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1

Pharmaceutical Cost-Containment Policies and Sustainability: Recent Irish Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escalating public health costs and fiscal stress has led to the increased use of pharmaceutical cost- containment policies in Ireland. These include reducing the ex-factory price of drugs, pharmacy dispensing fees, and community drug scheme coverage, as well as increasing patient copayments. These policy measures are estimated to reduce public spending on community drugs by €380 million in 2011. Closer

Martin Kenneally; Valerie Walshe

2

Cost-containment as part of pharmaceutical policy.  

PubMed

In this article the authors provide insight into the basis for price setting of medicines, the increasing pharmaceutical budgets in the past decades, and the measures governments and insures have taken to curb rising pharmaceutical costs. Four reasons are out lined for the fact that medicines are by some considered expensivey: 1) there are fundamental differences between medicines and other consumer products; 2) medicines are technology requiring an inordinate amount of research and development; 3) medicines are developed, manufactured, and distributed according to strict regulatory requirements; 4) medicines are most often selected by a physician for a specific patient and reimbursed in whole or in party by a third-party insurer or the state. Pharmaceuticals mean share of GDP has been 1.2% in OECD countries in recent decades. Pharmaceuticals accounted for 15.4% of total health expenditure, with public spending about half of this amount. Since 1970, the average share of GDP for pharmaceuticals in most countries has increased 1.5% more per year than GDP growth. Four types of strategies to curb rising Pharmaceuticals costs are described and a taxonomy of strategies provided These are:1)price and profit controls; 2) reimbursement system charges; 3) other fiscal measures; 4) quality measures. Pharmaceuticals policy has suffered from the pervasive misunderstanding that drugs are like any other commodity; resulting in policy makers viewing pharmaceuticals expenditures without thinking about drugs in their proper content of health care. The authors conclude by advocating a balanced approach to policymaking in a environment of rising pharmaceuticals costs. PMID:16096878

Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

2005-06-01

3

Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an extension of a contribution by Health Policy and Law to Public Health Education in areas of mutual concern, a descriptive model of cost containment policy in health care delivery is developed. The model starts from the basis of a typology of key Congressional enactments promoting economically motivated policymaking in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. These policies and laws

Jose Joel Garcia

1986-01-01

4

Cost Containment in Europe  

PubMed Central

Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

Culyer, A. J.

1989-01-01

5

Multiple Drug Cost Containment Policies in Michigan’s Medicaid Program Saved Money Overall, Although Some Increased Costs  

PubMed Central

Michigan’s Medicaid program implemented four policies (preferred lists, joint and multi-state purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost) in 2002–2004 for its dual-eligible Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries, taking antihypertensives and antihyperlipidemics prescriptions. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of each individual policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred lists increased preferred and generic market share, and reduced daily cost. In contrast, maximum allowable cost increased daily cost, and is the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multi-state arrangements did not impact daily cost. Despite policy tradeoffs, the cumulative effect was a 10% decrease in daily cost and an annualized cost savings of $46,195. PMID:22492899

Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D.

2014-01-01

6

Length of hospital stay in Japan 1971-2008: hospital ownership and cost-containment policies.  

PubMed

The average length of stay (LOS) is considered one of the most significant indicators of hospital management. The steep decline in the average LOS among Japanese hospitals since the 1980s is considered to be due to cost-containment policies directed at reducing LOS. Japan's hospital sector is characterised by a diversity of ownership types. We took advantage of this context to examine different hospital behaviours associated with ownership types. Analysing government data published from 1971 to 2008 for the effect of a series of cost-containment policies aimed at reducing LOS revealed distinctly different paths behind the declines in LOS between privately owned and publicly owned hospitals. In the earlier years, private hospitals focused on providing long-term care to the elderly, while in the later years, they made a choice between providing long-term care and providing acute care with reduced LOS and bonus payments. By contrast, the majority of public hospitals opted to provide acute care with reduced LOS in line with public targets. PMID:24462343

Kato, Naoko; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

2014-04-01

7

Health Care Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing risk management, the authors point out that health care cost containment is feasible and outline a number of areas--including health maintenance organizations--in which cost containment has been successful in specific instances. (IRT)

Notkin, Herbert; Meader, Leland V.

1979-01-01

8

Health Care Cost Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Administration's proposals to reform the U.S. health care system sought to provide for universal health insurance coverage while containing the growth of health care spending. This paper focuses on the latter issue and discusses the ability of regulatory and market-oriented reforms to achieve health care cost containment from several angles: an international comparison of national cost containment measures, a

Ellen Marie Nedde

1995-01-01

9

Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a descriptive model of policy in health care delivery, the author theorizes that government has effectively attained economic and budgetary goals, but policy is creating displacements and attacking the national commitment to social welfare policy. Asserts that public health disciplines must collaborate to strengthen policy and empower…

Garcia, Jose Joel

1986-01-01

10

Health care cost containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prime objective of health policy is to improve the health of the population. This must be done with limited resources and at costs that do not impose an unsustainable burden on the economy and its international competitiveness. This is the crucial question to answer: Is the performance of the economy sufficient to allow further development of health services? If

Martin Dlouhý

1996-01-01

11

Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms  

E-print Network

provisions, a hard cap and a soft cap, on compliance credit prices. We show numerically that both fuel Workshop and at the Stanford University Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation intensity standard. We study the effects of each policy on key market outcomes including fuel prices

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

12

Provider payments and patient charges as policy tools for cost-containment: How successful are they in high-income countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on those policy instruments with monetary incentives that are used to contain public health expenditure in high-income countries. First, a schematic view of the main cost-containment methods and the variables in the health system they intend to influence is presented. Two types of instruments to control the level and growth of public health expenditure are

Guy Carrin; Piya Hanvoravongchai

2003-01-01

13

Economic evaluation of laparoscopic and open inguinal herniorrhaphies: The effect of cost-containment measures and internal hospital policy decisions on costs and charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repairs of inguinal hernias, despite having a favorable clinical outcome are often criticized due to higher costs and charges associated with this approach. We, therefore, present a comparison of direct costs and charges between TEP and open tension-free (OPN) repairs, emphasizing the effect of cost-containment measures on the part of surgeons and the hospital’s charging (rate-setting)

Y. S. Khajanchee; T. A. G. Kenyon; P. D. Hansen; L. L. Swanström

2004-01-01

14

Cost Containment, Data Collection, and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editor's Note: In 1986, Pennsylvania passed a Health Care Cost Containment Act mandating the collection and public dissemination by a Cost Containment Council of data on health care services. The statute is the first in the nation to require that data be collected on the quality as well as the cost of health care.To help implement the law, the Center

R. Robert Tyson

1987-01-01

15

Health Care Cost Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient delivery of health care is one of the critical issues facing the nation today. Currently, nearly 13% of the nation's GDP in spent on Health Care. Perhaps one-half of the increase in health care costs have been linked to the acquisition of new medical technology. This paper examines some of the issues relating to the acquisition and

Joe Nihom; Thomas R. Gillpatrick; Van R. Wood

1995-01-01

16

Cost Containment: Phillips Academy's Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steps taken by Phillips Academy (Massachusetts) to contain costs during a serious deficit included short-term measures (increasing tuition and some fees, increasing enrollment, tightening administrative procedures, reduced personnel costs, and reducing programs) and long-term actions (early faculty retirement, increased retirement benefits,…

Cullen, Neil H.

1993-01-01

17

Health care cost containment in the Federal Republic of Germany  

PubMed Central

Since 1977, cost containment has been an integral part of health policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The common goal of the cost-containment acts was to bring the growth of health care expenditures in line with growth of wages and salaries of sickness fund members. The Health Care Reform Act of 1989 is the most recent manifestation of this policy. The main features of the numerous cost-containment acts are described in this article, and the effects of cost containment on supply and demand are analyzed. PMID:10113614

Schneider, Markus

1991-01-01

18

Containing revenue-cycle costs.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations can achieve revenue-cycle improvement while maintaining optimum staffing levels by taking a three-step approach-developing a plan, measuring costs, and using benchmarks to measure performance. Planned cost reductions can be achieved without a negative impact on the organization. Cost-reduction strategies should look at purchased services, staffing, and the cost-to-collect ratio. Healthcare organizations should reach target performance levels before implementing a cost-reduction strategy. PMID:12735186

Geer, Robert; Burton, Eric

2003-04-01

19

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

20

Lessons for Teaching Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program for medical and surgical house staffs and for medical students designed to reduce unneeded orders for low cost, high volume ancillary and nursing services is discussed. The program components include lectures, medical record audits and reviews, and group feedback in the form of cost summaries. (Author/MLW)

McPhee, Stephen J.; And Others

1984-01-01

21

Defensive Medicine, Cost Containment, and Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of defensive medicine in driving up health care costs is hotly contended. Physicians and health policy experts in\\u000a particular tend to have sharply divergent views on the subject. Physicians argue that defensive medicine is a significant\\u000a driver of health care cost inflation. Policy analysts, on the other hand, observe that malpractice reform, by itself, will\\u000a probably not do

Laura D. Hermer; Howard Brody

2010-01-01

22

Computer Cluster Policy This document contains  

E-print Network

Computer Cluster Policy This document contains: Intent of policy Computer cluster criteria Purchasing a cluster Tagging a cluster Making repairs to existing clusters Expanding and/or upgrading an existing cluster Cluster FAQs Contact Information Intent of policy: The purpose of this policy

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

23

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

2003-05-09

24

Insurance, competition and cost containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most economists have suggested that the growing presence of insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, Blue Cross and the commercial insurers, is largely responsible for the rapid rise of health care costs in the United States. It is the contention of this paper, however, that the insurance industry in the private sector in the United States may help in the effort to

Warren Greenberg

1982-01-01

25

The Containment of Mental Health Center Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an economy of scarce resources, cost containment becomes a major concern of mental health administrators. The author discusses the various approaches to cost containment, stresses the importance of sound fiscal planning and controls, and cautions against compromising service quality and accessibility in the process. (Author)

Ashbaugh, John W.

1981-01-01

26

Has Cost Containment Gone Too Far?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cost containment strategies will undoubtedly result in fewer health services for patients. The analytical framework presented in this paper shows how the effects of reductions in services on health and social welfare depend upon the amount and distribution of services(relative to potential benefit) prior to cost containment and on the size and selectivity of the reductions. Disagreement over whether

Victor R. Fuchs

1985-01-01

27

Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.  

PubMed

This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable. PMID:10961833

Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

2000-01-01

28

Patent Policy and Costly Imitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of optimal patents to allow for costly imitation of patented innovations. With costly imitation, a rival's decision to imitate depends on the length of patent protection awarded to the patentee: the longer the patent life, the more likely it is that rivals will \\

Nancy T. Gallini

1992-01-01

29

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-print Network

at the University of Texas Health Science Centers, and in one case a laundry associated with Terrell State Hospital. Power plants included traditional areas such as buildings containing boilers and large machine rooms (containing chillers, for example) which... of fourteen of the sixteen medical buildings showing the variation of the cost per square foot for the audit with the size of the building. Two buildings have been eliminated in Figure 1 - the 11,520 square foot laundry at Terrell State Hospital which...

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01

30

Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports  

E-print Network

UPDATING TEXAS EQJERGY CQST mAINMM! AUDIT REPCRTS Th- E. Burke and Warren H. Aeffington Ehergy Systems Laboratocy Mechanical Fngineering Department Texas A&M University College Station, Texas ABSTRACT In 1984 and 1986, 35.3 million square... defined, the update was fairly straightforward, although it was still quite time consuming. REFERENCES 1. Heffington, W. M., and Burke, T. E., "Update Report on Texas Energy Cost Containment Program", Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University...

Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

1989-01-01

31

Pharmaceutical pricing, cost containment and new treatments for rare diseases in children.  

PubMed

Cost-containment in healthcare spending has become a central issue in public policy and healthcare reform, especially as the affordable care act adds millions of people to public and private insurance rolls. In this climate, longstanding criticism of pharmaceutical pricing has grown sharper, and many in both policy and medicine have characterized the costs of newly developed drugs as both exorbitant and wasteful of scarce healthcare resources. At the same time, pharmaceutical research and development pipeline costs are increasing exponentially. PMID:25348640

Stella, Peter; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

2014-01-01

32

Cost containment: the Middle East. Israel.  

PubMed

The Israeli Health Service was established with the intent of providing an equal standard of care to the entire Israeli population. The Health Service has dealt with changes over the years, including the governing of large populations of Judea, Samaria, and Gaza. In 1990, mass immigration brought 500,000 more individuals to Israel, putting an additional burden on medical services. ICUs in Israel began to emerge after the Six Day War in 1967. The government's Ministry of Health has approved a limited amount of ICU beds. Beyond this set amount, hospital directors decide whether to establish additional ICU beds, weighing departmental pressures from within the hospital to create beds against the knowledge that the hospital will not be reimbursed more than the per diem rate of an ordinary hospital bed ($US 265). Hospital directors and administrators, knowing that the average daily cost of an ICU bed is close to $US 800, turn to their supporting organization to finance the uncontrollable deficit, seek aid from the Ministry of Health to make the per diem rates or diagnosis-related group reimbursements more realistic, and/or implement hospital policies aimed at cutting costs and personnel. PMID:8087600

Stern, Z; Altholz, J; Sprung, C L

1994-08-01

33

TRENDS IN MANAGED CARE COST CONTAINMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGED CARE BACKLASH.  

PubMed

Consumer dissatisfaction with the quality and limitations of managed health care led to rapid disenrollment from managed care plans and demands for regulation between 1998 and 2003. Managed care organizations, particularly health maintenance organizations (HMOs), now face quality and coverage mandates that restrict them from using their most aggressive strategies for managing costs. This paper examines the effect of this backlash on managed care's ability to contain costs among short-term, non-federal hospitals between 1998 and 2008. The results show that the impact of increased HMO penetration on inpatient costs reversed over the study period, but HMOs were still effective at containing outpatient costs. These findings have important policy implications for understanding the continuing role that HMOs should play in cost containment policy and for understanding how effective the latest wave of cost containment institutions may perform in heavily regulated markets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25302480

Dugan, Jerome

2014-10-10

34

Cost as a Policy Issue: Lessons from the Health Care Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rising cost of higher education is seen as a new public policy issue. Cost-containment strategies in the health care sector are cited as policy precedents and the likelihood of their adoption for higher education is assessed. (Author/MLW)

Morgan, Anthony W.

1983-01-01

35

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission

36

The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

2006-01-01

37

The cost containment—Quality of care issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continual emphasis on health care cost containment has reopened the issue of cost containment's relationship to quality of care and has created a need to understand the basic composition and nature of that relationship. For unless a new general approach is taken toward cost containment, continual emphasis could disrupt the delicate balance of the components that constitute quality of care

Gwynn X. Lamont

1981-01-01

38

Health Care Cost Containment. A Seminar on Health Cost Containment, March 14-15, 1985, Washington, D.C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the texts of speeches from a conference on health care cost containment. Topics presented include Medicare solvency, capitated programs, diagnostic related groups (DRGs), Medicaid restructuring, long term care financing, private sector cost containment strategies, British health cost containment, health maintenance…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

39

Space Planning: A Basis for Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decreasing budgets and enrollments, the reluctance of state legislatures to provide funds for higher education facilities, and the rising costs of energy necessitate the development of space ownership management. Three patterns of space planning problems have developed at different colleges: (1) costly, underutilized facilities due to optimistic…

Snyder, Fred A.; And Others

40

Cost containment: Issues of moral conflict and justice for physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to rapidly rising health care costs in the United States, federal and state governments and private industry are instituting numerous and diverse cost-containment plans. As devices for coping with a scarcity of resources, such plans present serious challenges to physicians' traditional single-minded devotion to patient welfare. Those which contain costs by directly limiting medical options or by controlling

E. Haavi Morreim

1985-01-01

41

Health care cost containment strategies: A double-edged sword?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of health care cost containment strategies adopted by organizations and explores the hidden costs associated with several of these alternatives. The role of mental health is discussed within this context.

Miriam Rothman

1991-01-01

42

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS SEMIPOSTAL STAMP PROGRAM § 551.8 Cost offset policy...differential revenue for each semipostal stamp those costs that are determined to be attributable to the semipostal stamp and that would not normally be...

2010-07-01

43

Health Care Cost Containment In Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1993, the state legislature, through its chief oversight committee—the Legislative Program Review and Investigations Committee—undertook\\u000a a study of Connecticut’s health care delivery system. The goal of the Committee’s study was to create a regulatory environment\\u000a that encourages cooperative efforts for controlling costs while setting boundaries for an emerging competitive health care\\u000a market. This paper summarizes some of the findings

L. Spencer Cain

44

The Promise Of Health Care Cost Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Today the United States may be on the cusp of changing,from a cost-uncon- scious health care system to one that seeks value. The consequences,of adopting a value- based approach to coverage have not been well studied; however, several broad strands of the health literature suggest that spending,could be reduced,by as much,as 30 percent without adversely affecting health. [Health Affairs

Alan Garber; Dana P. goldman; Anupam B. Jena

2007-01-01

45

Workplace Characteristics and Health Care Cost Containment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working from an institutional perspective, this study tested hypotheses about the relationships between workplace characteristics and health care cost containment practices. The analyses show that urban location of the workplace, number of employees, and education level of the workforce are related to three different cost containment strategies: the management of utilization with traditional indemnity insurance plans; offering of alternative health

Terry C. Blum; Stuart H. Milne; Chester S. Spell

1996-01-01

46

Workplace characteristics and health care cost containment practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working from an Institutional perspective, this study tested hypotheses about the relationships between workplace characteristics and health care cost containment practices. The analyses show that urban location of the workplace, number of employees, and education level of the workforce are related to three different cost containment strategies: the management of utilization with traditional indemnity insurance plans; offering of alternative health

Terry C. Blum; Stuart H. Milne; Chester S. Spell

1996-01-01

47

Dynamic Analysis of Education Policies: Extending Cost-Benefit Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic analysis offers a comprehensive view of the cost benefit and cost effective dimensions of policy problems. It also provides the computational power to investigate the long term effects of policy decisions on the flow of resources in organizations and government agencies. (Author/MV)

Morris, Jon R.; Ammentorp, William

1977-01-01

48

Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about biological weapons has raised questions about the most effective public health policies to contain an anthrax outbreak. We developed a probability model to predict the impact of different anthrax antibiotic and vaccination policies. An anthrax outbreak can be significantly contained by minimizing the delay until initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, even if mass distribution of antibiotics is completed

Ron Brookmeyer; Elizabeth Johnson; Robert Bollinger

2004-01-01

49

The effects of changes in cost allocations on the assessment of cost containment regulation in hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies that examine the effects of regulation on cost containment frequently ignore the impact of changes in accounting practices. This results in a potential bias of research findings. For example, some studies found evidence of cost containment for inpatient services after a change in Medicare reimbursement in 1983. However, Eldenburg and Kallapur (1997, p. 33) found that more costs

Leslie Eldenburg; Sanjay Kallapur

2000-01-01

50

Integrating Security Policies via Container Portable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although this approach is flexible, it has several serious problems. First, it requires the application components' designers and implementers to also be security specialists, which is rare in real life. Sometimes developers also don't know in what environment the component will be used, so they can't define an appropriate security policy. So, programmers often simply ignore security. Second, this approach

Rudolf Schreiner

51

EFFECTS OF RISING FUEL COSTS ON CONTAINER SHIPPING NETWORKS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cost increase forces liner shipping companies to bear higher ship operation costs and subsequently a lager total cost. To cope with such a fuel cost increase, they attempt to reduce the ship speed to maintain the low operation costs, even resulting in increase of the transit time. This study examines effects of ship speed reduction on fuel savings as well as profit increase, by using a mathematical model for a container liner service network design with a consideration o f empty container repositioning. Throughout numeric al experiments for the Asia-North America trade, the ship speed reduction is effective in fuel cost savings. Furthermore, it was found that the reduction of ship dwell time at port offset the longer transit time resulting from the cruising speed reduction.

Shintani, Koichi; Imai, Akio

52

76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

2011-11-10

53

76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP...

2011-09-29

54

Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

55

Cost Containment Education Efforts in United States Medical Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An AAMC survey of American medical schools indicates that 34 percent have specific programs underway or planned to teach health care cost containment. The majority were introduced during the last two years; the costs are fairly modest. Further activities might be enhanced by development of a program primer and the organization of workshops.…

Hudson, James I.; Braslow, Judith B.

1979-01-01

56

78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements...

2013-03-21

57

77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including...Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; cost principles and administrative requirements...

2012-03-26

58

INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400  

E-print Network

, animal care and environmental assessment). 5.00 Research Funding Agreement means funding provided through1 INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400 Classification: Financial Management Research Funding Agreements PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to set out the principles for making

Victoria, University of

59

Effective Prototype Costing Policies in Research Universities: Are They Possible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy problems of prototype costing at research universities are discussed, based on a case study of a clinical treatment prototype program at a research university hospital. Prototypes programs generate reproducible knowledge with useful applications and are primarily developed in professional schools. The potential of using costing prototypes…

McClure, Maureen W.; Abu-Duhou, Ibtisam

60

Medical subspecialty training and interest in cost containment education  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate academic physicians’ interest in learning methods to reduce health care costs, we asked the faculty and housestaff\\u000a of a university-based department of internal medicine to rate their interest in 30 potential topics for medical grand rounds,\\u000a a traditional forum for continuing medical education. The 30 topics were equally divided among clinical, research and cost-containment\\u000a categories. The 29 housestaff

Peter Manu; Dale A. Matthews; David C. Classen; Ronald B. Goodspeed

1987-01-01

61

The Chaplain as Hospital Ethicist in the Cost Containment Struggle  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can quality health care be maintained in the era of cost containment? This article argues that allegiance to relevant ethical principles at the root of the health care process is necessary and that the chaplain can make an important contribution by discussing them within the institution. This article seeks to be a resource to such discussions and presents three

Larry VandeCreek

1988-01-01

62

Assessing the Effectiveness of Health Care Cost Containment Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using SOEP panel data and difference-in-differences methods, this study is the first to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of four different health care cost containment measures within an integrated framework. The four measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for convalescent care. Doubling the daily copayments was clearly the

Nicolas R. Ziebarth

2011-01-01

63

Health Care Cost-Containment Regulation: Prospects and an Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of the health care system to achieve appropriate containment of overall costs is characterized by Professor Havighurst as requiring public officials to engage, directly or indirectly, in the rationing of medical services. This rationing function is seen by the author as peculiarly difficult for political institutions to perform, given the public's expectations and the symbolic importance of health care.

Clark C. Havighurst

1977-01-01

64

THE STATES' ROLE IN HEALTH CARE COST CONTAINMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Social Security Act of 1935, the federal government expanded its involvement in maternal and child health care programs through grants-in-aid to state and local health departments. The Medicaid legislation of 1965 vastly enlarged federal expenditures, and state responsibilities. State performance was frequently criticized, especially in health care cost containment. Recently, the states have initiated several efforts to link

Gretchen Engquist-Seidenberg

1981-01-01

65

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)  

E-print Network

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute congestion is considered one of the most significant transportation problems. The capacity of a road depends, Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, 13th Edition, Institute of Transportation Studies, UBC (Berkeley; www

O'Donnell, Tom

66

Induced Technical Change and the Cost of Climate Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides an economic analysis of a specific climate change policy: a carbon tax. The analysis attempts to gauge the potential for a carbon tax to create an incentive for research and development, and subsequently lower the cost of technologies responding to climate change.

Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-

67

Priorities of health policy: cost shifting or population health  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is an edited version of an invited paper submitted to the Australian Health Care Summit on 17–19 August 2003. It comments upon the policies which have dominated recent debate and contrasts their importance with the importance of five issues which have received relatively little attention. Methods Policy is usually a response to identified problems and the paper examines the nature and size of the problems which heave led to recent policy initiatives. These are contrasted with the magnitude and potential cost effectiveness policies to address the problems in five areas of comparative neglect. Results It is argued that recent and proposed changes to the financing and delivery of health services in Australia have focused upon issues of relatively minor significance while failing to address adequately major inequities and system deficiencies. Conclusion There is a need for an independent review of the health system with the terms of reference focusing attention upon large system-wide failures. PMID:15679895

Richardson, Jeff RJ

2005-01-01

68

Cost awareness and cost containment at the Hospital for Special Surgery. Strategies and total hip replacement cost centers.  

PubMed

To help balance the operating budget of The Hospital for Special Surgery, which was encountering an annual major deficit of $4 million in 1989, a program of cost awareness leading to cost containment was instituted in 1990. Costs of supplies, implants, and equipment were identified and reviewed by the hospital staff, including orthopaedic surgeons, orthopaedic residents, health care personnel, and administration, for cost effectiveness. Methods to accomplish the goals included structuring committees for information; workshops organized by different services to affect change; feedback to health care professionals through posters and newsletters; and statistical identification for continued education. Major cost savings resulted from recycling wasted implants, reduction of costly implants, and reduction of unnecessary supplies. As a result, vendors had been challenged, leading to more competitive prices. This program has opened new avenues of cost reduction without sacrificing quality of medical care and has contributed to a breakdown of barriers between medical staff, administration, and finance, leading to a strong hospital-team commitment. The price of health care in the United States in 1993 exceeded $900 billion. Health care expenditures now account for approximately 14% of the gross domestic product. Health care costs have been rising faster than the inflation rate for more than a decade. The result is the current national focus on containment of health care expenditures. PMID:7634565

Levine, D B; Cole, B J; Rodeo, S A

1995-02-01

69

Tax Exempt Financing of Health Care Facilities as a Component of the Market Approach to Health Care Cost Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment will discuss the current health delivery system in the context of a Market Approach to health care cost containment. Political and financial issues in health care as well as current judicial and tax policies affecting Market Approach theory will be examined. The Comment concludes that targeted tax exempt financing must play a major role in establishing competitive forces

George A. King

1983-01-01

70

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01

71

75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

2010-06-17

72

Climate Change Policies in Poland: Minimising Abatement Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poland is on track to meet its international greenhouse-gas emissions commitments. However, it will need to cut emissions significantly in the future, if the European Commission’s proposal on the Low Carbon Roadmap is adopted. Policies should ensure that the country’s substantial reduction potential, mainly linked to the energy sector’s high emissions intensity, and implying overall abatement costs above the EU-average,

Balázs Égert

2012-01-01

73

Chapter 15: Public health policy and cost-effectiveness analysis.  

PubMed

Recent scientific advances are providing an opportunity to revisit strategies for cervical cancer prevention. How to invest health resources wisely, such that public health benefits are maximized-and opportunity costs are minimized-is a critical question in the setting of enhanced cytologic screening methods, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and vaccine development. Developing sound clinical guidelines and public health policy will require careful consideration of the incremental benefits, harms, and costs associated with new interventions compared with existing interventions, at both an individual and a population level. In addition to an intervention's effectiveness, public health decision making requires the consideration of its feasibility, sustainability, and affordability. No clinical trial or single cohort study will be able to simultaneously consider all of these components. Cost-effectiveness analysis and disease-simulation modeling, capitalizing on data from multiple sources, can serve as a valuable tool to extend the time horizon of clinical trials, to evaluate more strategies than possible in a single clinical trial, and to assess the relative costs and benefits of alternative policies to reduce mortality from cervical cancer. PMID:12807953

Goldie, Sue J

2003-01-01

74

Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system  

PubMed Central

This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Care Financing Administration, assignment of gatekeepers, beneficiary copayment, private administration, inclusion of private and public employees and county financed long-term care. An assessment of implementation during the second 18 months of the program reporting on more recent developments and is now being prepared by SRI International. PMID:10311438

McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Crane, Michael; Haber, Susan; Freund, Deborah; Wrightson, William

1985-01-01

75

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...State agency must itemize and justify all nutrition services and administration cost adjustments...costs savings and deduct the appropriate nutrition services and administration costs...registered with the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food,...

2011-01-01

76

The effect of owning private long-term care insurance policies on out-of-pocket costs.  

PubMed Central

This article examines the effect of owning long-term care insurance policies on the amount of out-of-pocket costs incurred by the elderly during their nursing home stays, and the importance of different policy features and restrictions. Data were drawn from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey, and from copies of long-term care insurance policies collected from 11 leading companies during the spring and summer of 1988. The study results show a great deal of uncertainty concerning amounts the policies are likely to pay toward nursing home stays. This implies that the policies collected did not adequately fulfill one of the primary purposes of insurance: a reduction in risk and uncertainty. To examine whether rapid policy changes in recent years have made a difference, we assessed each of seven policy features and found that the two most important restrictions in long-term care insurance policies are prior hospitalization and level-of-care requirements. Recently, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) recommended that states prohibit the sale of policies containing these restrictions. Our findings confirm the wisdom of this recommendation. We did find, however, that two other policy restrictions--policy maximums and lack of inflation adjustment--are problematic. We recommend that the NAIC expand its model regulations to require that policy maximums be a minimum of four years, and that some form of inflation protection be incorporated into policy benefit structures. PMID:1899410

Rice, T; Thomas, K; Weissert, W

1991-01-01

77

Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn. PMID:17408494

Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

2007-01-01

78

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

79

75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--NIC Cost Containment...ACTION: Solicitation for cooperative agreement...individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for an 18-month...developing and implementing systems-level cost containment...

2010-08-10

80

Containing U.S. health care costs: What bullet to bite?  

PubMed Central

In this article, the authors provide an overview of the problem of health care cost containment. Both the growth of health care spending and its underlying causes are discussed. Further, the authors define cost containment, provide a framework for describing cost-containment strategies, and describe the major cost-containment strategies. Finally, the role of research in choosing such a strategy for the United States is examined. PMID:25372928

Jencks, Stephen F.; Schieber, George J.

1992-01-01

81

Some thoughts on cost containment and the quality of health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict between cost containment practices and the preservation of quality care is reviewed and discussed. Then a framework for considering the present state of knowledge about the relationship between different methods of cost containment and quality is presented. The view that cost containment poses a threat to the quality of care is advanced and the provider's central role

Avedis Donabedian

1985-01-01

82

European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?  

PubMed

Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe. PMID:24703855

Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

2014-07-01

83

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246...administration cost adjustments as necessary and reasonable for the development and implementation of each system. (iii) Final cost...

2010-01-01

84

Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

Stasica, Edward R.

85

A cost containment program targeting home infusion drug therapy.  

PubMed

A program was instituted to determine if retrospective, concurrent, and prospective analysis of home infusion therapy cases by a multidisciplinary team comprising clinicians and financial analysts would lead to cost reductions and cost-effective behavioral changes by providers. Actual invoices and prospective price quotes for infusion therapy were reviewed and compared to a database of "usual and customary" prices. The results were presented to providers with the intent of obtaining a reduction in prices for the services rendered or about to be rendered. As a result, $3,265,248 in short-term cost reductions were achieved, and $15,146,789 in long-term cost reductions are projected. Analysis resulted in average cost reductions of $2,247 and $10,424 respectively. Very significant cost reductions can be achieved through the use of a multidisciplinary team and a comprehensive pricing database for home infusion therapy. PMID:10140895

Richards, J W; Taylor, W J

1994-11-01

86

The ethics of cost containment from the anesthesiologist’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost containment, as an essential part of current efforts to manage health care, has been examined thoroughly from the perspectives of finance and patient care. In this article, the ethics of cost containment are discussed from the vantage point of the health care provider. Cost-cutting initiatives, however necessary and sound, nevertheless may place anesthesiologists in situations of ethical conflict and

Wolf A Vogel; Gerard R Manecke; Paul J Poppers

1999-01-01

87

Recommendations for Cost Containment for Florida Community Colleges Health Insurance Programs. A Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a discussion of strategies for containing the costs of health insurance programs offered at Florida's community colleges. Introductory material outlines the problem of spiralling health care costs and the impact upon the community colleges. In addition, some of the strategies for containing costs are discussed; e.g.,…

Nickens, John M.; Trofholz, Harlan F.

88

The Korean Health Insurance Program: Analysis of Financial and Cost Containment Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost containment is the major determinant of a successful national health insurance system. From this point of view, the financial situation and factors influencing the rise of health care costs in the Korean health insurance program were analyzed. Current measures of cost containment in use are discussed in terms of price cutting and utilization reduction approaches.

Ok Ryun Moon

1991-01-01

89

Managed Care Rebound? Recent Changes in Health Plans' Cost Containment Strategies. Health Affairs Web Exclusive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large increases in health care costs combined with an economic slowdown have created pressures for health plans and employers to reconsider cost containment strategies that were scaled back after the managed care backlash. This paper examines how plans’ approaches to cost containment and care management have evolved since 2001. Plans reintroduced and refocused some utilization management techniques during 2002 and

Glen P. Mays; Gary Claxton; Justin White

2004-01-01

90

Medicare Long-Term CPAP Coverage Policy: A Cost-Utility Analysis  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: CPAP is an effective treatment for OSA that may reduce health care utilization and costs. Medicare currently reimburses the costs of long-term CPAP therapy only if the patient is adherent during a 90-day trial. If not, Medicare requires a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and another trial which seems empirically not cost-effective. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of current Medicare policy compared to an alternative policy (clinic-only) without the adherence criterion and repeat PSG. Design: Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting: U.S. Medicare Population. Patients or Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: We created a decision tree modeling (1) clinic only follow-up vs. (2) current Medicare policy. Costs were assigned based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2012. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test our assumptions. We estimated cumulative costs, overall adherence, and QALY gained for a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of Medicare as the payer. Current Medicare policy is more costly than the clinic-only policy but has higher net adherence and improved utility. Current Medicare policy compared to clinic-only policy costs $30,544 more per QALY. Conclusions: Current CMS policy promotes early identification of those more likely to adhere to CPAP therapy by requiring strict adherence standards. The policy effect is to deny coverage to those unlikely to use CPAP long-term and prevent wasted resources. Future studies are needed to measure long-term adherence in an elderly population with and without current adherence requirements to verify the cost-effectiveness of a policy change. Citation: Billings ME; Kapur VK. Medicare long-term CPAP coverage policy: a cost-utility analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1023-1029. PMID:24127146

Billings, Martha E.; Kapur, Vishesh K.

2013-01-01

91

Costs and Benefits of Recycling Liquid Board Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of packaging material has become more or less mandatory in many European countries, including Norway. Through so-called voluntary agreements quantitative targets are set for the proportion of total waste to be recycled. At the same time the strategic objective for Norwegian waste policy is that there should be a socio-economic balance between different waste treatment options. On the basis

Karin Ibenholt; Henrik Lindhjem

2003-01-01

92

Health Care Cost Containment in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benefits administrators—and their employers—can no longer ignore the skyrocketing costs of health care. The wide range of measures explored here for controlling these costs include negotiating with providers, analyzing medical claims, enlisting the aid of employee\\/patients, structuring benefit programs to eliminate excesses, and setting up wellness programs to alter the lifestyles—smoking, drinking, poor nutrition—that result in crippling, even fatal diseases.

Gary T. Mcilroy

1983-01-01

93

Boston College: OFFICE FOR SPONSORED PROGRAMS Cost Transfer Policy and Procedures July 2014  

E-print Network

project must always be removed from that project without regard to the date of discovery. 5. Cost use the OSP Cost Transfer Form, which is located at: http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research/osp/CostBoston College: OFFICE FOR SPONSORED PROGRAMS Cost Transfer Policy and Procedures ­ July 2014

Huang, Jianyu

94

The flexible budget process--a tool for cost containment.  

PubMed

This past year the authors have been using a new tool to examine and monitor their laboratory's expenditures. Called "flexible budgeting," this process has been used to analyze the cost behavior of all operating expenses, establish budget levels for different levels of activity, and monitor activity based on relative cost rather than simply the number of tests performed. The authors' experience has shown that this tool provides much more information than previous procedures. However, better methods need to be developed for monitoring expenditures so that this information can be used effectively. PMID:4025225

Pearson, J R; Romfh, P C; Habib, J M; Frieling, M J

1985-08-01

95

Energy security policies in EU25—The expected cost of oil supply disruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing the impact on the expected cost of oil disruption by energy policies in EU-25 is developed. The framework takes into account how energy policies affect the oil market, the expected oil price increase, and the disruption costs. OPEC's strategic behavior is modelled as a dominant firm, and the model includes price interdependence between different energy commodities

Fredrik Hedenus; Christian Azar; Daniel J. A. Johansson

2010-01-01

96

The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections Cline Guivarcha,  

E-print Network

in 2030 for a stabilisation target at 550ppm CO2 equivalent. However, when labour markets rigidities1 The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections Céline. and Hallegatte, S. 2010. The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Cost of energy and environmental policy in Portuguese CO 2 abatement—scenario analysis to 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the contribution of Portuguese energy policies for total and marginal abatement costs (MAC) for CO2 emissions for 2020. The TIMES_PT optimisation model was used to derive MAC curves from a set of policy scenarios including one or more of the following policies: ban on nuclear power; ban on new coal power plants without carbon sequestration and storage;

Sofia Simões; João Cleto; Júlia Seixas; Gjalt Huppes

2008-01-01

98

Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

Krutilla, Kerry

2005-01-01

99

Hospital pharmacy decisions, cost containment, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key hypothesis of the study was that hospital pharmacies under the pressure of managed care would be more likely to adopt process innovations to assure less costly and more cost-effective provision of care. We conducted a survey of 103 hospitals and analyzed secondary data on cost and staffing. Compared to the size of the reduction in length of stay,

Frank A. Sloan; Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein; Alicia Wilson

1997-01-01

100

Innovation amidst radical cost containment in health care.  

PubMed

The changing health care environment is requiring nurse executives within a hospital setting to design and implement innovative workforce practices that will both improve patient outcomes and lower costs. Since registered nurses comprise the largest percentage of a hospital's workforce, finding ways to incorporate them in these efforts is essential. The Magnet Recognition Program through the American Nurses Credentialing Center is one successful evidence-based strategy that can be adopted to engage nurses in quality improvement processes. This article describes how two community hospitals used the principles of the Magnet Recognition Program to develop and implement new approaches to meet the health care imperative of providing safer, high-quality, cost-effective care. PMID:23454990

Beard, Edward L; Sharkey, Kim

2013-01-01

101

Abstracts of State Legislated Hospital Cost-Containment Programs  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes State legislated efforts to control rising hospital costs and the status of these efforts in May 1982. The abstract for each of 17 State programs summarizes key legislative features and operating aspects. The States included in this report are: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The abstracts focus on programs requiring the disclosure, review, or legislation of hospital rates and budgets. PMID:10309910

Esposito, Alfonso; Hupfer, Michael; Mason, Cynthia; Rogler, Diane

1982-01-01

102

Energy policy: The fair cost of renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-efficient use of climate funds in developing countries requires rigorous assessment of local mitigation costs. Now research presents a novel way to estimate the increase in energy costs involved in scaling up solar photovoltaic and wind power.

Jakob, Michael

2012-07-01

103

Initiatives for Containing the Cost of Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers a comprehensive reform agenda for policymakers interested in cost containment. Massy lays out a series of initiatives that, working in tandem, can promote the larger goal of compelling colleges to spend money wisely. Among the individual reforms Massy proposes are creating a national database of cost-containment

Massy, William F.

2013-01-01

104

Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Maintaining Financial Health--Tuition Strategies, Cost Containment, and Fundraising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet lists resources that focus on maintaining the financial health of an institution of higher education. It describes resources in three areas: (1) tuition strategies; (2) cost containment; and (3) fundraising. The focus of the bibliography, however, is on cost containment and efficiency, and it details…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

105

Cost Containment Education Efforts in U.S. Teaching Hospitals, 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rising cost of medical care is seen in large part due to hospital costs, which many planners feel need to be curbed to bring the health care system under control. An Association of American Medical Colleges' survey of medical schools regarding cost containment educational activities is described. (Author/MLW)

Russe, Henry P.; And Others

1981-01-01

106

Challenges for Nursing Research in an Era Dominated by Health Service Reform and Cost Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many health care systems around the world are under reform, not least for reason of necessary cost containment. As one of the largest items of a health service budget, the costs of nursing services are attracting particular attention. This behooves the nursing profession, if only in its own interest, to accumulate convincing evidence of the cost-effectiveness of nursing. Nursing's research

Alison J. Tierney

1993-01-01

107

Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.  

PubMed

In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has previously been predicted. The patient's length of stay in the hospital has already been reduced. There will continue to be decreases in laboratory utilization and consumption of resources necessary to provide laboratory services. Cost competitiveness coupled with the laboratory's need for increased productivity will further expand savings. To summarize, the laboratory manager in the mid-1980's will have the following goals. To provide quality, cost-efficient, and timely laboratory services. To sustain and nurture the growth of the clinical laboratory profession as dictated by the needs of society and new scientific trends and discoveries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085189

Martin, B G

1985-12-01

108

The Employment Effects of Fiscal Policy: How Costly are ARRA Jobs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was intended to stimulate the U.S. economy and to create jobs. But at what cost? In this paper, we discuss the range of potential benefits and costs associated with counter-cyclical fiscal policy. Benefits and costs may be social, macroeconomic, systemic, and budgetary. They may depend importantly on timing and implementation. There may be very

Byron Gangnes

2010-01-01

109

Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

2011-01-01

110

Has cost containment after the National Health Insurance system been successful: Determinants of Taiwan hospital costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan implemented the National Health Insurance system (NHI) in 1995. After the NHI, the insurance coverage expanded and the quality of healthcare improved, however, the healthcare costs significantly escalated. The objective of this study is to determine what factors have direct impact on the increased costs after the NHI. Panel data analysis is used to investigate changes and factors affecting

Jung-Hua Hung; Li Chang

2008-01-01

111

Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?  

PubMed

The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment. PMID:23806222

Andersen, Lotte B

2014-04-01

112

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...periodically (generally on an annual basis) using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) data available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline is adjusted...

2013-10-01

113

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...periodically (generally on an annual basis) using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) data available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline is adjusted...

2012-10-01

114

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...periodically (generally on an annual basis) using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) data available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline is adjusted...

2014-10-01

115

Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation  

PubMed Central

Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case. PMID:24755942

Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

2014-01-01

116

Energy Policy 34 (2006) 16451658 Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for  

E-print Network

for US renewable energy policy$ Peter H. Kobosa,Ã, Jon D. Ericksonb , Thomas E. Drennena,c a Office to minimal RD&D investment and continued subsidies of fossil fuel and nuclear technolo- gies, the USEnergy Policy 34 (2006) 1645­1658 Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications

Vermont, University of

2006-01-01

117

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28

118

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-print Network

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

119

Mercury Replacement Program It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing  

E-print Network

Mercury Replacement Program I. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing devices throughout campus, insofar as is reasonably possible, and provide, the University has an obligation to safeguard employees from the potential health effects of mercury vapor while

de Lijser, Peter

120

Physician attitudes toward cost containment. The missing piece of the puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 720 physicians practicing in central and western Massachusetts was undertaken to examine their attitudes toward cost-containment measures. The majority of physicians felt that major techniques (58%), major procedures (57%), inappropriate ordering of diagnostic tests (48%), and malpractice concerns (47%) were very important contributors to increasing health care costs. Physician age, practice affiliation, and specialty area were related

H. L. Greene; Robert J. Goldberg; H. Beattie; A. R. Russo; R. Curtis Ellison; James E. Dalen

1989-01-01

121

Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

1994-01-01

122

Openness of agriculture market, trade-induced adjustment cost and China's agriculture trade policy after WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's WTO accession has brought concerns over its agricultural sector, where the realization of comparative advantage by free trade will lead to economic efficiency, and at the same time bring sizable trade-induced adjustment cost to the agricultural industry. Adjustment cost could be explained in a certain degree that why countries tend to adopt constrained market liberalization policy, and trade protection

Zhang Shu; Zhu Jing; Cao Li-juan

2010-01-01

123

Cost Effectiveness of CO2 Mitigation Technologies and Policies in the Electricity Sector  

E-print Network

an engineering-economic analysis of hybridizing concentrating solar thermal power with fossil fuel. We examine and policies from the social perspective and from the perspective of consumers. In Chapter 2, we perform the cost effectiveness of substituting the solar power for new coal or gas and find the cost of mitigation

124

Third party cost containment and the physician-patient relationship: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although third parties have tried in various ways to contain health care costs, only a few abbreviated attempts have included questioning modes of treatment of individual physicians. This paper presents an economic and medical analysis of the actions of a small third party firm, U.S. Administrators, Inc. of Los Angeles (USA), which has intervened in the physician-patient relationship to contain

George A. Goldberg; Warren Greenberg

1982-01-01

125

100% container scanning : security policy implications for global supply chains  

E-print Network

On August 3, 2007, President George Bush signed into law HR1 the "Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007." The 9/11 Act requires 100% scanning of US-bound containers at foreign seaports by 2012 ...

Bennett, Allison C. (Allison Christine)

2008-01-01

126

The Employment Effects of Fiscal Policy: How Costly Are ARRA Jobs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was intended to stimulate the U.S.economy and to create jobs. But at what cost? In this paper, we discuss the range of potential benefits and costs associated with counter-cyclical fiscal policy. Benefits and costs may be social, macroeconomic, systemic, and budgetary. They may depend importantly on timing and implementation. There may be very different

F. Gerard Adams; Byron Gangnes

2010-01-01

127

Induced technical change and the cost of climate policy  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the potential for a carbon tax to induce R&D, and for the consequent induced technical change (ITC) to lower the macroeconomic cost of abating carbon emissions. ITC is modelled within a general ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

128

Social cost of imported oil and US import policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts at estimating and applying the oil import premium require a large number of uncertain assumptions about economic behavior. Analysts can easily construct opposing arguments that the premium is large or small, and that the benefit of import reduction is correspondingly large or small, depending on the choice of assumptions. Long-run oil import policy depends most critically on the nature

D. R. Bohi; W. D. Montgomery

1982-01-01

129

DESIGNING BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY POLICIES  

E-print Network

for homeland security policies. The 9/11 attack on the United States transformed domestic and international Carolina State University and Resources for the Future University Fellow and Faculty Research Associate CEn terrorist activities. Because there is no single physical measure that allows the diverse possible terrorist

Wang, Hai

130

Cost justification of filmless PACS and national policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expense of installing PACS is high so most Korean hospitals cannot afford to purchase the system easily. We can justify the cost of PACS by considering the visible and invisible benefits. As a visible benefit we can save the cost of films and equipments for film processing. Invisible benefits of PACS is the cost of film handling. Generally, doctors spend some 25 minutes in handling X-ray films everyday and they spend 10 days (84 hours) throughout a year. Radiology technicians, nurses, orderlies and clerks also handle films and the total salary for handling films by doctors and paramedics will be considerable. Considering the visible and invisible benefits, cost of PACS is justified and PACS can be installed in every hospital, whatever their size. The Korean Society of PACS tried to make reimbursement of the cost of PACS and persuaded the government officers and eventually the Ministry of Health and Welfare decided to reimburse the use of PACS in hospitals. Based on the money reimbursed, general hospitals or university hospitals will earn enough money to purchase a PACS in 3 - 5 years. After the Korean government started to reimburse the cost of PACS, many hospitals wanted to install PACS and the number of hospitals installing PACS is soaring.

Lim, Jae H.

2002-05-01

131

Mitigation Costs and Economic Impacts of Climate Change in a Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of Optimal Policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we use a probabilistic chain methodology in an integrated assessment framework to take into account the uncertainties from the economy and from the climate. First, a random sampling of scenarios is generated covering the range of uncertainties of the socio-economic challenges of mitigation and adaptation and the uncertainty about the delay in the policy action. Then, an economic growth model is used to produce optimal future emission paths in a cost-effectiveness analysis with respect to an extensive range of carbon budgets and to compute the distribution of cost estimates for the mitigation of climate change. A reduced complexity climate model, calibrated from past observation using inverse Bayesian technique, computes probabilistic temperatures projections from the emissions. Finally, The distribution of economic impacts of climate change is produced, by combining the temperatures with impact estimates coming from previous studies. The results show that the distribution of the mitigation costs is right-skewd and that the mitigation costs increase with the delay of policy inaction. In 2050, the economic impacts of climate change are rather positive, but, in 2100, if no stringent policy is applied, the economic impact distribution have a very long tail towards potential high negative impacts. In the Figure, when the two cost distributions are combined, mitigation costs and economic impacts, a stringent policy will lead more likely to a higher loss of GDP than a less stringent policy, however the confidence interval of GDP loss for less stringent policies is much larger. Join distributions of mitigation costs and economic impacts costs per delay of inaction (in rows) and per probability to stay below the 2°C temperature increase (in columns), in 2050 and 2100. The red dot represent the median of the distribution. The y-axis is truncated at -50% of GDP.

Drouet, L.; Bosetti, V.; Tavoni, M.

2013-12-01

132

Philippine laws, regulations back policy to contain population growth.  

PubMed

A recent compilation of population related decrees promulgated since martial law was declared in the Philippines in 1972 indicates that the government may be designing a legal framework encouraging voluntary limitation of family size. The list which was published in an appendix to the 1974-1977 Population Program, reveals that population influencing policies dealing with taxation, maternity benefits, incentive schemes and provision of family planning services by employers are already in effect. Since 1972 tax relief has been restricted to 4 dependents. Paid maternity leave is limited to the first 4 deliveries. Firms with over 300 employees are required to set up family planning clinics, and smaller firms must have infirmary personnel who are trained and certified in the provision of family planning services. Also, the Department of Labor is encouraging employers to develop incentive programs that will encourage workers to use effective family planning methods. The latest population plan also gives top priority to research, calls for targeting information to labor leaders, engaged couples, and out of school youth, and proposes disseminating population and family planning information through residential cooperatives and grass roots organizations. The aim of the current plan is to reduce the birthrate to 35.9 per 100 and the population growth rate to 2.47% by the end of the 4 year period. It is projected that by 1977 58% of the eligible population will be practicing contraception. PMID:12276795

1974-01-01

133

The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

2014-01-01

134

National vaccine injury compensation program: calculation of average cost of a health insurance policy. Final rule.  

PubMed

Subtitle 2 of Title XXI of the Public Health Service Act, as enacted by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, as amended (the Act), governs the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). The VICP, administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary), provides that a proceeding for compensation for a vaccine-related injury or death shall be initiated by service upon the Secretary, and the filing of a petition with the United States Court of Federal Claims (the Court). In some cases, the injured individual may receive compensation for future lost earnings, less appropriate taxes and the "average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by the Secretary." The final rule establishes the new method of calculating the average cost of a health insurance policy and determines the amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy to be deducted from the compensation award. PMID:17674490

2007-07-01

135

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01

136

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

137

The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side. PMID:22043644

Chang, Li

2011-01-01

138

Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

139

Cost containment in dentistry and its impact on the distribution of services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of dental practice and to identify some recent innovations which have effect on cost containment in dentistry. The first of these innovations is dental insurance or prepaid dental services. Dental insurance has only recently emerged as a significant economic factor. The chronic and prevalent nature of dental disease mandates that

George M. Gluck; Mila A. Aroskar; Arthur Nezu

1983-01-01

140

Teaching Cost Containment and Health Economics in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey to obtain information concerning the frequency, extent, and nature of teaching programs in cost containment and health economics in U.S. medical schools is reported. Most medical students confine their interests largely to the clinical aspects of medicine and are only marginally interested in the economics of health care. (Author/MLW)

Ingbar, Mary Lee; Miner, Jane C.

1981-01-01

141

Cost-containment in health care: The case of Spain from the eighties up to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of health care expenditure in Spain during the period 1980-1997, and henceforth to comment on the cost containment measures put forward to control its growth. The paper is divided into three separate sections. The first offers a brief description of the Spanish Health Care System, with emphasis

Guillem López

1998-01-01

142

COST CONTAINMENT AND ACCESS TO CARE: THE SHANGHAI HEALTH CARE FINANCING MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical savings account (MSA) model of health care financing is viewed as a health care cost containment strategy. Yet, health care expenditure in Shanghai has increased sharply since the adoption of the MSA system. This paper looks into the health care reforms in Shanghai, especially since the introduction of the MSA scheme.From the Labor Insurance Scheme and Government Insurance

WEIZHEN DONG

2008-01-01

143

Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to

Rolf A. Groeneveld; Erik Ansink; Justus Wesseler

2011-01-01

144

Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

2014-10-01

145

Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing  

PubMed Central

An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

2014-01-01

146

Health cost containment: what it will mean for workers and local economies.  

PubMed Central

After decades of rapid growth, the rate of increase in health services spending appears to be moderating. Although a slowdown in health expenditure growth would release resources for other uses in the economy, concerns have been raised about the effects of a spending slowdown on health workers and regional economies. Based on projections carried out by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the health reform debate and on state health sector employment data, the author concludes that health workers may experience costly dislocation as health spending growth slows, and some regions may be more affected than others. However, the appropriate response is a general economic policy supporting economic growth and full employment policy with regard to health expenditure growth cannot be held hostage to concerns about employment effects. Images p205-a p212-a PMID:9633864

Bishop, C E

1998-01-01

147

Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

Ayalew, Sewale Abate

2013-01-01

148

Comparative Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Program and Its Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child care and education are to some extent joint products of preschool programs, but public policy and research frequently approach these two goals independently. We present a benefit-cost analysis of a preschool program that provided intensive education during full-day child care. Data were obtained from a randomized trial with longitudinal…

Barnett, W. S.; Masse, Leonard N.

2007-01-01

149

Index Policies for a Multi-Class Queue with Convex Holding Cost and Abandonments  

E-print Network

our objective is to develop a unifying frame- work to obtain well performing control policies of the optimal stochastic control problem and combining results from restless multi- armed bandits and queueing-dimensional birth-and-death process. For linear hold- ing cost, the index can be calculated in closed-form and turns

Ayesta, Urtzi

150

Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.  

PubMed

Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

2015-04-14

151

Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union  

E-print Network

Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459­481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union Laurent L increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91

152

Containment Policies for Transmissible Diseases Shirish Tatikonda, Sameep Mehta, and Srinivasan Parthasarathy  

E-print Network

1. ABSTRACT Till date, there have been several cases of H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in avian in implementation of containment policies. 2. INTRODUCTION Outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza it difficult to design effective controlling strategies. Nascent state of H5N1 vac- cines and anti-viral drugs

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

153

A cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a full cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel. We examine all cost elements of the program - storage, collection, and treatment costs of empty containers, and all potential benefits - savings in alternative treatment costs (waste collection and landfill disposal), cleaner public spaces, reduction of landfill volumes, energy-savings externalities associated with use of recycled materials, and creation of new workplaces. A wide variety of data resources is employed, and some of the critical issues are examined via several approaches. The main finding of the paper is that the deposit-refund program is clearly economically worthwhile. The paper contributes to the growing body of literature on deposit-refund programs by its complete and detailed analysis of all relevant factors of such a program, and also specifically in its analysis of the savings in alternative waste management costs. This analysis reveals greater savings than are usually assumed, and thus shows the deposit-refund program to be highly efficient.

Lavee, Doron, E-mail: doron@pareto.co.i [Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel)

2010-02-15

154

A cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel.  

PubMed

The paper presents a full cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel. We examine all cost elements of the program--storage, collection, and treatment costs of empty containers, and all potential benefits--savings in alternative treatment costs (waste collection and landfill disposal), cleaner public spaces, reduction of landfill volumes, energy-savings externalities associated with use of recycled materials, and creation of new workplaces. A wide variety of data resources is employed, and some of the critical issues are examined via several approaches. The main finding of the paper is that the deposit-refund program is clearly economically worthwhile. The paper contributes to the growing body of literature on deposit-refund programs by its complete and detailed analysis of all relevant factors of such a program, and also specifically in its analysis of the savings in alternative waste management costs. This analysis reveals greater savings than are usually assumed, and thus shows the deposit-refund program to be highly efficient. PMID:19913400

Lavee, Doron

2010-02-01

155

How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

Welner, Kevin

2011-01-01

156

Determinants of nursing home costs in Florida: policy implications and support in national research findings.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive and econometric analysis of the major nonquality determinants of nursing home costs for Florida shows that mean costs, size, and occupancy rate increased between 1971 and 1976, that per diem costs and occupancy rate were inversely related, and that the per diem cost was lower in rural than in urban areas. Regression of the data shows that--next to inflation, as expressed by the Consumer Price Index--the occupancy rate accounts for most of the variation in per diem costs, followed by size, urban-rural location, and by type of control. The hypothetical "optimal," defined as lowest cost-size range, was calculated to be more than 350 beds. Recent research substantiates most of these findings. Medicaid Cost Reports from Florida's nursing homes were the source of the information analyzed; by 1976, the sixth year of the study, the data base covered nearly 9 of 10 licensed beds in the State. Some policy implications can be drawn from the analysis. Reductions in per diem costs could be achieved by higher occupancy rates, especially in the larger nursing homes, and a reduction in the rate of inflation would reduce the rate of increase in nursing home costs. PMID:6815706

Traxler, H G

1982-01-01

157

Achieving health care cost containment through provider payment reform that engages patients and providers.  

PubMed

The best opportunity to pursue cost containment in the next five to ten years is through reforming provider payment to gradually diminish the role of fee-for-service reimbursement. Public and private payers have launched many promising payment reform pilots aimed at blending fee-for-service with payment approaches based on broader units of care, such as an episode or patients' total needs over a period of time, a crucial first step. But meaningful cost containment from payment reform will not be achieved until Medicare and Medicaid establish stronger incentives for providers to contract in this way, with discouragement of nonparticipation increasing over time. In addition, the models need to evolve to engage beneficiaries, perhaps through incentives for patients to enroll in an accountable care organization and to seek care within that organization's network of providers. PMID:23650327

Ginsburg, Paul B

2013-05-01

158

Low-Cost Error Containment and Recovery for Onboard Guarded Software Upgrading and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message-driven confidence-driven (MDCD) error containment and recovery, a low-cost approach to mitigating the effect ofsoftware design faults in distributed embedded systems, is developed for onboard guarded software upgrading for deep-spacemissions. In this paper, we first describe and verify the MDCD algorithms in which we introduce the notion of "confidence-driven" tocomplement the "communication-induced" approach employed by a number of existing checkpointing

Ann T. Tai; Kam S. Tso; Leon Alkalai; Savio N. Chau; William H. Sanders

2002-01-01

159

Drug waste minimization as an effective strategy of cost-containment in Oncology  

PubMed Central

Background Sustainability of cancer care is a crucial issue for health care systems worldwide, even more during a time of economic recession. Low-cost measures are highly desirable to contain and reduce expenditures without impairing the quality of care. In this paper we aim to demonstrate the efficacy of drug waste minimization in reducing drug-related costs and its importance as a structural measure in health care management. Methods We first recorded intravenous cancer drugs prescription and amount of drug waste at the Oncology Department of Udine, Italy. Than we developed and applied a protocol for drug waste minimization based on per-pathology/per-drug scheduling of chemotherapies and pre-planned rounding of dosages. Results Before the protocol, drug wastage accounted for 8,3% of the Department annual drug expenditure. Over 70% of these costs were attributable to six drugs (cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab) that we named ‘hot drugs’. Since the protocol introduction, we observed a 45% reduction in the drug waste expenditure. This benefit was confirmed in the following years and drug waste minimazion was able to limit the impact of new pricely drugs on the Department expenditures. Conclusions Facing current budgetary constraints, the application of a drug waste minimization model is effective in drug cost containment and may produce durable benefits. PMID:24507545

2014-01-01

160

Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26?063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25?444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18?000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

2013-01-01

161

Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

162

The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.  

PubMed

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

2010-04-01

163

The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

2010-01-01

164

A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

2014-01-01

165

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. METHODS: A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without

Rosanna Tarricone; Aleksandra Torbica; Fabio Franzetti; Victor D Rosenthal

2010-01-01

166

Evaluation of Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System, 1984-85  

PubMed Central

In this article, we describe the evaluation of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), Arizona's alternative to the acute care portion of Medicaid. We provide an assessment of implementation of the program's innovative features during its second 18 months of operation, from April 1984 through September 1985. Included in the evaluation are assessments of the administration of the program, provider relations, eligibility, enrollment and marketing, information systems, quality assurance and member satisfaction activities, the relationship of the county governments to AHCCCS, the competitive bidding process, and the plans and their financial status. PMID:10312395

McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Haber, Susan; Paringer, Lynn; Crane, Michael; Wrightson, William; Freund, Deborah

1987-01-01

167

Waste pricing policies and cost-efficiency in municipal waste services: the case of Flanders.  

PubMed

Major changes in municipal solid waste (MSW)-related services, such as the collection system, often require important initial investments, while the benefits on the output side typically occur over a longer time perspective. However, when analyzing the association between such policy choices and cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal, the time horizon is often not taken into account. This article advocates the use of the Malmquist Productivity Index approach to measure and analyze cost efficiency changes over time after the introduction of the relative new weight-based waste collection and billing system in Flanders. The results and robustness checks indicate that introducing weight-based pricing does not lead to lower cost efficiency of MSW service provision. PMID:23585501

De Jaeger, Simon; Rogge, Nicky

2013-07-01

168

Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration  

E-print Network

This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate ...

Hamilton, Michael R.

169

How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect inpatient care use and costs among people with chronic disease?  

PubMed

Rapidly rising health care costs continue to be a significant concern in the United States. High cost-sharing strategies thus have been widely used to address rising health care costs. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies for physician care are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients, especially whether utilization and costs in inpatient care will increase in response. This study examined whether high cost sharing in physician care affects inpatient care utilization and costs differently between individuals with and without chronic conditions. Findings from this study will contribute to the insurance benefit design that can control care utilization and save costs of chronically ill individuals. Prior studies suffered from gaps that limit both internal validity and external validity of their findings. This study has its unique contributions by filling these gaps jointly. The study used data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample, with a cross-sectional study design. Instrumental variable technique was used to address the endogeneity between health care utilization and cost-sharing levels. We used negative binomial regression to analyze the count data and generalized linear models for costs data. To account for national survey sampling design, weight and variance were adjusted. The study compared the effects of high cost-sharing policies on inpatient care utilization and costs between individuals with and without chronic conditions to answer the research question. The final study sample consisted of 4523 individuals; among them, 752 had hospitalizations. The multivariate analysis demonstrated consistent patterns. Compared with low cost-sharing policies, high cost-sharing policies for physician care were not associated with a greater increase in inpatient care utilization (P = .86 for chronically ill people and P = .67 for healthy people, respectively) and costs (P = .38 for chronically ill people and P = .68 for healthy people, respectively). The sensitivity analysis with a 10% cost-sharing level also generated consistent insignificant results for both chronically ill and healthy groups. Relative to nonchronically ill individuals, chronically ill individuals may increase their utilization and expenditures of inpatient care to a similar extent in response to increased physician care cost sharing. This may be due to cost pressure from inpatient care and short observation window. Although this study did not find evidence that high cost-sharing policies for physician care increase inpatient care differently for individuals with and without chronic conditions, interpretation of this finding should be cautious. It is possible that in the long run, these sick people would demonstrate substantial demands for medical care and there could be a total cost increase for health plans ultimately. Health plans need to be cautious of policies for chronically ill enrollees. PMID:25748258

Xin, Haichang

2015-01-01

170

Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future. PMID:23374611

2013-01-01

171

The 20Year Experiment: Accounting for, Explaining, and Evaluating Health Care Cost Containment in Canada and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1960s, concerns over the escalating costs of health care have been expressed with increasing vigor on both sides of the Canada-United States border. This is in sharp contrast with the previous 20 years, during which the principal policy concern was to \\

R. G. Evans; M. L. Barer; C. Hertzman

1990-01-01

172

Does public subsidy of the cost of malaria chemoprophylaxis reduce imported malaria? A comparative policy analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK’s Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy was provided. Methods Between 2007 and 2010 prescriptions for malaria chemoprophylaxis were collected from pharmacy records and PCTs, and all cases of imported malaria reported from the tertiary hospital in each of the two boroughs were compared. Results The dispensed chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were nearly 8.8 times higher in Lambeth (where subsidized drugs were provided), than in Hackney. A Poisson model revealed significantly fewer reports of imported malaria per capita were made in Lambeth compared to Hackney (p?=?0.042). Conclusions The difference in malaria reports between the boroughs only just reached statistical significance, despite the considerable difference in chemoprophylaxis prescribing between the boroughs. Some travellers may not consider using chemoprophylaxis, irrespective of the cost. Regular evaluations of the recent policy changes in areas where malaria is subsidized will be important. PMID:23848986

2013-01-01

173

Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate is presented for new supercritical pulverized coal plants, both with and without CCS. The capital cost escalation of recent years can be attributed to rising materials, plant supply,

Michael R. Hamilton; Howard J. Herzog; John E. Parsons

2009-01-01

174

CERN Health Insurance Scheme: Measures for Containing the Cost of Hospital Treatment  

E-print Network

This document details proposed measures designed to contain the cost of hospital treatment reimbursed by the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). The CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board) is proposing that the free choice of health care provider be accompanied by measures that will allow insured members to be directed towards providers approved by the CHIS, where their rates are competitive (specialist literature on this subject generally describes such providers as "preferred providers"). Given that hospital treatment constitutes the main item of expenditure for the CHIS, it is proposed that new reimbursement rules be introduced in this area. These proposals were discussed and endorsed at TREF on 17 September, as reported by the Chairman of TREF to the Finance Committee on 18 September. They are now presented by the Management to the Finance Committee prior to submission to the Council for approval in December this year, so that the new reimbursement rules would enter into force on 1 January 2...

2002-01-01

175

New Department of Energy policy and guidance for cost-effectiveness in nuclear materials control and accountability programs  

SciTech Connect

Recent Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives have given Departmental nuclear facilities the opportunity to take more credit for certain existing safeguards and security systems in determining operational program protection requirements. New policies and guidance are coupled with these initiatives to enhance systems performance in a cost effective and efficient manner as well as to reduce operational costs. The application of these methods and technologies support safety, the reduction of personnel radiation exposure, emergency planning, and inspections by international teams. This discussion will review guidance and policies that support advanced systems and programs to decrease lifetime operational costs without increasing risk.

Van Ryn, G.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-10-01

176

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...State agency must itemize and justify all nutrition services and administration cost adjustments...costs savings and deduct the appropriate nutrition services and administration costs...registered with the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food,...

2014-01-01

177

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...State agency must itemize and justify all nutrition services and administration cost adjustments...costs savings and deduct the appropriate nutrition services and administration costs...registered with the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food,...

2013-01-01

178

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...State agency must itemize and justify all nutrition services and administration cost adjustments...costs savings and deduct the appropriate nutrition services and administration costs...registered with the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food,...

2012-01-01

179

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

180

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-16

181

Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

Jones, E.; Eto, J.

1997-09-01

182

Making Memorial University's Policy Database and Website work for you The policy website at Memorial University of Newfoundland contains a database of policy and procedure  

E-print Network

and press Enter. The Search looks within the Policy title, the Policy Purpose, Policy Scope and all the text, but which may help locate a policy. The search uses both the index of terms as well as string matching. You of browse and search features to help you get the most out of the site. Its navigation is designed to rely

Oyet, Alwell

183

Cost Containment in Higher Education: Issues and Recommendations. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 5. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides an overview of strategies colleges and universities can use to help contain costs. It also describes a range of strategies that have been used to contain costs and refine budgeting systems in an era of low returns on investment and greater competition. The volume synthesizes research on internal cost containment strategies…

Brown, Walter A.; Gamber, Cayo

184

Minimum specific cost control of technological processes realized in a living objects-containing microenvironment.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work is to work out an approach for the development of software and the choice of hardware structures when designing subsystems for automatic control of technological processes realized in living objects containing limited space (microenvironment). The subsystems for automatic control of the microenvironment (SACME) under development use the Devices for Air Prophylactic Treatment, Aeroionization, and Purification (DAPTAP) as execution units for increasing the level of safety and quality of agricultural raw material and foodstuffs, for reducing the losses of agricultural produce during storage and cultivation, as well as for intensifying the processes of activation of agricultural produce and industrial microorganisms. A set of interconnected SACMEs works within the framework of a general microenvironmental system (MES). In this research, the population of baker's yeast is chosen as a basic object of control under the industrial fed-batch cultivation in a bubbling bioreactor. This project is an example of a minimum cost automation approach. The microenvironment optimal control problem for baker's yeast cultivation is reduced from a profit maximum to the maximization of overall yield by the reason that the material flow-oriented specific cost correlates closely with the reciprocal value of the overall yield. Implementation of the project partially solves a local sustainability problem and supports a balance of microeconomical, microecological and microsocial systems within a technological subsystem realized in a microenvironment maintaining an optimal value of economical criterion (e.g. minimum material, flow-oriented specific cost) and ensuring: (a) economical growth (profit increase, raw material saving); (b) high security, safety and quality of agricultural raw material during storage process and of food produce during a technological process; elimination of the contact of gaseous harmful substances with a subproduct during various technological stages; (c) improvement of labour conditions for industrial personnel from an ecological point of view (positive effect of air aeroionization and purification on human organism promoting strengthened health and an increase in life duration, pulverent and gaseous chemical and biological impurity removal). An alternative aspect of a controlled living microenvironment forming is considered. PMID:12635958

Amelkin, Alexander A; Blagoveschenskaya, Margarita M; Lobanov, Yury V; Amelkin, Anatoly K

2003-01-01

185

Cost-effectiveness analysis of human resources policy interventions to address the shortage of nurses in rural South Africa.  

PubMed

Recent policy recommendations have called for increased research efforts to inform the design of cost-effective interventions to address the shortage of health workers in rural areas. This paper takes forward the recent use of Discrete Choice Experiments to assess the effects of potential incentives to attract nurses to rural areas. The analysis relies on data collected in South Africa between August and November 2008. Effectiveness measures derived from Discrete Choice Experiments are combined in a Markov model to derive the long-term effects of policies, and costs are evaluated with secondary data. Measures involving the selection of more nursing students who are more likely to accept positions in rural areas are shown to be the most cost-effective interventions. If such policies could not be implemented, the next best options are to offer preferential access to specialist training to nurses willing to work in rural areas. PMID:22687725

Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Cairns, John

2012-09-01

186

Has cost containment after the National Health Insurance system been successful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan implemented the National Health Insurance system (NHI) in 1995. After the NHI, the insurance coverage expanded and the quality of healthcare improved, however, the healthcare costs significantly escalated. The objective of this study is to determine what factors have direct impact on the increased costs after the NHI.Panel data analysis is used to investigate changes and factors affecting cost

Jung-Hua Hung; Li Chang

2008-01-01

187

[Consequences of the judicialization of health policies: the cost of medicines for mucopolysaccharidosis].  

PubMed

This study analyzes expenditures backed by court rulings to ensure the public provision of medicines for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a rare disease that requires high-cost drugs not covered by the Brazilian government's policy for pharmaceutical care and which have disputed clinical efficacy. The methodology included a review of files from 196 court rulings ordering the Brazilian Ministry of Health to provide the medicines, in addition to Ministry of Health administrative records. According to the analysis, the "judicialization" of the health system subjected the Brazilian government to a monopoly in the distribution of medicines and consequently the loss of its capacity to manage drug purchases. The study also indicates that the imposition of immediate, individualized purchases prevents obtaining economies of scale with planned procurement of larger amounts of the medication, besides causing logistic difficulties in controlling the amounts consumed and stored. In conclusion, litigation results from the lack of a clear policy in the health system for rare diseases in general, thereby leading to excessive expenditures for MPS treatment. PMID:22415180

Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D

2012-03-01

188

The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era  

PubMed Central

Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Results Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were —$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR. market share. Conclusions EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. PMID:24139984

Stone, David H.; Horvath, Alexander J.; Goodney, Philip P.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Nolan, Brian W.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Zwolak, Robert M.; Powell, Richard J.

2014-01-01

189

Diabetes in Argentina: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is an expensive disease in Argentina as well as worldwide, and its prevalence is continuously rising affecting the quality of life of people with the disease and their life expectancy. It also imposes a heavy burden to the national health care budget and on the economy in the form of productivity losses. Aims To review and discuss a) the reported evidence on diabetes prevalence, the degree of control, the cost of care and outcomes, b) available strategies to decrease the health and economic disease burden, and c) how the disease fits in the Argentinian health care system and policy. Finally, to propose evidence-based policy options to reduce the burden of diabetes, both from an epidemiological as well as an economic perspective, on the Argentinian society. The evidence presented is expected to help the local authorities to develop and implement effective diabetes care programmes. Methodology A comprehensive literature review was performed using databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences). Literature published from 1980 to 2011 was included. This information was complemented with grey literature, including data from national and provincial official sources, personal communications and contacts with health authorities and diabetes experts in Argentina. Results Overall diabetes prevalence increased from 8.4% in 2005 to 9.6% 2009 at national level. In 2009, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death with a mortality rate of 19.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, and it accounted for 1,328,802 DALYs lost in the adult population, mainly affecting women aged over fifty. The per capita hospitalisation cost for people with diabetes was significantly higher than for people without the disease, US$ 1,628 vs. US$ 833 in 2004. Evidence shows that implementation of combined educative interventions improved quality of care and outcomes, decreased treatment costs and optimised the use of economic resources. Conclusions Based on the evidence reviewed, we believe that the implementation of structured health care programmes including diabetes education at every level, could improve quality of care as well as its clinical, metabolic and economic outcomes. If implemented across the country, these programmes could decrease the disease burden and optimise the use of human and economic resources. PMID:24168330

2013-01-01

190

A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

2005-12-01

191

"It's the economy, stupid": strategies for improved cost containment in cancer treatment.  

PubMed

The advent of numerous novel antitumor compounds has improved the prognosis of many cancer patients but has also substantially increased the costs of cancer care and put more pressure on health-care budgets. This situation increasingly raises questions such as the extent to which these drugs offer value sufficient to justify their cost and how to accommodate the increasing costs of cancer care. Here I look at the various aspects that affect cancer care economics and offer potential solutions. PMID:24646487

Sleijfer, S

2014-04-01

192

A comparison of cost-containment instruments for US carbon reduction policies  

E-print Network

A cap-and-trade program, as is used in the European Trading Scheme, is currently the most widely discussed method in the US for reducing greenhouse gases. A basic cap-and-trade program operates by mandating a fixed level ...

Jakobovits, Lisa M. (Lisa Michelle)

2008-01-01

193

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when answering questions regarding research patient care costs. Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided by hospitals

Minnesota, University of

194

Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing, Henry D. Jacoby and Ronald G. Prinn*  

E-print Network

Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates for the baseline years 1990 and 1995. We then present projections for regional emissions of PFCs from the aluminum

195

Multifunctional polymer composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel low-cost carbonaceous fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced polymer nanocomposites/composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel carbonaceous fillers were processed and evaluated for the multifunctional purposes. To prepare the high performance conformal coating materials for microelectronic industries, epoxy resin was incorporated with zirconium tungstate (ZrW 2O8) nanoparticles synthesized from hydrothermal reaction to alleviate the significant thermal expansion behavior. Three types of ZrW 2O8 at different loading levels were selected to study their effect of physical (morphology, particle size, surface area, etc.) and thermal (thermal expansivity) properties on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy resin incorporated by Type-1 ZrW2O8 exhibited the overall excellent performance. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets were non-covalently encapsulated by a versatile and mussel-adhesive protein polydopamine through the strong pi-pi* interaction. The high-temperature thermoset bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) reinforced with homogenously dispersed h-BN at different volume fractions and functionalities were processed to investigate their effect on thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Different theoretical and empirical models were also successfully applied for the prediction of CTE, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of h-BN/BECy nanocomposites. On the basis of the improvement in dimensional stability, the enhancement in storage modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions, associated with the increment in thermal conductivity without deterioration of thermal stability, glassy transition temperature and dielectric properties, pristine h-BN/BECy nanocomposites exhibited the prospective application in microelectronic packaging industry. Polydopamine functionalized h-BN significantly increased the dielectric constant of cyanate ester at lower frequency region. Asphaltene, a carbonaceous by-product of crude oil extraction, was studied as a novel and low-cost additives in polymer matrices. Two kinds of asphaltene were extracted and investigated using different analytical techniques for the comparison of their elemental composition, molecular structure, and morphology. One asphaltene underwent the successful molecular functionalization via two silane coupling agents prior to the preparation of epoxy composites. Another asphaltene was incorporated into poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) copolymers (SBS) for the fabrication of hybrid composites using melt compounding technique. Based on it intrinsic rigid molecular structure, the reinforcement effect of asphaltene was recognized to be more pronounced in a softer matrix (SBS) than the rigid one (epoxy).

Wu, Hongchao

196

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment  

E-print Network

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States;Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost for the Degrees of Master of Science in Technology and Policy and Master of City Planning ABSTRACT Carbon capture

197

Cost factors and chemical pretreatment effects in the membrane filtration of waters containing natural organic matter   

E-print Network

This paper compares the membrane processes available for water treatment. Membranes have the advantage of currently decreasing capital cost, a relatively small footprint compared to conventional treatment, generally a reduction in chemicals usage...

Schäfer, Andrea; Fane, Anthony G.; Waite, T.D.

2001-01-01

198

Containing mental health treatment costs through program design: a Massachusetts study.  

PubMed Central

A single site pre-post study of seriously mentally ill patients treated in a public mental health system shows that annual treatment costs can be substantially reduced with the use of day hospital treatment. Two cohorts of psychiatric patients--282 consecutive admissions to a traditional public inpatient unit in 1980, and 340 consecutive admissions to a combination of inpatient and day hospital care in 1984--were followed 12 months after admission. The substitution of the day hospital is made possible because the facility provided a dormitory residence for those who could not go home at night. Cost savings per hospital episode are about 31 per cent when the additional costs of day hospital and residence are considered. Cost shifting from inpatient to residential sites is noted, but overall mean annual costs, when all other treatment (including additional admissions), residential and family costs were included, are reduced. Readmission rates did not rise. The generalizability of the findings is limited to public mental health centers and state hospitals. PMID:2735473

Dickey, B; Binner, P R; Leff, S; Uyeda, M K; Schlesinger, M J; Gudeman, J E

1989-01-01

199

Containing mental health treatment costs through program design: a Massachusetts study.  

PubMed

A single site pre-post study of seriously mentally ill patients treated in a public mental health system shows that annual treatment costs can be substantially reduced with the use of day hospital treatment. Two cohorts of psychiatric patients--282 consecutive admissions to a traditional public inpatient unit in 1980, and 340 consecutive admissions to a combination of inpatient and day hospital care in 1984--were followed 12 months after admission. The substitution of the day hospital is made possible because the facility provided a dormitory residence for those who could not go home at night. Cost savings per hospital episode are about 31 per cent when the additional costs of day hospital and residence are considered. Cost shifting from inpatient to residential sites is noted, but overall mean annual costs, when all other treatment (including additional admissions), residential and family costs were included, are reduced. Readmission rates did not rise. The generalizability of the findings is limited to public mental health centers and state hospitals. PMID:2735473

Dickey, B; Binner, P R; Leff, S; Uyeda, M K; Schlesinger, M J; Gudeman, J E

1989-07-01

200

Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

Trombella, Jerry

2011-01-01

201

Benefits, cost requirements and cost-effectiveness of the HPV16,18 vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in developing countries: policy implications.  

PubMed

Approximately 70% of cases of cervical cancer worldwide are caused by genotypes 16 and 18 of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted. With the availability of an effective vaccine against these HPV types, there is real hope for reducing the global burden of cervical cancer in developing countries. Stakeholders faced with decisions about where to invest money to improve health must consider the burden of disease caused by cervical cancer relative to other priorities and the comparative benefits of different interventions. We conducted a series of analyses to obtain information for agencies drafting immunisation policy recommendations, financing coordination mechanisms, and country decision-makers on the benefits, cost requirements and cost-effectiveness of the HPV16,18 vaccine. We found that making an HPV16,18 vaccine accessible to 70% of young adolescent girls in 72 of the poorest countries, China, Thailand, and all of Latin America and the Caribbean, could prevent the future deaths of more than four million women vaccinated over the next decade. Provided the cost per vaccinated girl is less than $10-$25, adolescent HPV16,18 vaccination would be cost-effective even in relatively poor countries. Concerns about financial costs and affordability highlight the need for lowering vaccine prices, cost-efficient mechanisms for delivery of vaccinations to adolescents, and creative sources of financing. PMID:19027626

Goldie, Sue J; O'Shea, Meredith; Diaz, Mireia; Kim, Sun-Young

2008-11-01

202

Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of geothermal power in the United States, and to recognize that not all policy or energy technology is created equal. Further study options are provide to expand the scope and granularity of this research design to better support a growing market.

Richard, Christopher L.

203

Policy expectations and reality of telemedicine - a critical analysis of health care outcomes, costs and acceptance for congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

A critical review of evidence was carried out to discover whether the actual performance of telemedicine fulfils the expectations of German policy-makers. The analysis was conducted using the example of telemedicine for congestive heart failure (CHF). It was based on both German and international evidence. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as public sources from the German Federal Ministry of Health. Forty-five studies reporting patient outcomes, costs or acceptance of telemedicine for CHF were included in the review, of which 28 were interventional. The policy expectations of telemedicine generally are: high technology acceptance and improved patient outcomes at lower costs. However, in the field of CHF, policy-makers underestimate the complexity of telemedicine and the technology has not yet lived up to its expectations. Although some studies show improvements in all-cause mortality and CHF-related hospitalisations, there is excessive study heterogeneity and vagueness in the areas of costs and acceptance. Methodological insufficiencies as well as the scarcity of evidence in the German context do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. Policy-makers and other stakeholders should increase their efforts to consolidate isolated telemedicine projects, establish guidelines for clinical treatment procedures and economic evaluations, and define industry/technical device standards to enhance the comparability of interventions. Imposing the use of telemedicine on patients and physicians is not likely to be fruitful. A successful adaptation requires an analysis of needs and continuous education on both sides. PMID:24803273

Achelrod, Dmitrij

2014-05-01

204

UAH Cost Policy Regarding Charges to Grants and Contracts Last update: May 21, 2010  

E-print Network

in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-21: Cost Principles for Educational Institutions AS INDIRECT COSTS MAY BE APPROPRIATE 3.3 BUDGET REVISIONS 4.0 ALLOCATION OF A DIRECT COST ACROSS TWO OR MORE The operation of any enterprise involves costs that pertain to a specific project, as well as general costs

Alabama in Huntsville, University of

205

What School Administrators Should Know about Inclusion and Its Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cost-effectiveness of school inclusion for special-needs students. Includes cost analysis of instructional personnel, impact on general education spending, transportation, and school space. Draws policy implications. (Contains 34 references.) (PKP)

Pruslow, John T.

2003-01-01

206

Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-print Network

and oil filter reimbursement checks to be combined, so check processing costsCosts of remediating underground storage tank leaks exceed benefits. Oil &costs, as illustrated by the difficulties encountered by the California oil

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2007-01-01

207

Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations  

E-print Network

the extra cost and extra energy saving. Due to higher costs of energy at present and in the foreseeable future, good opportunities exist to retrofit existing thermal envelopes with extra insulation. Potential costs and savings in the residential, commercial...

Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

1980-01-01

208

Who is the odd man out?: the experience of Western Europe in containing the costs of health care.  

PubMed

Economic, demographic, and technological pressures have led at the same time to increased demands upon health services and the need to contain spending on health care. As the United States has focused singularly on an array of market mechanisms, Western European countries have each adopted a broader set of strategies along with limited de-insurance: innovative regulatory approaches and a move from compulsory health insurance models to flexible national health service models of providing health care. Pursuit of cost-containment in Western Europe has proceeded along with pursuit of quality and, above all else, equity. PMID:3846805

Abel-Smith, B

1985-01-01

209

Restructuring Higher Education: Cost Containment and Productivity Enhancement Efforts of North American Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses issues in the efforts of colleges and universities to reduce costs. First, some key findings are identified, including the rapid increase in tuition since 1981; decreases in academic library expenditures; increases in cooperative arrangements; use of more adjunct faculty; and increased privatization of services. Individual…

Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

210

The inevitable failure of current cost-containment strategies. Why they can provide only temporary relief.  

PubMed

Current strategies for controlling hospital costs have focused primarily on eliminating care that is presumed to be of no medical value. These efforts have neglected the central fact that eliminating such care reduces current expenditures, but has little or no influence on three key factors responsible for the upward trend in real costs--population growth, rising input prices ("the hospital market basket"), and technologic innovation and diffusion. Aging of the population and the rising costs of malpractice insurance have received undue attention; together they can account for only three tenths of a percentage point in the upward trend. Gradual elimination of presumably useless care, perhaps as much as 30% of inpatient-days, can save many billions of dollars, but can only offset for a few years the forces causing costs to rise in US community hospitals. Indeed, in 1984, the reduction in patient days and resultant slowing in the real rate of rise to 2.1% appear simply to have concealed an underlying real rate of increase that was close to 7%. After all unnecessary days have been eliminated, the underlying rate of increase will reemerge unless limitations are placed on technologic innovation or beneficial services are rationed. PMID:3795408

Schwartz, W B

1987-01-01

211

Effectiveness of Strategies To Contain Costs of the Post-Retirement Health Benefit Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of the cost of post-retirement health benefits (PRHBs) for retirees is a major concern to American corporations because of a declining commitment to the Medicare program by the federal government, new proposed accounting rules that will change the financial treatment of PRHBs, and a growing retiree population. This study was…

Wan, Thomas T. H.; And Others

212

The cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injection in healthcare settings.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Poor injection practices transmit potentially life-threatening pathogens. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. METHODS: The incidence of injection-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was modelled for a year 2000 cohort over a 30-year time horizon. The consequences of a "do nothing" scenario were compared with a set of hypothetical scenarios that incorporated the health gains of effective interventions. Resources needed to implement effective interventions were costed for each subregion and expressed in international dollars (I dollars). FINDINGS: Worldwide, the reuse of injection equipment in the year 2000 accounted for 32%, 40%, and 5% of new HBV, HCV and HIV infections, respectively, leading to a burden of 9.18 million DALYs between 2000 and 2030. Interventions implemented in the year 2000 for the safe (provision of single-use syringes, assumed effectiveness 95%) and appropriate (patients-providers interactional group discussions, assumed effectiveness 30%) use of injections could reduce the burden of injection-associated infections by as much as 96.5% (8.86 million DALYs) for an average yearly cost of 905 million I dollars (average cost per DALY averted, 102; range by region, 14-2293). Attributable fractions and the number of syringes and needles required represented the key sources of uncertainty. CONCLUSION: In all subregions studied, each DALY averted through policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections costs considerably less than one year of average per capita income, which makes such policies a sound investment for health care. PMID:12764494

Dziekan, Gerald; Chisholm, Daniel; Johns, Benjamin; Rovira, Juan; Hutin, Yvan J. F.

2003-01-01

213

Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.  

PubMed

This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs. PMID:11913904

Affinnih, Yahya H

2002-02-01

214

Low-cost, fly-ash-containing aluminum-matrix composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been considerable activity in the development of metal-matrix composites, especially for aerospace, ground transportation, and the leisure industry. Short-fiber-reinforced pistons and cylinder blocks have been marketed by Japanese companies for several years. It is likely that in the near future cast particulate composites like aluminum-graphite, aluminum-silicon carbide, and aluminum-alumina will find widespread applications as brake rotors, drive shafts, cylinder liners, connecting rods, and wrist pins. The cost of metal-matrix composites has been one of the major barriers toward their widespread application. This paper describes the development of cast aluminum-fly ash particle composites (ash alloy). Incorporation of fly-ash particles, which are a waste by-product of coal-based power generation, reduces the cost of aluminum castings by acting as a filler; decreases their density, and increases their hardness, abrasion resistance, and stiffness. Several prototype castings have been made from aluminum-fly ash composites to demonstrate their castability. With sustained research and the support of manufacturing organizations, these alloys can find widespread applications as low-cost aluminum composite components.

Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

1994-11-01

215

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

216

Note, A Woman’s Life, a Woman’s Health: Equalizing Medicaid Abortion Funding in Simat Corp. v. Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This casenote discusses the Arizona Supreme Court’s decision in Simat Corp. v. Arizona Health Care Cost Container System. In a decision deviating from those of the United States Supreme Court, the Arizona Supreme Court declared the Arizona statute and accompanying Arizona Heath Care Cost Containment System provisions unconstitutional because they did not survive strict scrutiny analysis under the Privileges and

Sara G. Gordon

2003-01-01

217

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

218

German health care system in transition. The difficult way to balance cost containment and solidarity.  

PubMed

As is the case with all other health care systems, the German one is in constant transition. The reasons--such as costly medical innovations, aging population, and lack of overall economic growth--are well known, widely discussed, and not unique to Germany. Although the problems are not unique to Germany, there are some trends in each country which may be of interest to other countries. This contribution provides an update on the German health care system and reports current reform trends. PMID:15909198

von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

2005-06-01

219

Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

Kahn, Lawrence M.

2012-01-01

220

Impacts of the Universal Primary Education Policy on Educational Attainment and Private Costs in Rural Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…

Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi

2008-01-01

221

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

222

Environmental Policy Since Earth Day I: What Do We Know About the Benefits and Costs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on costs and benefits of the major environmental laws passed during the 1970s are reviewed. The winners in terms of benefit-cost analysis include: getting lead out of gasoline, controlling particulate air pollution, reducing the concentration of lead in drinking water, and the cleanup of hazardous waste sites with the lowest cost per cancer case avoided under Superfund. The losers

A. Myrick Freeman III

2002-01-01

223

POLICY NUMBER 2002-11 February 25, 2002  

E-print Network

of the sponsored project Federal F&A cost rate proposal submitted to and negotiated with the Department of Health will be prepared using the guidelines contained in Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 (Cost PrinciplesPOLICY NUMBER 2002-11 February 25, 2002 POLICY: FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST RATE

Oliver, Douglas L.

224

Development and evaluation of die and container materials. Low cost silicon solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific compositions of high purity silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and silicon beryllium oxynitride (Sibeon) solid solutions were shown to be promising refractory materials for handling and manipulating solar grade silicon into silicon ribbon. Evaulation of the interaction of these materials in contact with molten silicon indicated that solid solutions based upon beta-Si3N4 were more stable than those based on Si2N2O. Sibeon was more resistant to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Both materials should preferably be used in an inert atmosphere rather than under vacuum conditions because removal of oxygen from the silicon melt occurs as SiO enhances the dissolution of aluminum and beryllium. The wetting angles of these materials were low enough for these materials to be considered as both die and container materials.

Wills, R. R.; Niesx, D. E.

1979-01-01

225

NOTIONS OF (IN)SECURITY WITHIN THE EU. HOW EUROPEAN POLICY?MAKERS VIEW THE SOURCES AND COSTS OF TERRORISM AND ORGANISED CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article maps notions of (in)security and security policy within the European Union (EU) since the 1990s using the cases of terrorism and organised crime. It traces interpretations of European policy?makers about the sources and costs that these two human?induced insecurities incur on Europe’s societies and identifies the rationalities underlying the respective perceptions and policy actions. The analysis reveals that

Regina Heller

2011-01-01

226

Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

2010-01-01

227

Quantifying the Cost Uncertainty of Climate Stabilization Policies Travis Read Franck  

E-print Network

changes because of strict carbon policy constraints. Oil exporters (e.g., the Middle East) will also allocated by a tax-based emissions path favored energy importers with developed economies (e.g., the US

228

Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs  

E-print Network

An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

Matthews, Isaac A

2010-01-01

229

A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

2014-11-01

230

The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1980-01-01

231

Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue  

SciTech Connect

For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

NONE

1996-05-01

232

[Health Inequalities and Cost-Effectiveness: What do Important Health Policy Actors say about this Potential Conflict Situation?].  

PubMed

The German statutory health-care system is based on the principle of solidarity and thus it is committed to the objective of 'equal chances'. From an economic perspective it is also important to emphasise that scarcity of resources continuously pushes the services towards cost control and towards increasing cost-effect-iveness. There could be conflicts between the 2 objectives 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness', of course, for example if measures for increasing cost-effectiveness lead to increased financial burdens of the insured. To date it has not been studied if and how this potential conflict is discussed in Germany.In a first step we searched for German publications discussing this potential conflict focusing on 3 major public health journals (Das Gesundheitswesen, Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Ethik in der Medizin) and on the internet portal "gerechte-gesundheit.de". For the main part of the paper, we looked for publications from 4 major health policy actors (Bundesärztekammer, Zentrale Ethikkommission bei der Bundesärztekammer, Deutscher Ethikrat, Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der Entwicklung im Gesundheitswesen). All papers published since the year 2000 were included in the system-atic qualitative analysis.The analyses show that the potential conflict between 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness' is rarely discussed in any detail, at most in an implicit way. It would be important, though, to have an explicit discussion, supported by scientifically based analyses and recommendations. One step towards this objective could be, for example, a closer cooperation between social-epidemiologists and health--economists. PMID:24918869

Hofmann, M; Mielck, A

2015-02-01

233

The Benefits and Costs of Head Start. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review what is known about Head Start's impacts on children and argue that the program is likely to generate benefits to participants and society as a whole that are larger than program costs. Our conclusions differ from those in some previous reviews because we use a more appropriate standard to judge program effectiveness (benefit-cost

Ludwig, Jens; Phillips, Deborah

2007-01-01

234

Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

Xie, Yan

2010-01-01

235

Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

236

The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost

Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

2012-01-01

237

Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

238

Jury still out on extent of employers' cost savings under managed care. An AMA policy research perspective.  

PubMed

President Clinton's Health Security Act as well as other proposals for national health system reform and state-level reform call for greater use of managed care to control employers' health care costs. Even without government intervention, the trend is for increased enrollment of employees into managed care plans as opposed to traditional indemnity plans. In fact, the proportion of private employees enrolled in managed care plans grew from 5% in 1980 to 55% (90 million persons) in 1992. Despite the increased reliance on managed care plans, little is known about their ability to limit costs and whether they pass any savings on to employers. This American Medical Association Policy Research Perspectives summarizes a recent report by the General Accounting Office (GAO) that discusses their review of the literature on managed care and interviews with insurers and more than 60 private employers between March 1992 and March 1993. PMID:7930867

1994-08-01

239

A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation on findings and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is the Task 4 report and final product for "A Study of Metric Conversion of Distilled Spirits Containers: A Policy and Planning Evaluation,' performed by Applied Concepts Corporation for the United States Metric Board (USMB). This report summarizes the results for the entire project, which entailed: conducting a detailed case study of the distilled spirits conversion; developing and analyzing a set of hypothetical scenarios regarding the circumstances of the conversion and USMB's possible role in it; assessing the completeness and clarity of USMB's planning guidelines; conducting a survey of consumer awareness of and attitudes toward the conversion; and analyzing the implications of the findings from all the above for USMB policy. The report presents a brief overview of the major findings from the case study, regarding the actual events, issues, and impacts of the distilled spirits conversion. It traces the impacts of possible USMB intervention strategies under several alternative scenarios, in the context of the distilled spirits conversion. The study assesses the planning guidelines and analyzes the implications for USMB policy and presents a concise summary of findings and "lessons learned' over the course of this project. Consumer survey results are attached in an Appendix.

Simpson, J. A.; Barsby, S. L.

1981-10-01

240

Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

2011-01-01

241

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

2008-01-07

242

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

243

The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in developing nutrition policy.  

PubMed

Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society. Mandatory regulation of salt in processed foods, in particular, is highly recommended. Future research should focus on lacunae in the current evidence base: effectiveness of interventions addressing the marketing, availability, and price of healthy and unhealthy foods; modeling health impacts of complex dietary changes and multi-intervention strategies; and modeling health implications in diverse subpopulations to identify interventions that will most efficiently and effectively reduce health inequalities. PMID:23642205

Cobiac, Linda J; Veerman, Lennert; Vos, Theo

2013-01-01

244

30 CFR 1218.704 - What is ONRR's policy on interest and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Debt Collection and Administrative...administrative costs on debts that are not subject...compromise of the delinquent debt or if the Director determines...conscience or not in the Government's best...

2014-07-01

245

30 CFR 1218.704 - What is ONRR's policy on interest and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Debt Collection and Administrative...administrative costs on debts that are not subject...compromise of the delinquent debt or if the Director determines...conscience or not in the Government's best...

2012-07-01

246

30 CFR 1218.704 - What is ONRR's policy on interest and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Debt Collection and Administrative...administrative costs on debts that are not subject...compromise of the delinquent debt or if the Director determines...conscience or not in the Government's best...

2013-07-01

247

Dividend Smoothing, Agency Costs, and Information Asymmetry: Lessons from the Dividend Policies of  

E-print Network

or family ownership make information and agency concerns largely irrelevant, we find that dividend policy predicts. We also show that the protection of governance mechanisms afforded to shareholders of publicly building, or other value-destroying activities (e.g., Jensen and Meckling (1976), Easterbrook (1984

248

Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

Marra, Simona

2008-01-01

249

Keeping Teachers on the Job Costs Less than Advertised. Policy Memorandum #168  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A misplaced obsession with the size of federal budget deficits remains the single biggest obstacle to enacting new measures to create jobs on a scale commensurate with the crisis in the American labor market. Even assuming that budget scoring rules can't be changed, at the very least policy makers should be aware of the true impact a given piece…

Bivens, Josh

2010-01-01

250

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

251

The true cost of unusable password policies: password use in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

HCI research published 10 years ago pointed out that many users cannot cope with the number and complexity of passwords, and resort to insecure workarounds as a consequence. We present a study which re-examined password policies and password practice in the workplace today. 32 staff members in two organisations kept a password diary for 1 week, which produced a sample

Philip G. Inglesant; Martina Angela Sasse

2010-01-01

252

Wasteful waste-reducing policies? The impact of waste reduction policy instruments on collection and processing costs of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

We study the impact of some local policies aimed at municipal solid waste (MSW) reduction on the cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal. We explicitly account for differences between municipalities in background conditions by using a bootstrapped version of the Data Envelopment Analysis methodology in combination with a matching technique. Using data on 299 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2003, our results indicate that municipalities that are member of a waste collection joint venture, or that subscribe to a voluntary agreement to reduce MSW at the highest ambition level, collect and process MSW more efficiently than other municipalities. Weekly instead of two-weekly waste collection, or using a weight-based pricing system appears to have no impact on efficiency. Our results show that aiming at MSW reduction does not lead to lower efficiency of public service provision, even on the contrary. PMID:21429732

De Jaeger, Simon; Eyckmans, Johan; Rogge, Nicky; Van Puyenbroeck, Tom

2011-07-01

253

SPA EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK This handbook contains brief summarized statements of policies, procedures, and programs that are  

E-print Network

(Associate Vice Chancellor) 687-4269 (Employment Information 687-2276) Identification Card Office 687 are intended to serve as an overview and do not, in many cases, provide detailed information. For this reason at 687-2276 for assistance. The information contained in this booklet is subject to change by the proper

Chen, Keh-Hsun

254

Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.  

PubMed

Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

2014-01-23

255

Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

NONE

1997-01-01

256

Draft environmental assessment: Swisher County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Swisher County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Swisher site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Swisher site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Deaf Smith site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site in the Permian Basin and is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site rather than the Swisher site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

257

A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report establishes the historical baseline regarding events that occurred, the reasons for the events, their impacts, and the lessons learned from the conversion. The report consists of eight chapters and an appendix: (1) an overview of the distilled spirits industry, (2) an analysis of the motivation phase of the conversion, (3) an analysis of the planning phase, (4) a description and analysis of the events of the implementation phase, (5) an analysis of the costs and savings resulting from the conversion, (6) an analysis of the impact of the conversion on prices of distilled spirits, (7) an analysis of the impacts on consumption, profitability, industry structure, and size, product and brand preferences, (8) a summary of the findings and conclusions from the assessment of the process, and (9) (the appendix) a detailed chronology of events.

Simpson, J. A.

1981-08-01

258

Health Care Cost Containment: Are America's Aged Protected? Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing examining the impact on the elderly of the federal health care cost containment measure. Correspondence between the Select Committee on Aging and the Department of Health and Human Services, concerning the government restrictions' harmful effects on the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

259

The cost escalation of social health insurance plans in China: Its implication for public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been alarmed by its rapid rise in health care expenditures of social health insurance schemes. The health care expenditure per person for the 155 million people covered by the Chinese social insurance plans has been rising at an accelerative rate. We analyze why health care cost in China has risen, and show how other nations may benefit from

Xingzhu Liu; William C. L. Hsiao

1995-01-01

260

Spatial integration, transport costs, and the response of local prices to policy changes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the respective roles of spatial integration and transport costs in explaining price changes in Ghana. We introduce a model of price formation and market integration that incorporates the price transmission process between local and central markets and also captures the implications for volatility of local prices. We explore the implications of the model for the time-path of

Ousmane Badiane; Gerald E. Shively

1998-01-01

261

Wrestling Rising Costs with Innovation. Policy Matters. Volume 4, Number 1, January 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While tuition costs are likely the most talked about topic in higher education, focusing on the institutional finance is equally important. The growing expenses associated with educating students is often a catalyst for rising tuition and fees, and they play a large role as educators plan for the future of their institutions. Although higher…

Markowitz, Melissa

2007-01-01

262

Energy Policy 34 (2006) 32183232 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions  

E-print Network

in photovoltaics Gregory F. NemetÃ? Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly

Kammen, Daniel M.

263

Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

Ash, Katie

2008-01-01

264

Optimizing Bernoulli routing policies for balancing loads on call centers and minimizing transmission costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of assigning probabilities at discrete time instants for routing toll-free calls to a given set of call centers in order to minimize a weighted sum of transmission costs and load variability at the call centers during the next time interval. We model the problem as a tripartite graph and decompose the problem of finding the optimal

L. D. Servi; S. Humair

1998-01-01

265

Optimizing Bernoulli Routing Policies for Balancing Loads on Call Centers and Minimizing Transmission Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of assigning probabilities at discrete time instants for routing toll-free calls to a given set of call centers to minimize a weighted sum of transmission costs and load variability at the call centers during the next time interval.

L. D. Servi; S. Humair

1999-01-01

266

Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

2012-01-01

267

They Spend What? The Real Cost of Public Schools. Policy Analysis. No. 662  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although public schools are usually the biggest item in state and local budgets, spending figures provided by public school officials and reported in the media often leave out major costs of education and thus understate what is actually spent. To document the phenomenon, this paper reviews district budgets and state records for the nation's five…

Schaeffer, Adam

2010-01-01

268

SMALL, LOW COST EARTH SURVEILLANCE SATELLITES FOR ENHANCED ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES IN PROFIT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements from fast developing rural communities in Romania are investigated that can make profit of Earth-resources-oriented space technologies, in the form of small, low-cost surveillance satellites and a supporting ground system. Ecological and environmental, soil management applications for a modernized, small farms agriculture are the first targets. General challenges like water-soil pollution, uncontrolled use of chemicals in agricultural activities are

Radu D. Rugescu

269

The impact of proposed changes in liver allocation policy on cold ischemia times and organ transportation costs.  

PubMed

Changes to the liver allocation system have been proposed to decrease regional variation in access to liver transplant. It is unclear what impact these changes will have on cold ischemia times (CITs) and donor transportation costs. Therefore, we performed a retrospective single center study (2008-2012) measuring liver procurement CIT and transportation costs. Four groups were defined: Local-within driving distance (Local-D, n?=?262), Local-flight (Local-F, n?=?105), Regional-flight <3?h (Regional <3?h, n?=?61) and Regional-Flight >3?h (Regional >3?h, n?=?53). The median travel distance increased in each group, varying from zero miles (Local-D), 196 miles (Local-F), 384 miles (Regional <3?h), to 1647 miles (Regional >3?h). Increasing travel distances did not significantly increase CIT until the flight time was >3?h. The average CIT ranged from 5.0 to 6.0?h for Local-D, Local-F and Regional <3?h, but increased to 10?h for Regional >3?h (p?costs increased with greater distance traveled: Local-D $101, Local-F $1993, Regional <3?h $8324 and Regional >3?h $27?810 (p?costs will increase from $2415 to $7547/liver donor, an increase of 313%. These findings suggest that further discussion among transplant centers and insurance providers is needed prior to policy implementation. PMID:25612501

DuBay, D A; MacLennan, P A; Reed, R D; Fouad, M; Martin, M; Meeks, C B; Taylor, G; Kilgore, M L; Tankersley, M; Gray, S H; White, J A; Eckhoff, D E; Locke, J E

2015-02-01

270

How state and federal policies as well as advances in genome science contribute to the high cost of cancer drugs.  

PubMed

During a time when cancer drug prices are increasing at an unprecedented rate, a debate has emerged as to whether these drugs continue to provide good value. In this article I argue that this debate is irrelevant because under today's highly distorted market, prices will not be set with value considerations in mind. As an alternative, I suggest considering the "value" of three policy changes-Medicare's "average sales price plus 6 percent" payment program, laws that require insurance coverage of all new cancer drugs, and the Affordable Care Act-that are fueling manufacturers' willingness to set higher prices. More important than these issues, however, is the revolution that is occurring in molecular biology and its impact on scientists' ability to detect changes in the cancer genome. The lowered cost of discovery is driving more competitors into the market, which under distorted pricing paradoxically encourages drug makers to charge ever higher prices for their products. PMID:25847638

Ramsey, Scott D

2015-04-01

271

The financial impact of a state adopting a personal/philosophical belief exemption policy: modeling the cost of pertussis disease in infants, children and adolescents.  

PubMed

State school immunization exemption policies help reduce the risk of individual and community disease. Assessing the costs of vaccine preventable disease associated with a state adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy is useful for making future policy decisions. Two formulas were developed to estimate the infant, child and adolescent hospitalization and non-medical costs of pertussis disease that are associated with adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy. The parameter estimates were obtained from peer reviewed literature and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The state of Iowa was used as an example in order to demonstrate how the formulas can be applied. The annual projected impact of pertussis disease in Iowa is $273,365 without a philosophical/personal belief exemption policy and an average of $410,047 (range of $281,566-$582,267) with adding a personal belief exemption policy. We project that adding a philosophical/personal belief exemption will cost 50% more dollars annually. PMID:22863661

Wells, Katelyn B; Omer, Saad B

2012-09-01

272

Draft environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment, which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Swisher site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site. The DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Deaf Smith site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Deaf Smith site is one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

273

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

274

Policies  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

275

Rigorous Program Evaluations on a Budget: How Low-Cost Randomized Controlled Trials Are Possible in Many Areas of Social Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing ability of social policy researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at low cost could revolutionize the field of performance-based government. RCTs are widely judged to be the most credible method of evaluating whether a social program is effective, overcoming the demonstrated inability of other, more common methods…

Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2012

2012-01-01

276

An Examination of the UK Treasury's Evidence Base for Cost and Time Overrun Data in UK Value-for-Money Policy and Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

UK government procurement policy rests on Treasury claims that the private finance initiative (PFI) has reduced cost and time overruns. We review the five studies cited by the Treasury in support of this claim and find that only one purports to compare PFI with traditional procurement. The results of this single study are uninterpretable because of selection bias, small sample

Allyson M. Pollock; David Price; Stewart Player

2007-01-01

277

Booster Breaks: An Easy-to-Implement Workplace Policy Designed to Improve Employee Health, Increase Productivity, and Lower Health Care Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace stress and physical inactivity are major health problems. To combat them, Booster Breaks have been proposed, which represent a new way of thinking about work breaks. This article introduces a workplace program and policy to improve employee health and productivity and lower healthcare costs by implementing Booster Breaks. This innovation uses break times to promote health and is based

Wendell C. Taylor

2011-01-01

278

Health-Related External Cost Assessment in Europe: Methodological Developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.  

PubMed

"Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

2015-03-01

279

Commercial Insurance vs Community-Based Health Plans: Time for a Policy Option With Clinical Emphasis to Address the Cost Spiral  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship…

Amundson, Bruce

2005-01-01

280

Can Networked Hospital Performance Comparisons Be Linked with Total Quality Management?A Scenario Based on the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council publishes annually performance comparisons on hospitals in nine regions of the state. As a result, hospitals are under public pressure to use these data in Total Quality Management programs. This article illustrates both the opportunity and the risk that pub licly funded information poses for hospitals.

J. Marvin Bentley

1993-01-01

281

Costs of Introducing and Delivering HPV Vaccines in Low and Lower Middle Income Countries: Inputs for GAVI Policy on Introduction Grant Support to Countries  

PubMed Central

Background In November 2011, the GAVI Alliance made the decision to add HPV vaccine as one of the new vaccines for which countries eligible for its funding (less than $1520 per capita income) could apply to receive support for national HPV vaccination, provided they could demonstrate the ability to deliver HPV vaccines. This paper describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI policymakers for this decision regarding GAVI HPV vaccine support. The paper reviews why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are different from other vaccines and what is known about the cost components from available data that originated primarily from HPV vaccine delivery costing studies in low and middle income-countries. Methods Financial costs of HPV vaccine delivery were compared across three sources of data: 1) vaccine delivery costing of pilot projects in five low and lower-middle income countries; 2) cost estimates of national HPV vaccination in two low income countries; and 3) actual expenditure data from national HPV vaccine introduction in a low income country. Both costs of resources required to introduce the vaccine (or initial one-time investment, such as cold chain equipment purchases) and recurrent (ongoing costs that repeat every year) costs, such as transport and health personnel time, were analyzed. The cost per dose, cost per fully immunized girl (FIG) and cost per eligible girl were compared across studies. Results Costs varied among pilot projects and estimates of national programs due to differences in scale and service delivery strategy. The average introduction costs per fully immunized girl ranged from $1.49 to $18.94 while recurrent costs per girl ranged from $1.00 to $15.69, with both types of costs varying by delivery strategy and country. Evaluating delivery costs along programme characteristics as well as country characteristics (population density, income/cost level, existing service delivery infrastructure) are likely the most informative and useful for anticipating costs for HPV vaccine delivery. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the importance of country level cost data to inform global donor policies for vaccine introduction support. Such data are also valuable for informing national decisions on HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:24968002

Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A.; Levin, Carol; Tsu, Vivien; Hutubessy, Raymond

2014-01-01

282

Medicare program; prospective payment system for long-term care hospitals RY 2009: annual payment rate updates, policy changes, and clarifications; and electronic submission of cost reports: revision to effective date of cost reporting period. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule updates the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs). We are also consolidating the annual July 1 update for payment rates and the October 1 update for Medicare severity long-term care diagnosis-related group (MS-LTC-DRG) weights to a single rulemaking cycle that coincides with the Federal fiscal year (FFY). In addition, we are clarifying various policy issues. This final rule also finalizes the provisions from the Electronic Submission of Cost Reports: Revision to Effective Date of Cost Reporting Period interim final rule with comment period that was published in the May 27, 2005 Federal Register which revises the existing effective date by which all organ procurement organizations (OPOs), rural health clinics (RHCs), Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), and community mental health centers (CMHCs) are required to submit their Medicare cost reports in a standardized electronic format from cost reporting periods ending on or after December 31, 2004 to cost reporting periods ending on or after March 31, 2005. This final rule does not affect the current cost reporting requirement for hospices and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) facilities. Hospices and ESRD facilities are required to continue to submit cost reports under the Medicare regulations in a standardized electronic format for cost reporting periods ending on or after December 31, 2004. PMID:18567174

2008-05-01

283

Cost assessment of the movement restriction policy in France during the 2006 bluetongue virus episode (BTV-8).  

PubMed

This study aims at evaluating the costs of the movement restriction policy (MRP) during the 2006 BTV-8 epidemic in France for the producers of 6-9 month old Charolais beef weaned calves (BWC), an important sector that was severely affected by the restrictions imposed. This study estimates the change in the number of BWC sold that was due to the movement restrictions, and evaluates the economic effect of the MRP. The change in BWC sold by producers located inside the restriction zone (RZ) was analyzed for 2006 by using a multivariate matching approach to control for any internal validity threat. The economic evaluation of the MRP was based on several scenarios that describe farms' capacity constraints, feeding prices, and the animal's selling price. Results show that the average farmer experienced a 21% decrease in animals sold due to the MRP. The economic evaluation of the MRP shows a potential gain during the movement standstill period in the case of no capacity constraint faced by the farm and food self-sufficiency. This gain remains limited and close to zero in case of a low selling price and when animals are held until they no longer fit the BWC market so that they cannot be sold as an intermediate product. Capacity constraints represent a tremendous challenge to farmers facing movement restrictions and the fattening profit becomes negative under such conditions. The timing and length of the movement standstill period significantly affect the profitability of the strategy employed by the farmer: for a 5.5 month-long standstill period with 3.5 months of cold weather, farmers with capacity constraints have stronger incentives to leave their animals outside during the whole period and face higher mortality and morbidity rates than paying for a boarding facility for the cold months. This is not necessarily true for a shorter standstill period. Strategies are also sensitive to the feed costs and to the food self-sufficiency of the farm. Altogether, the present work shows the farmer's vulnerability to animal movement restrictions and quantifies the costs of the standstill. These results should assist decision-makers who seek to calculate adequate subsidies/aid or to efficiently allocate resources to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:25458706

Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

2014-12-01

284

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09

285

76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

2011-08-26

286

An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.  

PubMed

Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

2014-01-13

287

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

288

Evaluating Self-Funded Health Insurance for the Lakeshore Technical Institute as a Cost-Containment Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the rising costs of health care and large increases in insurance premiums, a study was conducted at Lakeshore Technical Institute (LTI) to investigate the feasibility of using a self-funded health insurance plan at the college. Data were obtained through a literature review; telephone and on-site discussions with a personnel…

Holstein, Karen E.

289

US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Contains a list of attendees, agenda, report summaries, and a financial report  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

Not Available

1993-03-16

290

What are the Implications for Policy Makers? A Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Misuse in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBIs) for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however, evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programs are likely to be cost-effective but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. Methods: Studies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programs combining SBIs in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations. Results: The search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however, almost all studies reported SBI programs to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result. Conclusion: This review provides strong evidence that SBI programs in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse. PMID:25225487

Angus, Colin; Latimer, Nicholas; Preston, Louise; Li, Jessica; Purshouse, Robin

2014-01-01

291

PAYMENT MECHANISMS AND THE COMPOSITION OF PHYSICIAN PRACTICES: BALANCING COST-CONTAINMENT, ACCESS, AND QUALITY OF CARE.  

PubMed

We take explicit account of the way in which the supply of physicians and patients in the economy affects the design of physician remuneration schemes, highlighting the three-way trade-off between quality of care, access, and cost. Both physicians and patients are heterogeneous. Physicians choose both the number of patients and the quality of care to provide to their patients. When determining physician payment rates, the principal must ensure access to care for all patients. When physicians can adjust the number of patients seen, there is no incentive to over-treat. In contrast, altruistic physicians always quality stint: they prefer to add an additional patient, rather than to increase the quality of service provided. A mixed payment mechanism does not increase the quality of service provided with respect to capitation. Offering a menu of compensation schemes may constitute a cost-effective strategy for inducing physicians to choose a given overall caseload but may also generate difficulties with access to care for frail patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24990110

Barham, Victoria; Milliken, Olga

2014-07-01

292

Cutting Costs: Successful Ways to Reduce School Expenditures. Current Trends in School Policies & Programs. Education U.S.A. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How to decrease school operating costs without hurting the quality of education is the subject of this report, which contains suggestions gleaned from school districts all over the country in a survey conducted by the National School Public Relations Association. The most important attitude that all members of the school community can hold is an…

Gonder, Peggy

293

Costs of Illness Due to Typhoid Fever in an Indian Urban Slum Community: Implications for Vaccination Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the burden of disease, costs of illness, and cost-effectiveness of vaccines are needed to facilitate the use of available anti-typhoid vaccines in developing countries. This one-year prospective surveillance was carried out in an urban slum community in Delhi, India, to estimate the costs of illness for cases of typhoid fever. Ninety-eight culture-positive typhoid, 31 culture-positive paratyphoid, and 94

Rajiv Bahl; Anju Sinha; Christine Poulos; Dale Whittington; Sunil Sazawal; Ramesh Kumar; Dilip Mahalanabis; Camilo J. Acosta; John D. Clemens; Maharaj K. Bhan

294

Small nuclear forces and US security policy: threats and potential conflicts in the Middle East and South Asia. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the Middle East and South Asia, the 11 authors of these essays examine a number of nuclear proliferation problems associated with the development of small nuclear forces (SNFs). The issues covered are: the technical characteristics of SNFs possible in this region; the kinds of intraregional threats and political-military interaction likely to arise from the deployment of SNFs; the threat perceptions and probable responses of extraregional powers; the demonstrable threats SNFs could pose to US projection of military power in the region; the problems posed for military power in the region; the problems posed for military and political stability by the added risks of nuclear war, challenges to superpower crisis management, and new burdens on arms control; and the problems of policy response, with special emphasis on areas needing attention by defense planners. Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 6 references.

Jones, R.W. (ed.)

1984-01-01

295

Spallation Neutron Source high-power Rf transmitter design for high availablility, ease of installation and cost containment  

SciTech Connect

The availability goals and installation schedule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have driven the availability and installation of the SNS linac's high-power RF systems. This paper discusses how the high-power RF systems' availability and installation goals have been addressed in the RF transmitter design and procurement. Design features that allow R1; component failures to be quickly diagnosed and repaired are also presented. Special attention has been given lo interlocks, PLC fault logging and real-time interfaces to thc accelerator's Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) archive system. The availability and cost motivations for the use of different RF transmitter designs in the normalconducting and super-conducting sections of the linac are reviewed. Factory iicceptance tests used to insure fully functional equipment and thereby reduce the time spent on installation and cotnmissioning of the RF transmitters are discussed. Transmitter installation experience and klystron conditioning experience is used to show how these design features have helped and will continue to help the SNS linac to meet its availability and schedule goals.

Bradley, J. T. (Joseph T.), III; Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Roybal, W. T. (William T.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.)

2003-01-01

296

Empirical awakening: the new science on mutual help and implications for cost containment under health care reform.  

PubMed

Over the past 75 years, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has grown from 2 members to over 2 million members. AA and similar organizations (e.g., Narcotics Anonymous [NA]) are among the most commonly sought sources of help for substance-related problems in the United States. It is only relatively recently, however, that the scientific community has conducted rigorous studies on the clinical utility and health care cost-offset potential of mutual-help groups and developed and tested professional treatments to facilitate their use. As a result of this research, AA as an organization has experienced an "empirical awakening," evolving from its peripheral status as a "nuisance variable" and perceived obstacle to progress to playing a more central role in a scientifically informed recovery oriented system of care. Also, professionally delivered interventions designed to facilitate the use of AA and NA ("Twelve-Step Facilitation" [TSF]) are now "empirically supported treatments" as defined by US federal agencies and the American Psychological Association. Under the auspices of health care reform, a rational societal response to the prodigious health and social burden posed by alcohol and other drug misuse should encompass the implementation of empirically based strategies (e.g., TSF) in order to maximize the use of ubiquitous mutual-help recovery resources. PMID:22489579

Kelly, John F; Yeterian, Julie D

2012-01-01

297

Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes prevention and control plan. PMID:24564974

2014-01-01

298

How Much Does Medical Education Cost? A Review. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No. A3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of studies of medical school costs was made in order to evaluate and compare the methodologies and findings of those studies. The survey covered studies of one or more medical schools that either produced figures for average annual per-student cost of education and/or discussed the methodologies and problems involved in producing such…

MacBride, Owen

299

77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards...

2012-07-25

300

PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.  

PubMed

Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

2013-09-01

301

Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Mental Disorders: Implications for Public Health Care Funding Policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. Method: We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. Results:

Gail Myhr; Krista Payne

2006-01-01

302

Risk perception, addiction, and costs to others: An assessment of cigarette taxes and other anti-smoking policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a relatively comprehensive assessment of government anti-smoking policies (both taxation and other regulatory measures). I conclude that interventions to engender in smokers and prospective smokers an accurate perception of tobacco's health risks are justified, that except in the case of adolescents addiction by itself does not justify intervention beyond providing adequate information, that the proper goal of

Paul Menzel

1994-01-01

303

Contributions and Costs of Manpower Development and Training. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of a larger project under grant from the Ford Foundation to evaluate federal manpower policies and programs, this evaluation of the training efforts under Title II of the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) made use of data provided by the Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare. By the end of fiscal 1967, 1.2…

Mangum, Garth L.

304

Sacrifice ratios and monetary policy credibility: do smaller budget deficits, inflation-indexed debt, and inflation targets lower disinflation costs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing empirical literature addresses the determinants of the sacrifice ratio, an imperfect measure of the tradeoff between inflation and aggregate output. This study endeavors to advance previous studies in three ways. First, the literature does not satisfactorily examine key fiscal and monetary policy practices that arguably affect policymaking credibility. These include the stock (and flow) of government debt, the

J. Benson Durham

2001-01-01

305

Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance. Policy Brief Series on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deferring maintenance in small rural schools creates poor conditions that can affect the health and safety of everyone who uses the facility, damage the morale of students and teachers, impair their ability to teach and learn, and threaten the facility itself. Numerous recommendations for policy changes that affect maintenance are presented. A…

Lawrence, Barbara Kent

306

Why do women pay more than they should? A mixed methods study of the implementation gap in a policy to subsidize the costs of deliveries in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

In 2007, Burkina Faso launched a public policy to subsidize 80% of the cost of normal deliveries. Although women are required to pay only the remaining 20%, i.e., 900F CFA (1.4 Euros), some qualitative evidence suggests they actually pay more. The aim of this study is to test and then (if confirmed) to understand the hypothesis that the amounts paid by women are more than the official fee, i.e., their 20% portion. A mixed method sequential explanatory design giving equal priority to both quantitative (n=883) and qualitative (n=50) methods was used in a rural health district of Ouargaye. Half (50%, median) of the women reported paying more than the official fee for a delivery. Health workers questioned the methodology of the study and the veracity of the women's reports. The three most plausible explanations for this payment disparity are: (i) the payments were for products used that were not part of the delivery kit covered by the official fee; (ii) the implementers had difficulty in understanding the policy; and (iii) there was improper conduct on the part of some health workers. Institutional design and organizational practices, as well as weak rule enforcement and organizational capacity, need to be considered more carefully to avoid an implementation gap in this public policy. PMID:23123308

Ridde, Valéry; Kouanda, Seni; Yameogo, Maurice; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Bado, Aristide

2013-02-01

307

Public Perceptions Of Cost Containment Strategies: Mixed Signals For Managed Care Despite an overall lack of confidence in managed care, Americans appear to be receptive to specific managed care practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With health care costs, and insurance premiums in particular, escalating rap- idly, we may see the reintroduction of utilization management strategies associated with managed care, which seemed destined for oblivion only a short time ago. Results from a survey to assess Americans' views of managed care cost containment strategies indicate mixed support: Despite an overall lack of confidence in managed

Claudia L. Schur; Marc L. Berk; Jill M. Yegian

308

Biofuel Production in Italy and Europe: Benefits and Costs, in the Light of the Present European Union Biofuel Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and critically evaluate in this paper biofuel production options in Italy, in order to provide the reader with\\u000a the order of magnitudes of the performance indicators involved. Also, we discuss biofuel viability and desirability at the\\u000a European level, according to the recent EU regulations and energy policy decisions.\\u000a \\u000a Fuels from biomass are most often proposed as substitutes for

Sergio Ulgiati; Daniela Russi; Marco Raugei

309

Help with Mammogram Costs  

MedlinePLUS

... regulated? Where can I get help with mammogram costs? Medicare, Medicaid, and all private health insurance policies created after March 23, 2010 cover screening mammogram costs. The new health care law requires that health ...

310

Comparative Costs and Conservation Policies for the Survival of the Oranutan and Other Species: Includes an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which conservation is feasible is constrained by budgets and the financial sacrifice stakeholders are willing to bear. Therefore a possible objective for conserving a species is to minimise the cost of achieving that stated aim. For example, if a minimum viable population (MVP) of a species is to be conserved, the size and type of habitats reserved

Clement A. Tisdell; Hemanath Swarna Nantha

2010-01-01

311

GME: at what cost?  

PubMed

Current computing methods impede determining the real cost of graduate medical education. However, a more accurate estimate could be obtained if policy makers would allow for the application of basic cost-accounting principles, including consideration of department-level costs, unbundling of joint costs, and other factors. PMID:14626704

Young, David W

2003-11-01

312

Climate change and the Water Framework Directive: cost effectiveness and policy design for water management in the Swedish Mälar region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper calculates the impacts of climatic change on cost effective nutrient management under the Water Framework Directive\\u000a (WFD) for the eutrophic Mälar lake and Stockholm archipelago in south-eastern Sweden. This is carried out for two types of\\u000a targets: actual nutrient reduction targets and water quality targets as suggested by WFD. Stochastic programming is applied\\u000a where climatic changes are modelled

Ing-Marie Gren

2010-01-01

313

77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION:...

2012-11-19

314

The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities.

Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

2007-08-01

315

UPDATING PERFORMANCE AND COST OF NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA uses the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to evaluate the cost and emission impacts of proposed policies. Studies were undertaken recently to update the performance and cost factors contained in this model for various NOx control technologies. The studies showed a sig...

316

Safety Policy LEAD IN PAINT POLICY  

E-print Network

Safety Policy (10/96) LEAD IN PAINT POLICY protection from excessive exposure to lead. Paints and coatings manufactured prior to 1978 often contained disturbing surfaces coated with lead paint or primer, potentially exposing University employees

Powers, Robert

317

Supplement to the Illinois Institute of Technology Faculty Handbook This Supplement is included with the Faculty Handbook for convenience, and it contains policies  

E-print Network

from Law Enforcement T. Faculty Companies U. Student Travel Policy V. Social Media Policy W. Volunteers Items from the Policies and Procedures Handbook A. Reservations and Use of University Facilities on the IIT Main Campus B. Reservations and Use of IIT Facilities at the Downtown Campus C. Insurance Claims

Heller, Barbara

318

Health Care Technology Assessment. Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Health Cost Containment Issue: Health Technology Assessment; General Cost Containment Strategies; and Cost Implications of Defensive Medicine and Medical Malpractice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This committee hearing was held to consider factors in federal suport of health care services, including the roles of professional organizations, insurance companies, and hospitals. The process of evaluating whether the use of medical technology, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic procedures are cost-effective and beneficial is identified as…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

319

EFFICIENT, HALIDE FREE SYNTHESIS OF NEW, LOW COST IONIC LIQUIDS: ALKYLIMIDAZOLIUM SALTS CONTAINING METHYL- AND ETHYL-SULFATE ANIONS. (R828257)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

320

Estimating the Potential Health Impact and Costs of Implementing a Local Policy for Food Procurement to Reduce the Consumption of Sodium in the County of Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined approaches to reduce sodium content of food served in settings operated or funded by the government of the County of Los Angeles, California. Methods. We adapted health impact assessment methods to mathematically simulate various levels of reduction in the sodium content of food served by the County of Los Angeles and to estimate the reductions’ potential impacts on mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) among food-service customers. We used data provided by county government food-service vendors to generate these simulations. Results. Our analysis predicted that if the postulated sodium-reduction strategies were implemented, adults would consume, on average, 233 fewer milligrams of sodium each day. This would correspond to an average decrease of 0.71 millimeters of mercury in SBP among adult hypertensives, 388 fewer cases of uncontrolled hypertension in the study population, and an annual decrease of $629?724 in direct health care costs. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a food-procurement policy can contribute to positive health and economic effects at the local level. Our approach may serve as an example of sodium-reduction analysis for other jurisdictions to follow. PMID:21680933

Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane; Schmidt, Steven M.; Simon, Paul A.; Fielding, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

321

Markets and childhood obesity policy.  

PubMed

In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies. Researchers, however, have as yet undertaken few such studies of obesity-related policy options. Such analyses, once available, will help policymakers achieve the greatest benefit from a fixed budget. PMID:16532659

Cawley, John

2006-01-01

322

76 FR 79545 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Parts 9901 and 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS...Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Final...of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board...

2011-12-22

323

76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

2011-08-26

324

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

DOE Data Explorer

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

325

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

SciTech Connect

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-12-16

326

From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy.  

PubMed

In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of Europeanization. This process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lisbon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision. PMID:17625641

Gerlinger, Thomas; Urban, Hans-Jürgen

2007-01-01

327

Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost  

E-print Network

,* 1 School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, P. R. China mxlang. Introduction Containerization provides an efficient and economic means of transporting goods. The vast majority allows containers to be stacked two high (double-stacked) so that freight containers are shipped more

Zhou, Xuesong

328

7 CFR 1709.102 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Policy. 1709.102 Section...ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost...Program § 1709.102 Policy. (a) All high...benefit smaller rural communities, communities...

2014-01-01

329

7 CFR 1709.102 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Policy. 1709.102 Section...ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost...Program § 1709.102 Policy. (a) All high...benefit smaller rural communities, communities...

2010-01-01

330

7 CFR 1709.102 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Policy. 1709.102 Section...ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost...Program § 1709.102 Policy. (a) All high...benefit smaller rural communities, communities...

2011-01-01

331

7 CFR 1709.102 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Policy. 1709.102 Section...ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost...Program § 1709.102 Policy. (a) All high...benefit smaller rural communities, communities...

2012-01-01

332

7 CFR 1709.102 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Policy. 1709.102 Section...ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost...Program § 1709.102 Policy. (a) All high...benefit smaller rural communities, communities...

2013-01-01

333

FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999  

E-print Network

FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999 After completion of all deliverables required under a fixed-price award, after costs in fulfilling the requirements of the award have been

Weston, Ken

334

Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

1984-01-01

335

Blurred edges to population policies.  

PubMed

Fertility is now below replacement level in most European countries, especially the industrialized ones. In the last 20 years, several countries have developed or improved pronatalist programs containing incentives that are designed to motivate couples to have a 2nd and especially a 3rd child, to maintain a stable population. The WHO Sexuality and Family Planning Unit called a short consultation on this subject last October. What actually constitutes a pronatalist population program and the connections between public policies and private reproductive behavior were not very clear. Nor is it easy to assess the longer--term demographic effects of pronatalist policies or what influences their effectiveness. The outcome usually reflects the country's history, cultural and religious traditions, changes in lifestyle, and the value given to the family and children. Incentives are defined as monetary or nonmonetary inducements to voluntary reproductive behavior that conforms to specified population policies. They may be small or large, in cash or kind, parity-specific or income-linked, immediate or developed, one-time or incremental, or any combination of these. Disincentives are negative sanctions that are either incurred or thought likely as a result of violating the policy. But both incentives and disincentives are difficult to define. Pronatalist policies designed to encourage early marriage and larger families, thereby raising the future total fertility rate should not be confused with traditional social welfare policies designed simply to ease the burden of childbearing. Some policies have both demographic and social welfare aims. Strong pronatalist policies may be linked with restrictions on contraceptive availability and legal abortion. Moreover, other public policies affecting social security, education, employment, housing, regional planning and the emancipation of women may unintentionally influence demographic behavior. Population policies are the product of politics. Often written in ambiguous language and intended to affect society as a whole, they still depend for their outcome on microlevel changes in a couple's perceptions of the costs and benefits of having children. In theory, they can be carried out in many ways but in practice such policies are severely limited by administrative, political, technological, economic, and ethical constraints. One difficulty is that governments is rarely enunciate precise goals. Their approach may range from noninterference in private reproductive behavior to total coercion using controls ranging from traditional cultural influences to imposition of fertility regulations. In some countries, fertility rates have increased briefly (in terms of period rates) following introduction of pronatalist policies. However, it is not clear how the rates were influenced, particularly in the case of parities 1, 2, and 3. A forthcoming report will describe experiences in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. PMID:12222234

David, H P

1992-05-01

336

Cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.  

PubMed

Cost-effective analysis has become an important tool in helping determine what procedures are both cost-effective and appropriate in today's cost control health care. The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a standard measure for health-related quality-of-life in medical cost-effectiveness research. It can be used to compare different interventions to determine the cost-effectiveness of each procedure. Use of QALY to compare health care interventions has become the new gold standard. The key words arthroscopy, cost-effectiveness analysis, QALY, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, elbow, wrist, and pubic symphysis were searched utilizing PubMed and an internet search engine. Cost/QALY ratios were determined and compared with other surgical procedures using techniques other than arthroscopy. Cost/QALYs were found for the shoulder, hip, knee, and elbow. The QALY for the shoulder was $13,092, for a simple knee was $5783, for a hip $21,700, and for an elbow $2031. General costs were found for the ankle, wrist, and pubic symphysis, that could be used to estimate QALYs without the complex formal calculation. On the basis of our findings, arthroscopy is an extremely cost-effective allocation of health care resources. PMID:23924749

Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

2013-09-01

337

Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?  

PubMed

For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy. PMID:11809012

Wörz, M; Wismar, M

2001-01-01

338

Camping Impact Management at Isle Royale National Park: An Evaluation of Visitor Activity Containment Policies From the Perspective of Social Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park's policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limit- ing the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within back- country campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the

Tracy A. Farrell; Jeffrey L. Marion

339

The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.  

PubMed

Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

Chen, Mei-Lan

2014-10-21

340

Federal Medical and Disability Program Costs Associated with Diabetes, 2005. Summary of Methods and Key Findings. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a growing threat to the nation’s health that has serious and costly complications. This paper looks behind the $79.7 billion estimates for 2005 of medical and disability costs to the federal government cited in Mathematica’s main study. The estimates include $2.5 billion in disability payments associated with diabetes and $77.2 billion in increased medical costs. Nearly 80 percent

Marsha Gold; Craig Thornton; Allison Hedley; Cheryl Fahlman; Suzanne Felt-Lisk; Bob Weathers; Thomas Croghan

2007-01-01

341

Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

342

Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

1979-01-01

343

Cost analysis of urban water supply and waste water treatment processes to support decisions and policy making: application to a number of Swedish communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An econometric model has been developed that represents the cost structure of water supply and waste water treatment in an urban area. This paper proposes a method to capture the fi nancial characteristics of the underlying organisation and addresses the steps and the conceptualisation in order to create a cost structure for municipal water utilities. The estimation procedure is based

Madelene Malmsten; Demetris F. Lekkas

2010-01-01

344

The Cost-Effectiveness of Baccalaureate Programs at Two-Year Public Colleges: A Policy Option to Support the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unanimous passing of the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011 highlights the need to create a cost-effective pathway to baccalaureate degree growth. Using an exploratory case study design, this study compared the cost-effectiveness of two baccalaureate degree programs offered by institutions in the State University System of…

Davis, Christopher Scott

2012-01-01

345

University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

Needham, John K.

2010-01-01

346

Insurance policies may have hidden coverage for pollution liability  

SciTech Connect

Insurance coverage for environmental incidents has changed twice in recent years. Besides preventing injury and starting cleanup, the most important actions a property owner confronted with an environmental incident can take are establishing when the incident began -- as opposed to when it was reported to the owner -- and determining the policy language insurers were using at all times from the incident's occurrence until its discovery. A property owner turning in an expensive environmental claim to an insurance broker or company should not simply accept a declaration that the policy does not cover damages or cleanup costs. Relevant insurance coverage is likely to be found in older policies in effect when the incident began. Such older policies almost certainly contain different language than current ones, and their language is nearly always more beneficial to property owners. Older policies typically provide broader coverage for environmental incidents than current ones.

Horn, C.H.

1993-03-01

347

76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price...Awarded Without Submission of Certified Cost or Pricing Data AGENCY: Office of...

2011-10-05

348

Politics and Policy in State Health Reform  

E-print Network

of his health system improvement and cost containmentcost containment and quality improvement within the healthhealth care issues. These committees made recommendations regarding quality, cost containment,

Zelman, Walter; Melamed, Alex

2009-01-01

349

Proposed Reliability/Cost Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technique estimates cost of improvement in reliability for complex system. Model format/approach is dependent upon use of subsystem cost-estimating relationships (CER's) in devising cost-effective policy. Proposed methodology should have application in broad range of engineering management decisions.

Delionback, L. M.

1982-01-01

350

The effect of selective contracting on hospital costs and revenues.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of selective contracting on California hospital costs and revenues over the 1983-1997 period. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Annual disclosure data and discharge data sets for 421 California general acute care hospitals from 1980 to 1997. ANALYSIS: Using measures of competition developed from patient-level discharge data, and financial and utilization measures from the disclosure data, we estimated a fixed effect multivariate regression model of hospital costs and revenues. FINDINGS: We found that hospitals in more competitive areas had a substantially lower rate of increase in both costs and revenues over this extended period of time. For-profit hospitals lowered their costs and revenues after selective contracting was initiated relative to the cost and revenue levels of not-for-profit hospitals. The Medicare PPS has also led high-cost hospitals to lower their costs. CONCLUSIONS: The more competitive the hospital's market, the greater degree to which it has had to lower the rate of increase in costs. A similar pattern exists with regard to hospital revenues. Both of these trends appear to result from the growth of selective contracting. It remains unclear to what extent these cost reductions were the result of increased efficiency or of reduced quality. Since hospital cost growth is sensitive to the competitiveness of its market, antitrust enforcement is a critical element in any cost containment policy. PMID:11055452

Zwanziger, J; Melnick, G A; Bamezai, A

2000-01-01

351

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2011-10-01

352

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

353

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2012-10-01

354

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2014-10-01

355

2 CFR 200.400 - Policy guide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of these cost principles should require...the internal accounting policies and...However, the accounting practices of...with these cost principles and support the...applying these cost accounting principles on a...

2014-01-01

356

Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

2000-01-01

357

Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

2014-05-01

358

Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

359

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities;

G. Zotos; A. Karagiannidis; S. Zampetoglou; A. Malamakis; I.-S. Antonopoulos; S. Kontogianni; G. Tchobanoglous

2009-01-01

360

Climate Change Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

361

Managing international medical costs.  

PubMed

Many countries are experiencing medical cost increases exceeding those in the United States, both in real terms and as a percentage of GDP. Although in most foreign countries the majority of medical costs are directly borne by governmental programs, there is a growing trend to cost shift more of this responsibility onto the corporate sector, perhaps leading multinational corporations to consider devising international cost-containment strategies. PMID:10121852

Richerson, M C

1992-01-01

362

LIABILITY INSURANCE University Policy No: FM5300  

E-print Network

1 LIABILITY INSURANCE University Policy No: FM5300 Classification: Financial Management Approving, its officers, employees, volunteers and certain other named insureds, Comprehensive General Liability, Errors and Omissions and other insurance policies. These policies contain certain exclusions requiring

Victoria, University of

363

Future American energy policy  

SciTech Connect

People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B. (eds.)

1982-01-01

364

The welfare costs of not being part of the knowledge economy: why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract All forms of knowledge, from advanced science to the simple idea of finding a new use for an old good, con- tribute to economic growth, not by competing for scarce resources in existing markets but by creating new mar- kets. Current agricultural, environmental and develop- ment policies ignore the social welfare generated by new markets because they

Philipp Aerni

365

Personal Services Agreements Policy  

E-print Network

employees contrary to this policy and its procedures, the costs of the services performed may be personal expenses of the CSM employee who authorized the performance of the work. Such costs, under statute [C reviews, and waivers from the review process. Through its regulatory powers, DPA requires CSM to adopt

366

Cost of a Ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: High costs and low ridership are the bane of fixed-guideway transit investments. The net capital and operating cost per passenger mile of recent investments ranged from $0.22 to over $10 in 2008. A better understanding of characteristics of the most successful transit investments can help inform future investment policy and improve the performance of existing transit systems.Purpose: We evaluated

Erick Guerra; Robert Cervero

2011-01-01

367

Insect Biocontrol with Non-endemic Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp.): Conclusions and Recommendations of a Combined OECD and COST Workshop on Scientific and Regulatory Policy Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen invited experts from 10 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and European countries participating in the European Commission's Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technical Research (COST) Action 819, along with 12 other participants, met to review and debate the potential problems associated with the introduction and commercial use of non-indigenous nematodes for insect biological control. The

R.-U. EHLERS; H. M. T. HOKKANEN

1996-01-01

368

Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 3(2): 161-175, 2004 Costs of Portable Sawmilling Timbers from the Acacia Woodlands of  

E-print Network

Sawmilling Timbers from the Acacia Woodlands of Western Queensland, Australia Tyron J. Venn Risk of Primary Industries and Fisheries Brisbane, Australia, 4068 Portable sawmilling trials with Acacia aneura and portable sawmilling of western Queensland acacias an expensive undertaking for landholders. The cost

Venn, Tyron

369

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

2011-01-01

370

The Perry Preschool Program and Its Long-Term Effects: A Benefit-Cost Analysis. High/Scope Early Childhood Policy Papers, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool program and describes the program's long-term effects. Conducted since 1962, research on the Perry Preschool program constitutes one of the strongest and best-known sources of support for the long-term efficacy of early intervention with disadvantaged children. The Perry Project…

Barnett, W. Steven

371

76 FR 40817 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Parts 9901 and 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS...in Negotiations Act Threshold AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of...of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board...

2011-07-12

372

76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold AGENCY: Federal...Administration's policy requiring a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for capacity projects...modification of its policy requiring benefit cost analyses (BCA) for capacity...

2011-10-24

373

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

374

Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

375

44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an...

2010-10-01

376

Centrality in Policy Network Drawings (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

and national, etc.). A policy network approach conceptualizes policy­making as the result of interactionsCentrality in Policy Network Drawings (Extended Abstract) Ulrik Brandes 1 , Patrick Kenis 2 to convey domain­specific information contained in policy or, more general, social networks. Policy network

Brandes, Ulrik

377

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

SciTech Connect

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

Zotos, G. [Division of Business Studies, Dept. of Economics, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zampetoglou, S. [Municipal Development Company of Kalamaria, GR-55132 (Greece); Malamakis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: amalama@aix.meng.auth.gr; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tchobanoglous, G. [Department of civil and environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis (United States)

2009-05-15

378

Could a policy of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents result in cost savings in acute hip fracture care? The case of Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hip fractures are an important problem in nursing homes. Hip protectors are external devices that decrease the risk of hip\\u000a fracture in elderly nursing home residents. We estimated the overall healthcare cost savings from a hypothetical strategy\\u000a of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents in Ontario, Canada. In a recent meta-analysis, we determined\\u000a that a strategy of

A. M. Sawka; A. Gafni; P. Boulos; K. Beattie; A. Papaioannou; A. Cranney; D. A. Hanley; J. D. Adachi; A. Cheung; E. A. Papadimitropoulos; L. Thabane

2007-01-01

379

48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...414 Cost accounting standard—cost of money as an element of the cost of...

2013-10-01

380

48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...414 Cost accounting standard—cost of money as an element of the cost of...

2014-10-01

381

48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...414 Cost accounting standard—cost of money as an element of the cost of...

2012-10-01

382

Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services. PMID:8087599

Chang, R W

1994-08-01

383

Meeting Continuing Education Needs and Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Continuing Professional Education by Appointment, a service developed and implemented at the School of Nursing at the State University of New York at Stony Brook to assist continuing educators to meet ongoing educational needs of health care professionals. (JOW)

Meyers, Rose

1984-01-01

384

The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date  

SciTech Connect

More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

2014-03-12

385

Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems. Methods Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify ADR from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin (AS) use. ADR were identified by trained clinicians at health facilities (passive surveillance) and through cross-sectional household surveys (active surveillance). Potential cases were followed up at home, where a complete history and physical examination was undertaken, and household cost data collected. Patients were classified as having ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ ADR by a physician. Results A total of 95 suspected ADR were identified during a two-year period, of which 79 were traced, and 67 reported use of SP and/or AS prior to ADR onset. Thirty-four cases were classified as ‘probable’ and 33 as ‘possible’ ADRs. Most (53) cases were associated with SP monotherapy, 13 with the AS/SP combination (available in one of the two areas only), and one with AS monotherapy. Annual ADR incidence per 100,000 exposures was estimated based on ‘probable’ ADR only at 5.6 for AS/SP in combination, and 25.0 and 11.6 for SP monotherapy. Median ADR treatment costs per episode ranged from US$2.23 for those making a single provider visit to US$146.93 for patients with four visits. Seventy-three per cent of patients used out-of-pocket funds or sold part of their farm harvests to pay for treatment, and 19% borrowed money. Conclusion Both passive and active surveillance methods proved feasible methods for anti-malarial ADR surveillance, with active surveillance being an important complement to facility-based surveillance, given the widespread practice of self-medication. Household costs associated with ADR treatment were high and potentially catastrophic. Efforts should be made to both improve pharmacovigilance across Africa and to identify strategies to reduce the economic burden endured by households suffering from ADR. PMID:23844934

2013-01-01

386

Feasibility and Cost Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina school districts thinking about building new educational facilities are legislatively required to conduct an analysis that compares the costs and feasibility of building the new building versus renovating an old building. This document contains the cost and feasibility forms suggested for use in this analysis. The forms provide a…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

387

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2010-07-01

388

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2011-07-01

390

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2014-07-01

391

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2012-07-01

392

Youth Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of youth policy is discussed in three articles: youth policy developments in Western Australia, Australian Council of Trade Unions policies on youth employment and training, and an outline of developments and provisions in youth policy. (CT)

Williams, Norm; And Others

1985-01-01

393

Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models--illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

We have developed a web-based user-interface (web interface) to enhance the usefulness of health-economic evaluations to support decision making (http://pcv.healtheconomics.nl). It allows the user to interact with a health-economic model to evaluate predefined and customized scenarios and perform sensitivity analysis. To explore its usefulness, it was applied to an evaluation of cost-effectiveness of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), that was used to support a policy decision on the inclusion of PCV7 in the national vaccination program (NVP) of the Netherlands. We used a decision-tree analytic model to project the impact of infant vaccination with four doses of PCV7 on an annual cohort of infants born in the Netherlands. The base-case analysis includes the beneficial effects on unvaccinated individuals (herd protection). Additional scenarios varying the number of doses, discount rate for effects and the number of serotypes in the vaccine were evaluated and can be analysed on the web. Our model projects a base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (iCER) of euro14,000 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 9,800-20,200) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) or euro15,600 (95% UI: 11,100-23,900) per life year gained (LYG). PMID:17360082

Hubben, G A A; Bos, J M; Glynn, D M; van der Ende, A; van Alphen, L; Postma, M J

2007-05-01

394

Avoided cost standard under PURPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power

R. J. Cole; I. Holmlund; S. A. Smith; T. A. Williams

1983-01-01

395

STAFF POLICY ICYSTAFF POLICY  

E-print Network

and personal develop- ment as well as job satisfaction. The staff policy also reflects the kind of workplace or not the staff member in question is a permanent employee and whether the case involves academic staff. They permit the staff policy to contribute to general job satisfaction and help the university realise its

396

Technology and international climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

2009-05-01

397

Costs of groundwater contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1990-01-01

398

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

399

The Shuttle Cost and Price model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

1983-01-01

400

48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 true Public relations and advertising costs. 2131...Organizations 2131.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. ...following: (a) Costs of media messages are allowable if...policy year. (b) Costs of media messages that inform...

2010-10-01

401

Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual cost- function learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policy-language biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve. In particular, we induce high-quality domain-specific plan ners for clas- sical planning domains (both deterministic and stochastic variants) by

Alan Fern; Sung Wook Yoon; Robert Givan

2003-01-01

402

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

403

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

404

S. 2415: A Bill to encourage solar and geothermal power production by removing the size limitations contained in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, April 4, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The bill would encourage solar and geothermal power production by removing the size limitations contained in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The original act limited the size of qualifying facilities to 80 megawatts. The bill authorizes the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to issue proposed modifications to its regulations necessary to implement this bill.

Not Available

1990-01-01

405

National Drought Policy Commission Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 16, 2000, the National Drought Policy Commission (NDPC) released its final report and recommended improved preparedness and coordination in anticipation of the threat of droughts in the US. The NDPC's site offers two documents, the Report of the National Drought Policy Commission and the National Drought Policy Commission Executive Summary. The reports were drafted in response to the severe droughts in recent years that have cost the US approximately $6 billion per year in economic losses.

2000-01-01

406

Audit of health benefit costs at the Department`s Management and Operating Contractors  

SciTech Connect

The audit disclosed that the Department and certain of its contractors had initiated several positive actions to contain health benefit costs: improving data collection, increasing training, reviewing changes to health plans, improving the language in one contract, increasing the employees, share of health costs at one contractor, and initiating self-insurance at another contractor. Despite these actions, further improvements are needed in the administration of the contractor employee health benefit plans. It was found that the Department did not have the policies and procedures necessary to ensure that the health benefit costs met the tests for reasonableness. The audit of $95 million in health benefit costs incurred at six Management and Operating contractors showed that $15.4 million of these costs were excessive compared to national norms.

Not Available

1994-06-23

407

26 CFR 1.263A-1 - Uniform capitalization of costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...incur costs to develop wage, salary, and benefit policies, the costs of which...such departments or functions benefits a particular production or resale...general; developing wage, salary, and benefit policies; developing...

2010-04-01

408

Portland State University Confidentiality and Information Management Policy and Procedures  

E-print Network

Portland State University Confidentiality and Information Management Policy and Procedures I and INFORMATION MANAGEMENT POLICY and PROCEDURES Confidentiality and Information Management Policy Information contained in the alumni and donor database and all files relating to the solicitation of gifts

Bertini, Robert L.

409

STS pricing policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

1982-01-01

410

Tracking Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

Erickson, Paul W.

2010-01-01

411

Formulating a Policy on IT Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult to estimate the costs of not writing thorough IT policy. Misuse of IT resources, whether through ignorance or malice, costs money, as do court cases that can result from abuse. Furthermore, a poor university accreditation report caused in part by poor policy documents will likely have an adverse impact on student enrollment. There…

Oxley, Alan

2005-01-01

412

Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium  

EPA Science Inventory

The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

413

48 CFR 208.7302 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Use of Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7302 Policy. DoD policy...maximum participation in the Precious Metals Recovery Program. DoD components shall furnish recovered precious metals contained in the DSCP inventory...

2011-10-01

414

48 CFR 208.7302 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Use of Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7302 Policy. DoD policy...maximum participation in the Precious Metals Recovery Program. DoD components shall furnish recovered precious metals contained in the DSCP inventory...

2014-10-01

415

48 CFR 208.7302 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Use of Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7302 Policy. DoD policy...maximum participation in the Precious Metals Recovery Program. DoD components shall furnish recovered precious metals contained in the DSCP inventory...

2012-10-01

416

48 CFR 208.7302 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Use of Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7302 Policy. DoD policy...maximum participation in the Precious Metals Recovery Program. DoD components shall furnish recovered precious metals contained in the DSCP inventory...

2013-10-01

417

48 CFR 208.7302 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Use of Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7302 Policy. DoD policy...maximum participation in the Precious Metals Recovery Program. DoD components shall furnish recovered precious metals contained in the DSCP inventory...

2010-10-01

418

Development and evaluation of die and container materials. First quarterly progress report, October 1December 31, 1977. Silicon Sheet Task, Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. [For handling molten silicon for crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JPL Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project has been established with the goal of decreasing the cost of solar photovoltaic arrays for electrical power generation. Methods of producing silicon sheet for solar cells are under active development as one of several tasks designed to achieve this objective. In the crystal growing processes a refractory crucible is required to hold

R. R. Wills; D. E. Neisz

1978-01-01

419

Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy  

E-print Network

Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy University Facilities POLICY 9 in them through every major building project. Contained in the policy are procedures, responsibilities that will be LEED certified, and those that will adhere to sustainable building practices. 1.0 Sustainable Building

Duchowski, Andrew T.

420

The Cost of Drug Policy to Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the fallacy of assuming racial and ethnic equality in drug problems. Demonstrates that the most serious consequences of illegal drug involvement fall disproportionately on minorities. Discusses drug related theft and imprisonment and eco-social repercussions of being labeled an addict. Discusses inadequate data sources for drug…

Mandel, Jerry

1979-01-01

421

Sharps container  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

Lee, Angelene M. (inventor)

1992-01-01

422

The Energy Policy Pyramid - A Hierarchal Tool for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

THE ENERGY POLICY PYRAMID – A HIERARCHAL TOOL FOR DECISION MAKERS ROBIN K. VIEIRA, DIRECTOR, BRD DIV. , FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER, COCOA, FL ABSTRACT Policies of dealing with energy programs are often misdirected. Decision makers.... This paper presents the hierarchy as The Energy Policy Pyramid©. Figure 1. The Energy Policy Pyramid Presents Hierarchy with the Most Cost-Effective Energy Policies at the Base of the Pyramid INTRODUCTION The Energy Policy Pyramid shows five...

Vieira, R. K.

2006-01-01

423

THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL AND INTRAREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS  

E-print Network

to concentrate particular industries in special localities." Indeed, during the industrial revolution, MarshallTHE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL AND INTRAREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS ON INDUSTRIAL LOCATION costs on industrial location and efficient transport policies March 2011 Paul CHIAMBARETTO1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly  

E-print Network

In the Medicare program, increases in cost sharing by a supplemental insurer can exert financial externalities. We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public ...

Chandra, Amitabh

425

Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings  

E-print Network

A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

426

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2012-01-01

427

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2013-01-01

428

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2011-01-01

430

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2010-01-01

431

Transition-cost recovery and trueup mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Designing a workable and policy-responsive cost-recovery and trueup mechanism may be the key unresolved issue related to the transition costs (TCs) facing US electric utilities. This report first discusses the general issues associated with the design and implementation of such mechanisms. It then presents the results of quantitative analyses that show how seven mechanisms perform against six public-policy objectives.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1998-03-01

432

COST MODEL FOR LARGE URBAN SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COST SUBMODEL OF AN URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THIS MODEL REQUIRES THAT PUPIL POPULATION AND PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING ARE KNOWN. THE COST ELEMENTS ARE--(1) CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF NEW PLANTS, (2) ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF BUILDING SITES, (3) CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES OF THE PROPOSED SCHOOL, (4) PUPIL…

O'BRIEN, RICHARD J.

433

Troubleshooting Costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

434

Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

435

Policy instruments for environmental innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question how different environmental policy instruments in- duce innovation and to what extent market-driven innovation can lead to lowering envi- ronmental impacts of products and processes. It contains the results of a literature review and four case studies. In the case studies, the innovation impact of different policy ap- proaches and instruments is assessed relating

Frans Oosterhuis; Onno Kuik

436

Toward a Record Retention Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

Vaughan, Jason

2007-01-01

437

Climate Change - Environmental Policies and Technology Policies in a Strategic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of features of climate change which make it one of the most challenging problems confronting policy makers and policy analysts. In this paper we consider three such features: (i) climate change is a global pollutant so there are strategic interactions between governments over climate policy; (ii) cutting greenhouse gas emissions can have significant cost effects across

Alistair Ulph; David Ulph

2006-01-01

438

Empty container logistics optimization : an implementation framework and methods  

E-print Network

Empty container logistics is a huge cost component in an ocean carrier's operations. Managing this cost is important to ensure profitability of the business. This thesis proposes a 3-stage framework to handle empty container ...

Lee, Bin Hong Alex

2014-01-01

439

Defining the Policy Space for Disaster Management: A System Dynamics Approach to U.S. Flood Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines a policy space for a natural hazard policy analysis using a system dynamics approach. In this paper, I present a dynamic hypothesis of problems faced by decision-makers in a flood hazard community. While current policy analysis for hazard mitigation focuses on benefit-cost analysis, I argue that system dynamics can be used to improve the quality of policy

Michael A Deegan

440

A comparison of public policies for lead recycling  

E-print Network

Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

Sigman, Hilary

1992-01-01

441

A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management  

E-print Network

A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

Spencer, R. J.

442

Multistage estimation: optimal and asymptotically optimal policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistage point estimation, with a loss function that includes a cost for each stage of sampling, as well as a cost for each observation, is considered. It is shown that there exists an optimal (Bayes) policy when the loss function and prior satisfy certain mild conditions. For the case when the loss consists of squared error, fixed cost per observation

Adam T. Martinsek

1986-01-01

443

Cost-shifting under cost reimbursement and prospective payment.  

PubMed

Cost-shifting is seen as a three-way phenomenon involving hospital interests as well as those of government and private patients. Without economies of scale, private patients are indifferent to government policies unless underpayment leads to hospital bankruptcy. In the presence of economies of scale, private patients benefit from reductions in government payment under either cost reimbursement or prospective payment. Their interest in a shift to prospective payment depends upon the hospital's location on its cost curve. Hospitals benefit from increases in payment rates in all cases, but benefit from a shift to prospective payment only if operating in a region of declining average costs. The conventional view of cost-shifting is inconsistent with profit maximization and may be inappropriate for many voluntary hospitals as well. PMID:10300555

Foster, R W

1985-09-01

444

Cimetidine and the cost of peptic ulcer in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

In the autumn of 1977 the first histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, was introduced into the Netherlands. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists are powerful suppressors of the stomach's production of hydrochloric acid, which is believed to play a major role in the development of peptic ulcers. Controlled clinical trials and interview with medical experts prior to the introduction suggested that the new drug might make treatment of peptic ulcer less costly. In particular, savings in hospital treatment, the major component of medical care cost (i.e., direct cost) seemed possible. The manufacturer of cimetidine, Smith, Kline and French Laboratories SA, commissioned the Netherlands Economic Institute to estimate the impact of cimetidine on the direct (medical care) cost of peptic ulcer in the Netherlands in 1980, with special reference to hospital costs. In this study the term 'cost' refers to aggregate expenditure by sick funds, insurance companies and private individuals. It was found that hospital treatment cost at constant (1980) prices declined by 61.6 million Dutch guilders, or 49%, over the chosen reference period, 1972-1980. Multiple regression analysis showed that a linear trend factor and other factors appearing to operate from the mid-seventies (possibly including the introduction of diagnostic endoscopy and government cost containment policies) together accounted for about three quarters of the reduction of costs. The remaining one quarter, Dfl. 15.7 million, was specifically attributable, with acceptable confidence, to the availability of cimetidine. In particular, the number of vagotomy and partial gastrectomy operations significantly dropped in the three years following its introduction. The saving more than compensated for a substantial increase in the drug bill, leaving a net benefit of Dfl. 3.2 million in 1980. This is likely to be an underestimate of net benefit since the cost of cimetidine prescribed for those not at risk of hospital admission was included while any benefits from cimetidine use in general practice had to be excluded for lack of data. The decline of hospital costs, the increase of drug costs and the growth of diagnosis/consultation costs, the latter largely attributable to the introduction of endoscopy, led to a dramatic change in the cost structure of peptic ulcer treatment between 1972 and 1980.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10310799

Bulthuis, R

1984-04-01

445

CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

446

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417 Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital...

2013-10-01

447

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417 Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital...

2014-10-01

448

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417 Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital...

2012-10-01

449

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417 Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital...

2010-10-01

450

How to Cut Publications Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

451

Estimation of health care costs and cost recovery: the case of Rafidya Hospital in Palestine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop an estimation model for health care costs and cost recovery, and evaluate service sustainability under an uncertain environment. The Palestinian National Authority's recent focus on improving financial accountability supports the need to research health care costs in the Palestinian territories. We examine data from Rafidya Hospital from 2005-2009 and use step-down allocation to distribute overhead costs. We use an ingredient approach to estimate the costs and revenues of health services, and logarithmic estimation to prospectively estimate the demand for 2011. Our results indicate that while cost recovery is generally insufficient for long-term sustainability, some services can recover their costs in the short run. Our results provide information useful for health care policy makers in setting multiple-goal policies related to health care financing in Palestine, and provide an important initiative in the estimation of health service costs. PMID:24003761

Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer F K; Plante, Catherine; Forgione, Dana A

2013-01-01

452

78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case 2012-D038) AGENCY: Defense...to explicitly state that fringe benefit costs incurred or estimated that are contrary...Defense Pricing policy memo ``Unallowable Costs for Ineligible Dependent Health Care...

2013-02-28

453

78 FR 73451 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case 2012-D038) AGENCY: Defense...to explicitly state that fringe benefit costs that are contrary to law, employer-employee...Defense Pricing policy memo ``Unallowable Costs for Ineligible Dependent Health Care...

2013-12-06

454

Reagan's Foreign Policy: An Assessment (I) Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between former U.S. President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and those of his predecessors. Focuses on the differences between Reagan's policies and those of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Analyzes Reagan's policies of containment, human rights, and arms control. Discusses criticisms launched against Reagan's…

Johnston, Whittle

1990-01-01

455

Cost Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

456

Cost Analysis of CATV Components. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study was conducted for the Office of Telecommunications Policy to determine the capital outlay and operating costs of community antenna television (CATV) systems. Six major tasks were undertaken: 1) the development of a body of technical information about CATV; 2) the production of a complete work breakdown structure; 3) a cost

Weinberg, Gary

457

The total lifetime costs of smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy. Method: A dynamic (life cycle) method taking differences in life expectancy into account. Main outcome measures were direct and indirect

SUSANNE R. RASMUSSEN; EVA PRESCOTT; THORKILD I. A. SØRENSEN; JES SØGAARD

2004-01-01

458

Standard cost elements for technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

1992-01-01

459

Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

Nadelmann, Ethan A.

1989-09-01

460

Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1989-05-01

461

75 FR 2551 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

2010-01-15

462

76 FR 5180 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

2011-01-28

463

77 FR 801 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

2012-01-06

464

78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

2013-01-07

465

Direct costing  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ Q ~ ~ 4 ~ 2X XV. Rergalxemeate ef the k. X. C. P. k. the S. Z. C. aal Pmotioes of QyerstLag Ceayeaies Coasting wisest Costi' ~ . 4l 7 %ax keyeots of 2Kreot Costiag . . ~ ~ . SV VXy Coaolasioas ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 73 R@iogssphge ~ ~ a...~ methods, Moluding direst oosting, produoe this vaLue. ~ ~Xb d, 2~Hielson, Gswald ~ "How Zireot Costing Works XutexnaXXy and Externally i'or a 8mall ~securer The Journal aa ~naaounaena, Auhuoa, 1953, vahuno 9a, y. 204 ~ a conference on lireot costing...

Browning, Donald Bullock

1960-01-01

466

Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non-traded inflation produces a unique solution so long as the nominal interest rate is raised more than one for one with increases in non-traded inflation. A policy of stabilizing core inflation, however, produces a unique solution only if the response is greater than one for one and less then one divided by one minus the share of the non-traded good in the CPI. In the third chapter I consider monetary and fiscal policy responses to oil price shocks in a low income oil importing country. The model used in this chapter differs from the model in the second chapter in that there is currency substitution, household demand for oil products, and a potential subsidy on the purchase of oil products by households. I examine the dynamic properties and the welfare implications of a set of inflation targeting policies and a group of policies that subsidize the price of oil and finance the subsidy through a combination of raising lump sum taxes and printing money. The dynamic properties of the inflation targeting policies are similar in many regards to those in the second chapter as the key assumptions driving the results are the same in the two models. For the policies which subsidize the price of oil I show that both the choice to have the subsidy and how to finance it matter a great deal for the behavior of the macroeconomic variables. In terms of welfare, for most calibrations there are only minor differences between the inflation targeting polices, the policy with a subsidy funded by lump sum taxes, and the baseline policy with no subsidy. The policy with a subsidy financed by the inflation tax generally causes significant welfare losses compared to the policy with no pass through.

Plante, Michael

467

Cost Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

Foreman, Phillip

2009-01-01

468

Laboratory cost control and financial management software.  

PubMed

Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions. PMID:9541753

Mayer, M

1998-02-01

469

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2011-10-01

470

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2013-10-01

471

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2014-10-01

472

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2012-10-01

473

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2010-10-01

474

Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy  

E-print Network

This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated ...

Otto, Vincent M.

475

23 CFR 230.203 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS Supportive Services for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.203 Policy. Based...enterprises in Federal-aid highway contracts in part through the development and implementation of cost effective supportive services...

2010-04-01

476

2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...220.15 Policy. The principles in this part are designed...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted...successful application of cost accounting principles requires development of...

2010-01-01

477

2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...220.15 Policy. The principles in this part are designed...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted...successful application of cost accounting principles requires development of...

2011-01-01

478

2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...220.15 Policy. The principles in this part are designed...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted...successful application of cost accounting principles requires development of...

2013-01-01

479

2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...220.15 Policy. The principles in this part are designed...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted...successful application of cost accounting principles requires development of...

2012-01-01

480

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

481

Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of

Gregory F. Nemet

2006-01-01

482

Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Crime and Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost analyses are tools that have been used by public policy analysts for years. Programs as diverse as envi- ronmental and land use regulations, welfare benefits, job training pro- grams, and immunization policies have all been analyzed in this manner. Since the early 1980s, Federal regulatory agencies have been required to conduct benefit-cost analyses on major regulatory initia-

Mark A. Cohen

2000-01-01

483

Least cost routing in multi-service networks. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part I, we proposed a distributed, state dependent, dynamic routing method, called least cost routing in multi-service networks (LCRM), for multirate circuit-switched broadband ISDN networks, which support a variety of traffic classes with different characteristics. This method represents the one-step policy improvement on a chosen base policy. As a base policy ?0, we use the policy which allows direct

A. Kolarov; Joseph Hui

1995-01-01

484

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

485

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library  

E-print Network

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library Collection Management Policy 1. Introduction The University of Sussex Library contains 800,000 books, to which about 15,000 new items are added each year. The Library also provides access to over 20,000 print and online

Sussex, University of

486

American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

Barger, Robert N.

487

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE PP/OP 05.03: Utility Cost Projection DATE: September company or municipally owned utility and includes natural gas, electricity, water, and sewer services. E 7, 2007 PURPOSE The purpose of this Physical Plant Operating Policy and Procedure (PP

Gelfond, Michael

488

Collection Policy: Policy Analysis & Management 1.0 The Department  

E-print Network

the life course are affected by federal, state, and local legislation and by access to, and quality of around the issues of cost, quality, and access to health services. Faculty in the Department of Policy systems, the organization and financing of #12;2 personal health services; the structure of health care

Angenent, Lars T.

489

Cost Efficiency: The Second Wave of Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a cost-efficiency plan to enhance educational productivity during the second wave of accountability. Describes cost-efficiency plan consisting of five components: goals and objectives, criteria, procedures, outcome, and evaluation. Provides tips for developing the cost-efficiency implementation plan. (Contains 31 references.)…

Chan, Tak C.; Richardson, Michael D.

2002-01-01

490

24 CFR 968.112 - Eligible costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modest in design and cost, but still blend...physical improvement costs for existing Turnkey...and that are related to health and safety, correction...accessibility, energy audits and cost-effective energy conservation...LBP testing, interim containment, professional risk...

2012-04-01

491

Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

2014-10-01

492

Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development  

SciTech Connect

State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

2009-07-01

493

Use double-containment piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-containment piping systems are one of the most reliable ways of protecting against primary piping leaks of corrosive or hazardous fluids. In their early years, double containment systems were prohibitively expensive for all but the most extreme applications. Today the cost of reliable double-containment systems has fallen, while the quality and reliability are generally high. A combination of government regulations,

Hollis

1994-01-01

494

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

of 35% and developing renovated buildings to achieve savings of 25%, when compared with the Model processes to promote development and operation of sustainable buildings. #12;Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Sustainable Building Policy Policy

Haykin, Simon

495

The structure of railroad costs and the benefits\\/costs of mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the cost conditions present in the Class I railroad industry. Recent mergers and merger proposals have brought forth questions regarding the desirability of maintaining competition in areas impacted by horizontal mergers and, similarly, the desirability of end-to-end mergers. As we consider the costs and benefits of various merger oversight policies, it is imperative that we understand the

John D. Bitzan

1999-01-01

496

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in laboratories or research is responsible for reporting laser acquisition to the Office of Laboratory Safety, selecting a departmental deputy laser safety officer, mandating training for its laser operators

Vertes, Akos

497

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01

498

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01

499

Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments in large reservoirs.

Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

2014-05-01

500

Philippine Government Policies OTEC Development  

E-print Network

and Barriers 3 · High upfront and technology costs · Non-competitiveness · Non-viable markets · Inaccessible (RPS) Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Provision of Interconnection / Ancillary Services Other Market Options-Programs and the Policy and Program Support Component 2011 20302015 2020 2025 Target additional hydro capacity of 5,408 MW