equal to

N. Evans; C. Hope

1984-01-01

333

COST MODEL FOR LARGE URBAN SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COST SUBMODEL OF AN URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THIS MODEL REQUIRES THAT PUPIL POPULATION AND PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING ARE KNOWN. THE COST ELEMENTS ARE--(1) CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF NEW PLANTS, (2) ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF BUILDING SITES, (3) CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES OF THE PROPOSED SCHOOL, (4) PUPIL…

O'BRIEN, RICHARD J.

334

Documenting investment policy boosts safety, returns.  

PubMed

The process and responsibility for a healthcare organization's investment decisions should be clearly documented in an investment policy. Any investment policy should contain at least seven elements: how investments relate to the organization's mission; responsibilities of involved parties; long- and short-term objectives; desired balance between return and risk; proportions of a portfolio held in stocks, bonds, and other investments; disposition of donated assets; desired investment reports; and the process for keeping the policy current. PMID:10145573

Kovener, R R

1992-02-01

335

Opportunity Cost of Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

Turkoglu, Recep

2004-01-01

336

Standard cost elements for technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

1992-01-01

337

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

338

Sharps container  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

Lee, Angelene M.

1991-10-01

339

Sharps container  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

Lee, Angelene M. (inventor)

1992-01-01

340

Sharps container  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

Lee, Angelene M.

1992-09-01

341

Five Important Lessons about the Cost of E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes strategies for containing and reducing the costs of e-learning through cost identification, appropriate instructional roles, course development, program scale, and course redesign.

Scarafiotti, Carol

2004-01-01

342

America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

Morse, Ann, Ed.

343

The rhetoric of American foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhetoric of American foreign policy contains commonplaces which both justify and obscure policy. An adequate critical response to such discourse requires an understanding of two prevailing argumentative forms. The arguments are examined in relation to Vietnam, but their use in a variety of interventions, incursions, and wars since then makes them more than an historical curiosity. This essay seeks

Philip Wander

1984-01-01

344

Promotion: Responsibilities, Policies and Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed by librarians and administrators of the Florida International University in compliance with the requirements of the Florida Board of Regents, this document contains a list of responsibilities, policies, and procedures for the promotion process in library administration. It is noted that the promotion decision is one of the most important…

Menendez, Miguel; And Others

345

Global Policy Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Policy Forum (GPF) monitors the United Nations' global policy making. Based in New York City, the internationally represented GPF has consultative status at the UN. Their visually simple, information-rich Website is divided into the following subsections: UN Financial Crisis, Security Council, Social/ Economic Policy, NGOs, Nations and States, and UN Reform. The content includes essays from the GPF staff, issue summaries, excerpts from conference presentations, news articles, and reports from the UN and other government agencies. Other special in-depth sections on the Iraq crisis, international justice, globalization, and additional timely topics are definitely worth a look. Also, check out GPF's What's New section to keep on top of current UN issues -- for instance, this week's What's New contains critical articles and essays on middle east peace negotiation, sanctions against Iraq, and the rumblings of a possible second genocide in Rwanda, among other topics. In addition, the GPF site offers a publications list, numerous links, an electronic mailing list, a search engine, an index, and a virtual visitors center.

346

Guidelines for Developing State Cogeneration Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains a set of guidelines for use by state decision makers in establishing policies regarding industrial cogeneration. By providing state officials with means of assessing the state potential for future cogeneration development and identi...

1979-01-01

347

48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads thatâ (1) Contain items in...

2010-10-01

348

48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads thatâ (1) Contain items in...

2009-10-01

349

Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Hong Kong, (2) Laos, (3) Taiwan, (4) Vietnam, (5) China, (6) Belize, (7) Bermuda, (8) Argentina, (9) Brazil, (10) Cuba, (11...

1985-01-01

350

Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Hong Kong, (2) Thailand, (3) Japan, (4) Australia, (5) Czechoslovakia, (6) Poland, (7) Ecuador, (8) Argentina, (9) Brazil, ...

1985-01-01

351

Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

Not Available

2011-11-01

352

Cost Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

Foreman, Phillip

2009-01-01

353

Policy and global change research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the U.S. Global Change Research Program calls into question its sustainability. The Program was established on the presumption that a prerequisite for rational, comprehensive, and cost-effective policy responses is the reduction of scientific uncertainty through comprehensive predictive models. This presumption remains a significant barrier to the renewal of public support for the Program through near-term progress consistent

Ronald D. Brunner

1996-01-01

354

China's One-Child Policy, a Policy without a Future.  

PubMed

The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China-one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale-is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power. PMID:24867083

Nie, Jing-Bao

2014-07-01

355

Community Colleges, Public Policy, and Latino Student Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter synthesizes the studies described in this volume and situates them within a broader policy context, concluding with implications for practitioners and researchers. (Contains 9 online resources.)

Flores, Stella M.; Horn, Catherine L.; Crisp, Gloria

2006-01-01

356

Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and M?tis health policy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? Methods The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. Results The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Conclusion Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue.

Lavoie, Josee G.

2013-01-01

357

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

358

The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.  

PubMed

Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table. PMID:20701178

Radetzki, Marian

2010-05-01

359

Equity - some theory and its policy implications  

PubMed Central

This essay seeks to characterise the essential features of an equitable health care system in terms of the classical Aristotelian concepts of horizontal and vertical equity, the common (but ill-defined) language of "need" and the economic notion of cost-effectiveness as a prelude to identifying some of the more important issues of value that policy-makers will have to decide for themselves; the characteristics of health (and what determines it) that can cause policy to be ineffective (or have undesired consequences); the information base that is required to support a policy directed at securing greater equity, and the kinds of research (theoretical and empirical) that are needed to underpin such a policy. Key Words: Health care systems • equity • horizontal equity • vertical equity • cost-effectiveness

Culyer, A.

2001-01-01

360

Laboratory cost control and financial management software.  

PubMed

Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions. PMID:9541753

Mayer, M

1998-02-01

361

Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

Engle, J.

1994-04-01

362

Policy Sciences and Policy Research Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consideration is given to the question whether policy research organizations, or a subset of them, have a potentially important role in contributing to the supply of policy analysts, through advanced teaching and training programs.

C. Wolf

1970-01-01

363

Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

John H. Marburger, III

2008-11-18

364

Policy Manual - Emergency Management - Standard Policies  

Cancer.gov

Standard policies remain in effect during an emergency. Details may be found throughout the LP policy manual. The CC Emergency Management Plan and NIH Occupant Evacuation Plan apply to employees in the LP.

365

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

366

Forest Road Decommissioning Policies Determined using Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive timber harvesting and the accompanying road construction in the Pacific Northwest region have decreased the quality of fish-bearing streams. The decommissioning of abandoned forest roads increases stream quality by decreasing erosion and downstream sedimentation. Road removal treatments have been performed in many locations. However, the management of these treatments has been generally site-specific, with little investigation of how the treatments will affect the entire watershed. Land managers have a need to design a watershed wide management policy to reduce sedimentation, while maintaining overall costs within a reasonable limit. Identifying the trade-offs of the costs of different treatment policies associated with net reduction of sediment can be quantified. This work further develops optimization approaches to manage road decommissioning projects. Previous work in deterministic dynamic programming and genetic algorithmes did not incorporate the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the road treatments. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to determine the road treatment policy that maximizes the expected sediment saved. This approach is used to determine a policy for the Lost Man Creek Watershed in Northern California containing 691 road segments and road crossings. The model determines the optimal treatment level for each road segment and road crossing while considering a budgetary constraint.

Baker, K. M.; Eschenbach, E. A.; Madej, M.

2004-12-01

367

Final Technical Report; Power through Policy: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind

Heather Rhoads-Weaver; Matthew Gagne; Kurt Sahl; Alice Orrell; Jennifer Banks

2012-01-01

368

Water use policies and power plant economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report ascertains the effect of various environmental policies relating to water use and water quality on: (1) the cost of generating electric power and (2) the demand for cooling water. The environmental policies tested include: a water withdrawal tax of from 0 to 2 cents\\/1000 gal; a heat-discharge tax of from 0 to 20 cents\\/million Btu; a temperature differential

K. Inoue; E. J. Henley; G. H. Otto; R. G. Thompson

1974-01-01

369

Contingent Repayment Student Assistance Plans. An Outline of Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document on contingent student assistance repayment plans in Ontario universities contains a paper on policy options for repayment plans and the manual for a simulation model for testing policy options. The policy options paper begins by describing the contingent repayment concept in which the test for receiving a public subsidy is shifted…

Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

370

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

371

Cost-Efficiency of Transferable Discharge Permits for the Control of BOD Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost efficiencies of four systems of transferable discharge permits (TDP's) designed for BOD control were compared to least-cost and minimum uniform treatment strategies for achieving the same water quality. One of the four policies, viz., the policy in which the permits are defined in terms of the dissolved oxygen deficit contribution (DODC) at the checkpoint, always induces a least-cost treatment strategy. Another policy, for which the permits were defined in terms of the discharge rate (load) of ultimate BOD, is almost as efficient as the least-cost strategy for the example case of the Willamette River. The requirements for the high cost efficiency of the latter policy are identified, analyzed, and discussed. The economic cost for all four policies, some of which were very conservative, was found to lie between the least cost and the cost of minimum uniform treatment.

Eheart, J. Wayland

1980-12-01

372

Multifunctionality, Agricultural Policy, and Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to supplying food and fiber, agriculture is a source of public goods and externalities. This article addresses two questions. First, do price and income support policies promote a multifunctional agriculture in an effective manner? Second, would policies targeted more directly at multifunctional attributes be more efficient than price and income support policies? The answer to the first question

David G. Abler

2004-01-01

373

Population policy.  

PubMed

The government of Sri Lanka has instituted incentives for those who practice family planning and field service programs to motivate people to undergo sterilizations on a voluntary basis. The policy stresses the education of the people on the effects of population growth on quality of life and general development. Clinical and other contraceptive services offer many choices. In May of 1977 a program was introduced to pay a financial incentive to each female or male who was sterilized, Rs. 65 for females and Rs. 35.5 for males. An additional incentive was offered to government or corporation employees-3 days medical leave for males and 7 for females after sterilization. In 1980 this was expanded to unemployed or self employed people as well. The a mount of the financial incentive has varied over the years. During difficult financial times, the amount has been reduced but then later reinstated. These payments are for expenses incurred and are not intended as an enticement to be sterilized. PMID:12281614

1986-06-01

374

Strategic Cost Reduction and Cost Revelation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic cost reduction requires cost transparency. When unilateral cost revelation is feasible, strategic cost reduction indeed arises as equilibrium. If it is not feasible, however, credible revelation has to be organized, possibly by a trade association. Then, firms face a prisoners' dilemma: in Cournot duopoly, cost revelation arises as an equilibrium, but hurts firms; in Bertrand duopoly, cost concealing is

Jim Y. Jin

2001-01-01

375

An application of Gumbel's bivariate exponential distribution in estimation of warranty cost of motor cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present an application of Gumbel's bivariate exponential distribution model in the context of estimating warranty costs of motor cycles under a new warranty policy. The problem in question is as follows: Under the present two-dimensional warranty policy, repair costs (termed as warranty costs) of a motorcycle during the age of first six months or within the

Surajit Pal; G. S. R. Murthy

2003-01-01

376

30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insurance or annuity policies shall be used to reduce the cost of such policies. (c) Materiel...insurance, taxes, depreciation (calculated using...except income taxes, profit share payments, and...Insurance. (1) Net premiums paid...

2010-07-01

377

30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insurance or annuity policies shall be used to reduce the cost of such policies. (c) Materiel...insurance, taxes, depreciation (calculated using...except income taxes, profit share payments, and...Insurance. (1) Net premiums paid...

2009-07-01

378

Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

Lekakis, Joseph N.

1990-07-01

379

Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

380

The frequency and costs of individual price adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

How often do the nominal prices of individual goods change? What is the nature of costs of price adjustment? How big are these costs? Answering these questions may be important for constructing macroeconomic models that are useful for monetary policy analysis. The empirical literature reveals that many prices do change infrequently, in part because of physical costs of price adjustment.

Alexander L. Wolman

2007-01-01

381

A Multiproduct Inventory System with Interactive Set-Up Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a branch and bound algorithm for finding the optimal ordering policy for a multiproduct inventory system with deterministic demand, infinite horizon, and no backlogging. Ordering costs are assumed to include a separate set-up cost for each product ordered, but with a fixed savings each time all products are simultaneously ordered. Holding costs accrue at a constant rate per

Fred Andres; Hamilton Emmons

1975-01-01

382

Technology cost segment model for light-duty trucks  

SciTech Connect

Development of a computerized model to forecast the consumer cost of improving domestic light duty truck (LDT) fuel economy is developed. The LDT TCSM described is designed for two alternative uses: to provide technical information for econometric models of light truck sales and to be used interactively to support the analysis of specific policy issues. A means of categorizing the vehicles in the LDT market is developed and the way the truck market structure differs from that of the automobile market is explained. The methodology used to create the LDT TCSM is presented. The basic automotive TCSM (Technology/Cost Segment Model) was altered to incorporate upcoming changes in the LDT market. New models and technologies used in the LDT TCSM are described. TCSM construction and operation are explained. Special attention is devoted to explaining the model structure which accounts for engineering, marketing, and manufacturing constraints on new technology introduction. Appendix A provides an exhaustive listing of the data sources used in compiling the cost matrices. Appendix B lists the cost matrices; Appendix C contains sales projections for use in calculating aggregate fuel economy levels for manufacturers and size classes.

Not Available

1980-12-01

383

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

384

Space Policy and Humanities Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

Frodeman, Robert

2005-05-01

385

Grantee Research Highlight: Developing Innovative Methods to Estimate Costs of Cancer Care  

Cancer.gov

Estimating the total cost of cancer care, from diagnosis to death, is an important goal for researchers and policy makers. These costs generally follow a U-shaped curve, in which initial costs around diagnosis and primary treatment are very high. Costs then diminish during survivorship. If the cancer recurs, costs escalate again because of renewed treatment and end-of-life care.

386

Organizing for low cost space transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the management concepts and organizational structure NASA is establishing to operate the Space Transportation System. Policies which would encourage public and commercial organizations and private individuals to use the new STS are discussed, and design criteria for experiments, spacecraft, and other systems elements are considered. The design criteria are intented to facilitate cost reductions for space operations. NASA plans for the transition from currently used expendable launch vehicles to Shuttle use and Shuttle pricing policies are explained in detail. Hardware development is basically complete, management functions have been defined, pricing policies have been published, and procedures for user contact and services have been places into operation.

Lee, C. M.

1977-01-01

387

Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Smear-Positive Tuberculosis by Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia: An Ancillary Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEvidence for policy- and decision-making related to the cost of delivering tuberculosis (TB) control is lacking in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of involving health extension workers (HEWs) in TB treatment under a community-based initiative in Ethiopia. This paper presents an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of data from a RCT, from which the main outcomes have already

Daniel G. Datiko; Bernt Lindtjørn; J. Jaime Miranda

2010-01-01

388

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01

389

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01

390

Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

Naidu, Sham

2011-01-01

391

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

392

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

393

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$). Results Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. Conclusion TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

2012-01-01

394

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

395

Economics Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1986, the Economics Policy Institute (EPI) was established to "broaden the discussion about economic policy to include the interests of low- and middle-income workers." In keeping with that particular view, the Institute places a premium on real world analysis and a concern for the living standards of working people. The EPI site serves a clearinghouse for much of its research findings, along with some fine web-only features, such as profiles of economic indicators, the Quarterly Wage and Employment Series (which analyzes wage and employment trends), and a number of online supplemental tables. Much of the material on the site falls into one of the broad themes with which the EPI is primarily concerned -- such as trade and globalization, education, and living standards and labor markets. Finally, the site also contains an audio archive of events and discussions sponsored by the EPI dating back to August 1999, including programs on globalization and most recently, the ongoing debate surrounding the proposed privatization of Amtrak.

396

A framework for climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differing interpretations of the evidence- and differing interests-complicate efforts to negotiate goals and actions regarding climate change. While no easy cookbook-style recipe can indicate what should guide thinking about risks and policies, several maxims seem worth applying. The topics covered in this article include the following: Decision Framework: risks and costs, long-term, adaptation, international, distribution, control of costs; Implications for

Toman

1997-01-01

397

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

398

Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

399

Transforming Higher Education: Implications for State Higher Education Finance Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how information technology is transforming higher education (asynchronous learning, distance education, customized program structure, customized delivery, outcome-based programs, collaboration, and competition) and discusses implications for state higher education finance policy (competition, student costs, collaboration, and…

Matthews, Dewayne

1998-01-01

400

Statements of Antitrust Enforcement Policy in Health Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The antitrust guidelines for health care providers are designed to encourage agreements that promote efficiency in the health care industry and lower health care costs to consumers. The nine statements detail new antitrust enforcement policies and princip...

1996-01-01

401

Space transportation system payload status and reimbursement policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the Space Transportation System (STS) is reviewed. The management structure and project planning status are discussed, including considerations of STS utilization, payloads, cost assessments, and pricing policy.

Yardley, J. F.

1977-01-01

402

These Policy Tips Make the Most of Field Trips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective field trip policies will address the suitability of trips, proposal requirements, student participation, school-wide planning and organization, transportation, permission forms, insurance, emergency procedures, costs, and the assignnment of responsibility for supervision. (PGD)

Chandler, Theodore A.

1985-01-01

403

A Reevaluation of Circulation Policies: Overdue Process and Loan Period.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of studies conducted at the University of Cincinnati Health Sciences Library to evaluate the cost effectiveness of overdue loan procedures and circulation loan period policy. Eight references are listed. (FM)

Fried, Ava Krinick; Hurlebaus, Alice J.

1981-01-01

404

Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit ana...

R. B. Howarth

1992-01-01

405

Payers' Costly Battle Against Cancer  

PubMed Central

In a classic managed care struggle between cost containment and physician autonomy, health plans’ efforts to rein in the expense of biotech cancer drugs are meeting stiff resistance from oncologists. They staunchly defend their practice of buying such drugs and marking up their prices to cover service costs as a critical component of cancer care. Here’s a look at the issues on both sides.

APPLEBY, CHUCK

2005-01-01

406

Brazilian low-carbon transportation policies: opportunities for international support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transport policies with climate co-benefits for the intra-city and inter-city transport in Brazil are analysed. Both policies aim to shift transport from the road (cars in cities, trucks between cities) towards less energy-intensive transport modes (bus, underground, rail and shipping). The main motivations for these policies are domestic benefits, including reduced energy costs, fewer accidents, and reduced local congestion

HAROLDO MACHADO-FILHO

2009-01-01

407

How three smart managers control steam costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced

1982-01-01

408

Economics, ethics, and climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

1992-11-01

409

Economics, ethics, and climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

1992-11-01

410

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01

411

State Policies Provide Critical Support for Renewable Electricity  

SciTech Connect

Growth in renewable energy in the U.S. over the past decade has been propelled by a number of forces, including rising fossil fuel prices, environmental concerns, and policy support at the state and federal levels. In this article, we review and discuss what are arguably the two most important types of state policies for supporting electricity generation from geothermal and other forms of renewable energy: renewables portfolio standards and utility integrated resource planning requirements. Within the Western U.S., where the vast majority of the nation's readily-accessible geothermal resource potential resides, these two types of state policies have been critical to the growth of renewable energy, and both promise to continue to play a fundamental role for the foreseeable future. In its essence, a renewables portfolio standard (RPS) requires utilities and other retail electricity suppliers to produce or purchase a minimum quantity or percentage of their generation supply from renewable resources. RPS purchase obligations generally increase over time, and retail suppliers typically must demonstrate compliance on an annual basis. Mandatory RPS policies are backed by various types of compliance enforcement mechanisms, although most states have incorporated some type of cost-containment provision, such as a cost cap or a cap on retail rate impacts, which could conceivably allow utilities to avoid (full) compliance with their RPS target. Currently, 27 states and the District of Columbia have mandatory RPS requirements. Within the eleven states of the contiguous Western U.S., all but three (Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming) now have a mandatory RPS legislation (Utah has a more-voluntary renewable energy goal), covering almost 80% of retail electricity sales in the region. Although many of these state policies have only recently been established, their impact is already evident: almost 1800 MW of new renewable capacity has been installed in Western states following the implementation of RPS policies. To date, wind energy has been the primary beneficiary of state RPS policies, representing approximately 83% of RPS-driven renewable capacity growth in the West through 2007. Geothermal energy occupies a distant second place, providing 7% of RPS-driven new renewable capacity in the West since the late 1990s, though geothermal's contribution on an energy (MWh) basis is higher. Looking to the future, a sizable quantity of renewable capacity beyond pre-RPS levels will be needed to meet state RPS mandates: about 25,000 MW by 2025 within the Western U.S. Geothermal energy is beginning to provide an increasingly significant contribution, as evidenced by the spate of new projects recently announced to meet state RPS requirements. Most of this activity has been driven by the RPS policies in California and Nevada, where the Geothermal Energy Association has identified 47 new geothermal projects, totaling more than 2,100 MW, in various stages of development. Additional geothermal projects in Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington are also under development to meet those states RPS requirements. The other major state policy driver for renewable electricity growth, particularly in the West, is integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP was first formalized as a practice in the 1980s, but the practice was suspended in some states as electricity restructuring efforts began. A renewed interest in IRP has emerged in the past several years, however, with several Western states (California, Montana, and New Mexico) reestablishing IRP and others developing new rules to strengthen their existing processes. In its barest form, IRP simply requires that utilities periodically submit long-term resource procurement plans in which they evaluate alternative strategies for meeting their resource needs over the following ten to twenty years. However, many states have developed specific requirements for the IRP process that directly or indirectly support renewable energy. The most general of these is an explicit requirement that utilities evaluate renewables, and that

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2008-07-15

412

Farm Subsidies: Designing Efficient Policies around Household Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research sets out to analyse the impact of policy design on the efficiency of voluntary agri-environmental schemes; defining efficiency in terms of the cost effectiveness of policies. We build on previous work on scheme adoption both within agricultural economics and across a broader spectrum of economics such as labour and fiscal studies. Through the application of a choice experiment

Amy Binner

413

Health Policy Formulation on a Federal Level, Process and Substance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors which influence the federal government's policy toward health care include cost, technology, social values, federalism, interest group politics, increased federal involvement, and the current utilitarian attitude toward research. The interaction of these factors results in a complex process of policy formation. For example, when the…

Stambler, Moses

414

WHY ARE US AND EU POLICIES TOWARD GMOs SO DIFFERENT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) agricultural products requires new policies to manage potential food safety and environmental risks. The policy positions taken to date on GM foods by the United States and the European Union are very different. The US has few restrictions on production and trade in GM food products and no costly labelling requirements, whereas the EU

Lee Ann Jackson; Kym Anderson

2003-01-01

415

Towards a Theory of Firm Entry and Stabilization Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of stabilization policy in a model where firm entry responds to shocks and uncertainty. We evaluate stabilization policy in the context of a simple analytically solvable sticky price model, where firms have to prepay a fixed cost of entry. The presence of endogenous entry can alter the dynamic response to shocks, leading to greater persistence

Paul R. Bergin; Giancarlo Corsetti

2005-01-01

416

Discounting for time and risk in energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume addresses the unresolved issues pertaining to the choice of the discount rate to be used in benefit-cost evaluation of public investments and public policies in a market economy with many distortions. It analyzes the question of risk and discounting in connection with energy policy, and it addresses the issues of whether discounting at a positive rate implies intergenerational

R. C. Lind; F. R. Ruskin

1982-01-01

417

A Welfare Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses some welfare consequences of climate change mitigation policies. In the same vein as Becker, Philipson and Soares (2005), a simple index of economic progress weighs in the monetary cost induced by mitigation policies as well as the health benefits arising from the reduction in local air pollution. The shadow price of pollution is calculated indirectly through its

Alain de Serres; Fabrice Murtin

2011-01-01

418

Effects of Resource Allocation Policies on Project Durations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing duration is critical to success in many construction projects. As a primary driver of progress and an effective management tool, resource allocation among development activities can strongly influence durations. Limitations and costs of improving development processes and increasing resource quantities and productivities make improving resource allocation policies an important source of schedule improvement. Policies for reduced project duration are

Zee Woon Lee; David N. Ford; Nitin Joglekar

419

Shared project studies, revises hospital record retention policies.  

PubMed

Through their shared service organization, six hospitals conducted a study that showed that they had similar practical needs and legal requirements for medical record retention but widely varying retention policies. Written policies that were developed for and jointly adopted by the hospitals have ensured consistent, cost-effective retention practices. PMID:640605

Domanico, L; Leverette, T J

1978-05-16

420

Midnight Dumping: Public Policies and Illegal Disposal of Used Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many public policies for hazardous waste raise the costs of legal disposal. Concerned about substitution of illegal disposal, economists have instead recommended policies that reward desirable waste management alternatives. This article studies the empirical determinants of dumping as reported to the U.S. Emergency Response Notification Systems (ERNS). It analyzes the frequency of used oil dumping using count-data models. The results

Hilary Sigman

1998-01-01

421

Principles for evidence-based drug formulary policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expenditures for prescription drugs continue to increase, prompting insurers and health systems to adopt formulary or coverage\\u000a policies restricting the use of more expensive drugs. Those establishing formulary policies face a complex array of claims\\u000a regarding differences in efficacy, safety, treatment cost, or cost-effectiveness. We describe and illustrate 5 specific principles\\u000a for applying research evidence to formulary decisions: (1) Experimental

Gregory E. Simon; Bruce M. Psaty; Jennifer Berg Hrachovec; Marc Mora

2005-01-01

422

Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions  

SciTech Connect

State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

2012-10-01

423

Parametric Cost Deployment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

Dean, Edwin B.

1995-01-01

424

Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

Ward, David

2007-01-01

425

The optimality of a control band policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a firm with an arbitrary profit function whose relative price follows a Brownian motion with negative drift. When the firm faces a fixed cost of price adjustment, we prove the optimal pricing policy is a control band if the following sufficient conditions are met: the profit function is continuous, strictly concave and single-peaked; moreover, together with its first and

Jose M. Plehn-Dujowich

2005-01-01

426

Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

Ruhm, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

427

Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

Business Officer, 1997

1997-01-01

428

Climate Change Vulnerability and Policy Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate scientists note that the effects of climate change vary regionally. Citizen willingness to absorb the costs of adaptation and mitigation policies may correspond with these place-specific effects. Geographic information systems (GIS) analytic techniques are used to map and measure survey respondents' climate change risk at various levels of spatial resolution and precision. Spatial data are used to analyze multiple

Sammy Zahran; Samuel D. Brody; Himanshu Grover; Arnold Vedlitz

2006-01-01

429

An Economic Analysis of College Scholarship Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national scholarship policy based on a cost-benefit analysis of the social value of education is proposed as one method for improving current patterns of allocating US college scholarships and tuition funds. A central college subsidy agency, operating on a limited budget, would be required to allocate funds according to the maximum overall…

Owen, John D.

430

Contractor Initiatives for Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a synthesis of major findings and conclusions derived from four years of research in electronics subsystem acquisition. Department of Defense policy statements for achieving improved reliability, maintainability, and cost are reviewed....

C. D. Weimer

1977-01-01

431

Political Resource Allocation: Benefits and Costs of Voter Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the benefits and costs of the voter initiative, a direct democracy device that allows policy decisions to be made by voters rather than their elected representatives. Previous research suggests that by introducing \\

John G Matsusaka; Nolan M McCarty

2001-01-01

432

75 FR 35098 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...actuarial assumptions and data to the Board of Actuaries, care of Gregory Kissel, Actuary, Office of Planning and Policy Analysis...costs are determined. Recently, the Board of Actuaries of the Civil Service Retirement System...

2010-06-21

433

Managing the healthcare workforce: cost reduction or innovation.  

PubMed

Labour costs are the largest proportion of total costs in the health industry in developed countries and are a target in health sectory reform. The Kennett government in Victoria introduced policies based on competition and cost reduction and the decentralisation of industrial relations through enterprise bargaining. These policies directly impacted on the health workforce leading to work intensification, labour shortages and poor morale. The Bracks government has since returned to centralisation. This paper argues that it is time for a more innovative approach to health workforce management based on recognising staff as an asset rather than a cost. PMID:12404971

Stanton, Pauline

2002-01-01

434

Institute for Policy Research: Northwestern University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1968, the Institute for Policy Research (IPR) at Northwestern University is an interdisciplinary public policy research institute that supports dozens of research projects dealing with a range of issues, including poverty, race, adolescent studies, philanthropy, and community development. The site will be invaluable to persons interested in these fields (especially those interested in the Midwest and Chicago), as complete information is offered about ongoing research programs, affiliated centers (such as the Joint Center for Poverty Research), and a list of staff members and faculty associates. As with many policy research institutes, the publications section contains the most important substantive material, as users may browse working papers, policy briefs, newsletters, and publications from affiliated centers. The IPR Working Paper series extends back until 1995, and contains over 100 reports in total.

435

RCRA Permit Policy Compendium. Volume 10 (9522. 1980-9528. 1990). Permitting procedures (Parts 124 and 270). Applications, conditions, changes, interim status  

SciTech Connect

The document is a compendium of OSWER Policy Directives that deal with RCRA Permit Policy. The volume contains permitting procedures. It discusses applications, conditions, changes, and interim status.

Eberly, D.

1991-08-01

436

RCRA Permit Policy Compendium. Volume 2 (9420. 1980-9434. 1900). Hazardous-waste management system (Part 260). General, definitions, petitions  

SciTech Connect

The document represents all OSWER related policy directives that deal with RCRA permit policy. The volume contains general information, definitions, and petitions regarding the hazardous waste management system.

Eberly, D.

1991-08-01

437

48 CFR 9904.409 - Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets. 9904...BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ...9904.409 Cost accounting standardâdepreciation of tangible capital...

2010-10-01

438

48 CFR 9904.409 - Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets. 9904...BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ...9904.409 Cost accounting standardâdepreciation of tangible capital...

2009-10-01

439

Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

440

Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  

PubMed

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

441

Public Safety Mashups to Support Policy Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To shape an effective and sound public safety policy, policy makers have a need for statistical insights in factors that may\\u000a influence public safety. Today, there is a wide variety of sources available that contain data that is related to public safety.\\u000a The data in these sources varies from register to survey data. There is a growing need to mash

Sunil Choenni; Erik Leertouwer

2010-01-01

442

Following the Money: Factors Associated with the Cost of Treating High-Cost Medicare Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors associated with the cost of treating high-cost Medicare beneficiaries. Data Sources A national sample of 1.6 million elderly, Medicare beneficiaries linked to 2004–2005 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey respondents and local market data from secondary sources. Study Design Using 12 months of claims data from 2005 to 2006, the sample was divided into predicted high-cost (top quartile) and lower cost beneficiaries using a risk-adjustment model. For each group, total annual standardized costs of care were regressed on beneficiary, usual source of care physician, practice, and market characteristics. Principal Findings Among high-cost beneficiaries, health was the predominant predictor of costs, with most physician and practice and many market factors (including provider supply) insignificant or weakly related to cost. Beneficiaries whose usual physician was a medical specialist or reported inadequate office visit time, medical specialist supply, provider for-profit status, care fragmentation, and Medicare fees were associated with higher costs. Conclusions Health reform policies currently envisioned to improve care and lower costs may have small effects on high-cost patients who consume most resources. Instead, developing interventions tailored to improve care and lowering cost for specific types of complex and costly patients may hold greater potential for “bending the cost curve.”

Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Saiontz-Martinez, Cynthia B; Boukus, Ellyn R

2011-01-01

443

Integrating Economic Policy with Fair Employment Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, notes that a study of 250 of the largest corporate employers with respect to their civil rights compliance posture suggests that microeconomic policy for the economy needs to be much better integrated with Fair Employment Practice Policy.…

Lyle, Jerolyn

1975-01-01

444

Successful Track Record with Diverse Policies (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors, and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through its no-cost offerings, the Solutions Center enables countries to learn from and share policy best practices, data, and analysis tools, creating an international dialogue on clean energy policies that raises global awareness of emerging policy issues and innovations. As part of these efforts, the Solutions Center provides an indispensable service by connecting those seeking policy information and advice with a policy expert who can help them achieve their goals. The Solutions Center's Ask an Expert service matches policymakers with one of the more than 30 global experts selected as authoritative leaders on specific clean energy policy topics.

Not Available

2013-05-01

445

COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

446

2012 NASA Cost Estimating Handbook Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goal is to ensure that appropriate policy is adopted and that best practices are being developed, communicated, and used across the Agency. -- Accomplished by engaging the NASA Cost Estimating Community representatives in the update. Scheduled to be complete by the end of FY 2012. Document has been through 3 detailed reviews across NASA.

Rosenberg, Leigh; Stukes, Sherry

2012-01-01

447

The Misdiagnosis of Special Education Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts study finds that increases in district's special-education costs are not due to district policies and practices, but to three external factors: medical advances that have increased the survivability of children born with disabilities, the deinstitutionalization of special-needs children, and the higher percentage of children living…

Berman, Sheldon H.; Urion, David K.

2003-01-01

448

Cost Analysis of Monographs and Serials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two articles address the rising costs of monographs and serials in libraries and suggest strategies for coping with inflationary trends. Highlights include factors in price increases; gathering accurate data on the local budget; domestic and foreign price fluctuations; the increase in new journal titles; and publisher growth policies and…

Lynden, Frederick C.; And Others

1990-01-01

449

Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

Baker, Keith

1983-01-01

450

Thoreau's Pencil and Baumol's Cost Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows perfectly well that tuitions have outpaced inflation every year since Homer was a pup. Tuition sticker shock, that ineluctable annual rise in school costs, causes the nation sporadic fits of hand wringing, belt tightening, and taxpayer revolt. Most troubling of all, it has inspired an industry of policy wonks, efficiency experts,…

Buxton, Bruce E.

2004-01-01

451

Cost optimal preventive maintenance and replacement scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for predicting a cost-optimal preventive maintenance policy for a repairable system with an increasing Rate of Occurrence Of Failure (ROCOF). We segment the maintenance planning horizon into n discrete and equally-sized periods. For each period, we predict which of three possible actions, (maintain the system, replace the system, or do nothing to the

JOHN S. USHER; AHMED H. KAMAL; WASIM HASHMI SYED

1998-01-01

452

The cost of influenza in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of influenza in less wealthy tropical countries is needed to inform national vaccine policy decisions. Between September 2003 and August 2004, we prospectively identified hospitalized pneumonia cases and outpatients with laboratory confirmed influenza in a Thai province. Disease incidence, patient interviews, medical record reviews, and data from a national health survey were used to calculate direct and indirect

James Mark Simmerman; Jongkol Lertiendumrong; Scott F. Dowell; Timothy Uyeki; Sonja J. Olsen; Malinee Chittaganpitch; Supamit Chunsutthiwat; Viroj Tangcharoensathien

2006-01-01

453

Cost analysis of in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

In vitro fertilization (IVF) has become a routine tool in the arsenal of infertility treatments. Assisted reproductive techniques are expensive, as reflected by the current "take home baby" rate of about 15% per cycle, implying the need for repeated attempts until success is achieved. Israel, today is facing a major change in its health care system, including the necessity to define a national package of health care benefits. The issue of infertility and whether its treatment should be part of the "health basket" is in dispute. Therefore an exact cost analysis of IVF is important. Since the cost of an IVF cycle varies dramatically between countries, we sought an exact breakdown of the different components of the costs involved in an IVF cycle and in achieving an IVF child in Israel. The key question is not how much we spend on IVF cycles but what is the cost of a successful outcome, i.e., a healthy child. This study intends to answer this question, and to give the policy makers, at various levels of the health care system, a crucial tool for their decision-making process. The cost analysis includes direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are divided into fixed costs (labor, equipment, maintenance, depreciation, and overhead) and variable costs (laboratory tests, chemicals, disposable supplies, medications, and loss of working days by the couples). The indirect costs are the costs of premature IVF babies, hospitalization of the IVF pregnant women in a high risk unit, and the cost of complications of the procedure. According to our economic analysis, an IVF cycle in Israel costs $2,560, of which fixed costs are about 50%. The cost of a "take home baby" is $19,267, including direct and indirect costs. PMID:7635699

Stern, Z; Laufer, N; Levy, R; Ben-Shushan, D; Mor-Yosef, S

1995-08-01

454

Dynamic cost indexing – Managing airline delay costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a decision-support tool for managing flight delay costs in the pre-departure and airborne phases of a flight. The dynamic cost indexing tool trades accelerated fuel burn against ‘cost of time’ and environmental impact. Many airlines have significant barriers to quantify the various components of ‘cost of time’. There are no industry standards for defining and interfacing the

Andrew Cook; Graham Tanner; Victoria Williams; Gerhard Meise

2009-01-01

455

General Policy Manual - References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists General Policy Table of Contents Overview of Laboratory

456

Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this rep...

Z. Lekovic M. Bjelica

1976-01-01

457

2010 Guidelines, Policy & Clarification  

Cancer.gov

2010 Guidelines, Policy & Clarification SF 424 PHS 2590 eRA Commons The Cancer Control Planet NCI Fact Book NIH Office of Extramural Research Home > Grants & Funding > 2010 Guidelines, Policy & Clarification

458

Policy Manual Site Map  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Download Manual POLICY MANUAL SECTIONS General

459

Avoided cost standard under PURPA  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

1983-04-01

460

National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.  

PubMed

The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP. PMID:23912732

Jayakrishnan, T

2013-01-01

461

LIFE Target Fabrication Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target costs for the LIFE IFE plant comprises a significant portion of the operating costs for the commercial plant. A preliminary target fabrication and cost study was undertaken previously for a fast ignition target. An updated cost model is documented ...

G. Meyer J. Biener M. Wang R. Miles

2009-01-01

462

Brookings Policy Briefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brookings Institution, America's oldest policy think tank, has recently made a new series of its publications, Policy Briefs, available at its web site. These are short papers that focus on various aspects of US and international politics, economics, and foreign policy. At present, some of the papers available are, including "China and the WTO," "Inside Outsourcing: More Bad News from Business Regulation?," "An Analysis of Out-of-Wedlock Births in the United States," and "America's Bosnia Policy: The Work Ahead."

1996-01-01

463

Building a Library of Policies through Policy Reuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Policy Reuse (PR) provides Reinforcement Learning algorithms with a mechanism to bias an exploration process by reusing a set of past policies. Policy Reuse offers the challenge of balancing the exploitation of the ongoing learned policy, the exploration ...

F. Fernandez M. Veloso

2005-01-01

464

24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity...Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity...project plans, engineering and design costs related to a...

2013-04-01

465

The life cycle cost of integrated logistic support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling of preventive maintenance within the general context of the life cycle cost of integrated logistic support is discussed. The principal categories of support cost are considered and a procedure of optimizing the total cost for the evaluation of a fundamental logistic parameters is developed using Markov models. The Markov approach allows the examination of the functional relationships between system reliability, maintenance policies and the costs of integrated logistic support. The life cycle cost of the logistic support is optimized, and the results permit a correct cost/efficiency scaling of the support.

Florio, U. G.

466

Space Shuttle capabilities, constraints, and cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities, constraints, and costs of the Space Transportation System (STS), which combines reusable and expendable components, are reviewed, and an overview of the current planning activities for operating the STS in an efficient and cost-effective manner is presented. Traffic forecasts, performance constraints and enhancements, and potential new applications are discussed. Attention is given to operating costs, pricing policies, and the steps involved in 'getting on board', which includes all the interfaces between NASA and the users necessary to come to launch service agreements.

Lee, C. M.

1980-01-01

467

How three smart managers control steam costs  

SciTech Connect

Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

Kendall, R.

1982-11-01

468

Academia, Policy and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2003, I started a secondment from the London School of Economics (LSE), where I hold the Richard Titmuss Chair of Social Policy, to No 10 Downing Street, where I worked as a senior policy adviser to the Prime Minister, Tony Blair. I began working initially on a specific project: developing policies on extending user choice in public services,

JULIAN LE GRAND

2006-01-01

469

Admission Policy Impact Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reviews admissions policies at Oklahoma state colleges and universities to ensure that implementation of admission standards is consistent with the policy's intent and to document the impact of policy on student success. The report covers the period fall 1989 (the year prior to the phase-in of higher admission standards) to fall 1998.…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

470

Enforceable security policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precise characterization is given for the class of security policies enforceable with mechanisms that work by monitoring system execution, and automata are introduced for specifying exactly that class of security policies. Techniques to enforce security policies specified by such automata are also discussed.

Fred B. Schneider

2000-01-01

471

Dynamic Legislative Policy Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove existence of stationary Markov perfect equilibria in an infinite-horizon model of legislative policy making in which the policy outcome in one period determines the status quo in the next. We allow for a multidimensional policy space and arbitrary smooth stage utilities. We prove that all such equilibria are essentially in pure strategies and that proposal strategies are differentiable

John Duggan; Tasos Kalandrakis

2007-01-01

472

Essays in Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My dissertation investigates the effects of education policy on academic achievement. I focus on state and federal policies that seek to influence how teachers and school administrators educate their students, and I evaluate those policies' effects on academic achievement. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a compositional shift in a school's…

Richardson, Jed Thomas

2011-01-01

473

International air transport policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The actions of the Civil Aviation Board in providing assistance and advice to the State Department regarding international air transport policy are discussed. The policies and guidelines of the Civil Aviation Board are defined. The relationship with the policies of the Executive Branch of the Government and the interpretations of the Department of Transportation are reported.

Butler, C.

1972-01-01

474

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01

475

When Health Policy Is the Problem: A Report from the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We often think of health policy and health services research as offering solutions to cost, quality, and access problems. Many of us see health policy as simply ineffective. But any activity that has the power to cure can also do harm. Is it pos- sible that the health policy enterprise has contributed to the very problems it has been attempting

Bruce Spitz; John Abramson

2005-01-01

476

Forecasting Educational Futures. Resolving Uncertainties and Disagreements through Compact Policy Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of models for policy analysis in future studies are presented. Separate sections of the paper focus on the need for appropriate technologies of social science in future studies, a description of "compact policy assessment" (CPA), and a comparison of two CPA methods, Compass and Delphi. Compact policy assessment refers to any low-cost,…

Hudson, Barclay M.

477

Using a Policy Mix for Pollution Control – A Review of Economic Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of economic studies analyzing the use of multiple policies – a socalled policy mix – to cope with single pollution problems. To guide and structure the review, an analytical framework is developed and applied. The framework integrates transaction costs into the analysis of pollution problems and policies to overcome them. Moreover, it understands a pollution

Paul Lehmann

2008-01-01

478

JUSTIFYING A POLICY MIX FOR POLLUTION CONTROL: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides a review of economic studies analysing the use of multiple policies – a so?called policy mix – to cope with single pollution problems. To guide and structure the review, an analytical framework is developed and applied. The framework integrates transaction costs into the analysis of pollution problems and policies to overcome them. Moreover, it understands a

Paul Lehmann

2012-01-01

479

Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'credit channel' theory of monetary policy transmission holds that informational frictions in credit markets worsen during tight- money periods. The resulting increase in the external finance premium--the difference in cost between internal and external funds-- enhances the effects of monetary policy on the real economy. We document the responses of GDP and its components to monetary policy shocks and

Ben S. Bernanke; Mark Gertler

1995-01-01

480

Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

2009-01-01

481

Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

2010-01-01

482

Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.  

PubMed Central

Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms. Images p727-a

Robinson, R

1993-01-01

483

A Theoretical Analysis of Economic Incentive Policies Encouraging Agricultural Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of a representative irrigated farm is formulated to study farm responses to two economic policies commonly suggested to encourage agricultural water conservation, and to characterize the hydrological and economic circumstances in which these responses provide the desired conservation. The economic policies studied are to increase the irrigator's cost of applied water and to subsidize the irrigator's cost

Ray Huffaker; Norman Whittlesey

2003-01-01

484

Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in China, 2000~2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity consumption increases rapidly with the rapid development of China. The environmental damage costs of electricity generation are very important for both policy analysis and the proper management of the environment. A method was developed in this work to estimate gross environmental damage costs according to emission inventory and environmental cost factors, and to extend the costs from provincial to

ZHANG Qing-yu; WEI Yu-mei; CHEN Ying-xu; GUO Hui

2007-01-01

485

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book contains the collected papers from the first conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Center for the Study of Rural America. The conference explored new economic policies that would help rural America enter the digital economy. The papers, which must be downloaded separately, fall into three main categories: Rural America at a Crossroad; Seizing New Opportunities in Rural America; and New Directions for Rural Policy. The book also contains a keynote address by Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, the comments of several noted economists, and the transcripts of the closing discussion.

486

The cost-effectiveness of mandatory folic acid fortification in Australia.  

PubMed

The Australian government recently introduced mandatory folic acid fortification of bread to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The economic evaluation of this policy contained a number of limitations. This study aimed to address the limitations and to reconsider the findings. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to assess the cost and benefits of mandatory versus voluntary folic acid fortification. Outcomes measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years gained (LYG), avoided NTD cases, and additional severe neuropathy cases. Costs considered included industry costs and regulatory costs to the government. It was estimated that mandatory fortification would prevent 31 NTDs, whereas an additional 14 cases of severe neuropathy would be incurred. Overall, 539 LYG and 503 QALYs would be gained per year of mandatory compared with voluntary fortification. Mandatory fortification was cost-effective at A$10,723 per LYG and at A$11,485 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at A$60,000 and A$151,000 per QALY, the probability that mandatory fortification was the most cost-effective strategy was 79% and 85%, respectively. Threshold analysis of loss of consumer choice indicated that with a compensation value above A$1.21 [assuming a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of A$60,000 per QALY] or A$3.19 (assuming a WTP threshold of A$151,000 per statistical life-year) per capita per year mandatory fortification would not be cost-effective. Mandatory fortification was found to be cost-effective; however, inclusion of the loss of consumer choice can change this result. Even with mandatory fortification, mean folate intake will remain below the recommended NTD preventive level. PMID:23223683

Rabovskaja, Viktoria; Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen

2013-01-01

487