Sample records for cost containment policies

  1. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  2. Multiple Drug Cost Containment Policies in Michigan’s Medicaid Program Saved Money Overall, Although Some Increased Costs

    PubMed Central

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Michigan’s Medicaid program implemented four policies (preferred lists, joint and multi-state purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost) in 2002–2004 for its dual-eligible Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries, taking antihypertensives and antihyperlipidemics prescriptions. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of each individual policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred lists increased preferred and generic market share, and reduced daily cost. In contrast, maximum allowable cost increased daily cost, and is the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multi-state arrangements did not impact daily cost. Despite policy tradeoffs, the cumulative effect was a 10% decrease in daily cost and an annualized cost savings of $46,195. PMID:22492899

  3. Cost Containment for Higher Education: Strategies for Public Policy and Institutional Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William Brand

    This book discusses long term strategies for cost containment for higher education that are currently in use or could be employed. Some of the strategies discussed are applicable at various levels of government, some relate to interinstitutional arrangements and some are options of the individual institutions. The chapters are as follows: (1)…

  4. Containing Health Care Costs

    PubMed Central

    Derzon, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

  5. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns. PMID:10113716

  6. Cost Containment: An Economist's View

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Duncan

    1980-01-01

    Rising medical care costs are not the problem they seem to be, in part because quality of care is not considered. The problem may be more the absence of choice of alternative health benefit packages with price differences. The future of health services in the United States will have more competing alternatives requiring physicians to be more cost conscious. PMID:6992461

  7. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  8. Computer Cluster Policy This document contains

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Computer Cluster Policy This document contains: Intent of policy Computer cluster criteria Purchasing a cluster Tagging a cluster Making repairs to existing clusters Expanding and/or upgrading an existing cluster Cluster FAQs Contact Information Intent of policy: The purpose of this policy

  9. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  10. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-print Network

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  11. Do Drug Price Adjustment Policies Work? The Impact of Physician Financial Incentive Plans on the Implementation of Drug Cost Containment Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsuan-Lien Chu; Shuen-Zen Liu; James C. Romeis

    2010-01-01

    In Taiwan, some hospitals reward physicians through financial incentive plans linked to the amount of revenue generated by the drugs they prescribe to patients. This study investigates whether the prescription behavior of physicians impacts the implementation of the government's drug price adjustment policy, which reduces the amount of reimbursement for certain drugs. Our objective is to determine if the policy

  12. Cost Allocation Policy OMB Circular A-21

    E-print Network

    Clark, John

    Expenses can be allocated to the federal grant or contract activity based on benefit derived, causeCost Allocation Policy OMB Circular A-21 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-21 establishes principles for determining costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other agreements

  13. The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

  14. Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports

    E-print Network

    Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due...

  15. A team approach to cost containment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2008-04-01

    Strategies for involving clinicians in efforts to reduce labor and supply chain expenses include: Working with nurse managers to develop an operations or productivity report that is truly useful. Establishing biweekly reporting of labor utilization per unit. Adding clinicians to your materials management and finance teams. Helping physicians understand the cost profiles of the products they are using and their impact on cost of care. Being patient while securing buy-in. PMID:18441971

  16. Benefit-cost assessment of aviation environmental policies

    E-print Network

    Gilmore, Christopher K. (Christopher Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aids in the development of a framework in which to conduct global benefit-cost assessments of aviation policies. Current policy analysis tools, such as the aviation environmental portfolio management tool (APMT), ...

  17. 2 CFR 200.411 - Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs...Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs. (a) Negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates based on a proposal...

  18. Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Brookmeyer; Elizabeth Johnson; Robert Bollinger

    2004-01-01

    Concern about biological weapons has raised questions about the most effective public health policies to contain an anthrax outbreak. We developed a probability model to predict the impact of different anthrax antibiotic and vaccination policies. An anthrax outbreak can be significantly contained by minimizing the delay until initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, even if mass distribution of antibiotics is completed

  19. Costing Policy for Sponsored Projects Per Grants Information Memorandum #23

    E-print Network

    Clark, John

    Costing Policy for Sponsored Projects Per Grants Information Memorandum #23 http are eligible on federal projects. They are defined as "Those costs that can be identified specifically Costs: These costs are generally not eligible on federal projects. "F&A (Facilities and Administrative

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Education Policies: Extending Cost-Benefit Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jon R.; Ammentorp, William

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic analysis offers a comprehensive view of the cost benefit and cost effective dimensions of policy problems. It also provides the computational power to investigate the long term effects of policy decisions on the flow of resources in organizations and government agencies. (Author/MV)

  1. EFFECTS OF RISING FUEL COSTS ON CONTAINER SHIPPING NETWORKS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Koichi; Imai, Akio

    Fuel cost increase forces liner shipping companies to bear higher ship operation costs and subsequently a lager total cost. To cope with such a fuel cost increase, they attempt to reduce the ship speed to maintain the low operation costs, even resulting in increase of the transit time. This study examines effects of ship speed reduction on fuel savings as well as profit increase, by using a mathematical model for a container liner service network design with a consideration o f empty container repositioning. Throughout numeric al experiments for the Asia-North America trade, the ship speed reduction is effective in fuel cost savings. Furthermore, it was found that the reduction of ship dwell time at port offset the longer transit time resulting from the cruising speed reduction.

  2. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP...

  3. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  4. Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    , Corrosive, Reactive and Toxic Chemicals Disposal of Unbroken Chemical Containers Follow all hazardous waste bins removed contact EH&S by submitting a Chemical Waste Pick Up Request. Proper Handling Wear lab and minimize hazardous waste. Columbia University joined 35 other colleges and universities in the Chem

  5. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

  6. Strategies for Containing Drug Costs: Implications for a Medicare Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anna E.

    1999-01-01

    As policymakers consider adding a prescription drug benefit to Medicare, cost containment will be an important issue. This article discusses strategies to hold down the prices paid for prescription drugs. Within the private sector these include the use of formularies, the emergence of pharmaceutical benefit management companies, and the expansion of mail order pharmacies. In the Federal Government, costs are contained by the Medicaid drug rebate and the Federal Supply Schedule (FSS) of prices. Since Medicare beneficiaries constitute a large share of the prescription drug market, getting access to FSS prices may not be feasible. A flat rebate is one alternative. PMID:10558018

  7. Indiana School Transportation: A Review of Policies, Procedures, and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Frank, Jr.

    This detailed report and analysis of school bus transportation in Indiana is divided into the following topics: transportation policies; bus utilization; the bus driver and his terms of employment; bus ownership; insurance, storage, maintenance, and fuel costs; bus ownership and costs; and the transportation director. A strong case is made for…

  8. INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    1 INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400 Classification: Financial Management and maintenance of facilities and processes that support Research; the management of the entire Research process, animal care and environmental assessment). 5.00 Research Funding Agreement means funding provided through

  9. Induced Technical Change and the Cost of Climate Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a specific climate change policy: a carbon tax. The analysis attempts to gauge the potential for a carbon tax to create an incentive for research and development, and subsequently lower the cost of technologies responding to climate change.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies using simulation.

    PubMed

    Gocgun, Y; Banjevic, D; Taghipour, S; Montgomery, N; Harvey, B J; Jardine, A K S; Miller, A B

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study breast cancer screening policies using computer simulation. We developed a multi-state Markov model for breast cancer progression, considering both the screening and treatment stages of breast cancer. The parameters of our model were estimated through data from the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study as well as data in the relevant literature. Using computer simulation, we evaluated various screening policies to study the impact of mammography screening for age-based subpopulations in Canada. We also performed sensitivity analysis to examine the impact of certain parameters on number of deaths and total costs. The analysis comparing screening policies reveals that a policy in which women belonging to the 40-49 age group are not screened, whereas those belonging to the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups are screened once every 5 years, outperforms others with respect to cost per life saved. Our analysis also indicates that increasing the screening frequencies for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups decrease mortality, and that the average number of deaths generally decreases with an increase in screening frequency. We found that screening annually for all age groups is associated with the highest costs per life saved. Our analysis thus reveals that cost per life saved increases with an increase in screening frequency. PMID:25866350

  11. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

  12. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  13. Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Tilmans, Sebastien; Russel, Kory; Sklar, Rachel; Page, Leah; Kramer, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum,(1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities. PMID:26097288

  14. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section...Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...246.16a Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. (a) Who must...

  15. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section...Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...246.16a Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. (a) Who must...

  16. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. PMID:16323750

  17. U.S. Pharmacy Policy: A Public Health Perspective on Safety and Cost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau; Lincy S. Lal; Jay H. Glasser

    2009-01-01

    A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and “cost-sharing”

  18. Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasica, Edward R.

    Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

  19. Cost-containment and the use of reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S T; Miller, J M

    1985-12-01

    Hospital laboratories and hospital-independent reference laboratories will need to change in order to provide comprehensive, medically appropriate, and reasonably priced laboratory services in the cost-containment age we are entering. The change must be economically and technologically innovative and relevant to society's next generation of health care needs. Hospital laboratories and commercial laboratories may become weaker or stronger relative to one another, but our guess is that they will ultimately become more like one another or even may join forces to provide optimal patient care in the future. Until that time comes, hospital laboratories must decide whether to employ reference laboratory services more or less, enter a joint venture with a reference laboratory, or become a reference laboratory. Some of the items that could be considered in arriving at this decision are listed in Table 2. Some items favor hospital laboratories; some favor reference laboratories; some are a toss-up; and some suggest there are advantages in a team approach. For the present, we believe there are many arguments favoring a continuation and possibly even an expansion of hospital laboratory services, but this will likely be most feasible in financially sound and progressive hospitals having forward-looking administrators and imaginative but fiscally minded laboratory directors and managers. If decisions are made to send more tests to reference laboratories, each hospital or user laboratory must seek the best and most cost-effective services available. Various financial, technical, and medical considerations are described that should aid in the evaluation of where to have tests performed. We have provided suggestions on how agreements with reference laboratories can be established in either a formal (contractual) or an informal (verbal) way. Additionally, we have described methods for evaluating (or monitoring) the quality and quantity of services received from a reference laboratory. In general, for any significant agreement with a reputable reference laboratory, little more may be necessary for monitoring purposes than periodic financial and quality assurance audits and follow-up on any clinical complaints regarding test results. With a large contract, the user laboratory is advised to spot check results on submitted blind duplicates of patient samples (to test provider lab precision) and occasionally to split samples between the provider and one or more other reference laboratories (as a first look at possible inaccuracy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085191

  20. Cost Sharing in Higher Education in Kenya: Examining the Undesired Policy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngolovoi, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Cost sharing in higher education is a policy that comes from the United States. The policy advocates that costs of higher education should be shared between the government, parents, students and/or donor organizations. Proponents of the policy (such as the World Bank) have over the years been advocating for its implementation in African countries.…

  1. External Costs of Domestic Container Transportation: Short?Sea Shipping versus Trucking in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the external costs of domestic container transportation in Taiwan by analysing the origin and destination of current container cargoes. After reviewing an extensive literature survey of methods of external cost, a comparison of external costs between trucking and short sea shipping (SSS) by corridor is made by using a model developed in this paper. Based on the

  2. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement...early identification of lands containing dangerous...PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement...early identification of lands containing...

  3. Does Prospective Payment Really Contain Nursing Home Costs?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Wu; Shea, Dennis G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine whether nursing homes would behave more efficiently, without compromising their quality of care, under prospective payment. Data Sources Four data sets for 1994: the Skilled Nursing Facility Minimum Data Set, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting System file, the Area Resource File, and the Hospital Wage Indices File. A national sample of 4,635 nursing homes is included in the analysis. Study Design Using a modified hybrid functional form to estimate nursing home costs, we distinguish our study from previous research by controlling for quality differences (related to both care and life) and addressing the issues of output and quality endogeneity, as well as using more recent national data. Factor analysis was used to operationalize quality variables. To address the endogeneity problems, instrumental measures were created for nursing home output and quality variables. Principal Findings Nursing homes in states using prospective payment systems do not have lower costs than their counterpart facilities under retrospective cost-based payment systems, after quality differences among facilities are controlled for and the endogeneity problem of quality variables is addressed. Conclusions The effects of prospective payment on nursing home cost reduction may be through quality cuts, rather than cost efficiency. If nursing home payments under prospective payment systems are not adjusted for quality, nursing homes may respond by cutting their quality levels, rather than controlling costs. Future outcomes research may provide useful insights into the adjustment of quality in the design of prospective payment for nursing home care. PMID:12035993

  4. Medicare Long-Term CPAP Coverage Policy: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Martha E.; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: CPAP is an effective treatment for OSA that may reduce health care utilization and costs. Medicare currently reimburses the costs of long-term CPAP therapy only if the patient is adherent during a 90-day trial. If not, Medicare requires a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and another trial which seems empirically not cost-effective. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of current Medicare policy compared to an alternative policy (clinic-only) without the adherence criterion and repeat PSG. Design: Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting: U.S. Medicare Population. Patients or Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: We created a decision tree modeling (1) clinic only follow-up vs. (2) current Medicare policy. Costs were assigned based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2012. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test our assumptions. We estimated cumulative costs, overall adherence, and QALY gained for a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of Medicare as the payer. Current Medicare policy is more costly than the clinic-only policy but has higher net adherence and improved utility. Current Medicare policy compared to clinic-only policy costs $30,544 more per QALY. Conclusions: Current CMS policy promotes early identification of those more likely to adhere to CPAP therapy by requiring strict adherence standards. The policy effect is to deny coverage to those unlikely to use CPAP long-term and prevent wasted resources. Future studies are needed to measure long-term adherence in an elderly population with and without current adherence requirements to verify the cost-effectiveness of a policy change. Citation: Billings ME; Kapur VK. Medicare long-term CPAP coverage policy: a cost-utility analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1023-1029. PMID:24127146

  5. Cost containment and new priorities in the European community.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the author's survey of the cost-control measures for health care in 12 European countries during the period from 1983 to 1990. Among these countries the greatest convergence was in the use of the budget as a system of control, reinforced by manpower controls. Budgets were constructed to restrict hospital costs and payments to doctors practicing outside of hospitals. Another strategy was cost sharing for purchase of drugs and, in some cases, for dentistry. Most countries took steps to control expensive medical equipment; others, to restrict entry to medical schools. The European experience demonstrates the technical feasibility of the government's controlling health care costs by regulating supply rather than demand. The key to Europe's success in the use of monopsony power, whereby one purchaser dominates the market. The author contends that regulation works in Europe and questions whether the United States can exert similar control over its coalition of insurers and providers in order to rein in its health care expenses. PMID:1406493

  6. Containing the cost of third-molar extractions: a dilemma for health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, J W

    1983-01-01

    No known scientific studies support the extraction of third molars (wisdom teeth) to prevent future disease. Yet, third-molar surgery for this purpose has become so common that in at least one major U.S. health insurance plan, the cumulative cost exceeds that for every other kind of major surgery. Many third molars that are developing normally in adolescents are classified as impacted and removed before they erupt, a practice that results in large expenditures for unnecessary surgery. In addition, the difficulty of the extractions is frequently exaggerated, so that patients and insurance plans are overcharged. Third molar surgery is not without risk of iatrogenic injury. Fracture of the jaw, permanent numbness of the lip (paresthesia), and injury to other teeth may occur. This paper presents a mechanism for containing the cost of third-molar surgery by elimination of payment for nonessential extractions and of the related overcharges. Adoption of this policy by administrators of dental insurance plans would save millions of dollars each year, money that could be better used in providing care for more people with real dental disease. PMID:6611824

  7. Initiatives for Containing the Cost of Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massy, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a comprehensive reform agenda for policymakers interested in cost containment. Massy lays out a series of initiatives that, working in tandem, can promote the larger goal of compelling colleges to spend money wisely. Among the individual reforms Massy proposes are creating a national database of cost-containment

  8. Hospital pharmacy decisions, cost containment, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Sloan; Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein; Alicia Wilson

    1997-01-01

    The key hypothesis of the study was that hospital pharmacies under the pressure of managed care would be more likely to adopt process innovations to assure less costly and more cost-effective provision of care. We conducted a survey of 103 hospitals and analyzed secondary data on cost and staffing. Compared to the size of the reduction in length of stay,

  9. Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan? K to a valued social service. In Sudan, the issue of the cost recovery policies at public health facilities in 2001 to analyse the characteristics of those who receive free public health services and to ascertain

  10. What Price Prohibition? An Estimate of the Costs of Australian Drug Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Marks

    1991-01-01

    The prohibition against Australians using illicit drugs is ineffective, but still imposes a high burden on government revenues and indirectly contributes (because of its ineffectiveness) to additional costs paid by Australian households. These are the claims of those who argue for a change in policy in Australia towards illicit drugs and their use. How much does present policy cost the

  11. The Making of Economic Policy: A Transaction Cost Politics Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash K. Dixit

    1997-01-01

    The Making of Economic Policy begins by observing that most countries' trade policies are so blatantly contrary to all the prescriptions of the economist that there is no way to understand this discrepancy except by delving into the politics. The same is true for many other dimensions of economic policy. Avinash Dixit looks for an improved understanding of the politics

  12. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  13. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  14. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  15. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  16. 100% container scanning : security policy implications for global supply chains

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Allison C. (Allison Christine)

    2008-01-01

    On August 3, 2007, President George Bush signed into law HR1 the "Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007." The 9/11 Act requires 100% scanning of US-bound containers at foreign seaports by 2012 ...

  17. COST MINIMIZATION MODEL OF OCEANGOING CARRIERS ON A LARGE-SCALE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME CONTAINER SHIPPING NETWORK CONSIDERING CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Tomihiro; Ieda, Hitoshi

    This paper deals with a cost minimization problem of oceangoing carriers on a large-scale network of international maritime container shipping industry, in order to measure impact of port policies for each country including Japan. Concretely, the authors develop a model to decide ports to call and size of containership in each route by ocean-going carrier group, with consideration of construction of deeper berths to deal with enlargement of containership, decrease of various port charges per cargo by attracting cargos into one port, and congestion by exceeding aggregation. The developed model is applied to the actual large-scale international maritime container shipping network in Eastern Asia. The performance of the model developed is validated. Also, the sensitivity of the model output is confirmed from the viewpoints of economy and diseconomy of scale included in the model.

  18. Index Policies for a Multi-Class Queue with Convex Holding Cost and Abandonments

    E-print Network

    Ayesta, Urtzi

    Index Policies for a Multi-Class Queue with Convex Holding Cost and Abandonments M. Larra~naga1 good performance. Our index policy attributes to each class an index, which depends on the number of customers currently present in that class. The index values are ob- tained by solving a relaxed version

  19. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

  20. Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs

    E-print Network

    Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

  1. New Center Applies Cost-Benefit Analysis to Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, at Teachers College, Columbia University. Launched last year by a pair of economists, the center specializes in calculating and comparing the long- and short-term costs--and probable payoffs--of different educational strategies that promise to improve students' lives. Studies…

  2. DiffServ Node with Join Minimum Cost Queue Policy: Analysis with Multiclass Traffic

    E-print Network

    Manjunath, D.

    1 DiffServ Node with Join Minimum Cost Queue Policy: Analysis with Multiclass Traffic D. Manjunath--- The DiffServ model is an attractive candidate for providing relative QoS in the Internet. This is also model a DiffServ node as a ``Join Minimum Cost Queue'' in which an ar­ riving customer (packet

  3. Network Access Regulation and Competition Policy: An Assessment of the “Direct-Plus-Opportunity Cost” Regime and Policy Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshy Z. Easaw

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue when determining competition policy, especially in vertically integrated industries, is the formulation of interconnection charges. Recently an influential set of theories on network access price has been put forward under the broad heading of “direct-plus-opportunity cost regime” (DOCR). This paper deals with two distinct but related aspects of DOCR. The first part of the paper considers the

  4. Another Pill, Another Test, and Another Procedure: One Resident's Reflection on Healthcare Cost Containment.

    PubMed

    Chertoff, Jason

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, healthcare expenditures have continued to rise at alarming rates despite numerous strategies to contain costs. One area of focus that is underappreciated is doctor-patient communication about expectations of treatment. Studies have shown that clinicians' misperceptions of assumptions about patients' expectations are an essential component to our nation's healthcare overuse problem. Strategies to address these misperceptions and assumptions as a method of reducing costs and providing higher-quality care to our patients are warranted. PMID:25984396

  5. The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

  6. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Low-cost, adaptable tool integration policies for integrated environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Garlan; Ehsan Ilias

    1990-01-01

    An important requirement for successful integrated programming environments is support for implicit tool invocation; rather than force a user to explicitly invoke each tool, mechanisms in the environment can take responsibility for guaranteeing that the right tools are invoked at the right times. However, these mechanisms typically intertwine policies of when and how the tools are invoked, with what the

  8. Cost justification of filmless PACS and national policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae H.

    2002-05-01

    The expense of installing PACS is high so most Korean hospitals cannot afford to purchase the system easily. We can justify the cost of PACS by considering the visible and invisible benefits. As a visible benefit we can save the cost of films and equipments for film processing. Invisible benefits of PACS is the cost of film handling. Generally, doctors spend some 25 minutes in handling X-ray films everyday and they spend 10 days (84 hours) throughout a year. Radiology technicians, nurses, orderlies and clerks also handle films and the total salary for handling films by doctors and paramedics will be considerable. Considering the visible and invisible benefits, cost of PACS is justified and PACS can be installed in every hospital, whatever their size. The Korean Society of PACS tried to make reimbursement of the cost of PACS and persuaded the government officers and eventually the Ministry of Health and Welfare decided to reimburse the use of PACS in hospitals. Based on the money reimbursed, general hospitals or university hospitals will earn enough money to purchase a PACS in 3 - 5 years. After the Korean government started to reimburse the cost of PACS, many hospitals wanted to install PACS and the number of hospitals installing PACS is soaring.

  9. Low-Cost Error Containment and Recovery for Onboard Guarded Software Upgrading

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    systems, is developed for onboard guarded software upgrading for deep-space missions. In this paper, we and recovery, a low-cost approach to mitigating the effect of software design faults in distributed embedded to achieve error containment and recovery efficiency. We then conduct a model-based analysis to show

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of a plant sterol containing low-fat margarine for cholesterol reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gerber; T. Evers; H. Haverkamp; K. W. Lauterbach

    2006-01-01

    For decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) it has been proposed to enrich food such as margarine with plant sterol esters which have been shown to reduce total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, two of the major risk factors. A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and benefits of consuming a low-fat plant sterol containing margarine (PS

  11. Containment Policies for Transmissible Diseases Shirish Tatikonda, Sameep Mehta, and Srinivasan Parthasarathy

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    proposed strategies under two practical constraints viz. limited num- ber of anti-viral drugs and the delay it difficult to design effective controlling strategies. Nascent state of H5N1 vac- cines and anti-viral drugs makes the design of containment policies even more challenging. Large scale vaccination poli- cies can

  12. Deposits on single use containers--a social cost-benefit analysis of the Danish deposit system for single use drink containers.

    PubMed

    Vigsø, Dorte

    2004-12-01

    This study compares the social costs and environmental benefits of collecting single use drink containers through the Danish deposit system with the social costs and benefits of treating the containers as part of the municipal waste-disposal system. It focuses on single use polyethylene terphthalate and glass bottles, and steel and aluminium cans. The social costs of handling these containers in the deposit system includes the costs of collection, sorting, and transportation, adjusted against the profit from selling the collected material for recycling. The social cost of incinerating these containers as municipal waste consists of the expenses for the collection, incineration of the containers and disposal of ashes. If there is any income from energy generation accompanying incineration, this is adjusted against costs. The main environmental effects related to both strategies are quantified, valuated and included in the assessment. The results of the analysis show that there are significant social costs compared to the benefits connected with the new deposit system. This is true for all four types of single use drink containers examined. All in all, Denmark bears a net social cost of 6.7 to 8.1 million Euros per year compared to a baseline of incineration with energy recovery. PMID:15666450

  13. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  14. Drug waste minimization as an effective strategy of cost-containment in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustainability of cancer care is a crucial issue for health care systems worldwide, even more during a time of economic recession. Low-cost measures are highly desirable to contain and reduce expenditures without impairing the quality of care. In this paper we aim to demonstrate the efficacy of drug waste minimization in reducing drug-related costs and its importance as a structural measure in health care management. Methods We first recorded intravenous cancer drugs prescription and amount of drug waste at the Oncology Department of Udine, Italy. Than we developed and applied a protocol for drug waste minimization based on per-pathology/per-drug scheduling of chemotherapies and pre-planned rounding of dosages. Results Before the protocol, drug wastage accounted for 8,3% of the Department annual drug expenditure. Over 70% of these costs were attributable to six drugs (cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab) that we named ‘hot drugs’. Since the protocol introduction, we observed a 45% reduction in the drug waste expenditure. This benefit was confirmed in the following years and drug waste minimazion was able to limit the impact of new pricely drugs on the Department expenditures. Conclusions Facing current budgetary constraints, the application of a drug waste minimization model is effective in drug cost containment and may produce durable benefits. PMID:24507545

  15. Benefits and Costs of Assessment in Higher Education: A Framework for Policy Choice and Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    An analysis of what is currently known about the benefits and costs of assessment programs from the general perspective of state higher education policy is presented as a working paper in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competition. State and institutional approaches to assessment in…

  16. The Cost of Reading Privacy Policies Aleecia M. McDonald and Lorrie Faith Cranor

    E-print Network

    Cranor, Lorrie Faith

    conducted an online study of 212 participants to measure time to skim online privacy policies and respond informed decisions about privacy brings the social cost well above the market for online advertising. Given-regulation for online privacy.2 In the late 1990s, the FTC decided that the Internet was evolving very quickly and new

  17. Practice patterns, case mix, Medicare payment policy, and dialysis facility costs.

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, R A; Held, P J; Orzol, S M; Dor, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of case mix, practice patterns, features of the payment system, and facility characteristics on the cost of dialysis. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The nationally representative sample of dialysis units in the 1991 U.S. Renal Data System's Case Mix Adequacy (CMA) Study. The CMA data were merged with data from Medicare Cost Reports, HCFA facility surveys, and HCFA's end-stage renal disease patient registry. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated a statistical cost function to examine the determinants of costs at the dialysis unit level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between case mix and costs was generally weak. However, dialysis practices (type of dialysis membrane, membrane reuse policy, and treatment duration) did have a significant effect on costs. Further, facilities whose payment was constrained by HCFA's ceiling on the adjustment for area wage rates incurred higher costs than unconstrained facilities. The costs of hospital-based units were considerably higher than those of freestanding units. Among chain units, only members of one of the largest national chains exhibited significant cost savings relative to independent facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Little evidence showed that adjusting dialysis payment to account for differences in case mix across facilities would be necessary to ensure access to care for high-cost patients or to reimburse facilities equitably for their costs. However, current efforts to increase dose of dialysis may require higher payments. Longer treatments appear to be the most economical method of increasing the dose of dialysis. Switching to more expensive types of dialysis membranes was a more costly means of increasing dose and hence must be justified by benefits beyond those of higher dose. Reusing membranes saved money, but the savings were insufficient to offset the costs associated with using more expensive membranes. Most, but not all, of the higher costs observed in hospital-based units appear to reflect overhead cost allocation rather than a difference in real resources devoted to treatment. The economies experienced by the largest chains may provide an explanation for their recent growth in market share. The heterogeneity of results by chain size implies that characterizing units using a simple chain status indicator variable is inadequate. Cost differences by facility type and the effects of the ongoing growth of large chains are worthy of continued monitoring to inform both payment policy and antitrust enforcement. PMID:10029498

  18. Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition. PMID:3083133

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  20. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26?063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25?444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18?000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  1. The tension between cost containment and the underutilization of effective health services.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B S; Fendrick, A M

    1996-01-01

    One of the common ingredients in all attempts to slow escalating health care costs is to control the utilization of services that provide little or uncertain benefit. To reform existing delivery systems, the organization, provision, and financing of health care need to be evaluated critically. Successful reform requires that more rational methods be used to determine which services to provide. The preferences of physicians, patients, and payers of care do not appear optimal from a societal perspective in choosing health care services. While reducing the use of interventions of little or unknown benefit should save money, a policy to restrict the use of medical services may lead to an unwanted result: the underutilization of interventions of proven clinical benefit. Through the determination of the value--by rigorous assessment of both costs and benefits of available alternatives--in a context sensitive to the unique cultural, political, and economic characteristics of individual nations, the health of the population should be improved and growth of health expenditures constrained. This is the first step in health care reform. PMID:8690550

  2. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  3. Using physician practice cost functions in payment policy: the problem of endogeneity bias.

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J

    1996-01-01

    Empirical estimates of physician practice cost functions, especially estimates of marginal practice costs and scale economies, could assist in setting physician payment policy. This paper examines the bias that may result in these estimates from the usual approach of treating physician labor input as exogenous. Data come from 207 general surgeons included in the Physician Payment Review Commission's 1988 National Survey of Physicians. The empirical practice cost function is specified as a generalized translog. Results are compared for alternative estimation methods that treat physician labor input as exogenous and as endogenous. The findings suggest that marginal cost estimates which ignore the endogeneity of physician labor are biased downward, while estimates of economies of scale are biased upward. In particular, with physician labor exogenous, statistically significant scale economies are found over a wide range of output levels; with physician labor endogenous, constant returns to scale cannot be rejected. Applying econometric studies of physician practice costs to policy will require attention to important methodological issues and collection of high-quality data. PMID:8774375

  4. Modeling Resource, Infrastructure, and Policy Cost Layers for Optimizing Renewable Energy Investment and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olama, Mohammed M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Protopopescu, Vladimir A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malinchik, Sergey [Lockheed Martin Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ives, Barry [Lockheed Martin Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system impact on infrastructure, and policy incentives. The framework is intended as an enabler for visualization, optimization and decision making across diverse dimensions while searching for lucrative investment-plans.

  5. Cost reduction associated with restriction policy on dispensing intravenous esomeprazole in lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumana C. NasserJeanette; Jeanette G. Nassif; Fouad Mahfouz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of the pharmacist on cost through simple implementation of restriction policy on IV drug usage during\\u000a pharmacy dispensing procedure. Setting In-patient floors of a Hospital. Methods All medication orders for IV esomeprazole, received at the pharmacy during a 24-month period, were reviewed for appropriate\\u000a IV route of administration. Two separate time intervals, pre- and post-

  6. Mitigation Costs in a Globalized World: Climate Policy Analysis with REMIND-R

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Leimbach; Nico Bauer; Lavinia Baumstark; Ottmar Edenhofer

    2010-01-01

    Within this paper, we present the novel hybrid model REMIND-R and its application in a climate policy context based on the\\u000a EU target to avoid a warming of the Earth’s atmosphere by more than 2°C compared to the pre-industrial level. This paper aims\\u000a to identify necessary long-term changes in the energy system and the magnitude of costs to attain such

  7. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

  8. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  9. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  10. Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Michael R.

    This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate ...

  11. Supply chain management with cost-containment & financial-sustainability in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Hem; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Shuchita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, R K

    2013-01-01

    Financial crunch in the present recession results in the non-availability of the right materials at the right time in large hospitals. However due to insufficient impetus towards systems development, situation remains dismal even when funds are galore. Cost incurred on materials account for approximately one-third of the total recurring expenditures in hospitals. Systems development for effective and efficient materials management is thus tantamount to cost-containment and sustainability. This scientific paper describes an innovative model, Hospital Revolving Fund (HRF), developed at a tertiary care research institute in Asia. The main idea behind inception of HRF was to ensure availability of all supplies in the hospital so that the quality of healthcare delivery was not affected. The model was conceptualized in the background of non-availability of consumables in the hospital leading to patient as well as staff dissatisfaction. Hospital supplies have been divided into two parts, approximately 3250 unit items and 1750 miscellaneous items. This division is based on cost, relative-utility and case-specific utilization. 0.1 Million USD, separated from non-planned budget, was initially used as seed money in 1998. HRF procures supplies from reputed firms on concessional rates (8-25%) and make them available to patients at much lesser rates vis-à-vis market rates, levying minimal maintenance charges. In 2009-10, total annual purchases of 14 Million USD were made. The balance sheet reflected 1.4 Million USD as fixed deposit investment. The minimal maintenance charges levied on the patients along with the interest income were sufficient to pay for all recurring expenses related to HRF. Even after these expenses, HRF boosted of 0.2 Million USD as cash-in-hand in financial year 2009-10. In-depth analysis of 'balance sheet' and 'Income and Expenditure' statement of the fund for last five financial years affirms that HRF is a self-sustainable and viable supply chain mechanism to ensure availability of the right materials at the right time at a reasonable cost. Thus innovations like HRF will prove robust in rendering quality healthcare at an affordable cost. PMID:24010261

  12. Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Hamilton; Howard J. Herzog; John E. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate is presented for new supercritical pulverized coal plants, both with and without CCS. The capital cost escalation of recent years can be attributed to rising materials, plant supply,

  13. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

  14. Making Memorial University's Policy Database and Website work for you The policy website at Memorial University of Newfoundland contains a database of policy and procedure

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    and press Enter. The Search looks within the Policy title, the Policy Purpose, Policy Scope and all the text, but which may help locate a policy. The search uses both the index of terms as well as string matching. You of browse and search features to help you get the most out of the site. Its navigation is designed to rely

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of the swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion. PMID:25251946

  16. Drug waste minimisation and cost-containment in Medical Oncology: Two-year results of a feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianpiero Fasola; Marianna Aita; Luisa Marini; Alessandro Follador; Marina Tosolini; Laura Mattioni; Mauro Mansutti; Andrea Piga; Silvio Brusaferro; Giuseppe Aprile

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cost-containment strategies are required to face the challenge of rising drug expenditures in Oncology. Drug wastage leads to economic loss, but little is known about the size of the problem in this field. METHODS: Starting January 2005 we introduced a day-to-day monitoring of drug wastage and an accurate assessment of its costs. An internal protocol for waste minimisation was

  17. Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Eto, J.

    1997-09-01

    Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

  18. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  19. Foster Care: Federal Policy on Title IV-E Share of Training Costs. Report to the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report discusses: (1) the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) policy requiring that foster care training costs be allocated proportionately between the Social Security Act Title IV-E foster care program and other programs; (2) adherence to this cost-sharing policy; and (3) the effect of cost-sharing on states' training programs. It…

  20. The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era

    PubMed Central

    Stone, David H.; Horvath, Alexander J.; Goodney, Philip P.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Nolan, Brian W.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Zwolak, Robert M.; Powell, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Results Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were —$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR. market share. Conclusions EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. PMID:24139984

  1. High-precision, cost-effective cutting system for producing thin sections of oral tissues containing dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piattelli; A. Scarano; M. Quaranta

    1997-01-01

    A new high-precision, cost-effective cutting system, able to produce thin (20–30 ?m) sections of oral tissues, containing dental implants, is presented. With this system the authors have been able to obtain, in a reproducible and consistent way, thin slides containing biomaterials and biological tissues. Very high cellular detail was possible, even at high magnifications (× 1200). Histochemical reactions (e.g. acid

  2. Between Too Little and Too Late: Political Opportunity Costs in Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Vandenbergh, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Discussion of climate policy has focused almost exclusively on comprehensive regulatory instruments to price emissions with tradeable permits or emissions taxes. More recently, a number of proposals have been advanced to abandon comprehensive emissions pricing in favor of focusing exclusively on clean-energy innovation. Neither approach adequately accounts for the combination of timing and scale. Advocates of emissions pricing are persuasive that this is the most likely way to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at desirable levels. However, as innovation advocates point out, the political climate is inhospitable to such sweeping regulations and it is unlikely that comprehensive carbon pricing can be enacted and implemented in the next decade. However, clean-energy innovation by itself is a high-stakes gamble that may fail to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize GHG concentrations, and may reduce support for the kind of comprehensive pricing measures that could stabilize GHG concentrations.We propose that analysis of climate policies take account of the opportunity costs associated with the process of enacting a proposed policy: If one measure is much more controversial than another, how does the difference in time necessary to persuade the public and legislators to adopt them affect their ultimate impact? As General Patton is reputed to have said, "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later." Similarly, it is important to consider whether adopting one measure would build or erode support for complementary ones. As an example, we consider the largely neglected role of nonregulatory measures, such as private governance and household-level behavior change, as examples of actions that could buy time by producing rapid, although modest, impacts without eroding support for more comprehensive measures later on.

  3. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery Directorate policies are up to date, incorporate lessons learned and are consistent with current laws and regulations. The purpose of this policy is to provide guidance on...

  4. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when answering questions regarding research patient care costs. Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided by hospitals

  6. Forecasting coronary heart disease incidence, mortality, and cost: the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, M C; Coxson, P G; Williams, L W; Pass, T M; Stason, W B; Goldman, L

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed to project the future mortality, morbidity, and cost of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States population. The model contains a demographic-epidemiologic (DE) submodel, which stimulates the distribution of coronary risk factors and the conditional incidence of CHD in a demographically evolving population; a "bridge" submodel, which determines the outcome of the initial CHD event; and a disease history (DH) submodel, which simulates subsequent events in persons with a previous CHD event. The user of the model may simulate the effects of interventions, either preventive (i.e., risk factor modification) or therapeutic, upon mortality, morbidity, and cost for up to a 30-year period. If there were no future changes in risk factors or the efficacy of therapies after 1980, baseline projections indicate that the aging of the population, and especially the maturation of the post-World War II baby-boom generation, would increase CHD prevalence and annual incidence, mortality, and costs by about 40-50 per cent by the year 2010. Unprecedented reductions in risk factors would be required to offset these demographic effects on the absolute incidence of CHD. The specific forecasts could be inaccurate, however, as a consequence of erroneous assumptions or misestimated baseline data, and the model awaits validation based on actual future data. PMID:3661794

  7. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of a Universal Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment Referral Policy for Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Berger

    2003-01-01

    Prenatal substance exposure poses a significant public health problem in terms of both its economic costs to society and the health and development of those children affected. While substance abusing pregnant women and their children could benefit from early identification and appropriate interventions, drug testing of infants is controversial, and there is currently no national policy regarding the drug testing

  8. Toward More Comprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity Restructuring Policies: A Review of Recent Benefit-Cost Studies of RTOs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas R.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2006-12-15

    Definitive assessment of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission policies on regional transmission organizations is not currently possible because of uncertainties in the data and methods used in recent benefit-cost studies as well as lack of investigation of key impacts of the formation of RTOs. (author)

  9. METRA rail car cost-containment study. Final report, 1990-91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Study/Program was directed to consideration of procurement and operation issues which could affect the total cost of ownership for the METRA BiLevel Cars which are planned for purchase in the near future. The issues addressed were organized in two parts: (1) Technical items such as Car Definition, Car Specifications, Car Cost Projections, Car(Procurement) Work Breakdown Structure, Standardization, Off-the-shelf Hardware, Energy Savings, and Handicapped Accessibility Requirements. (2) Non-Technical items included Contract Terms and Conditions, Project Management, Contract Types, Order Size, Chicago Area Assembly, Financing Alternatives, Life-Cycle Costing, Reliability and Maintainability with many of the above discussed in detail with existing rail car builders. The most significant findings included major savings to be derived in procurement through innovative financing and application of modern management methods, plus operational savings available from system-wide use of thorough maintenance and reliability provisions in planning, tracking and evaluation of car repair operations.

  10. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Implementation guide. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for implementation of the DOE Order 2250.1, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its purpose is to assist both DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. Compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting should provide increased assurance that a contractor's progress is sufficiently visible to indicate status reliably and to provide the basis for timely and meaningful management decisions. 8 figures. (RWR)

  11. Effects of an Automated Drug Dispensing System on Medication Adverse Event Occurrences and Cost Containment at SAMSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean G. Dib; Saud A. Abdulmohsin; Masood U. Farooki; Khurram Mohammed; Mohammed Iqbal; Jamal Ahmed Khan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of an automated drug dispensing system (ADDS) on cost containment and medication adverse event (MAE) occur- rences at Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization (SAMSO). Method: An ADDS replaced the traditional unit-dose cassette-exchange and open floor-stock medication systems at SAMSO in early 2005 on five nursing units. Data collection for MAE occurrences and pharmacy med- ication

  12. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  13. Cost containment for treating hypertension in African Americans: impact of a combined ACE inhibitor-calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed Central

    Kountz, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has increased dramatically over the last 10 years and now accounts for 60% to 70% of all new antihypertensive prescriptions. Even though these two classes are efficacious, they are costly. Combined ACE inhibitor/CCB therapy (amlodipine-benazepril) was introduced in 1995. An analysis was done to assess the potential financial impact of substituting this agent for patients being treated with on ACE inhibitor/CCB combination. A pharmaceutical profile review of prescriptions during October 1995 was performed on 219 randomly selected patients enrolled in a Medicaid managed care program. Eighty-four profiles were analyzed; 24% of patients were on a combination ACE inhibitor/CCB regimen with an average monthly cost of $135. If the single agent amlodipine-benazepril with an average monthly cost of $45 (all strengths) was substituted, the savings would be considerable: $1080 per patient per year and $1,080,000 annualized for the calculated number of hypertensives on combination therapy in our network of 15,000 patients. Therapeutic substitution is one method of achieving cost containment in managed care. The cost differential between separately prescribed CCBs and ACE inhibitors and amlodipine-benazepril is significant. Compliance also should be enhanced as the patient would need to take only one pill daily. Once a patient has been maintained on a stable dose of a CCB/ACE inhibitor, substitution with amlodipine-benazepril should be considered. PMID:9220694

  14. Note, A Woman’s Life, a Woman’s Health: Equalizing Medicaid Abortion Funding in Simat Corp. v. Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara G. Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This casenote discusses the Arizona Supreme Court’s decision in Simat Corp. v. Arizona Health Care Cost Container System. In a decision deviating from those of the United States Supreme Court, the Arizona Supreme Court declared the Arizona statute and accompanying Arizona Heath Care Cost Containment System provisions unconstitutional because they did not survive strict scrutiny analysis under the Privileges and

  15. Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies

    E-print Network

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Helfand, G. E. (1994) Pollution prevention as public policy:pollution. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 targets leak preventionprevention, coupled with public education, enforcement, and economic incentives. In general, preventing water pollution

  16. Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.

    1981-01-01

    A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injection in healthcare settings.

    PubMed Central

    Dziekan, Gerald; Chisholm, Daniel; Johns, Benjamin; Rovira, Juan; Hutin, Yvan J. F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Poor injection practices transmit potentially life-threatening pathogens. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. METHODS: The incidence of injection-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was modelled for a year 2000 cohort over a 30-year time horizon. The consequences of a "do nothing" scenario were compared with a set of hypothetical scenarios that incorporated the health gains of effective interventions. Resources needed to implement effective interventions were costed for each subregion and expressed in international dollars (I dollars). FINDINGS: Worldwide, the reuse of injection equipment in the year 2000 accounted for 32%, 40%, and 5% of new HBV, HCV and HIV infections, respectively, leading to a burden of 9.18 million DALYs between 2000 and 2030. Interventions implemented in the year 2000 for the safe (provision of single-use syringes, assumed effectiveness 95%) and appropriate (patients-providers interactional group discussions, assumed effectiveness 30%) use of injections could reduce the burden of injection-associated infections by as much as 96.5% (8.86 million DALYs) for an average yearly cost of 905 million I dollars (average cost per DALY averted, 102; range by region, 14-2293). Attributable fractions and the number of syringes and needles required represented the key sources of uncertainty. CONCLUSION: In all subregions studied, each DALY averted through policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections costs considerably less than one year of average per capita income, which makes such policies a sound investment for health care. PMID:12764494

  18. The trade-off between bank debt and trade credit for business start-ups: Financing costs versus liquidation policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Huyghebaert; Linda Van de Gucht; Cynthia Van Hulle

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the trade-off between bank debt and trade credit for entrepreneurial start-ups. Specifically, we examine how the lower cost of bank debt is weighed against the more lenient liquidation policy adopted by suppliers. Both the riskiness of the venture and the entrepreneur's control rents influence this choice. Using unique data on 325 first-time business start-ups, we find that

  19. Policy change to improve pathology turnaround time and reduce costs – possible to do both?

    PubMed Central

    Dimeski, Goce; Silvester, Breeann; Ungerer, Jacobus; Johnson, Leslie; Martin, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Overcrowding and prolonged length of stay in emergency departments (ED) are increasing problems in hospitals. Rapid availability of all laboratory results has an impact on clinical decision-making, admissions or discharge decisions and resource utilisation. Increasing number of our urinary drugs of abuse (DOA) screens had a turnaround time (TAT) of up to 33 days after the discharge of the patient. Materials and methods: Following an audit and a consultation period with clinicians using the service, a policy change was implemented to reduce the use of gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS): all requests would have a standard immunoassay (IA) test panel undertaken unless specifically they requested GCMS (including medico-legal) analysis. Results: Almost all of the clinicians interviewed had no understanding of the DOA screening or the difference in the information generated between a confirmatory GCMS urine toxicology screen and IA DOA panel. It appeared none of the patients surveyed in the audit would have had a different clinical decision made if a GCMS had not been undertaken. Post change audit showed only 4.3% of drug requests for IA also received a confirmatory GCMS testing. The estimated saving post change implementation was $127,000 (AU $) in test costs alone over a two year period. The TAT of GCMS results was reduced to 3–4 days. Conclusion: A laboratory-led behavioural change in test requesting is possible and sustainable provided the reason is clinically sound and accompanied by consultation and availability of advice by phone when requested on test requesting or interpretation. PMID:24266298

  20. Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

    We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

  1. Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

  2. Impacts of the Universal Primary Education Policy on Educational Attainment and Private Costs in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…

  3. Financing Policies for High Cost University of Minnesota Health Professions Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board, St. Paul.

    Issues and related data are examined concerning financial aid to students in the health professions at the University of Minnesota, with a focus on targeted grant programs for dentistry, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and medicine. Following a discussion of policy implications in general and an overview of each of the fields involved, eight policy

  4. Does Technological Innovation Really Reduce Marginal Abatement Costs? Some Theory, Algebraic Evidence, and Policy Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram Bauman; Myunghun Lee; Karl Seeley

    2008-01-01

    The existing literature models innovation in pollution control as a reduction in marginal abatement costs. We show that this\\u000a assumption is inappropriate for production process innovations such as fuel switching. Algebraically, we examine the effects\\u000a of different innovation types on marginal abatement cost curves, showing that some desirable innovations increase marginal abatement costs. Empirically, we estimate marginal abatement costs for

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Costs: A Comparative Analysis of Local Authority Policies in Attica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a comparative study of solid waste costs of the municipal authorities in Attica. At first, it attempts to estimate the economic cost of solid waste for a number of municipal authorities of the Attica region. The solid waste costs are determined by a number of factors, including the quantity and composition of the solid

  6. Cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in adults with severe asthma: Results from the Asthma Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann C.; Paltiel, A. David; Kuntz, Karen M.; Weiss, Scott T.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Omalizumab (trade name Xolair) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Given the high acquisition cost of omalizumab, its role and cost-effectiveness in disease management require definition. Objective We sought to identify the clinical and economic circumstances under which omalizumab might or might not be a cost-effective option by using a mathematic model. Methods We merged published data on clinical and economic outcomes (including acute event incidence, frequency/severity of hospitalizations, and health-related quality of life) to project 10-year costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness of treatment with omalizumab in addition to inhaled corticosteroids. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using input data ranges from a variety of sources (published clinical trials and observational databases). Results For patients with baseline acute event rates, omalizumab conferred an additional 1.7 quality-adjusted months at an incremental cost of $131,000 over a 10-year planning horizon, implying a cost-effectiveness ratio of $821,000 per QALY gained. For patients with 5 times the baseline acute event rate, the cost-effectiveness ratio was $491,000 per QALY gained. The projected cost-effectiveness ratio could fall within a range of other programs that are widely considered to be cost-effective if the cost of omalizumab decreases to less than $200. Conclusion Omalizumab is not cost-effective for most patients with severe asthma. The projected cost-effectiveness ratios could fall within a favorable range if the cost of omalizumab decreases significantly. Clinical implications Based on the high cost of omalizumab, it is especially important that clinicians explore alternative medications for asthma before initiating omalizumab. PMID:17904628

  7. The Policy Implications of the Cost Structure of Home Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Mukamel, Dana B; Fortinsky, Richard H; White, Alan; Harrington, Charlene; White, Laura M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cost structure of home health agencies by estimating an empirical cost function for those that are Medicare-certified, ten years following the implementation of prospective payment. Design and Methods 2010 national Medicare cost report data for certified home health agencies were merged with case-mix information from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS). We estimated a fully interacted (by tax status) hybrid cost function for 7,064 agencies and calculated marginal costs as percent of total costs for all variables. Results The home health industry is dominated by for-profit agencies, which tend to be newer than the non-profit agencies and to have higher average costs per patient but lower costs per visit. For-profit agencies tend to have smaller scale operations and different cost structures, and are less likely to be affiliated with chains. Our estimates suggest diseconomies of scale, zero marginal cost for contracting with therapy workers, and a positive marginal cost for contracting with nurses, when controlling for quality. Implications Our findings suggest that efficiencies may be achieved by promoting non-profit, smaller agencies, with fewer contract nursing staff. This conclusion should be tested further in future studies that address some of the limitations of our study. PMID:24949224

  8. The French nuclear power plant reactor building containment contributions of prestressing and concrete performances in reliability improvements and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Rouelle, P.; Roy, F. [Electricite de France, Paris (France). Engineering and Construction Div.

    1998-12-31

    The Electricite de France`s N4 CHOOZ B nuclear power plant, two units of the world`s largest PWR model (1450 Mwe each), has earned the Electric Power International`s 1997 Powerplant Award. This lead NPP for EDF`s N4 series has been improved notably in terms of civil works. The presentation will focus on the Reactor Building`s inner containment wall which is one of the main civil structures on a technical and safety point of view. In order to take into account the necessary evolution of the concrete technical specification such as compressive strength low creep and shrinkage, the HSC/HPC has been used on the last N4 Civaux 2 NPP. As a result of the use of this type of professional concrete, the containment withstands an higher internal pressure related to severe accident and ensures higher level of leak-tightness, thus improving the overall safety of the NPP. On that occasion, a new type of prestressing has been tested locally through 55 C 15 S tendons using a new C 1500 FE Jack. These updated civil works techniques shall allow EDF to ensure a Reactor Containment lifespan for more than 50 years. The gains in terms of reliability and cost saving of these improved techniques will be developed hereafter.

  9. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  10. Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Isaac A

    2010-01-01

    An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

  11. Energy, Carbon and Cost Performance of Building Stocks: Upgrade Analysis, Energy Labelling and National Policy Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Clarke; C. M. Johnstone; J. M. Kim; P. G. Tuohy

    2009-01-01

    The area of policy formulation for the energy and carbon performance of buildings is coming under increasing focus. A major challenge is to account for the large variation within building stocks relative to factors such as location, climate, age, construction, previous upgrades, appliance usage and type of heating\\/cooling\\/lighting system. Existing policy-related tools that rely on simple calculation methods have a

  12. The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1980-01-01

    The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

  13. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  14. Home care for life-supported persons: the French system of quality control, technology assessment, and cost containment.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, A I

    1989-01-01

    Home care for persons who require the prolonged use of life-supportive medical technology is a reality in several nations. France has had more than a quarter of a century of experience with providing home care for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency and with a system to evaluate the patients' outcomes. The French approach features decentralized regional organizations which offer grassroots involvement by the beneficiaries who participate directly in the system. Since June 1981, a national organization has provided patients, professionals, and others concerned with direct access to national funding authorities and governmental officials and has created a data base for evaluation of the experience. This system permits direct input by current users of the services and creates informed opinion among members of the general public, governmental officials, and others involved (health care professionals and service providers). This is essential for the development of responsive public policy and for the determination of the relevancy of programs. In the United States, increasing demands are being made upon expensive hospital services by patients with diseases such as AIDS and other catastrophic, long-term care conditions. Cost-saving, community-oriented home care models serving complex medical-societal needs abroad are worthy of study to discern possible applications to health and social problems in our nation. PMID:2502803

  15. Cost Containment Through Risk-Sharing by Primary Care Physicians: A History of the Development of United Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephen H.; Martin, Diane P.; Richardson, William C.; Riedel, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of Independent practice association has been organized to encourage primary care physicians in private practice to become coordinators and financial managers for their patients' medical care. Each patient chooses one internist, family or general physician, or pediatrician and must be referred by that physician for all specialized care. The primary care physician authorizes payment from his/her own account for hospital and referral care provided to patients. He or she shares any deficit or surplus remaining at the end of the year. This is a background paper detailing the history of development and specific features contained in this new concept of putting the physician in charge and “at risk” for the costs of medical care to his/her patients. The plan has been operating in northern California, Washington, and Utah and has 40,000 members and 750 participating physicians. This historical background paper is part of a large project—State Employees' Insurance Benefits Utilization Study (SEIBUS) being done by the University of Washington School of Public Health to evaluate use and costs of medical care under this innovative plan. PMID:10309220

  16. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  17. Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

  18. Cost and CO 2 aspects of future vehicle options in Europe under new energy policy scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Thiel; Adolfo Perujo; Arnaud Mercier

    2010-01-01

    New electrified vehicle concepts are about to enter the market in Europe. The expected gains in environmental performance for these new vehicle types are associated with higher technology costs. In parallel, the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrids is continuously improved, which in turn advances their environmental performance but also leads to additional technology costs versus today’s

  19. Modeling resource, infrastructure, and policy cost layers for optimizing renewable energy investment and deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreenivas R. Sukumar; Mohammed M. Olama; Mallikarjun Shankar; Stanton W Hadley; James J. Nutaro; Vladimir A Protopopescu; Sergey Malinchik; Barry Ives

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system

  20. The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost

  1. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  2. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  3. Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xuesong

    1 Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost Abstract To improve safety measures of loading containers on double-stack rail cars

  4. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use. PMID:20453343

  5. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  6. Québec's Childcare Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs and Benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan; Francis Roy-Desrosiers

    2011-01-01

    More than ten years ago the province of Québec implemented a universal early childhood education and care policy. This paper examines if the two objectives pursued, to increase mothers’ participation in the labour market (balance the needs of workplace and home) and to enhance child development and equality of opportunity for children, were reasonable meet. A non-experimental evaluation framework based

  7. High-Impact, Low-Cost Policy Recommendations for States to Pursue to

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    11. Appendix A ­ Works Cited 12. Appendix B ­ Survey 13. Appendix C ­ Summary of Survey Results 14. Appendix D ­ Full Survey Results #12;3 Executive Summary Every state must figure out how best to achieve at different policy options, including tax and financial strategies, training, and human capital investments

  8. Dividend Smoothing, Agency Costs, and Information Asymmetry: Lessons from the Dividend Policies of

    E-print Network

    to examine Lintner's (1956) model of dividends, as wells as more recent agency and information-based theories building, or other value-destroying activities (e.g., Jensen and Meckling (1976), Easterbrook (1984 dividend changes and the subsequent stock price reaction, other implications for dividend policy emanating

  9. Keeping Teachers on the Job Costs Less than Advertised. Policy Memorandum #168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens, Josh

    2010-01-01

    A misplaced obsession with the size of federal budget deficits remains the single biggest obstacle to enacting new measures to create jobs on a scale commensurate with the crisis in the American labor market. Even assuming that budget scoring rules can't be changed, at the very least policy makers should be aware of the true impact a given piece…

  10. An integrated assessment of two decades of air pollution policy making in Spain: Impacts, costs and improvements.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Conlan, Beth; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Narros, Adolfo

    2015-09-15

    This paper analyses the effects of policy making for air pollution abatement in Spain between 2000 and 2020 under an integrated assessment approach with the AERIS model for number of pollutants (NOx/NO2, PM10/PM2.5, O3, SO2, NH3 and VOC). The analysis of the effects of air pollution focused on different aspects: compliance with the European limit values of Directive 2008/50/EC for NO2 and PM10 for the Spanish air quality management areas; the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen on ecosystems; the exceedance of critical levels of NO2 and SO2 in forest areas; the analysis of O3-induced crop damage for grapes, maize, potato, rice, tobacco, tomato, watermelon and wheat; health impacts caused by human exposure to O3 and PM2.5; and costs on society due to crop losses (O3), disability-related absence of work staff and damage to buildings and public property due to soot-related soiling (PM2.5). In general, air quality policy making has delivered improvements in air quality levels throughout Spain and has mitigated the severity of the impacts on ecosystems, health and vegetation in 2020 as target year. The findings of this work constitute an appropriate diagnosis for identifying improvement potentials for further mitigation for policy makers and stakeholders in Spain. PMID:25965050

  11. Cost, Price and Public Policy: Peering into the Higher Education Black Box. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William L.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    This report contains a conceptual framework for analyzing costs and prices by evaluating the higher education production function and the determinants of both prices and costs. The framework can be used to strengthen understanding of costs and prices within individual institutions and to inform macro level investments at state and national levels.…

  12. Draft environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. Furthermore, the DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Davis Canyon site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Davis Canyon site is not one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization.

  13. Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations 

    E-print Network

    Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

    1980-01-01

    and manufacturing sectors are assessed. A hypothetical $10 billion insulation budget is determined to save 0.5 quad/yr of energy for the next 10 to 15 years, resulting in conservation energy costing less than $2/MMBtu. It is argued that public subsidies to energy...

  14. Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

  15. True Cost Tuition for Foreign Students: Does the Policy Serve the Commonwealth? A Campus View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Bryan K.

    Massachusetts' Tougas Amendment, which requires foreign students to pay the "true cost" of their education at the state's public colleges and universities threatens the image of the colleges and their ability to deliver on important aspects of their educational mission. Even at small institutions such as Greenfield Community College (GCC),…

  16. They Spend What? The Real Cost of Public Schools. Policy Analysis. No. 662

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Although public schools are usually the biggest item in state and local budgets, spending figures provided by public school officials and reported in the media often leave out major costs of education and thus understate what is actually spent. To document the phenomenon, this paper reviews district budgets and state records for the nation's five…

  17. Marginal Social Cost Pricing on a Transportation Network: Comparison of Second-Best Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena A. Safirova; Sébastien Houde; Winston Harrington

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate and compare long-run economic effects of six road-pricing schemes aimed at internalizing social costs of transportation. In order to conduct this analysis, we employ a spatially disaggregated general equilibrium model of a regional economy that incorporates decisions of residents, firms, and developers, integrated with a spatially-disaggregated strategic transportation planning model that features mode, time period,

  18. The financial impact of a state adopting a personal/philosophical belief exemption policy: modeling the cost of pertussis disease in infants, children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wells, Katelyn B; Omer, Saad B

    2012-09-01

    State school immunization exemption policies help reduce the risk of individual and community disease. Assessing the costs of vaccine preventable disease associated with a state adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy is useful for making future policy decisions. Two formulas were developed to estimate the infant, child and adolescent hospitalization and non-medical costs of pertussis disease that are associated with adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy. The parameter estimates were obtained from peer reviewed literature and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The state of Iowa was used as an example in order to demonstrate how the formulas can be applied. The annual projected impact of pertussis disease in Iowa is $273,365 without a philosophical/personal belief exemption policy and an average of $410,047 (range of $281,566-$582,267) with adding a personal belief exemption policy. We project that adding a philosophical/personal belief exemption will cost 50% more dollars annually. PMID:22863661

  19. The Hidden Costs of a Free Caesarean Section Policy in West Africa (Kayes Region, Mali).

    PubMed

    Ravit, Marion; Philibert, Aline; Tourigny, Caroline; Traore, Mamadou; Coulibaly, Aliou; Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The fee exemption policy for EmONC in Mali aims to lower the financial barrier to care. The objective of the study was to evaluate the direct and indirect expenses associated with caesarean interventions performed in EmONC and the factors associated with these expenses. Data sampling followed the case control approach used in the large project (deceased and near-miss women). Our sample consisted of a total of 190 women who underwent caesarean interventions. Data were collected from the health workers and with a social approach by administering questionnaires to the persons who accompanied the woman. Household socioeconomic status was assessed using a wealth index constructed with a principal component analysis. The factors significantly associated with expenses were determined using multivariate linear regression analyses. Women in the Kayes region spent on average 77,017 FCFA (163 USD) for a caesarean episode in EmONC, of which 70 % was for treatment. Despite the caesarean fee exemption, 91 % of the women still paid for their treatment. The largest treatment-related direct expenses were for prescriptions, transfusion, antibiotics, and antihypertensive medication. Near-misses, women who presented a hemorrhage or an infection, and/or women living in rural areas spent significantly more than the others. Although abolishing fees of EmONC in Mali plays an important role in reducing maternal death by increasing access to caesarean sections, this paper shows that the fee policy did not benefit to all women. There are still barriers to EmONC access for women of the lowest socio-economic group. These included direct expenses for drugs prescription, treatment and indirect expenses for transport and food. PMID:25874875

  20. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations. PMID:21554068

  1. Public College and University Procurement: A Survey of the State Regulatory Environment, Institutional Procurement Practices and Efforts toward Cost Containment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study contends that one area rich for reform and cost-saving opportunities is college and university procurement--the billions of dollars public institutions spend annually to purchase goods and services. While considerable cost savings may be realized in the reform of current procurement practices, these practices are largely shaped by state…

  2. Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II – Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    . Major State Agencies The energy data for the remaining major state agencies and some of the units within these agencies are listed in Table 1. As mentioned earlier, it is perhaps unfair to list the prison units along with the other state agencies. Many..., most of the agencies average a unit consumption of around 200,000 Btu/sf/yr or more. The potential for conservation savings exists at most of the state agencies. Tables 2 and 3 are different representation of the data contained in Table 1 . Table 2...

  3. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  4. Rigorous Program Evaluations on a Budget: How Low-Cost Randomized Controlled Trials Are Possible in Many Areas of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The increasing ability of social policy researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at low cost could revolutionize the field of performance-based government. RCTs are widely judged to be the most credible method of evaluating whether a social program is effective, overcoming the demonstrated inability of other, more common methods…

  5. Toward More Comprehensive Assessments of FERC ElectricityRestructuring Policies: A Review of Recent Benefit-Cost Studies ofRTO's

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas R.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2006-11-01

    Definitive assessment of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission policies on regional transmission organizations is not currently possible because of uncertainties in the data and methods used in recent benefit-cost studies as well as lack of investigation of key impacts of the formation of RTOs.

  6. Commercial Insurance vs Community-Based Health Plans: Time for a Policy Option With Clinical Emphasis to Address the Cost Spiral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship…

  7. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Panca, Monica; Ovcinnikova, Olga; Nocerino, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as first-line management for cow’s milk allergy (CMA) compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF), hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF), and amino acid formulae (AAF) in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents’ perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed.

  8. Current national initiatives about drug policies and cost control in Europe: the Italy example.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Francesca; Addis, Antonio; Martini, Nello

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge to the financial compatibility of health systems because it is growing faster (+11% per year in the last 5 years in Italy) than any other health sector. In order to curb public pharmaceutical expenditure 2 interventions are commonly used: delisting (de-reimbursement) and reference price, with the difference being paid by patients. The Italian Ministry of Health implemented a set of interventions with the general aim of pharmaceutical governance based on the following criteria: (a) to assure a complete coverage of all clinically and epidemiologically relevant diseases; (b) to provide health professionals with a range of different active drugs with the same therapeutic indications within the same therapeutic class; and (c) to identify a reimbursement threshold in order to save public money by narrowing the (wide) price differentials among drugs with comparable efficacy and safety. In this context, interventions have been undertaken at several levels including drug price reduction, generic drug promotion, delisting of drugs reimbursed, and direct distribution of medicines (by hospital services). Furthermore, a new National Pharmaceutical Formulary has been implemented. Medicines have been classified into homogeneous categories (ie, medicines with the same main indication(s) and with similar clinical efficacy and safety profile). Within each homogeneous category, a reimbursement level (cutoff) was then identified and, accordingly, pharmaceutical companies were asked to adjust their price. This adjustment was based on price per daily drug dose (DDD), cumulative expenditure (at least 50%), and cumulative utilization (at least 60%). This readjustment, at no cost for patients, is expected to save more than Euro 280 million of public money. Seventy-seven percent of this saving will be due to price readjustment of antiulcers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and some antibiotics (mainly cephalosporins). The Italian system was able to cover all relevant diseases and ensured citizens and health professionals a choice among a wide range of valid pharmacological therapies. At the same time it was able to save public money by narrowing wide price differentials among drugs with comparable clinical properties. The set of interventions yielded a new national formulary that was able to have a significant influence on the trend of drug expenditure in Italy. This experience can be a useful reference for other European and non-European states. PMID:15069990

  9. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP),...

  10. Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

    Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

  11. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Polettini; R Pomi; L Trinci; A Muntoni; S Lo Mastro

    2004-01-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted

  12. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Contains a list of attendees, agenda, report summaries, and a financial report

    SciTech Connect

    Guertin, Donald L.; Davis, W. Kenneth; Ikuta, Toyoaki

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  13. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

  14. Alcohol and Global Health 2 Eff ectiveness and cost-eff ectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Anderson; Dan Chisholm; Daniela C Fuhr

    This paper reviews the evidence for the eff ectiveness and cost-eff ectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the infl uence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show

  15. Payment mechanisms and the composition of physician practices: balancing cost-containment, access, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Barham, Victoria; Milliken, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We take explicit account of the way in which the supply of physicians and patients in the economy affects the design of physician remuneration schemes, highlighting the three-way trade-off between quality of care, access, and cost. Both physicians and patients are heterogeneous. Physicians choose both the number of patients and the quality of care to provide to their patients. When determining physician payment rates, the principal must ensure access to care for all patients. When physicians can adjust the number of patients seen, there is no incentive to over-treat. In contrast, altruistic physicians always quality stint: they prefer to add an additional patient, rather than to increase the quality of service provided. A mixed payment mechanism does not increase the quality of service provided with respect to capitation. Offering a menu of compensation schemes may constitute a cost-effective strategy for inducing physicians to choose a given overall caseload but may also generate difficulties with access to care for frail patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24990110

  16. CSULB FOUNDATION ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS CHARGING ON FEDERAL GRANTS

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    1 CSULB FOUNDATION ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS CHARGING ON FEDERAL GRANTS POLICY AND PROCEDURE (This only to projects which contain federal money, or agreement provisions which cite the applicability, grants, and other agreements are set out in OMB Circular A-21. A-21 defines allowable direct cost

  17. The new Greek national e-prescription system: an effective tool for improving quality of care and containing medication costs.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G; Asimakopoulos, D; Pagkalos, I

    2013-01-01

    The national e-prescription system of Greece was first introduced in 2010 and already covers more than 80% of all prescriptions prescribed today (more than 5 million per month). Its introduction provided a powerful tool for improving patient services and public health planning. The system is also already a valuable source of planning, control and transparency data for the Greek healthcare system. In addition, the experience from its application at national level in Greece has also shown that e-Prescription systems can also provide a very useful tool for better administrative control and for containing unnecessary expenditure related to medication use. PMID:23823360

  18. What are the Implications for Policy Makers? A Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Misuse in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Colin; Latimer, Nicholas; Preston, Louise; Li, Jessica; Purshouse, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBIs) for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however, evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programs are likely to be cost-effective but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. Methods: Studies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programs combining SBIs in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations. Results: The search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however, almost all studies reported SBI programs to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result. Conclusion: This review provides strong evidence that SBI programs in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse. PMID:25225487

  19. Are Natural Environments Worth It? Using a Cost-Benefit Framework To Evaluate Early Intervention Policies in Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    The utility of cost-benefit analysis in program evaluation is illustrated using hypothetical examples of the consequences of natural environments service provision. Areas for further research related to cost and benefit implications are presented. Early intervention programs can use the cost-benefit framework to evaluate the social impact of…

  20. Spallation Neutron Source high-power Rf transmitter design for high availablility, ease of installation and cost containment

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J. T. (Joseph T.), III; Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Roybal, W. T. (William T.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.)

    2003-01-01

    The availability goals and installation schedule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have driven the availability and installation of the SNS linac's high-power RF systems. This paper discusses how the high-power RF systems' availability and installation goals have been addressed in the RF transmitter design and procurement. Design features that allow R1; component failures to be quickly diagnosed and repaired are also presented. Special attention has been given lo interlocks, PLC fault logging and real-time interfaces to thc accelerator's Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) archive system. The availability and cost motivations for the use of different RF transmitter designs in the normalconducting and super-conducting sections of the linac are reviewed. Factory iicceptance tests used to insure fully functional equipment and thereby reduce the time spent on installation and cotnmissioning of the RF transmitters are discussed. Transmitter installation experience and klystron conditioning experience is used to show how these design features have helped and will continue to help the SNS linac to meet its availability and schedule goals.

  1. The impact of policy elements on the financing costs of RE investment: The case of wind power in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Giebel; Barbara Breitschopf

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy support mechanisms affect the attractiveness of projects by influencing uncertainties in revenues or expenditures and ultimately result in a change in the financing costs. The influence of feed-in tariffs on financing costs was investigated. 26 wind onshore investors were surveyed in a conjoint analysis and the results were used in a cash flow model to quantify the impact.

  2. 25 CFR 513.5 - What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accrued interest, penalty charges, or administrative costs if collection of these charges would be against equity and good conscience or not in the Commission's best interest. (2) A decision to waive interest, penalty charges, or administrative...

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Mental Disorders: Implications for Public Health Care Funding Policy in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Myhr; Krista Payne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. Method: We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. Results:

  4. "Sun Safe Kids," implementing a low cost, school-based public policy to protect Hawaii's children from skin cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Kevin D

    2010-11-01

    The rates of melanomas and skin cancers are increasing in the United States. Children attending elementary schools are in the most danger of acquiring these diseases later in life, and elementary school children in Hawaii have the greatest risk of all children in the United States. The parents and educators of Hawaii's elementary school age children are unaware of the potential risks for cancer that young children experience every day at school. Effective sun protection policies have been implemented in other jurisdictions, including Australia, that have similar risks for over-exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in children. These proven policy models can inform sun protection practices in Hawaii. A simple policy whereby public elementary schools require that children wear ordinary long sleeves shirts and hats during the school's outdoor activities will protect Hawaii's children from overexposure to sun's ultraviolet radiation. Establishment of a state law codifying the implementation of this simple, yet scientifically proven strategy into the policies of Hawaii's public elementary schools can significantly reduce the incidence and deaths from melanoma and skin cancer in the state. PMID:21218379

  5. Near term mitigation policy for global change under uncertainty: Minimizing the expected cost of meeting unknown concentration thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Yohe; Rodney Wallace

    1996-01-01

    An aggregate integrated assessment model is used to investigate the relative merits of hedging over the near term against the chance that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide will be limited as a matter of global policy. Hedging strategies are evaluated given near term uncertainty about the targeted level of limited concentrationsand the trajectory of future carbon emissions. All uncertainty is

  6. 2-1-1 Information services: Outcomes assessment, benefit-cost analysis, and policy issuesB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Saxton; Charles M. Naumer; Karen E. Fisher

    This study investigates policy issues surrounding the implementation and assessment of 2-1-1 information and referral services. More specifically, the study explores the benefits that users receive from 2-1-1 referral services that are distinct from the actual social assistance provided by various service agencies; what policymakers should consider when funding and implementing 2-1-1 services; and the operational structure and interagency relationships

  7. Managing the Arsenic Disaster in Water Supply: Risk Measurement, Costs of Illness and Policy Choices for Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zakir Hossain

    Arsenic poisoning is a major public health concern in Bangladesh. This study uses primary data to examine health impacts and costs associated with arsenic contamination of groundwater. The study estimates that some 7 to 12 million person-days per year are lost as a result of arsenic exposure. In addition, individuals who are sick spend between 207 (US$ 3.5) million to

  8. Managing the Arsenic Disaster in Water Supply:Risk Measurement, Costs of Illness and PolicyChoices for Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zakir Hossain Khan Khan

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is a major public health concern in Bangladesh. This study uses primary data to examine health impacts and costs associated with arsenic contamination of groundwater. The study estimates that some 7 to 12 million person-days per year are lost as a result of arsenic exposure. In addition, individuals who are sick spend between 207 (US$ 3.5) million to

  9. Closing the youth access gap: the projected health benefits and cost savings of a national policy to raise the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2005-12-01

    Current youth access laws, even if strictly enforced, do not prevent teenagers from obtaining cigarettes through social sources. To reduce the number of legal buyers a typical teenager routinely encounters, and to lessen ambiguity for vendors determining if a teen is of legal purchasing age, legislation raising the minimum legal purchase age (MLPA) for cigarettes to 21 has been discussed in several states. To estimate how a national law raising the smoking age to 21 would impact smoking prevalence, net costs (in terms of compliance enforcement, ID checking, and medical care) and health benefits (in terms of life years and QALYs) to the population over time, a dynamic computer simulation model was developed using publicly available secondary data. The model simulations were carried out for several scenarios assuming varying impacts of the policy change on smoking initiation probability over a 50-year period. One scenario assumes that smoking initiation probabilities for individuals under 21 shift by 3 years so a 18-year old in the simulation, for example, is as likely to initiate smoking as an 15-year old in the status quo. Under this assumption, raising the smoking age would reduce smoking prevalence for adults (age 18+) from the status quo level of 22.1-15.4% after 50 years. Prevalence would drop from 20 to 6.6% for 14-17-year olds, from 26.9 to 12.2% for 18-20-year olds, and from 21.8 to 15.5% for the 21+ group. The policy would produce a net cumulative savings to society of 212 billion US dollars (driven by reduced medical costs), and the accumulation of nearly 13 million additional QALYs over the period. PMID:16298230

  10. 77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION:...

  11. 76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION:...

  12. UPDATING PERFORMANCE AND COST OF NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA uses the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to evaluate the cost and emission impacts of proposed policies. Studies were undertaken recently to update the performance and cost factors contained in this model for various NOx control technologies. The studies showed a sig...

  13. Coordination and Policy Traps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George-Marios Angeletos; Christian Hellwig; Alessandro Pavan

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a policy maker to control equilibrium outcomes in an environment where market participants play a coordination game with information heterogeneity. We consider defense policies against speculative currency attacks in a model where speculators observe the fundamentals with idiosyncratic noise. The policy maker is willing to take a costly policy action only for moderate fundamentals.

  14. Energy conservation policy evaluation. Study module IA. Volume II. Technical appendix. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bergstresser; R. E. Berney; L. F. Carter; L. B. Craine; R. C. Dunlap

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains detailed technical analyses of the 19 energy conservation measures which were discussed as regional policy options in the report proper (PB-274 337). For each measure there is a description of how the measure works to reduce consumption; an assessment of potential savings, costs, and returns to adopters; probable 'normal' adoption rates under present policies; and potential adoption

  15. Parking Policies 1. The University's Parking Regulations, Policies and Procedures ("Policies")

    E-print Network

    Hong, Jason I.

    Policies - 1 - Parking Policies 1. The University's Parking Regulations, Policies and Procedures or operated on University property. The Parking & Transportation Office issues permits only to members the fees charged for parking permits and all costs or penalties associated with violations

  16. The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities.

  17. Health Care Technology Assessment. Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Health Cost Containment Issue: Health Technology Assessment; General Cost Containment Strategies; and Cost Implications of Defensive Medicine and Medical Malpractice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This committee hearing was held to consider factors in federal suport of health care services, including the roles of professional organizations, insurance companies, and hospitals. The process of evaluating whether the use of medical technology, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic procedures are cost-effective and beneficial is identified as…

  18. The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme.

    PubMed

    Faber, Jack H; Creamer, Rachel E; Mulder, Christian; Römbke, Jörg; Rutgers, Michiel; Sousa, J Paulo; Stone, Dorothy; Griffiths, Bryan S

    2013-04-01

    A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further optimized in terms of scientific and policy relevance. Over the past decade, developments in environmental monitoring and risk assessment converged toward the use of indicators and endpoints that are related to soil functioning and ecosystem services. In view of the proposed European Union (EU) Soil Framework Directive, there is an urgent need to identify and evaluate indicators for soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. The recently started integrated project, Ecological Function and Biodiversity Indicators in European Soils (EcoFINDERS), aims to address this specific issue within the EU Framework Program FP7. Here, we 1) discuss how to use the concept of ecosystem services in soil monitoring, 2) review former and ongoing monitoring schemes, and 3) present an analysis of metadata on biological indicators in some EU member states. Finally, we discuss our experiences in establishing a logical sieve approach to devise a monitoring scheme for a standardized and harmonized application at European scale. PMID:23325463

  19. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  20. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  1. Cost Estimates for Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Woo; Clive Cockram

    2000-01-01

    With increasing chronic disease and disability burden as a result of the aging of populations worldwide, cost estimates of disease and disability are important in determining: 1. the most cost-effective methods in delivering healthcare in order to maximise resources; and 2. health policies and resource allocation. Cost may be divided into direct, indirect and intangible costs. Economic evaluations include cost-benefit,

  2. 76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

  3. Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Economic Development Institute Seminar Background Papers (Washington, D.C., April 1987). EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Joseph P., Ed.; Oliveira, Joao B., Ed.

    This volume discusses the major options decisionmakers face when they are dealing with teacher career and remuneration policies. The document deals with a central question: how can remuneration and managerial policies help improve teacher effectiveness? The book is divided into three parts containing 15 papers. The first part, "The Cost and…

  4. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-12-16

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  5. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  6. 48 CFR 22.103-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.103-2 Section...APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.103-2 Policy. Contractors shall...overall costs to the Government will result or when...

  7. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act expeditiously whether...authorities, including public benefit transfers, economic development conveyances at cost and...

  8. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act expeditiously whether...authorities, including public benefit transfers, economic development conveyances at cost and...

  9. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act expeditiously whether...authorities, including public benefit transfers, economic development conveyances at cost and...

  10. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  11. DIRECT RESEARCH COSTS -A guide for research and administrative staff. This information has been drawn from NHMRC Grant policies and the Deed of

    E-print Network

    Blennerhassett, Peter

    as the operations and maintenance of buildings, use of facilities and libraries, hazardous waste disposal in the application Medicare costs (out of pocket medical expenses) reimbursement of reasonable costs associated with randomised control (RCT) trials studies reasonable medical diagnosis costs (MRI, PET, CT, ultrasound

  12. Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

  13. Policy Handbook PUBLIC POLICY

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    1 Policy Handbook PUBLIC POLICY GRADUATE PROGRAM 2009-2010 Public Policy Graduate Office Brigham available to you. This Handbook is published by the Public Policy Department as a sup- plement in Public Policy. The purpose of the Handbook is to provide this additional information as a guidance

  14. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

  15. Costs Associated with a Strict Policy to Eradicate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Dutch University Medical Center: A 10Year Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vriens; H. Blok; A. Fluit; A. Troelstra; C. van der Werken; J. Verhoef

    2002-01-01

    .   Although the Dutch policy to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very strict compared to policies employed in other countries, it has proven to be successful epidemiologically\\u000a (incidence of MRSA in the Netherlands, <0.5%). The present study was performed to investigate both the financial and the logistical\\u000a consequences of this strict, so-called \\

  16. The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Lan

    2014-10-21

    Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

  17. Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

  18. The effect of selective contracting on hospital costs and revenues.

    PubMed Central

    Zwanziger, J; Melnick, G A; Bamezai, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of selective contracting on California hospital costs and revenues over the 1983-1997 period. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Annual disclosure data and discharge data sets for 421 California general acute care hospitals from 1980 to 1997. ANALYSIS: Using measures of competition developed from patient-level discharge data, and financial and utilization measures from the disclosure data, we estimated a fixed effect multivariate regression model of hospital costs and revenues. FINDINGS: We found that hospitals in more competitive areas had a substantially lower rate of increase in both costs and revenues over this extended period of time. For-profit hospitals lowered their costs and revenues after selective contracting was initiated relative to the cost and revenue levels of not-for-profit hospitals. The Medicare PPS has also led high-cost hospitals to lower their costs. CONCLUSIONS: The more competitive the hospital's market, the greater degree to which it has had to lower the rate of increase in costs. A similar pattern exists with regard to hospital revenues. Both of these trends appear to result from the growth of selective contracting. It remains unclear to what extent these cost reductions were the result of increased efficiency or of reduced quality. Since hospital cost growth is sensitive to the competitiveness of its market, antitrust enforcement is a critical element in any cost containment policy. PMID:11055452

  19. University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, John K.

    2010-01-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

  20. The Cost-Effectiveness of Baccalaureate Programs at Two-Year Public Colleges: A Policy Option to Support the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher Scott

    2012-01-01

    The unanimous passing of the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011 highlights the need to create a cost-effective pathway to baccalaureate degree growth. Using an exploratory case study design, this study compared the cost-effectiveness of two baccalaureate degree programs offered by institutions in the State University System of…

  1. PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 MD PROGRAM HANDBOOK: #12://med.stanford.edu/md/policies/. Every effort is made to ensure the information contained in this handbook is accurate and current changes in applicable regulations, procedures, policies, requirements, and other information contained

  2. DOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS? &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Lyonw

    2006-01-01

    U.S. defense policy encourages the use of dual sourcing to reduce government procurement costs, but recent theoretical work raises doubts about the benefits of this policy. I study the determinants of dual sourcing and its effects on government procurement costs using a panel dataset of tactical missiles. I find dual sourcing is not driven by failures to reduce costs; instead,

  3. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  4. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  5. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  6. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  7. Cost-Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  8. 7 CFR 29.9221 - Policy statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing the...Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Policy Statement § 29.9221 Policy statement. Public Law 97-98 enacted on...

  9. Climate Change Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

  10. EPS Policy on Financial Support for Student Travel / Research Students requesting financial support to help offset costs to attend and present research at

    E-print Network

    EPS Policy on Financial Support for Student Travel / Research Students requesting financial support guidelines: 1) All students must seek all possible sources of financial support, specifically, a) Student Travel grants, and 4) EPS Travel Awards. All students should discuss these options

  11. Financial Repression, Tax Evasion and Long-Run Monetary and Fiscal Policy Trade-Off in an Endogenous Growth Model with Transaction Costs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2006 Preliminary draft Abstract: In this paper, we study maximizing long-run economic growth trade.minea@univ-orleans.fr. #12;1 I. Introduction The impact of monetary and fiscal policies on long-run economic growth that increases in productive government spending can have very large effects on long run output because

  12. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zotos; A. Karagiannidis; S. Zampetoglou; A. Malamakis; I.-S. Antonopoulos; S. Kontogianni; G. Tchobanoglous

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities;

  13. Quantitative Policy Evaluation of the Top Runner Method Household Appliance Efficiency Standards Regulations in Japan by Cost-benefit Analysis (Japanese)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2006-01-01

    As one policy responding to energy and environmental problems, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) implements regulations which oblige manufacturers and importers to achieve specified energy consumption efficiency levels in household appliances and other items sold on the domestic market by given target years based on the Energy Conservation Law (the Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy).These

  14. The Retail City in Greater Birmingham – The changing face of urban retail districts as a result of retail-led regeneration and containment policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermanus Geyer Jr

    2011-01-01

    The paper critically reviews retail-led regeneration and retail containment polices and their effects on the urban retail in the UK by analysing the effect that retail-led mega-schemes regeneration projects have on the economic growth of inner cities. There is significant controversy whether mega-schemes in retail-led regeneration initiatives contribute to the growth of local economies or whether it leads to the

  15. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  16. Web Policies

    Cancer.gov

    Web and Digital Policies Accessibility Policy Copyright and Reuse of Graphics and Text Disclaimer of Endorsement and Liability Freedom of Information Act NCI Comment Policy Privacy and Security Policy Website Linking Policy

  17. The welfare costs of not being part of the knowledge economy: why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Aerni

    Abstract Abstract Abstract All forms of knowledge, from advanced science to the simple idea of finding a new use for an old good, con- tribute to economic growth, not by competing for scarce resources in existing markets but by creating new mar- kets. Current agricultural, environmental and develop- ment policies ignore the social welfare generated by new markets because they

  18. Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Chang, R W

    1994-08-01

    The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services. PMID:8087599

  19. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  20. Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

  1. Teaching Self-Sufficiency: An Impact and Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Home Visitation and Life Skills Education Program. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Meckstroth; rew Burwick; Quinn Moore; Michael Ponza; Shawn Marsh; rew McGuirk; Tim Novak; Zhanyun Zhao

    2008-01-01

    This report presents 30-month impact and benefit-cost analysis findings for the Building Nebraska Families program, an intensive home visitation and life skills education program for hard-to-employ TANF clients in rural Nebraska. The program improved employment near the end of the 30-month followup and significantly improved family income and reduced poverty. It also had major impacts for a subgroup of more

  2. 40 CFR 610.14 - Payment of program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Payment of program costs. 610.14 Section 610.14...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...610.14 Payment of program costs. (a) All costs incurred in an evaluation...

  3. State mental health policy: an interactive tool to estimate costs and resources for a first-episode psychosis initiative in New York State.

    PubMed

    Humensky, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lisa B; Essock, Susan M

    2013-09-01

    The New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH), which is a partner in the RAISE (Recovery After Initial Schizophrenia Episode) Connection program, is scaling up services for individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and must estimate the number of specialized treatment teams needed across the state. This column describes a modeling tool that allows users to input various estimates for relevant variables and see the impact on projections for number of FEP teams needed and the costs of those teams. The interactive, Excel-based tool can be adapted for other treatment settings and programs. PMID:24026833

  4. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Bone, Gary

    (including Foundations). The existing policies with respect to contracts with government agencies in which sector contracts is to be calculated at forty percent (40%) of the total project costs. 2. Research FOR DISTINGUISHING GIFTS, RESEARCH GRANTS AND RESEARCH CONTRACTS Gifts and Donations Research Grants Research

  5. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  6. STAFF POLICY ICYSTAFF POLICY

    E-print Network

    and personal develop- ment as well as job satisfaction. The staff policy also reflects the kind of workplace or not the staff member in question is a permanent employee and whether the case involves academic staff. They permit the staff policy to contribute to general job satisfaction and help the university realise its

  7. PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ACADEMIC YEAR 2007-2008 MD PROGRAM HANDBOOK: #12 to ensure the information contained in this handbook is accurate and current at the time the handbook goes regulations, procedures, policies, requirements, and other information contained in this document at any time

  8. PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PROCEDURES, POLICIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ACADEMIC YEAR 2008-2009 MD PROGRAM HANDBOOK: #12 online at http://med.stanford.edu/md/policies/. Every effort is made to ensure the information contained, and other information contained in this document at any time without notice. Cover photo credit, fourth

  9. An evaluation of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales, UK: a randomised controlled trial of a public health policy initiative

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Williams, Nefyn; Raisanen, Larry; Moore, Graham; Linck, Pat; Hounsome, Natalia; Din, Nafees Ud; Moore, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background The Wales National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) is a 16-week programme including motivational interviewing, goal setting and relapse prevention. Method A pragmatic randomised controlled trial with nested economic evaluation of 2160 inactive participants with coronary heart disease risk (CHD, 1559, 72%), mild to moderate depression, anxiety or stress (79, 4%) or both (522, 24%) randomised to receive (1) NERS or (2) normal care and brief written information. Outcome measures at 12?months included the 7-day physical activity recall, the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results Ordinal regression identified increased physical activity among those randomised to NERS compared with those receiving normal care in all participants (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.43), and among those referred for CHD only (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.60). For those referred for mental health reason alone, or in combination with CHD, there were significantly lower levels of anxiety (OR ?1.56, 95% CI ?2.75 to ?0.38) and depression (OR ?1.39, 95% CI ?2.60 to ?0.18), but no effect on physical activity. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £12?111 per quality adjusted life year, falling to £9741 if participants were to contribute £2 per session. Conclusions NERS was effective in increasing physical activity among those referred for CHD risk only. Among mental health referrals, NERS did not influence physical activity but was associated with reduced anxiety and depression. Effects were dependent on adherence. NERS is likely to be cost effective with respect to prevailing payer thresholds. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47680448. PMID:22577180

  10. Costs of groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

  11. An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation: A Policy Statement by The National Council on Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon; And Others

    This publication contains An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation--the policy statement of the National Council on Employment Policy--and three background papers by individual members. The statement addresses these topics: Will the Recession End Inflation?, Which Anti-Recession Measures?, But What About Inflation?, and A Policy of…

  12. Language Policy and Planning in Namibia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haacke, Wilfrid

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of language policy formation and planning in Namibia focuses on the policy document of the liberation movement calling for constitutional rights for its local languages. It covers the language policy, evolution of the policy, the role of English and the local languages, and nation building through diversity. (Contains 58 references.)…

  13. 48 CFR 9904.407 - Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407 Use of standard costs...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.407 - Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407 Use of standard costs...

  15. Trade Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

  16. Essays on Environmental Regulatory Policy

    E-print Network

    Dobson, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    optimal abatement policy to achieve the recovery of an acidified aquatic ecosystem.aquatic ecosystem from acidification. I find the optimalecosystem services and the costs of different control measures to determine the optimal

  17. Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Fern; Sung Wook Yoon; Robert Givan

    2003-01-01

    We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual cost- function learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policy-language biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve. In particular, we induce high-quality domain-specific plan ners for clas- sical planning domains (both deterministic and stochastic variants) by

  18. EFEITO DO TIPO DE SUBSTRA TO E DA PRESENÇA DE ADUBAÇÃO SUPLEMENT AR SOBRE O CRESCIMENT O VEGETATIVO, NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL, CUSTO DE PRODUÇÃO E INTENSIDADE DE CERCOSPORIOSE EM MUDAS DE CAFEEIRO FORMADAS EM TUBETES Effects of substrate type and supplementary fertilization on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production costs, and brown eye spot of coffee seedlings in stiff plastic containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adélia Aziz; Alexandre Pozza; Paulo Tácito; Gontijo Guimarães; Edson Ampélio Pozza; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Marcelo Montanari; Renato Ferreira de Souza

    The utilization of stiff plastic containers for producing coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.) is a reality. Aiming to evaluate the effects of substrate type enriched or not with slow-release fertilizer on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production cost and, brown eye spot of coffee seedlings, an experiment was conducted in the plant nursery. The experimental design was a factorial scheme with

  19. Hypergraph containers

    E-print Network

    Saxton, David; Thomason, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    with probability p, then with probability tending to 1 as N ? ?, any subset of X of size #15;|X| contains an arithmetic progression of length `. Further examples and details can be found in [57]. 3. Containers A couple of simple notions are needed for the statement... ]), and it is the application which has shaped the algorithm that we use to construct containers. The technical details of the list colouring and extremal graph theory applications are supplied later in §8–10. As for the arithmetical applications, we state them here in order...

  20. Sharps container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-09-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  1. HUMAN RESOURCES TUITION REIMBURSEMENT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    HUMAN RESOURCES TUITION REIMBURSEMENT POLICY EINSTEIN EXEMPT STAFF PURPOSE: To provide tuition to Einstein's Tuition Reimbursement Policy: A. Reimbursement of tuition costs will be approved for those full-time employees taking courses or degree programs which are determined by the College to be directly related

  2. Trade Policy

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

  3. Development and evaluation of die and container materials. First quarterly progress report, October 1December 31, 1977. Silicon Sheet Task, Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. [For handling molten silicon for crystal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Wills; D. E. Neisz

    1978-01-01

    The JPL Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project has been established with the goal of decreasing the cost of solar photovoltaic arrays for electrical power generation. Methods of producing silicon sheet for solar cells are under active development as one of several tasks designed to achieve this objective. In the crystal growing processes a refractory crucible is required to hold

  4. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  5. NIH and NCI Grants-Related Policies

    Cancer.gov

    This section contains links compiled by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI policies related to grant applications and has FAQs related to grants policies.

  6. Language Policy and Planning in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vic

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of language policy formation and planning in South Africa covers the following: the sociolinguistic complexity of the country, language-related national problems, language in nation building, current policy, and language planning agencies. (Contains 75 references.) (LB)

  7. A transaction cost approach to unilateral presidential action 

    E-print Network

    Marchbanks, Miner Peek, III

    2006-04-12

    chooses between seeking congressional action versus acting unilaterally through executive orders to accomplish policy change. The theory holds that when presidents desire policy change, they balance the transaction costs executive orders and legislative...

  8. Rural Policy Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the past several decades, a number of policy institutes and think-tanks have been formed to open a substantial dialogue about issues affecting rural communities. The Rural Policy Research Institute is one of these organizations, and involves scientists and policy analysts from Iowa State University, the University of Missouri, the University of Nebraska and other affiliated institutions. The Web site is divided into a number of sections, including a publications area, a section that contains editorials written by Institute fellows and staff members, and an area dedicated to providing information about helpful resources such as basic statistics about rural America. On the left side of the home page, visitors can also browse the Web pages of the Institute's affiliated centers such as the Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis and the Rural Poverty Research Center. Finally, users can elect to sign up for an electronic newsletter that will update them about upcoming events, conferences, and publications related to rural policy issues.

  9. Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much

  10. Hepatitis B vaccination: the cost effectiveness of alternative strategies in England and Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mangtani; A J Hall; C E Normand

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the cost effectiveness of adding universal hepatitis B vaccination in infancy or pre-adolescence to a policy of selective vaccination of at risk groups. DESIGN--Costs of a selective policy and additional costs of universal vaccination policies were estimated from costs of vaccine delivery and published data on target populations. Additional years of life gained were calculated for each policy

  11. Japanese national policy towards the automobile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Koshi; Masao Miyazaki; Shigeru Morichi; Yoji Takahashi; Yoshio Tsukio; Hitoshi Honda; Waichiro Hayashi

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses Japanese policies to minimize the social costs of car use. The government has not been against the use of cars, but the cumulative effect of policies has been to discourage it.The background to policy is described: Japan's historical lack of roads for wheeled vehicles and the notion that private use of cars is luxurious and wasteful. Despite

  12. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

  13. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  14. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Roddy; R. E. Blanco; G. S. Hill; R. E. Moore; R. D. Seagren; J. P. Witherspoon

    1976-01-01

    A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low

  15. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jr. Davis; R. E. Blanco; B. C. Finney; G. S. Hill; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

    2011-01-01

    A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear

  16. Selective cost-reducing innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherrill Shaffer

    1984-01-01

    In the short run, capital-saving technological change may reduce fixed cost whereas labor-saving innovation reduces variable\\u000a costs. It is shown that risk averse firms prefer the former type of innovation when facing random demand. Deterministic incentives\\u000a for competitive firms are also discussed.\\u000a \\u000a This paper embodies the views of the authro and does not represent the views or policy of the

  17. Impact of Intellectual Property Rights on Aids Public Health Policy in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samira Guennif; Claude Mfuka

    After a committed policy to contain the spread of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Thailand, another challenge must now be faced: that of providing accessible anti-AIDS treatment to those infected. This paper explores both the technical and legal aspects of a possible solution involving the provision of low-cost medicines by the Thai pharmaceutical industry. It shows that even if the efficient

  18. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Environmental Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate Negotiation Branch (3804F), Cost Advisory and Financial Analysis Division, Washington, DC 20460. Where EPA is not the cognizant agency, the final rate proposal...

  19. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  20. Seeking value as cancer drug costs soar.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-08-01

    As significant increases in the costs of cancer drugs cause financial difficulties for many U.S. patients, some oncologists suggest that changes in pricing policies at the federal and state levels are inevitable. PMID:23928760

  1. Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

  2. 7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

  3. 7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

  4. 7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

  5. A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management 

    E-print Network

    Spencer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

  6. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  7. Fiscal Costs of Curricular Mandates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sushil

    1989-01-01

    Examines 3 of 26 curriculum documents distributed by the Ontario Ministry of Education in one year to demonstrate that policy statements pay little heed to costs involved. Discusses variables in curricular change: teacher availability and training, student characteristics, materials and physical facilities, instructional technology, and finances.…

  8. District nebuliser compressor service: reliability and costs.

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, M. E.; Hanley, S. P.; Johnson, S. C.; Webb, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is little information on the costs of maintaining a district nebuliser compressor service. This retrospective study examines the issue, reliability, and maintenance costs of electrical compressors to assist the prediction of future costs, taking into account recent safety legislation. METHODS--Records of issue, repair, and replacement for the period 1982-91 were reviewed. The current policy of repairing and replacing as necessary, and three other theoretical costings, were considered. RESULTS--The number of compressors being issued is increasing. Repaired compressors are less reliable and frequency of repair is a function of compressor age. The current policy is the most cost effective. CONCLUSIONS--To repair and replace nebuliser compressors as necessary is the most economical policy under the present terms offered by the manufacturers, but changes in safety legislation will affect the provision of such services. PMID:7886657

  9. A comparison of public policies for lead recycling

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01

    Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

  10. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 2004, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy offered recommendations for a coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy. Commission regional working groups included state governors, scientists and stakeholders. The Commission's final report, "An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century," contains 212 recommendations addressing all aspects of ocean and coastal policy. Report results are presented here.

  11. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  12. New Data for Cost Estimating at the Conceptual Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James Y., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a national building cost data file for large-scale pooling and sharing of critical cost information. Contains a framework for organizing cost data according to a system of major building elements. (Author/MLF)

  13. In Situ Conservation: Methods and Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Virchow

    Conservation policies will be pursued with quite different sets of instruments and conservation methods depending on the objectives and the costs implied. In this chapter, the objectives of genetic resources conservation are discussed and in situ conservation methods are described, and the costs related to these conservation methods are analyzed. This chapter demonstrates that despite the intensive multilateral discussions regarding

  14. The Cost of Quality Assurance in Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Thompson; R. Heather Palmer; Janet K. Rothrock; Rose Strain; Laura H. Brachman; Elizabeth A. Wright

    1983-01-01

    Cost analysis has beenfrequently neglected in program evaluations but is currently of high relevance in policy decisions on quality assurance in medicine. The Ambulatory Care Medical Audit Demonstration (A CMAD) Project implemented and evaluated a program of medical record-based quality assurance in eleven sites for nine medical topics. Total direct costs for the project were $1.22 million over five years;

  15. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE COST RECOVERY AND DISTRIBUTION

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    based upon the affiliation and relative contributions of key personnel to project objectives. Policy identified with a particular sponsored project or activity, they must be recovered from funding agencies include budget requests for F&A costs using the appropriate federal F&A cost rate. When a funding agency

  16. Standard cost elements for technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

  17. Cost Comparisons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

  18. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    and an unincorporated business, who is not an employee of the University at the relevant time, engaged to provideAdministration Policy Complete Policy Title: Engagement of Independent Contractors Policy Number Employees [most recent approval: October 18, 2008] Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration

  19. Cost Sharing in Public Universities: A Kenyan Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Anthony J.; Wandiga, Shem O.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of government policy on higher education finance in Kenya, outlines parameters of an appropriate tuition policy (cost recovery, equity, equal access, affordability, student loan program objectives), and provides a model for simulating loan program outcomes. Suggests several proposed policy and administrative reforms concerning…

  20. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Reduction in United States Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard I.; Miller, Peggy M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship in college administration between cost effectiveness/cost reduction and planning, management, and evaluation is explored, and approaches to cost accounting and financial ratio analysis are discussed. It is concluded that it is important to emphasize institutional mission and people rather than cost containment and productivity.…

  2. 75 FR 2551 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  3. 76 FR 5180 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  4. 77 FR 801 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  5. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  6. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1989-09-01

    ``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

  7. Taking Steps for Children: A Citizen's Guide to Child Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, N. G.; And Others

    This guide contains suggestions for citizens to follow in exploring and addressing policies that affect children. The guide focuses on federal child policy, but the strategies described also apply to policies at the state and local levels. The first part of the guide describes sources of information on government policies relating to children.…

  8. 48 CFR 841.201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring Utility Services 841.201 Policy. As required by 801.602-71, contracting officers must submit solicitations and proposed agreements for utility services exceeding $50,000 in total costs to the appropriate Acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 23.002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE 23.002 Policy. ...includes developing programs to promote and implement cost-effective waste reduction. [76 FR 31399, May 31,...

  10. 48 CFR 23.002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE 23.002 Policy. ...includes developing programs to promote and implement cost-effective waste reduction. [76 FR 31399, May 31,...

  11. 48 CFR 23.002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE 23.002 Policy. ...includes developing programs to promote and implement cost-effective waste reduction. [76 FR 31399, May 31,...

  12. 23 CFR 771.105 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...efficient transportation; of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of...approach be essential parts of the development process for proposed actions...regulation or policy. (e) Costs incurred by the applicant...

  13. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  14. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  15. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  16. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  17. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  18. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear...

  19. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear...

  20. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear...

  1. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear...

  2. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear...

  3. Determination of optimal LWR containment design, excluding accidents more severe than Class 8

    SciTech Connect

    Cave, L.; Min, T.K.

    1980-04-01

    Information is presented concerning the restrictive effect of existing NRC requirements; definition of possible targets for containment; possible containment systems for LWR; optimization of containment design for class 3 through class 8 accidents (PWR); estimated costs of some possible containment arrangements for PWR relative to the standard dry containment system; estimated costs of BWR containment.

  4. Actual Cost Allocation Summary, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    This report contains budgetary and financial information from Wisconsin's 16 technical colleges for the 1998-99 fiscal year. During this fiscal year, the Technical College System enrolled 442,274 students by headcount and 57,667 FTE students. The total operational cost was $604 million with an average cost per student of $1,366 and an average cost

  5. Low Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts

    E-print Network

    Low Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 #12;LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques

  6. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  7. Maintenance policy designs for PC manufacturers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ting Lin; Tony Ambler

    2005-01-01

    The cost of field service has significantly increased the need for design for maintainability (DFM). How to decide which maintenance policy should be performed is one of the service cost reduction problems. Exploiting the knowledge-based technology as well as the multi-objective analysis, this paper presents a decision tree selecting model (DTSM) for alternative maintenance policies, and further, develops a weight-based

  8. Self Contained Temperature Actuated Control Valves

    E-print Network

    Pirkle, F.

    1979-01-01

    There is a virtually unlimited potential for energy conservation by utilizing self contained temperature actuated valves. As steam costs soar it becomes more and more important to conserve feed stock dollars as well as the energy these dollars...

  9. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...readable to the traveling public, containing a statement...commuter air carrier's policy on baggage...

  10. 32 CFR 643.34 - Policy-Public utilities on installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Policy-Public utilities on installations...REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.34 Policy—Public utilities on installations...contained in Armed Services Procurement Regulations. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS... § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...the traveling public, containing...air carrier's policy on baggage...

  12. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS... § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...the traveling public, containing...air carrier's policy on baggage...

  13. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS... § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...the traveling public, containing...air carrier's policy on baggage...

  14. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS... § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection...the traveling public, containing...air carrier's policy on baggage...

  15. 32 CFR 165.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING RECOUPMENT OF NONRECURRING COSTS (NCs) ON SALES OF U.S. ITEMS § 165.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The NC recoupment charge shall...

  16. 32 CFR 165.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING RECOUPMENT OF NONRECURRING COSTS (NCs) ON SALES OF U.S. ITEMS § 165.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The NC recoupment charge shall...

  17. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA DEBT MANAGEMENT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    BY THIS POLICY 2 IV. FINANCING OBJECTIVES 2 V. RESPONSIBILITIES 3 VI. DEBT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 3 VII. DEBT objectives. Debt, particularly tax-exempt debt, provides a low cost source of capital to fund investments It is the policy of the University of South Florida that debt financing conform to the authority granted by Florida

  18. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  19. Listening for Prescriptions: A National Consultation on Pharmaceutical Policy Issues

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steve; Cunningham, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Methods: Pharmaceutical policy is an increasingly costly, essential and challenging component of health system management. We sought to identify priority pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada and to translate them into research priorities using key informant interviews, stakeholder surveys and a deliberative workshop. Results: We found consensus on overarching policy goals: to provide all Canadians with equitable and sustainable access to necessary medicines. We also found widespread frustration that many key pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada — including improving prescription drug financing and pricing — have been persistent challenges owing to a lack of policy coordination. The coverage of extraordinarily costly medicines for serious conditions was identified as a rapidly emerging policy issue. Conclusion: Targeted research and knowledge translation activities can help address key policy issues and, importantly, challenges of policy coordination in Canada and thereby reduce inequity and inefficiency in policy approaches and outcomes. PMID:22043223

  20. Health Policy and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theodis

    1979-01-01

    The Carter administration's position on health care focuses on cost containment, nutrition, and child care. While these are significant issues, they do not address the basic reorganization needed in the health industry if it is to be responsive to all citizens regardless of race, ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status. (Author/GC)

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Health financing in the poor countries : cost recovery or cost reduction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brunet-Jailly

    1991-01-01

    Many donor agencies have tended to view the problem of financing health care services in developing countries as a problem of cost recovery. Policy reforms based on this view have therefore focused on measures, such as user charges and insurance, intended to generate additional revenues to meet recurrent resource needs. However, the potential to actually reduce costs by eliminating waste

  3. Cost Analysis of Correctional Standards: Institutional-Based Programs and Parole. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Neil M.; Wright, Virginia B.

    This second of two volumes provides cost guidelines and cost estimation techniques for use by jurisdictions in assessing costs of their own ongoing or contemplated correctional program activities. (Volume I is a companion summary published as a separate document for use by criminal justice policy-makers in need of a reference to the policy issues…

  4. Prevention, Eradication, and Containment of Invasive Species: Illustrations from Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Burnett; Brooks A. Kaiser; Basharat A. K. Pitafi; James A. Roumasset

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species change ecosystems and the economic services such ecosystems provide. Optimal policy will minimize the expected damages and costs of prevention and control. We seek to explain policy outcomes as a function of biological and economic factors, using the case of Hawaii to illustrate. First, we consider an existing invader, Miconia calvescens, a plant with the potential to reduce

  5. Application of activity-based costing: some case experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gunasekaran; H. B. Marri; Y. Y. Yusuf

    1999-01-01

    In present day manufacturing organizations, performance measurements play an important role in providing strategic directions and developing corresponding operational policies and methods. One such method is the activity-based costing (ABC) method which calculates the cost of activities and helps in making decisions on product mix and price for improving the utilization of resources and minimizing the cost of production. Even

  6. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  7. DOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS? Thomas P. Lyonw

    E-print Network

    Lyon, Thomas P.

    of dual sourcing to reduce government procurement costs, but recent theoretical work raises doubts about bias, dual sourcing is found to reduce government procurement costs significantly. I. INTRODUCTIONDOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS?Ã Thomas P. Lyonw U.S. defense policy encourages the use

  8. MARKETING AND POLICY BRIEFING PAPER

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    MARKETING AND POLICY BRIEFING PAPER Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, College recently been focused on retail fluid milk prices, especially in Northeastern markets. Based on alleged the "fairness" of marketing margins is a difficult task. There are unavoidable costs in selling milk. Some, like

  9. A review of solar energy : markets, economics and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy developmentand deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher

  10. Managing the cost drivers of medical injectables.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kjel A

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, the cost increases of medical injectables--pharmaceuticals and apparatus used to treat rare and chronic diseases--have far outstripped the rises in medical costs in general. Health plans have taken notice, and many are designing and implementing new procedures for managing these treatments. The task is complex and challenging, but identifying and addressing the cost drivers and, in particular, creating specialty pharmacy networks, hold the promise of containing the spiraling cost of medical injectables. PMID:12747140

  11. Dean's List Policy Academic Policy

    E-print Network

    Frean, Marcus

    .1 General (a) The Deans List recognises and celebrates excellence in academic achievement in undergraduateDean's List Policy Academic Policy © Victoria University of Wellington Page 1 Effective From: 21 November 2013 1 Purpose The Deans List will be published annually to recognise excellence in academic

  12. LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in laboratories or research is responsible for reporting laser acquisition to the Office of Laboratory Safety, selecting a departmental deputy laser safety officer, mandating training for its laser operators

  13. > REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER < 1 Abstract--At the port-of-entry containers are inspected

    E-print Network

    Xie, Minge

    Security Initiative (CSI) to ensure container security through different approaches starting from of inspections, number of containers to be inspected, and the inspection policy have a profound effect

  14. Payers’ Costly Battle Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    APPLEBY, CHUCK

    2005-01-01

    In a classic managed care struggle between cost containment and physician autonomy, health plans’ efforts to rein in the expense of biotech cancer drugs are meeting stiff resistance from oncologists. They staunchly defend their practice of buying such drugs and marking up their prices to cover service costs as a critical component of cancer care. Here’s a look at the issues on both sides. PMID:23393459

  15. A Composite Framework for Behavioral Compliance with Information Security Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Aurigemma; Raymond Panko

    2012-01-01

    To combat potential security threats, organizations rely upon information security policies to guide employee actions. Unfortunately, employee violations of such policies are common and costly enough that users are often considered the weakest link in information security. This paper presents a composite theoretical framework for understanding employee behavioral compliance with organizational information security policies. Building off of the theory of

  16. Bounds on optimal replacement time of age replacement policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Amari; W. Fulton

    2003-01-01

    Preventive replacement of units is an important maintenance activity to avoid failures and associated cost\\/down-time. One of the basic and simple replacement policies is the age replacement policy, where the unit is replaced upon a failure or at a prefixed age, whichever occurs first. In the literature, optimal policies are studied to find the prefixed replacement age in order to

  17. Effectiveness of Two Water Conservation Policies: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biswa R. Das; David B. Willis; Jeffrey W. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in the Texas High Plains depends entirely on the Ogallala Aquifer. Texas enacted water conservation legislation to address declining reserves in the aquifer. We developed an integrated regional water policy model that links a hydrology model with an economic optimization model to estimate policy impacts with respect to economic cost and water conservation. Testing the effectiveness of two policies,

  18. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems

    PubMed Central

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2014-01-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime. PMID:25383258

  19. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may directly benefit that project and are generally counted as cost sharing. Direct-cost cost sharing support, and other resources as direct support for the project, as well as related indirect costs

  20. Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

  1. State and Local Clean Energy Policy Primer: Getting from Here to Clean Electricity with Policy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This fact sheet proposes a framework for how states and localities can build policy portfolios by first setting the stage for clean energy in the market with low cost policies, and then growing the market with successive policies until the need for financial incentives can be reduced and eventually eliminated.

  2. Working Healthy Participants: Earning More & Costing Less

    E-print Network

    Hall, Jean P.; Kurth, Noelle K.

    2009-03-01

    , Graduate Research Assistants Emily Tonsfeldt, Student Assistant Kansas Health Policy Authority Mary Ellen O’Brien Wright, Senior Manager Nancy Scott, Program Manager H E A L T H YW O R K I N G ...Policy Brief Making health care work H E A L T H YW O R K I N G UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MEDICAID INFRASTRUCTURE CHANGE EVALUATION PROJECT Working Healthy Participants: Earning More & Costing Less Number 12 • March 2009 By Jean P. Hall, Ph...

  3. University of Sheffield Sustainable Print Policy 2013

    E-print Network

    Martin, Stephen John

    for the maintenance and implementation of this policy is upheld by CICS and the University Print Management Team (UPMT. To support the University's Faculties and Professional Services to reduce the cost of printing and to reduce and cost-effective print service for the University. Printing & Photocopying 8. Wherever possible

  4. Rural Policy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray

    Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

  5. Higher Education. NAM Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY. Education Committee.

    Higher education is facing a financial crisis causing many institutions to cut back their budgets. These cutbacks can be attributed principally to improper pricing policies: higher education is "sold" at a great deal less than its cost of production. The two arguments for low-cost or free tuition -(1) the principle of equality of opportunity, and…

  6. Very Fast Containment of Scanning Worms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Weaver; Stuart Staniford; Vern Paxson

    2004-01-01

    Computer worms — malicious, self-propagating pro- grams — represent a significant threat to large networks. One possible defense, containment, seeks to limit a worm's spread by isolating it in a small subsection of the network. In this work we develop containment algorithms suitable for deployment in high-speed, low-cost network hardware. We show that these techniques can stop a scanning host

  7. NASA Instrument Cost/Schedule Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Mrozinski, Joe; Fox, George

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Office of Independent Program and Cost Evaluation (IPCE) has established a number of initiatives to improve its cost and schedule estimating capabilities. 12One of these initiatives has resulted in the JPL developed NASA Instrument Cost Model. NICM is a cost and schedule estimator that contains: A system level cost estimation tool; a subsystem level cost estimation tool; a database of cost and technical parameters of over 140 previously flown remote sensing and in-situ instruments; a schedule estimator; a set of rules to estimate cost and schedule by life cycle phases (B/C/D); and a novel tool for developing joint probability distributions for cost and schedule risk (Joint Confidence Level (JCL)). This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation), the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite.

  8. Cut Costs! Not Corners! The Helping Hand Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Claire

    This guide is intended to help employees in the hotel and catering industry to cut costs without cutting corners by showing more concern to cost containment measures and increasing personal productivity. The first three sections discuss the importance of the individual employee's behavior to overall cost containment in the workplace, and different…

  9. Some Inconvenient Truths About Climate Change Policy: The Distributional Impacts of Transportation Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Holland; Jonathan E. Hughes; Christopher R. Knittel; Nathan C. Parker

    2011-01-01

    Instead of efficiently pricing greenhouse gases, policy makers have favored measures that implicitly or explicitly subsidize low carbon fuels. We simulate a transportation-sector cap & trade program (CAT) and three policies currently in use: ethanol subsidies, a renewable fuel standard (RFS), and a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). Our simulations confirm that the alternatives to CAT are quite costly–2.5 to

  10. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi?bik, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  11. Selection of regression system tests for security policy evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JeeHyun Hwang; Tao Xie; Donia El Kateb; Tejeddine Mouelhi; Yves Le Traon

    2012-01-01

    As security requirements of software often change, developers may modify security policies such as access control policies (policies in short) according to evolving requirements. To increase confidence that the modification of policies is correct, developers conduct regression testing. However, rerunning all of existing system test cases could be costly and time-consuming. To address this issue, we develop a regression-test-selection approach,

  12. Should Public Policy Seek To Control The Growth Of Health Care Spending? The drama of rising health care costs should be seen as a saga of rapid, even reckless advances in technology, fueled increasingly by an entrepreneurial sense of adventure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Debate about whether to restrain health care spending is intensifying. Much of the debate revolves around efficient research allocation. The possible impact of cost control on the advance of medical technology merits more attention. Public and private ef- forts to slow growth of health spending have not enjoyed much success. Most recently, managed care failed because administrators lacked political legitimacy.

  13. Following the Money: Factors Associated with the Cost of Treating High-Cost Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Saiontz-Martinez, Cynthia B; Boukus, Ellyn R

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the cost of treating high-cost Medicare beneficiaries. Data Sources A national sample of 1.6 million elderly, Medicare beneficiaries linked to 2004–2005 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey respondents and local market data from secondary sources. Study Design Using 12 months of claims data from 2005 to 2006, the sample was divided into predicted high-cost (top quartile) and lower cost beneficiaries using a risk-adjustment model. For each group, total annual standardized costs of care were regressed on beneficiary, usual source of care physician, practice, and market characteristics. Principal Findings Among high-cost beneficiaries, health was the predominant predictor of costs, with most physician and practice and many market factors (including provider supply) insignificant or weakly related to cost. Beneficiaries whose usual physician was a medical specialist or reported inadequate office visit time, medical specialist supply, provider for-profit status, care fragmentation, and Medicare fees were associated with higher costs. Conclusions Health reform policies currently envisioned to improve care and lower costs may have small effects on high-cost patients who consume most resources. Instead, developing interventions tailored to improve care and lowering cost for specific types of complex and costly patients may hold greater potential for “bending the cost curve.” PMID:21306368

  14. WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY CONFIDENTIALITY & SECURITY POLICY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    the right to restrict the release of personally identifiable information contained in their education University information system security policies. I understand that if I violate this Confidentiality Agreement, or the University's information system security policies, I may be subject to disciplinary action

  15. The rhetoric of American foreign policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Wander

    1984-01-01

    The rhetoric of American foreign policy contains commonplaces which both justify and obscure policy. An adequate critical response to such discourse requires an understanding of two prevailing argumentative forms. The arguments are examined in relation to Vietnam, but their use in a variety of interventions, incursions, and wars since then makes them more than an historical curiosity. This essay seeks

  16. Program Costs and Student Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  17. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  18. Credible Commitments in Policy and Administration 

    E-print Network

    Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2010-01-16

    The theoretical argument of this dissertation contains a set of conditions under which professional personnel systems serve as political tools to make government efforts to implement public policies credible and reliable, ...

  19. 48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads that— (1) Contain items in...

  20. 04.04 1 Faculty REGENTS' POLICY

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    or abridge any person's right to free speech or to infringe the academic freedom of any member.04.010. Academic Freedom. Nothing contained in regents' policy or university regulation will be construed to limit

  1. Cost of Cardiac Care in the Three Years After Coronary Catheterization in a Contained Care System: Critical Determinants and Implications 1 1 Financial support of this project was provided by the Office of Quality Management, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Ellis; Kimberly J. Brown; Renee Ellert; Georgiana L. Howell; Dave P. Miller; Noreen M. Flowers; Penelope A. Ott; Thomas Keys; Floyd D. Loop; Eric J. Topol

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the clinical, angiographic, treatment and outcome correlates of the intermediate-term cost of caring for patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).Background. To adequately predict medical costs and to compare different treatment and cost reduction strategies, the determinants of cost must be understood. However, little is known about the correlates of costs of treatment of CAD

  2. CALS Policy on Grants with Minimal F&A Recovery Effective January 1, 2013

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    CALS Policy on Grants with Minimal F&A Recovery Effective January 1, 2013 Some organizations providing grants specify low or zero F&A cost recovery. Grants that provide such minimal F&A cost recovery part of the university charge, CALS is instituting a new policy on grants that provide minimal cost

  3. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  4. Household Health Costs: Direct, Indirect and Intangible

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were indirect and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, indirect and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system.

  5. Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/

    E-print Network

    Sonnet, Maria Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

  6. 75 FR 78798 - Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...airports/aip/bc_analysis/. In addition, hard...policy on Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) requirements for airport capacity projects; factors leading to these requirements...Regarding Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) on Airport...

  7. Public Health and Social Policy Innovation Policy

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    Public Health and Social Policy Innovation Policy Resource and Environmental Policy Public Sector Management Are you interested in conducting research in Public Policy? FULBRIGHT CANADA offers universities and research centres. The Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy is a provincial centre

  8. Trust Negotiation with Hidden Credentials, Hidden Policies, and Policy Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith B. Frikken; Jiangtao Li; Mikhail J. Atallah

    2006-01-01

    In an open environment such as the Internet, the decision to collaborate with a stranger (e.g., by granting access to a resource) is often based on the characteristics (rather tha n the identity) of the requester, via digital credentials: Ac cess is granted if Alice's credentials satisfy Bob's access policy. The literature contains many examples where protecting the credentials and

  9. The cost-effectiveness of mandatory folic acid fortification in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rabovskaja, Viktoria; Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Australian government recently introduced mandatory folic acid fortification of bread to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The economic evaluation of this policy contained a number of limitations. This study aimed to address the limitations and to reconsider the findings. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to assess the cost and benefits of mandatory versus voluntary folic acid fortification. Outcomes measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years gained (LYG), avoided NTD cases, and additional severe neuropathy cases. Costs considered included industry costs and regulatory costs to the government. It was estimated that mandatory fortification would prevent 31 NTDs, whereas an additional 14 cases of severe neuropathy would be incurred. Overall, 539 LYG and 503 QALYs would be gained per year of mandatory compared with voluntary fortification. Mandatory fortification was cost-effective at A$10,723 per LYG and at A$11,485 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at A$60,000 and A$151,000 per QALY, the probability that mandatory fortification was the most cost-effective strategy was 79% and 85%, respectively. Threshold analysis of loss of consumer choice indicated that with a compensation value above A$1.21 [assuming a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of A$60,000 per QALY] or A$3.19 (assuming a WTP threshold of A$151,000 per statistical life-year) per capita per year mandatory fortification would not be cost-effective. Mandatory fortification was found to be cost-effective; however, inclusion of the loss of consumer choice can change this result. Even with mandatory fortification, mean folate intake will remain below the recommended NTD preventive level. PMID:23223683

  10. Uncertainty in Greenhouse Emissions and Costs of Atmospheric Stabilization

    E-print Network

    Webster, Mort D.

    We explore the uncertainty in projections of emissions, and costs of atmospheric stabilization applying the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. ...

  11. 24 CFR 1003.206 - Program administration costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...in this section and in § 1003.205—Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management capacity building activities. This does not include staff and overhead costs directly related to carrying out activities eligible...

  12. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, L.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

  13. Global Policy Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations has a number of policy initiatives occurring in all parts of the globe, and some might ask the question: Who evaluates the effectiveness of such programs? The United Nations does some of this work themselves, but the Global Policy Forum is also intimately concerned with monitoring their programs, along with "promoting accountability of global decisions." Visitors who know what types of material they are looking for will want to search through the headings which include such themes as globalization, international justice, and UN reform. Each one of these sections contains a brief essay on their work, along with a smattering of reports, tables, and charts that highlight their analyses, past and present.

  14. Alcohol Industry & Policy Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.5010 - Containers returnable to vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5010 Containers returnable to...

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5010 - Containers returnable to vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5010 Containers returnable to...

  17. 41 CFR 109-27.5010 - Containers returnable to vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5010 Containers returnable to...

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5010 - Containers returnable to vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5010 Containers returnable to...

  19. 41 CFR 109-27.5010 - Containers returnable to vendors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5010 Containers returnable to...

  20. Taxation and Corporate Pension Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Tepper

    1981-01-01

    Section I introduces the material in the context of existing research. In Section II the effects of the tax structure on the desirability of having pension plans and on the funding and investment policies of such plans is discussed. Section III discusses the discrepancies between the prescriptions presented above and current practice. The Appendix contains a detailed analysis of each

  1. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-print Network

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Incremental Change in Pipeline Spill Costs due to SwitchingIncremental Change in Pipeline Spill Costs due to Switchingpipelines that contain gasoline, the release of unburned gasoline from boat motors, and direct spills

  2. 76 FR 68040 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...added to the list of examples contained in the proposed rule. The first example would state that the costs of surveillance by video, email, or other means of employee organizing activities are unallowable costs. The second example would...

  3. Introduction Single policies do not create market transformation for a

    E-print Network

    · Financing mechanisms (e.g. loans) · Public benefits funds · Technology first cost · Investment uncertainty development, suites of policies applied in succession are often the most cost-effective way to move toward transformation. This also allows for states and localities to target the lowest cost strategies first, increasing

  4. Policy Procedure Administrative Directive Policy No.

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    . A University Policy promotes good governance, operational efficiencies and management practices and reduces: Background and Purpose: CLEAR DATA #12;Policy *A University Policy is a principle-based statement with broad

  5. Fixed Budgets as a Cost Containment Measure for Pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Granlund; Niklas Rudholm; Magnus Wikström

    2004-01-01

    In the county of Västerbotten, Sweden, there are two health centres which (contrary to all other health centres in the region) have a strict responsibility over their pharmaceutical budget. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the prices and quantities of pharmaceuticals prescribed by physicians working at these health centres differ significantly from those prescribed by physicians at

  6. Fixed budgets as a cost containment measure for pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Granlund; Niklas Rudholm; Magnus Wikström

    2006-01-01

    In Västerbotten County, Sweden, there are two health centers which (in contrast to all other health centers in the region) bear strict responsibility over their pharmaceutical budget. This study examined whether the prices and quantities of pharmaceuticals prescribed by physicians working at these health centers differ significantly from those prescribed by physicians at health centers with open-ended budgets. Estimation results

  7. A Low-Cost Recirculation System Using Disposable Beverage Containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Bates; Terrence R. Tiersch

    1995-01-01

    A tank system with recirculating water designed for use with disposable plastic 3-L beverage bottles is described. The system consisted of 100 culture units (2-L working volume in each), five 40-L tanks, and an upwelling biofilter. The 40-L tanks were used to increase the total volume of the system, to allow operation of the filter when bottles were not occupied,

  8. Avoided cost standard under PURPA

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1983-04-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

  9. Rate Regulation as a Policy Tool: Lessons From New York State

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Irene

    1995-01-01

    For over a decade, New York State has used hospital rate regulation (the New York Prospective Hospital Reimbursement Methodology [NYPHRM]) as a policy tool to achieve three objectives: containing costs, supporting financially stressed hospitals, and financing access to care for the uninsured. This case study of NYPHRM suggests that the regulatory approach, if pursued with vigor, can achieve any one of these goals. On the other hand, the New York experience also shows that these are competing goals, and that achieving all of them over a period of time can prove to be difficult. PMID:10142575

  10. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness–feasibility loop

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

  11. COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

  12. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION...63.22 Cost sharing. Policy Research funds shall not be used to pay...recipient of a grant for the conduct of a research project an amount equal to as...

  13. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION...63.22 Cost sharing. Policy Research funds shall not be used to pay...recipient of a grant for the conduct of a research project an amount equal to as...

  14. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION...63.22 Cost sharing. Policy Research funds shall not be used to pay...recipient of a grant for the conduct of a research project an amount equal to as...

  15. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION...63.22 Cost sharing. Policy Research funds shall not be used to pay...recipient of a grant for the conduct of a research project an amount equal to as...

  16. HIV COST AND SERVICES UTILIZATION STUDY (HCSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) is the first major research effort to collect information on a nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV infection. HCSUS is funded through a cooperative agreement between the Agency for Health Care Policy Resea...

  17. The Cost of Drug Prohibition in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Jiggens

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the costs of drug prohibition in Australia and to examine the effects of prohibitionist drugs policy on the cannabis and heroin markets. The key argument will be that prohibition, rather than being a hinderance to the drugs black market, acts as an economic multiplier for the black market. Prohibition is a subsidy

  18. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    ,000, participant support, rental of off-campus property, graduate student tuition policy is that sponsored projects should pay full (F&A) cost rates. The current federally determined contract college F&A rate is 55.0% of Modified Total

  19. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  20. An Analysis of Free Primary Education Reform Policy in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacJessie-Mbewe, Samson

    2002-01-01

    Describes the socioeconomic and political context of the formation of the government's free primary-education policy in Malawi. Assesses the impact of the policy on educational access, equity, and quality. Reviews and critiques policies related to free primary education. (Contains 22 references.) (PKP)

  1. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  2. CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Introduction to this Policy 8 General Considerations 9 First Considerations 9 Foreign Travel and Advisories 9CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY University Travel POLICY 3.2 Volume 3, Financial Management ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ POLICY STATEMENT

  3. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  4. Practical approach for using Medicare data to estimate costs for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Tumeh, John W; Moore, Susan G; Shapiro, Rachel; Flowers, Christopher R

    2005-04-01

    Many methods have been used to measure costs for cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare. A central challenge in cost estimation is determining the direct cost of medical goods and services from a societal perspective. This review applies the methodology for calculating Medicare reimbursements for physician services, hospital services and medications as a means of estimating healthcare costs from a US societal perspective. This review provides the tools and information needed to calculate direct medical costs related to in- and outpatient services provided by physicians and hospitals, as well as drug costs using Medicare reimbursement data. The data used in calculating Medicare reimbursements was obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website. Methods for estimating costs for a particular service in a specific location using Medicare and Medicaid Services are described and demonstrated. A method based on Medicare data that uses the unadjusted geographic practice cost index and standard hospital base rate to estimate healthcare costs that can be generalized to the US population is described and demonstrated. This review provides cost-effectiveness analysts with the tools needed to calculate healthcare service costs for economic research. It contains links to all websites needed for obtaining Medicare and Medicaid Services data and provides a step-by-step analysis of the methodology involved in calculating costs. A practical guide for applying the methodology used by Medicare and Medicaid Services to calculate direct medical costs in order to estimate US societal costs in cost-effectiveness analysis is provided. PMID:19807571

  5. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27.1182 Section...2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration...should exclude the cost of any equipment upgrades that are...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27.1182 Section...2180-2200 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration...should exclude the cost of any equipment upgrades that are...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27.1182 Section...2180-2200 MHz bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband...Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration...should exclude the cost of any equipment upgrades that are...

  8. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  9. The Impact of Cost Sharing on Internal Efficiency of Public Secondary Schools in Ndivisi Division, Bungoma District Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiveu, Noah Murumba; Mayio, Julius

    2009-01-01

    Adoption of cost sharing policy in education has witnessed the return to communities and parents a substantial proportion of financial responsibility for schooling. With increased poverty levels, many parents and communities have not been able to meet the cost requirements under cost sharing policy. Thus their investment in education and support…

  10. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  11. [Alternatives for adopting policies centered on access to medicines].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico; Drake, Ignacio; Martich, Evangelina

    2012-12-01

    Latin America is adopting regulations that bear on medicinal costs and spending. The regulations have four main goals: i) to guarantee a competitive market, ii) to ensure affordability for individual consumers (commercial channel), iii) to contain public spending on medicines (institutional channel), and iv) to guarantee efficient spending on medicines. The experience of Latin America differs from that of countries in developed regions. In the latter, the countries tend to have similar policies, both in promoting generic medicines and in price control strategies, and in optimizing and containing pharmaceutical expense. In contrast, in Latin America, certain institutional weaknesses impede the consolidation and application of an effective regulatory policy. This paper reviews the experience gained through the adoption of economic regulations aimed at reducing spending and improving access to medicines, suggests lessons learned at the international level, and offers recommendations for the countries of Latin America. Its purpose is to offer key elements to decision-makers and the authorities of the countries concerned in pursuing economic regulation of medicines. PMID:23370190

  12. The optimal determination of the space requirement and the number of transfer cranes for import containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kap Hwan Kim; Hong Bae Kim

    1998-01-01

    It is discussed how to determine the optimal amount of storage space and the optimal number of transfer cranes for import containers. A cost model is developed for the decision making. It includes the space cost, the fixed cost of transfer cranes which corresponds to the investment cost, the variable cost of transfer cranes and outside trucks which is related

  13. Equity - some theory and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A.

    2001-01-01

    This essay seeks to characterise the essential features of an equitable health care system in terms of the classical Aristotelian concepts of horizontal and vertical equity, the common (but ill-defined) language of "need" and the economic notion of cost-effectiveness as a prelude to identifying some of the more important issues of value that policy-makers will have to decide for themselves; the characteristics of health (and what determines it) that can cause policy to be ineffective (or have undesired consequences); the information base that is required to support a policy directed at securing greater equity, and the kinds of research (theoretical and empirical) that are needed to underpin such a policy. Key Words: Health care systems • equity • horizontal equity • vertical equity • cost-effectiveness PMID:11479360

  14. New England Public Policy Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in January 2005, the New England Public Policy Center at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston provides high-quality analysis of important policy and economic issues that affect the entire New England region. The materials on their site are contained within five primary sections, which include "Publications", "Conferences & Events", and "Data & Resources". On their homepage, the "What's New" section provides information about recent publications and calls for visiting scholar applications. In the "Publications" area, visitors can browse around by topic, author, and series. Additionally, the "Data & Resources" area provides access to the monthly publication "New England Economic Indicators" and interactive data sets contained in the form of tables and charts. This same section also contains links to resources within the Boston Federal Reserve, such as community development indicators.

  15. Economic analysis and pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rovira, J

    1995-10-01

    Economic evaluation, a comparative analysis of alternative actions in terms of costs and consequences, allows rational decisions to be made concerning the deployment of resources (people, time, equipment, facilities and knowledge). Pharmaceutical policy reflects the various objectives of the many social groups, some of which are conflicting. While new methodologies for evaluation of health care programmes still need to gain wider acceptance, resource limitations for both care providers and decision makers make economic analysis an increasingly important tool. PMID:7485919

  16. 78 FR 78366 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability AGENCY...Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances.'' The United States...compendial drug products that contain a salt. Under the new policy, drug names...

  17. Global Policy Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Global Policy Forum (GPF) monitors the United Nations' global policy making. Based in New York City, the internationally represented GPF has consultative status at the UN. Their visually simple, information-rich Website is divided into the following subsections: UN Financial Crisis, Security Council, Social/ Economic Policy, NGOs, Nations and States, and UN Reform. The content includes essays from the GPF staff, issue summaries, excerpts from conference presentations, news articles, and reports from the UN and other government agencies. Other special in-depth sections on the Iraq crisis, international justice, globalization, and additional timely topics are definitely worth a look. Also, check out GPF's What's New section to keep on top of current UN issues -- for instance, this week's What's New contains critical articles and essays on middle east peace negotiation, sanctions against Iraq, and the rumblings of a possible second genocide in Rwanda, among other topics. In addition, the GPF site offers a publications list, numerous links, an electronic mailing list, a search engine, an index, and a virtual visitors center.

  18. Policy actors: doing policy work in schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Ball; Meg Maguire; Annette Braun; Kate Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the ‘policy work’ of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the ‘problem of meaning’ and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get ‘enacted’. It argues that ‘policy work’ is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both creative and disciplinary

  19. University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002

    E-print Network

    Xia, Yu "Brandon"

    University Record Retention Policy Policy # FA-002 Effective Date: June 1, 2009 Policy Statement Boston University requires that University records be retained for specific periods of time, and has that are outlined in this document. Reason for Policy Boston University is committed to effective records retention

  20. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  1. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

  2. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  3. COST OF TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS CAPITAL COST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the capital costs of various arsenic removal systems demonstrated in Round 1 and 2. These costs include equipment, installation and engineering and compare various systems such as adsorptive media and coagulation/filtration. ...

  4. A cost-benefit analysis of real-money trade in the products of synthetic economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Castronova

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Macro goals: To alert the telecommunications policy community to the emergence of persistent online worlds as a communications and policy issue. Also to provide game industry decisionmakers with solid economic research on which to base policy decisions. Third, to connect these two communities to each other, for mutual benefit. Micro goals: to conduct a solid cost-benefit analysis of

  5. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi· Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length · Set-up time, etc. · Personal time

  6. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  7. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  8. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  9. Trauma service cost: the real story.

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, P A; Wahl, W L; Butz, D A; Iteld, L H; Michaels, A J; Griffes, L C; Greenfield, L J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to define and characterize the costs associated with trauma care at a level I trauma center. Once the costs were identified, attending physician-led teams were designed to reduce costs within each cost center. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The location and magnitude of the costs on a trauma service remain largely unknown. Focused cost-containment strategies remain difficult to implement because the expected return on these interventions is unknown. METHODS: Cost center data were reviewed for the 40 major DRGs admitted for the first 6 months of the fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Data were obtained from the hospital finance department using the Transition Systems Inc. accounting system. We focused on variable direct costs, those that vary with patient volume (e.g., staff nursing expense and medical/surgical supplies). To address issues of inflation, pay raises, and changing costs, a proxy value was created for 1996 and costs were held constant for the 1997 calculation. The major services that constitute cost centers identified in the system were nursing, surgical, pharmacy, laboratory, radiology, and emergency services. Attendings were assigned to develop and oversee customized cost-reduction modalities specific to each cost center. The cost-reduction modalities used to achieve significant savings were as follows: nursing, case management approach focusing on early discharge; surgical, meeting with operating room (OR) purchasing to modify expensive behavior patterns; pharmacy, integrating clinical pharmacist with direct attending support; laboratory, enforcing protocol for lab draws; radiology, increasing the use of emergency room ultrasound and accepting outside x-rays; and emergency services, 24-hour in-house attending staff to reduce emergency room time. The surgical and emergency services cost centers predominately generate costs by the length of time care is delivered in that area. RESULTS: For each period, data from 363 patients were compared. Mean length of stay decreased between the study periods from 8.72 to 7.06 days, while the average injury severity score was unchanged. Together, these cost centers constituted 87.4% of the total cost of care delivered. Significant cost reduction was achieved in all six variable cost centers: nursing (24%), surgical (5%), pharmacy (57%), laboratory (27), radiology (7%), and emergency (36). The mean cost per case was reduced by 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of the true cost centers and directed attending surgeon involvement are essential to the development and implementation of a successful cost-reduction process. PMID:9605663

  10. State Medicaid Pharmacy Payments and Their Relation to Estimated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E. Kathleen; Kreling, David H.; Gondek, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Although prescription drugs do not appear to be a primary source of recent surges in Medicaid spending, their share of Medicaid expenditures has risen despite efforts to control costs. As part of a general concern with prescription drug policy, Congress mandated a study of the adequacy of Medicaid payments to pharmacies. In this study, several data sources were used to develop 1991 estimates of average pharmacy ingredient and dispensing costs. A simulation was used to estimate the amounts States pay. Nationally, simulated payments averaged 96 percent of estimated costs overall but were lower for dispensing costs (79 percent) and higher for ingredient costs (102 percent). PMID:10137796

  11. Save on Drug Costs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicare 2015 costs at a glance Save on drug costs If you meet certain income and resource ... call 711. Other ways to lower your prescription drug costs Look into generic drugs. Ask your doctor ...

  12. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  13. The devil's in the details: trading policy goals for complexity in medicaid nursing home reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Grabowski, David C; Gozalo, Pedro L

    2009-02-01

    There is great variability in how much nursing home providers are paid for a day of care for a Medicaid recipient, how the payment level is set, and what mechanisms are used to reimburse facilities. Given the absence of recent, comprehensive in-depth analyses of state reimbursement systems, this article undertakes a comparative case analysis of Medicaid nursing facility reimbursement in Alabama, California, Minnesota, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Findings indicate that states design their methods of reimbursement to achieve desired policy outcomes related to facility cost and quality, access to care, payment equity, service capacity, and budgetary control. The result, however, has been the development of enormously complex and demanding rate-setting methodologies, the adverse consequences of which can outweigh and overwhelm the discrete policy objectives contained in the reimbursement formula. This complexity highlights the potential trade-off between achieving desired goals and costly administrative burdens, opportunities for appeal and disagreement, difficulties understanding the ramifications of system changes, reliance on simplified decision-making rules, and exclusion of otherwise interested parties from the policy process. PMID:19234295

  14. Rethinking Antipsychotic Formulary Policy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, R.A.; Leslie, D.L.; Busch, Susan; Rofman, Ethan S.; Sernyak, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, we review recent research suggesting that (a) second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) may be no more effective than first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), (b) the reduced risk of EPS and tardive dyskinesia with SGAs is more weakly supported by the research literature than has been appreciated, and (c) benefits may be offset by greater metabolic risks of some SGAs and their substantially greater cost. Bearing in mind, as well, that risperidone, currently the least expensive SGA, will soon be available as an even less expensive generic drug, we propose a new algorithm for maintenance antipsychotic therapy. We further outline a cautious implementation procedure that relies on standardized documentation and feedback, without a restrictive formulary that would limit physician choice. The algorithm outlined here and the process for its implementation are intended as a stimulus for discussion of potential policy responses, not as a finalized proposition. PMID:17634413

  15. APPENDIX D: UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT SUSTAINABLE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION POLICY

    E-print Network

    Holsinger, Kent

    and environmental stewardship. Accordingly, for any building construction or renovation project entering the predesign planning phase, and whenever the estimated total project cost exceeds $5 million, excludingD1 APPENDIX D: UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT SUSTAINABLE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION POLICY Adopted

  16. Universities Review Overhead Charges; Some Alter Policies on President's Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Congressional investigations into university overhead charges, especially those at Stanford University (California), for federally sponsored research are leading universities to reexamine and change some policies, including charging some housing costs for university officers to government contracts. (DB)

  17. Adding Speech, Language, and Hearing Benefits to Your Policy

    MedlinePLUS

    Adding Speech, Language, and Hearing Benefits to Your Policy Introduction Why add speech, language, and hearing benefits? What are the costs? ... insurers, and labor unions-with information on adding speech, language, and hearing benefits to your health insurance ...

  18. Climate Change Policy: What Do the Models Tell Us?

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Very little. A plethora of integrated assessment models (IAMs) have been constructed and used to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC) and evaluate alternative abatement policies. These models have crucial flaws that ...

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: Implications for Community-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rashmita; Ory, Marcia G.; Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Chronic conditions are the leading cause of growing healthcare spending, disability, and death in the U.S. In the wake of national health reform, policy makers and healthcare professionals are becoming increasingly concerned in containing healthcare costs while improving quality of patient care. A basic policy question is whether the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), a widely distributed evidenced-based self-managed program, can be cost-effective in managing chronic conditions while improving quality of life. Utilizing data from the National Study of CDSMP, the primary objective of the current study is to estimate cost-effectiveness of the CDSMP program among individuals with at least one chronic condition. The second objective is to determine how cost-effectiveness ratios vary by depression status. EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of CDSMP participants, which was then converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for cost-effectiveness analysis. Participants who completed the CDSMP program experienced higher EQ-5D scores from baseline to 12-month follow-up (increased from 0.736 to 0.755; p?cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ranges from $83,285 to $31,285 per QALYs, which can be comparable to the common benchmark of $50,000/QALYs. ICER by baseline depression status indicates that it will cost more per QALYs gained for those diagnosed with depression based on their Patient Health Questionnaire-8 score. However, cautions should be taken while considering this point estimate too literally because the average cost for CDSMP participants was a rough estimate and based on several simplifying assumptions. Identifying cost-effective strategies that can lower the burden of chronic disease among community-dwelling adults is critical for decision makers in allocating limited resources. Policy makers and community organizations can use this information to guide funding decisions and delivery of CDSMP programs for individuals with multiple chronic health conditions. PMID:25964945

  20. Vegetable Gardening in Containers 

    E-print Network

    Masabni, Joseph; Cotner, Sam

    2009-02-25

    This 7 page publications explains how to grow vegetables in containers when insufficient space or unsutable soil conditions make a traditional garden difficult to achieve. Topics include: container materials, crop selection, growing media, seeding...

  1. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  2. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  3. Container compounds - stable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.V.; Tatevskii, V.M.; Yarovoi, S.S.; Bolotin, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the question of the stability of container compounds. As stability criteria the authors use the lifetime of the container compound. Quantitative estimates were obtained by drawing on the theory of quasistationary (resonance) states. The energy levels and the lifetimes for these levels, which are the lifetimes for the container compounds, are calculated with subsequent consideration of the Schroedinger equation. Numerical characteristics are obtained for various container compounds.

  4. Starting Your Container Garden

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2007-01-01

    This guide outlines how to plant a garden even if you don't have a yard! It gives advice on how to prepare a container for plants and how to cultivate seedlings so they can grow enough to be ready for a container. This guide also includes a section with tips on maintaining a container garden, like using good fertilizers to replace the nutrients that container gardens quickly lose. It also has links to websites with more information about gardening.

  5. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Gifford; R. C. Grace; W. H. Rickerson

    2011-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs),

  6. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  7. Costs and benefits of nitrogen for Europe and implications for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Holland, Mike; Jacobsen, Brian H; Klimont, Zbigniew; Sutton, Mark A; Jaap Willems, W

    2013-04-16

    Cost-benefit analysis can be used to provide guidance for emerging policy priorities in reducing nitrogen (N) pollution. This paper provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of costs and benefits of the various flows of N on human health, ecosystems and climate stability in order to identify major options for mitigation. The social cost of impacts of N in the EU27 in 2008 was estimated between €75-485 billion per year. A cost share of around 60% is related to emissions to air. The share of total impacts on human health is about 45% and may reflect the higher willingness to pay for human health than for ecosystems or climate stability. Air pollution by nitrogen also generates social benefits for climate by present cooling effects of N containing aerosol and C-sequestration driven by N deposition, amounting to an estimated net benefit of about €5 billion/yr. The economic benefit of N in primary agricultural production ranges between €20-80 billion/yr and is lower than the annual cost of pollution by agricultural N which is in the range of €35-230 billion/yr. Internalizing these environmental costs would lower the optimum annual N-fertilization rate in Northwestern Europe by about 50 kg/ha. Acknowledging the large uncertainties and conceptual issues of our cost-benefit estimates, the results support the priority for further reduction of NH3 and NOx emissions from transport and agriculture beyond commitments recently agreed in revision of the Gothenburg Protocol. PMID:23473305

  8. Evaluation of hospital medication inventory policies.

    PubMed

    Gebicki, Marek; Mooney, Ed; Chen, Shi-Jie Gary; Mazur, Lukasz M

    2014-09-01

    As supply chain costs constitute a large portion of hospitals' operating expenses and with $27.7 billion spent by the US hospitals on drugs alone in 2009, improving medication inventory management provides a great opportunity to decrease the cost of healthcare. This study investigates different management approaches for a system consisting of one central storage location, the main pharmacy, and multiple dispensing machines located in each department. Each medication has a specific unit cost, availability from suppliers, criticality level, and expiration date. Event-driven simulation is used to evaluate the performance of several inventory policies based on the total cost and patient safety (service level) under various arrangements of the system defined by the number of drugs and departments, and drugs' criticality, availability, and expiration levels. Our results show that policies that incorporate drug characteristics in ordering decisions can address the tradeoff between patient safety and cost. Indeed, this study shows that such policies can result in higher patient safety and lower overall cost when compared to traditional approaches. Additional insights from this study allow for better understanding of the medication inventory system's dynamics and suggest several directions for future research in this topic. Findings of this study can be applied to help hospital pharmacies with managing their inventory. PMID:24014095

  9. Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

  10. Decision Making for Bioterror Preparedness: Examples from Smallpox Vaccination Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward H. Kaplan; Lawrence M. Wein

    Decision making for bioterror preparedness involves estimating the consequences of different attack scenarios paired with\\u000a alternative preparedness and response policies, and selecting an appropriate strategy to minimize deaths, disease, and costs\\u000a to society. Smallpox vaccination policy provides an excellent case study of these concepts in action. We review both the smallpox\\u000a vaccination policy debate in the United States circa 2002,

  11. Active Policy Learning for Robot Planning and Exploration under Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    de Freitas, Nando

    the policy parameters that minimize the expected cost, this iterative active learning approach effectivelyActive Policy Learning for Robot Planning and Exploration under Uncertainty Ruben Martinez, University of British Columbia Email: {nando,arnaud}@cs.ubc.ca Abstract-- This paper proposes a simulation-based

  12. Shared project studies, revises hospital record retention policies.

    PubMed

    Domanico, L; Leverette, T J

    1978-05-16

    Through their shared service organization, six hospitals conducted a study that showed that they had similar practical needs and legal requirements for medical record retention but widely varying retention policies. Written policies that were developed for and jointly adopted by the hospitals have ensured consistent, cost-effective retention practices. PMID:640605

  13. The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO POLICIES and PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    -going service and partnering with quality/preferred suppliers can be a mutually beneficial and cost and Services - Procedures] I. PROCEDURES 1.00 Where an employee is a supplier or has a relationship with a supplier, compliance with Policy 3.4 and Policy 2.8 will be enforced. 2.00 It is recognized that on

  14. Globalisation and Higher Education Funding Policy Shifts in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies, examines and discusses higher education funding policy shifts that have taken place in Kenya. The paper argues that even though Kenya's higher education funding policy shifts, from free higher education to cost-sharing, and privatisation and commercialisation, are (to a greater extent) products of the country's encounter…

  15. Innovation and Antitrust: Some Thoughts on Government Patent Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewng, Ky P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Government patent policy and the effect of antitrust legislation on innovation are discussed along with the efforts of the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department to formulate new government patent policy recommendations. Participation, disclosure, commercialization, and administrative cost are discussed as issues that concern the patent…

  16. Climate Policy Memo #1 Cap and Trade v Taxes

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Policy Memo #1 Cap and Trade v Taxes ing carbon or expanding carbon sinks. Both require and a carbon tax are two distinct policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each approach the environment at lower than expected costs, and is politically more attractive. Those supporting a carbon tax

  17. Corporate attitudes and responses to rising health care costs.

    PubMed

    Rooney, E

    1990-07-01

    Faced with eroding profitability from rising health care costs, corporations are beginning to aggressively implement cost containment strategies. Although few companies have coordinated long range plans in place, corporations' attempts to exert control over the health care system will affect insurers, providers, and consumers. Occupational health nurses need to be aware of how cost-containment pressures will affect the various aspects of the U.S. health care system if they want to influence the changes. Occupational health nurses have an opportunity to work with benefits personnel and others in their company to maximize employee health while helping to implement programs to contain health care costs. PMID:2375796

  18. Accounting for the cost of scaling-up health interventions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies such as the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health have highlighted the need for expanding the coverage of services for HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, immunisations and other diseases. In order for policy makers to plan for these changes, they need to analyse the change in costs when interventions are 'scaled-up' to cover greater percentages of the population. Previous studies suggest that applying current unit costs to an entire population can misconstrue the true costs of an intervention. This study presents the methodology used in WHO-CHOICE's generalised cost effectiveness analysis, which includes non-linear cost functions for health centres, transportation and supervision costs, as well as the presence of fixed costs of establishing a health infrastructure. Results show changing marginal costs as predicted by economic theory. PMID:15386683

  19. Emission versus Input Taxes for Diffuse Nitrate Pollution Control in the Presence of Transaction Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Kampas; Ben White

    2002-01-01

    The most important obstacle to solving diffuse pollution problems is that emissions are either unobservable or cannot be observed at a reasonable cost. Biophysical models may provide sufficient information to set a cost-effective emission tax. However, evidence from recent studies has shown that transaction costs for emission-based policies are higher per hectare than for input-based policies. An economic model of

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Strategies for the Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    1 Cost-Effectiveness Strategies for the Fish and Wildlife Program: Progress and Potential The Northwest Power Act contains language promoting the cost-effectiveness of the Council's Fish and Wildlife responsibilities with respect to cost-effectiveness. Perhaps the two most common questions the IEAB fields

  1. Study on communications costs for Columbus utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Svend Moller; Sorensen, Nicolaj

    1988-09-01

    On the basis of a hypothetical communications scenario established for cost calculations, the expected communications costs for Columbus utilization in the year 1995 and onwards to the year 2025, are estimated to provide initial considerations for a charging policy in relation to potential Columbus users. A hypothetical sample of five European countries is established, and current telecommunications tariffs for the data, voice, and video communications required for the Columbus utilization in and between these five countries and the USA are identified. Technological, political, and commercial development trends are analyzed as to their likely influences on future telecommunications tariff development. Communications costs for the study period are estimated, assuming telecommunications administrations to be providers of service and considering estimated equipment and operations costs. Alternative communications solutions are indicated.

  2. Antibiotic cost reduction by providing cost information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rubinstein; A. Barzilai; S. Segev; Y. Samra; M. Modan; O. Dickerman; C. Haklai

    1988-01-01

    Antibiotic cost information was added to the computerized print-out for each patient of microbiology culture results, next to the antibiotic susceptibility list. During the first six months of this addition, the average monthly cost of antibiotics decreased by 16.5% ($ 7636) compared to the 12 months period preceding the study period. The average antibiotic cost per admission decreased by 15.7%

  3. Comparing health policy agendas across eleven high income countries: islands of difference in a sea of similarity.

    PubMed

    Tenbensel, Tim; Eagle, Samantha; Ashton, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Does the way in which health systems are financed influence whether health policymakers are more or less interested in accessible and equitable health services? Are social democratic governments more interested in primary health care reform than conservative governments? Have particular domains of health policy really become more important over the past decade across a range of countries? In this exploratory article, we investigate the similarities and differences in patterns of attention in health policy in eleven high income countries using data from the Health Policy Monitor database from 2003 to 2010. Our study suggests significant 'islands of difference' in an overall 'sea of similarity' between the health policy agendas of the selected countries. The key findings are: (i) that improving population health outcomes is more likely to be on the agenda under tax-based systems and when centre-left parties are dominant in government; (ii) health systems funded through social insurance are more preoccupied with efficiency and cost-containment than tax-funded systems; (iii) the political complexion of governments is not a major factor shaping health policy agendas; and (iv) since 2003 there has been an increasing interest in initiatives that address public health concerns, access and equity, and population health outcomes. PMID:22572195

  4. Bioeconomic analysis of child-targeted subsidies for artemisinin combination therapies: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eili Y; Smith, David L; Cohen, Justin M; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-06-01

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) was conceived as a global market-based mechanism to increase access to effective malaria treatment and prolong effectiveness of artemisinin. Although results from a pilot implementation suggested that the subsidy was effective in increasing access to high-quality artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the Global Fund has converted AMFm into a country-driven mechanism whereby individual countries could choose to fund the subsidy from within their country envelopes. Because the initial costs of the subsidy in the pilot countries was higher than expected, countries are also exploring alternatives to a universal subsidy, such as subsidizing only child doses. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of a child-targeted policy using an age-structured bioeconomic model of malaria from the provider perspective. Because the vast majority of malaria deaths occur in children, targeting children could potentially improve the cost-effectiveness of the subsidy, though it would avert significantly fewer deaths. However, the benefits of a child-targeted subsidy (i.e. deaths averted) are eroded as leakage (i.e. older individuals taking young child-targeted doses) increases, with few of the benefits of a universal subsidy gained (i.e. reductions in overall prevalence). Although potentially more cost-effective, a child-targeted subsidy must contain measures to reduce the possibility of leakage. PMID:25994293

  5. Measuring Library Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlynarczyk, Frank, Jr.

    Based on the premise that cost measurement for a library can be performed in the same manner as for an industrial organization, this paper presents a hypothetical cost determination problem of a small company which produces bricks. A summary of the five steps taken to develop the various cost figures are: (1) Assign all cost items to the…

  6. Profiles in garbage glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to color brown, green, or blue bottles. Sixty percent of the glass used in the US is clear (flint) and one-fourth is brown (amber). Almost half of the green bottles are imported wind and beer bottles. Other glass products include flat glass such as windows; fiberglass insulation; and glassware. These products use different manufacturing processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only container glass. Glass bottles are commonly collected in curb-side programs. Losses due to breakage and the abrasiveness of glass during collection and processing offset their low collection and processing costs. Breakage solutions include installation of interior baffles or nets in the collection trucks, special glass-only truck compartments, and limiting the number of times glass is transferred after collection before final processing. Ten states require deposits on glass bottles for beer and soft drinks and related items.

  7. Student Handbook Policies & Procedures

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    Awards 31 Graduation Requirements 34 Record Retention Policy 35 3. Professionalism Policies Essential, benefits, transfers, layoffs, return from layoff, training, education, tuition assistance and other

  8. Compositional Policy Priors

    E-print Network

    Wingate, David

    2013-04-12

    This paper describes a probabilistic framework for incorporating structured inductive biases into reinforcement learning. These inductive biases arise from policy priors, probability distributions over optimal policies. ...

  9. Cost Analysis of Different Volume Replacement Strategies in Anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Boldt; S. Suttner; B. Kumle; I. Hüttner

    2000-01-01

    Summary Objective: Varying regimens of volume replacement are available. In today’s climate of cost consciousness and cost contain-ment it appears to be of interest to assess effective costs associated with the different fluid therapies. Design:Prospective, randomized study. Setting:Single-institutional, clinical investigation in an urban, university-affiliated hospital. Patients and Methods: 150 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were divided into three groups. Perioperatively

  10. STATE AID AND SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAMTER, EUGENE C.

    THE EFFECTS OF A 1962 NEW YORK STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WERE INVESTIGATED IN RELATION TO AN OLD FOUNDATION PROGRAM. THIS STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WAS BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF SHARED COST. BOTH NEW AND OLD PROGRAMS WERE APPRAISED WITH RESPECT TO THE OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY--EQUITY OF SUPPORT (EQUAL TREATMENT OF EQUALS), EQUALIZATION…

  11. Tax policy, location choices, and market structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans van Kranenburg

    2003-01-01

    A structural model of entry and fiscal policy is presented. It shows that taxation of variable production costs can increase product prices, lower competition, and reduce the availability of new products in small markets. The model's test is based on a unique nationwide fiscal experiment. We study the effects of the 1869 Stamped Paper Tax Reform Act on the market

  12. Pricing Policy in the Swedish Automobile Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of pricing to market in the Swedish auto market. First, it estimates, with the help of hedonic regression, the pricing and product policies of the major car producers. Second, the impact of the exchange rate variations, quality effects and cost differences on pricing behavior are examined by developing and evaluating econometric models for a sample

  13. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Seelman, Katherine D.; Hartman, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR) policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. PMID:25945162

  14. Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

  15. U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended Consequences JAMES M. GRIFFIN AND MAURICIO CIFUENTES SOTO) mandated a steep rise in domestic ethanol production. The goals were to ease dependency on imported petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional gasoline was to cost

  16. SPS cost considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent solar power satellite (SPS) system definition studies have emphasized cost estimation for the operational phase of an SPS program, in order to assess economic practicality of SPS. A cost analysis approach is described. Cost results for a silicon photovoltaic SPS are reported, showing SPS costs from $1700 to $2700 per kilowatt and busbar power costs from 3 cents to 7 cents per kilowatt-hour. Rationales behind the estimates are discussed.

  17. General Car Use Policies Ground Transportation Policy

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    General Car Use Policies Ground Transportation Policy: The University has signed State choose the most effective and time efficient method of transportation. Car Rental Policy The university will reimburse for a rental car when there is a business justification or when there is no other

  18. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    .e., risk management, security, external audit); and (v) follow-up with auditees on the completionPolicies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Internal Audit Department Policy Statement Approved by: Audit Committee of the Board of Governors Date of Original Approval(s): October 3

  19. EMAIL COMMUNICATION POLICY I. Policy Statement

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    EMAIL COMMUNICATION POLICY I. Policy Statement It is the policy of Portland State University that the University E-Mail System is an appropriate medium for Official Communications from the University business. E-mail is an appropriate medium for such communication and also supports University goals

  20. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Procedures for Faculty Appeal Tribunals are used in these procedures: 1. `Appellant' means a faculty member who is entitled to appeal a tenure, within the Policy, Section IV, clauses 6(a) and 6(b). II Documents Governing Appeal Procedures