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1

Multiple Drug Cost Containment Policies in Michigan’s Medicaid Program Saved Money Overall, Although Some Increased Costs  

PubMed Central

Michigan’s Medicaid program implemented four policies (preferred lists, joint and multi-state purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost) in 2002–2004 for its dual-eligible Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries, taking antihypertensives and antihyperlipidemics prescriptions. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of each individual policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred lists increased preferred and generic market share, and reduced daily cost. In contrast, maximum allowable cost increased daily cost, and is the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multi-state arrangements did not impact daily cost. Despite policy tradeoffs, the cumulative effect was a 10% decrease in daily cost and an annualized cost savings of $46,195. PMID:22492899

Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D.

2014-01-01

2

Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... Guidance Regarding Implementation of the Revised NSF Cost Sharing Policy October 19, 2004 NSF has ... are available to date with respect to the revised NSB- approved cost sharing policy: 1. The new cost ...

3

Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms  

E-print Network

provisions, a hard cap and a soft cap, on compliance credit prices. We show numerically that both fuel Workshop and at the Stanford University Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation intensity standard. We study the effects of each policy on key market outcomes including fuel prices

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

4

Costs and cost containment in nursing homes.  

PubMed Central

The study examines the impact of structural and process variables on the cost of nursing home care and the utilization of various cost containment methods in 43 california nursing homes. Several predictors were statistically significant in their relation to cost per patient day. A diverse range of cost containment techniques was discovered along with strong predictors of the utilization of these techniques by nursing home administrators. The trade-off between quality of care and cost of care is discussed. PMID:7228713

Smith, H L; Fottler, M D

1981-01-01

5

Containing Health Care Costs  

PubMed Central

As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

Derzon, Robert A.

1980-01-01

6

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

7

Utility and energy cost containment  

SciTech Connect

One of the most lucrative areas for improving bottom line profitability is related to an organization`s costs for utilities and energy. Such things as gas, electric, water, and telephones are treasure chests of cost reduction opportunities. In the past, these items have been viewed as a fixed expense or basic mundane commodity. In recent years, these items have become a large portion of product cost and now must be examined on a continual basis. A formal income improvement program to capture and report on the savings is a requirement for remaining competitive in a global economy. This paper describes areas of potential inefficiency in terms of energy useage and resulting costs to industry.

Newhouse, R. [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)] [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

8

Patent Policy and Costly Imitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of optimal patents to allow for costly imitation of patented innovations. With costly imitation, a rival's decision to imitate depends on the length of patent protection awarded to the patentee: the longer the patent life, the more likely it is that rivals will \\

Nancy T. Gallini

1992-01-01

9

Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy  

E-print Network

Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy If a barcoded bottle breaks, remove the barcode or take note of the number after safely cleaning up any chemical release. Provide the number to EH be obtained at Chemstores or Biostores. Grossly contaminated glassware (with chemical residue that can

Jia, Songtao

10

Quantifying the cost uncertainty of climate stabilization policies  

E-print Network

Climate change researchers are often asked to evaluate potential economic effects of climate stabilization policies. Policy costs are particularly important because policymakers use a cost/benefit framework to analyze ...

Franck, Travis Read

2005-01-01

11

Cost containment and KSC Shuttle facilities or cost containment and aerospace construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has the objective to show examples of Cost Containment of Aerospace Construction at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), taking into account four major levels of Project Development of the Space Shuttle Facilities. The levels are related to conceptual criteria and site selection, the design of construction and ground support equipment, the construction of facilities and ground support equipment (GSE), and operation and maintenance. Examples of cost containment are discussed. The continued reduction of processing time from landing to launching represents a demonstration of the success of the cost containment methods. Attention is given to the factors which led to the selection of KSC, the use of Cost Engineering, the employment of the Construction Management Concept, and the use of Computer Aided Design/Drafting.

Brown, J. A.

1985-01-01

12

Benefit-cost assessment of aviation environmental policies  

E-print Network

This thesis aids in the development of a framework in which to conduct global benefit-cost assessments of aviation policies. Current policy analysis tools, such as the aviation environmental portfolio management tool (APMT), ...

Gilmore, Christopher K. (Christopher Kenneth)

2012-01-01

13

Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports  

E-print Network

savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due...

Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

1989-01-01

14

Important Notice: Implementation of the New NSF Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... Policy Cost sharing can be a valuable mechanism for affirming the longstanding partnership between ... program announcement, solicitation or other mechanism which generates proposals. For unsolicited ...

15

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-print Network

buildings (greater than about 170,000 square feet) were audited for $0.050/SF or less, and program costs for survey audits of 17.2 million square feet were $0.0028/SF. The effect on audit costs of complexity of recommended modifications, amount of savings...

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01

16

Costing Policy for Sponsored Projects Per Grants Information Memorandum #23  

E-print Network

Costing Policy for Sponsored Projects Per Grants Information Memorandum #23 http are eligible on federal projects. They are defined as "Those costs that can be identified specifically Costs: These costs are generally not eligible on federal projects. "F&A (Facilities and Administrative

Clark, John

17

Cost reductions from a smoking policy.  

PubMed

The health of its workforce is of paramount importance to a business. The loss of even one key person to heart and lung disease can have a detrimental effect on organizational efficiency. Provided strides similar to those made in the last five years continue, perhaps within the next five years major employers will have all work areas smoke free. In large cities considerable help in implementing a nonsmoking policy is available to employers. Individual companies need to consider the merits of each type of program and then decide which best fits the organization. Compared with a nonsmoker, the average employed smoker in the United States 1. Takes approximately 50% more sick leave 2. Uses the health care system at least 50% more 3. Suffers over twice the mortality rate during working years 4. Spends 6% of working hours smoking 5. Causes indoor work facilities to expend six times the capital and operating outlays to maintain air circulation rates that meet building code specifications 6. Imposes a much greater maintenance burden for cleaning, repairing, repainting and replacing furnishings and equipment 7. Imposes unnecessary costly liability on employers for damages sustained by co-workers who are forced to work in a smoky environment 8. Exacts a high price in employee morale because of the irritation and discomfort suffered by fellow workers. PMID:10292487

Nixon, J C; West, J F

1989-03-01

18

76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

2011-11-10

19

76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP...

2011-09-29

20

Energy management system helps container manufacturer contain costs  

SciTech Connect

In the highly competitive cardboard box business, where a penny apiece can mean the difference between getting and losing an order, St. Hart Container Corp., Placentia, CA, has gained a competitive edge by reducing its overhead with an energy management system (EMS). The Orange County firm, a division of Sunclipse, Inc., fabricates boxes to customer specifications from cardboard stock. The company is saving $2000 a month in electricity since it installed a Gereral Electric ECON-S programmable energy management system with telephone override capability late in 1984 to control lighting, air conditioning, and nine large blower and compressor motors. Installed by Hughes Electrical Management Systems (HEMS), City of Industry, CA, the $18,000 system paid for itself in only 9 mo. It initially controlled just 32 points and will be expanded to control the conveyors in the 60,000 sq ft plant. The primary savings, HEMS president Bob Hughes noted, accrue not from controlling lighting, but from automatically limiting the operating time of large blower motors that draw cardboard scrap from six fabrication areas on the shop floor up 2 ft dia funnels into a roof-mounted silo. The scrap is later compacted, baled, and sold for recycling.

Not Available

1986-04-10

21

Uncertainty analysis of the cost of climate policies  

E-print Network

Every climate change policy issue is inherently limited by two questions: what are exactly the consequences of climate change for our lives? How much will it cost to deal with them? Almost twelve years after the parties ...

Cossa, Paul F. (Paul Francois), 1979-

2004-01-01

22

Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Violence involving children has been one of the least documented areas of violent crime. The purpose of this study was to develop cost estimates to assess the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of both victimizations and perpe- trators. Our study is the first to address 4 critical ques- tions. First, how large a share of violence

Ted R. Miller; Deborah A. Fisher; Mark A. Cohen

2001-01-01

23

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)  

E-print Network

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute congestion is considered one of the most significant transportation problems. The capacity of a road depends, Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, 13th Edition, Institute of Transportation Studies, UBC (Berkeley; www

O'Donnell, Tom

24

Strategies for Containing Drug Costs: Implications for a Medicare Benefit  

PubMed Central

As policymakers consider adding a prescription drug benefit to Medicare, cost containment will be an important issue. This article discusses strategies to hold down the prices paid for prescription drugs. Within the private sector these include the use of formularies, the emergence of pharmaceutical benefit management companies, and the expansion of mail order pharmacies. In the Federal Government, costs are contained by the Medicaid drug rebate and the Federal Supply Schedule (FSS) of prices. Since Medicare beneficiaries constitute a large share of the prescription drug market, getting access to FSS prices may not be feasible. A flat rebate is one alternative. PMID:10558018

Cook, Anna E.

1999-01-01

25

Cost-effective environmental policy: implications of induced technological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective environmental policy generally requires that all emission sources are faced with the same tax. In this paper I discuss how the existence of induced technological change may alter this result, if at least some of the effect is external to the firm. Focusing on Learning by doing (LBD) effects in abatement activities, it is shown that emission sources with

Knut Einar Rosendahl

2004-01-01

26

Induced Technical Change and the Cost of Climate Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides an economic analysis of a specific climate change policy: a carbon tax. The analysis attempts to gauge the potential for a carbon tax to create an incentive for research and development, and subsequently lower the cost of technologies responding to climate change.

Sue Wing, Ian, 1970-

27

Honoring the Trust: Quality and Cost Containment in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book asserts that improvements in quality and cost containment are required not only for the well-being of individual institutions of higher education, but also to honor the trust placed in academe by society. The book outlines a practical program for improvement. The chapters of part 1, "The Case for Change," are: (1) "The Erosion of Trust";…

Massy, William F.

28

Priorities of health policy: cost shifting or population health  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is an edited version of an invited paper submitted to the Australian Health Care Summit on 17–19 August 2003. It comments upon the policies which have dominated recent debate and contrasts their importance with the importance of five issues which have received relatively little attention. Methods Policy is usually a response to identified problems and the paper examines the nature and size of the problems which heave led to recent policy initiatives. These are contrasted with the magnitude and potential cost effectiveness policies to address the problems in five areas of comparative neglect. Results It is argued that recent and proposed changes to the financing and delivery of health services in Australia have focused upon issues of relatively minor significance while failing to address adequately major inequities and system deficiencies. Conclusion There is a need for an independent review of the health system with the terms of reference focusing attention upon large system-wide failures. PMID:15679895

Richardson, Jeff RJ

2005-01-01

29

75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement--NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project AGENCY: National...for an 18-month project period. The goal...development of a cost containment online...information about cost containment. The project's four tasks...

2010-08-10

30

Swedish nutrient reduction policies: an evaluation of cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since more than 30 years, the Swedish government as well as other governments in the drainage basin strives toward a reduction\\u000a in nutrient loads to Baltic Sea coastal waters in order to combat eutrophication of the sea. In spite of this, the cost-effectiveness\\u000a of actual environmental policy for meeting Baltic Sea nutrient targets has not been evaluated by national or international

Katarina Elofsson

31

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined...that the average cost of a health insurance policy is $363...using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component...the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This...

2012-10-01

32

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined...that the average cost of a health insurance policy is $363...using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component...the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This...

2011-10-01

33

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

...deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined...that the average cost of a health insurance policy is $363...using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component...the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This...

2014-10-01

34

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined...that the average cost of a health insurance policy is $363...using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component...the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This...

2010-10-01

35

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...deductions is the average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined...that the average cost of a health insurance policy is $363...using the most recent Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component...the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This...

2013-10-01

36

Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?  

PubMed

Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. PMID:16323750

Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

2005-11-15

37

Has cost containment after the National Health Insurance system been successful? Determinants of Taiwan hospital costs.  

PubMed

Taiwan implemented the National Health Insurance system (NHI) in 1995. After the NHI, the insurance coverage expanded and the quality of healthcare improved, however, the healthcare costs significantly escalated. The objective of this study is to determine what factors have direct impact on the increased costs after the NHI. Panel data analysis is used to investigate changes and factors affecting cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals from 1990 to 2001. The results show that the expansion of insured healthcare coverage (especially to the elderly and the treatment of more complicated types of diseases), and the increased competition (requiring the growth of new technology and the longer average length of stay) are important driving forces behind the increase of hospital costs, directly influenced by the advent of the NHI. Therefore, policymakers should emphasize health prevention activities and disease management programs for the elderly to improve cost containment. In addition, hospital managers should find ways to improve the hospital efficiency (shorten the LOS) to reduce excess services and medical waste. They also need to better understand their market position and acquire suitable new-tech equipment earlier, to be a leader, not a follower. Finally, policymakers should establish related benchmark indices for what drivers up hospital costs (micro-aspect) and to control healthcare expenditures (macro-level). PMID:17949848

Hung, Jung-Hua; Chang, Li

2008-03-01

38

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01

39

Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn. PMID:17408494

Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

2007-01-01

40

A dynamic model for costing disaster mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The optimal level of investment in mitigation strategies is usually difficult to ascertain in the context of disaster planning. This research develops a model to provide such direction by relying on cost of quality literature. This paper begins by introducing a static approach inspired by Joseph M. Juran's cost of quality management model (Juran, 1951) to demonstrate the non-linear trade-offs in disaster management expenditure. Next it presents a dynamic model that includes the impact of dynamic interactions of the changing level of risk, the cost of living, and the learning/investments that may alter over time. It illustrates that there is an optimal point that minimises the total cost of disaster management, and that this optimal point moves as governments learn from experience or as states get richer. It is hoped that the propositions contained herein will help policymakers to plan, evaluate, and justify voluntary disaster mitigation expenditures. PMID:23601023

Altay, Nezih; Prasad, Sameer; Tata, Jasmine

2013-07-01

41

Community drug expenditure and recent cost containment measures.  

PubMed

The annual cost of medicines under the community drugs schemes increased from Euro 564 m in 2000 to Euro 1,961 m in 2009 before falling an estimated 8% by 2011. Escalating public health costs, fiscal stress and the unsustainability of the previous growth in expenditure has led to the increased use of pharmaceutical cost containment measures in Ireland. Collectively, these measures are estimated to have reduced public expenditure on community drugs by Euro 380 m in 2011 and involve addressing; (1) the ex-factory price of drugs including price cuts of up to 40% on off-patent and generic drugs leading to an estimated Euro 200 m saving (53%); (2) pharmacy dispensing fees and mark-ups via a new dispensing fee structure and reducing both retail and wholesale mark-ups with a Euro 100 m saving (26%); and (3) scheme coverage and patient co-payments including restricting scheme coverage for persons over 70 years and increasing the level of co-payments with savings of Euro 80 m (21%). PMID:23472384

Walshe, V; Kenneally, M

2013-02-01

42

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

43

Israel's Gender Equality Policy in Education: Revolution or Containment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…

Eden, Devorah

2000-01-01

44

Containing U.S. health care costs: What bullet to bite?  

PubMed Central

In this article, the authors provide an overview of the problem of health care cost containment. Both the growth of health care spending and its underlying causes are discussed. Further, the authors define cost containment, provide a framework for describing cost-containment strategies, and describe the major cost-containment strategies. Finally, the role of research in choosing such a strategy for the United States is examined. PMID:25372928

Jencks, Stephen F.; Schieber, George J.

1992-01-01

45

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unless its comparative cost analysis shows that, over the length...system. If the comparative cost analysis permits selection of the alternative...documentation for this cost analysis to FNS for approval. Only...in accordance with the time frames established by the State...

2011-01-01

46

Index Policies for a Multi-Class Queue with Convex Holding Cost and Abandonments  

E-print Network

Index Policies for a Multi-Class Queue with Convex Holding Cost and Abandonments M. Larra~naga1 of no abandonments and lin- ear holding cost, our index coincides with the cµ-rule, which is known to be optimal, which allows us to derive the asymptotic structure of the index policies, and (ii) as the abandonment

Ayesta, Urtzi

47

Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

Krutilla, Kerry

2005-01-01

48

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...invoice and are not specifically charged to a semipostal finance number. (2) Costs for which the cost of tracking or estimation would be burdensome (e.g., costs for which the cost of tracking exceeds the cost to be tracked); (3)...

2012-07-01

49

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...invoice and are not specifically charged to a semipostal finance number. (2) Costs for which the cost of tracking or estimation would be burdensome (e.g., costs for which the cost of tracking exceeds the cost to be tracked); (3)...

2013-07-01

50

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

...invoice and are not specifically charged to a semipostal finance number. (2) Costs for which the cost of tracking or estimation would be burdensome (e.g., costs for which the cost of tracking exceeds the cost to be tracked); (3)...

2014-07-01

51

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...invoice and are not specifically charged to a semipostal finance number. (2) Costs for which the cost of tracking or estimation would be burdensome (e.g., costs for which the cost of tracking exceeds the cost to be tracked); (3)...

2011-07-01

52

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...invoice and are not specifically charged to a semipostal finance number. (2) Costs for which the cost of tracking or estimation would be burdensome (e.g., costs for which the cost of tracking exceeds the cost to be tracked); (3)...

2010-07-01

53

Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control  

E-print Network

Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control G. Ferrari-Trecate1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 #12;Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy 213 algebraic graph of the followers violate the containment property. This strategy also explains the title "Laplacian Sheep" since

Egerstedt, Magnus

54

Nutrition Policy for the Prevention of Disease: Issues of Cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Governments should implement nutrition policies that will improve population health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These policies include reducing the salt content of processed foods, use of dietary supplements of proven value, eliminating\\u000a hydrogenated oils that contain trans fatty acids from food.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Implementation of the proposed policies would cost relatively little and should achieve significant health benefits within\\u000a a few years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Norman J. Temple

55

Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

2011-01-01

56

Hospital pharmacy decisions, cost containment, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key hypothesis of the study was that hospital pharmacies under the pressure of managed care would be more likely to adopt process innovations to assure less costly and more cost-effective provision of care. We conducted a survey of 103 hospitals and analyzed secondary data on cost and staffing. Compared to the size of the reduction in length of stay,

Frank A. Sloan; Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein; Alicia Wilson

1997-01-01

57

The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

Turk, Frederick J.

1992-01-01

58

Abstracts of State Legislated Hospital Cost-Containment Programs  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes State legislated efforts to control rising hospital costs and the status of these efforts in May 1982. The abstract for each of 17 State programs summarizes key legislative features and operating aspects. The States included in this report are: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The abstracts focus on programs requiring the disclosure, review, or legislation of hospital rates and budgets. PMID:10309910

Esposito, Alfonso; Hupfer, Michael; Mason, Cynthia; Rogler, Diane

1982-01-01

59

The High Cost of Teacher Turnover. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher turnover in five school districts. The selected districts varied in size, location, and demographics enabling exploration of how these variations affected costs. Costs of recruiting, hiring, processing, and training…

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007

2007-01-01

60

Initiatives for Containing the Cost of Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers a comprehensive reform agenda for policymakers interested in cost containment. Massy lays out a series of initiatives that, working in tandem, can promote the larger goal of compelling colleges to spend money wisely. Among the individual reforms Massy proposes are creating a national database of cost-containment

Massy, William F.

2013-01-01

61

Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Maintaining Financial Health--Tuition Strategies, Cost Containment, and Fundraising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet lists resources that focus on maintaining the financial health of an institution of higher education. It describes resources in three areas: (1) tuition strategies; (2) cost containment; and (3) fundraising. The focus of the bibliography, however, is on cost containment and efficiency, and it details…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

62

Giving physicians incentives to contain costs under Medicaid  

PubMed Central

In this article, the risk arrangements in Medicaid programs that put physicians at risk are summarized. These programs—partial capitation and health insuring organizations—pay physicians a capitation amount to cover some or all physician services. Physicians also receive part of the savings from reduced hospitalization. Most of these programs have successfully lowered Medicaid costs. They could serve as models for other Medicaid programs, State-level programs to cover people ineligible for Medicaid, and programs abroad, such as in the United Kingdom. PMID:10113560

Welch, W. Pete

1990-01-01

63

Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II – Final Report  

E-print Network

REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report ENERGY SYSTEMSLABORATORY Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University College Station Texas... 77843 ESL-TR-84/08-01 REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report Submitted to: Energy Efficiency Division Texas Public Utility Commission 7800 Shoal Creek Blvd., Suite 400N Austin, TX 78757...

Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

1984-01-01

64

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28

65

Public Policy, Moral Panics and the Lure of Anticipatory Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aspect of modern mental health law reform is the increasing use of legislation directed at “anticipatory containment”. The focus is upon ensuring public safety by the use of increasingly restrictive forms of containment on the basis of an assessment of future risk. Yet often empirical support for such legislation is lacking, despite the fact that it confers on public

Warren Brookbanks

2002-01-01

66

New Center Applies Cost-Benefit Analysis to Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, at Teachers College, Columbia University. Launched last year by a pair of economists, the center specializes in calculating and comparing the long- and short-term costs--and probable payoffs--of different educational strategies that promise to improve students' lives. Studies…

Viadero, Debra

2008-01-01

67

Mercury Replacement Program It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing  

E-print Network

Mercury Replacement Program I. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing devices throughout campus, insofar as is reasonably possible, and provide, the University has an obligation to safeguard employees from the potential health effects of mercury vapor while

de Lijser, Peter

68

Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?  

PubMed

The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment. PMID:23806222

Andersen, Lotte B

2014-04-01

69

Spread of Low-Cost Carriers: Tourism and Regional Policy Effects in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vera Rebollo J. F. and Ivars Baidal J. A. Spread of low-cost carriers: tourism and regional policy effects in Spain, Regional Studies. Low-cost carriers form the most dynamic segment in the international tourism traffic toward Spain. Their recent evolution shows high growth rates that contrast with the stagnation of traditional companies, a phenomenon which is part of the transformations experienced

J. Fernando Vera Rebollo; Josep A. Ivars Baidal

2009-01-01

70

Stockage policy cost simulation for DLA hazardous and nonhazardous shelf-life items  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous shelf-life items present complex and challenging managerial problems for both government and industry. We modeled the current and alternative stockage policies for Defense Logistics Agency hazardous shelf-life items with a validated stochastic simulation. We used current government regulations and cost estimates to track procuring, receiving, inspecting, holding and disposing costs. Demands and returns were generated by empirical distributions based

Richard E. Baker; Arid Olsen; Janet Rider

1987-01-01

71

75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled...contract employees who perform emergency work (Categories A and B). DATES:...

2010-08-13

72

Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

1994-01-01

73

Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.  

PubMed

Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. PMID:22257324

Heslop, Liza

2012-02-01

74

Low-cost, adaptable tool integration policies for integrated environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important requirement for successful integrated programming environments is support for implicit tool invocation; rather than force a user to explicitly invoke each tool, mechanisms in the environment can take responsibility for guaranteeing that the right tools are invoked at the right times. However, these mechanisms typically intertwine policies of when and how the tools are invoked, with what the

David Garlan; Ehsan Ilias

1990-01-01

75

Induced technical change and the cost of climate policy  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the potential for a carbon tax to induce R&D, and for the consequent induced technical change (ITC) to lower the macroeconomic cost of abating carbon emissions. ITC is modelled within a general ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

76

The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States  

E-print Network

We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

Morris, Jennifer F.

77

Mitigation Costs and Economic Impacts of Climate Change in a Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of Optimal Policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we use a probabilistic chain methodology in an integrated assessment framework to take into account the uncertainties from the economy and from the climate. First, a random sampling of scenarios is generated covering the range of uncertainties of the socio-economic challenges of mitigation and adaptation and the uncertainty about the delay in the policy action. Then, an economic growth model is used to produce optimal future emission paths in a cost-effectiveness analysis with respect to an extensive range of carbon budgets and to compute the distribution of cost estimates for the mitigation of climate change. A reduced complexity climate model, calibrated from past observation using inverse Bayesian technique, computes probabilistic temperatures projections from the emissions. Finally, The distribution of economic impacts of climate change is produced, by combining the temperatures with impact estimates coming from previous studies. The results show that the distribution of the mitigation costs is right-skewd and that the mitigation costs increase with the delay of policy inaction. In 2050, the economic impacts of climate change are rather positive, but, in 2100, if no stringent policy is applied, the economic impact distribution have a very long tail towards potential high negative impacts. In the Figure, when the two cost distributions are combined, mitigation costs and economic impacts, a stringent policy will lead more likely to a higher loss of GDP than a less stringent policy, however the confidence interval of GDP loss for less stringent policies is much larger. Join distributions of mitigation costs and economic impacts costs per delay of inaction (in rows) and per probability to stay below the 2°C temperature increase (in columns), in 2050 and 2100. The red dot represent the median of the distribution. The y-axis is truncated at -50% of GDP.

Drouet, L.; Bosetti, V.; Tavoni, M.

2013-12-01

78

100% container scanning : security policy implications for global supply chains  

E-print Network

On August 3, 2007, President George Bush signed into law HR1 the "Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007." The 9/11 Act requires 100% scanning of US-bound containers at foreign seaports by 2012 ...

Bennett, Allison C. (Allison Christine)

2008-01-01

79

Cost Containment Through Energy Efficiency in Texas State-Owned Buildings  

E-print Network

"The Energy Cost Containment Through Energy Efficiency" in Texas State-owned buildings project was begun in the spring of 1984 as a part of a multipronged effort to reduce rising energy costs in State operations. Energy audits of 21 million square...

Ponder, W. M.; Verdict, M. E.

1985-01-01

80

A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

1987-01-01

81

Administrative Cost Policy for Sponsored Agreements TESTS FOR DIRECTLY CHARGING COSTS TO SPONSORED RESEARCH  

E-print Network

for newsletters required by the distinctive nature of the grant. Local Phone Costs Telephone instrument/line and data line Telephone instrument/line and data line charges for off-campus research facilities. charges A TEST B COST ELEMENT / TYPE SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES Unallowable alcohol Cannot

Subramanian, Venkat

82

Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (?4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (?7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

2014-10-01

83

Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Around the globe, school closures were used sporadically to mitigate the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, such closures can detrimentally impact economic and social life. Methods Here, we couple a decision analytic approach with a mathematical model of influenza transmission to estimate the impact of school closures in terms of epidemiological and cost effectiveness. Our method assumes that the transmissibility and the severity of the disease are uncertain, and evaluates several closure and reopening strategies that cover a range of thresholds in school-aged prevalence (SAP) and closure durations. Results Assuming a willingness to pay per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) threshold equal to the US per capita GDP ($46,000), we found that the cost effectiveness of these strategies is highly dependent on the severity and on a willingness to pay per QALY. For severe pandemics, the preferred strategy couples the earliest closure trigger (0.5% SAP) with the longest duration closure (24?weeks) considered. For milder pandemics, the preferred strategies also involve the earliest closure trigger, but are shorter duration (12?weeks for low transmission rates and variable length for high transmission rates). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of obtaining early estimates of pandemic severity and provide guidance to public health decision-makers for effectively tailoring school closures strategies in response to a newly emergent influenza pandemic. PMID:22713694

2012-01-01

84

Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis: a cost-effectiveness analysis: Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objective To facilitate the choice of the best visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment strategy for first-line health services in (VL)-endemic areas, we compared in a formal decision analysis the cost and the cost- effectiveness of the different available options. methods We selected four drug regimens for VL on the basis of frequency of use, feasibility and reported efficacy studies. The

V. Vanlerberghe; G. Diap; P. J. Guerin; F. Meheus; S. Gerstl; P. Van der Stuyft; M. Boelaert

2007-01-01

85

Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing  

PubMed Central

An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

2014-01-01

86

Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

2014-10-01

87

The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

2014-01-01

88

Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: investing in health systems.  

PubMed Central

The role of health systems infrastructure in studies of cost-effectiveness analysis and health resource allocation is discussed, and previous health sector cost-effectiveness analyses are cited. Two substantial difficulties concerning the nature of health system costs and the policy choices are presented. First, the issue of health system infrastructure can be addressed by use of computer models such as the Health Resource Allocation Model (HRAM) developed at Harvard, which integrates cost-effectiveness and burden of disease data. It was found that a model which allows for expansion in health infrastructure yields nearly 40% more total DALYs for a hypothetical sub-Saharan African country than a model which neglects infrastructure expansion. Widespread use of cost-effectiveness databases for resource allocations in the health sector will require the cost-effectiveness analyses shift from reporting costs to reporting production functions. Second, three distinct policy questions can be treated using these tools, each necessitating its own inputs and constraints: allocations when given a fixed budget and health infrastructure, or when given resources for marginal expansion, or when given a politically constrained situation of expanding resources. Confusion concerning which question is being addressed must be avoided through development of a consistent and rigorous approach to using cost-effectiveness data for informing resource allocations. PMID:7923545

Murray, C. J.; Kreuser, J.; Whang, W.

1994-01-01

89

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

90

Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan?  

E-print Network

Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan? K in 2001 to analyse the characteristics of those who receive free public health services and to ascertain public health services. This does not support claims that beneficiaries of these services are the well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

A Low-Cost Rescheduling Policy for Efficient Mapping of Workflows on Grid Systems  

E-print Network

schedule using the available estimates, and possibly respond to changes that may occur at run-emptive policies at the task execution level). This cost may be offset by gains in the execution of the schedule; however, what appears to give an indication of a gain at a certain stage in the execution of a schedule

Sakellariou, Rizos

92

Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects with Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common reporting of effect sizes has been an important advance in education research in recent years. However, the benchmarks used to interpret the size of these effects--as small, medium, and large--do little to inform educational administration and policy making because they do not account for program costs. The author proposes an approach…

Harris, Douglas N.

2009-01-01

93

The Cost-Effectiveness of Education Interventions in Poor Countries. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor countries need development programs that are both effective and cost-effective. To assess effectiveness, researchers are increasingly using randomized trials (or quasi-experimental methods that imitate randomized trials), which provide a clear picture of which outcomes are attributable to the program being evaluated. This "Policy Insight"…

Evans, David K.; Ghosh, Arkadipta

2008-01-01

94

Comparative Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Program and Its Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child care and education are to some extent joint products of preschool programs, but public policy and research frequently approach these two goals independently. We present a benefit-cost analysis of a preschool program that provided intensive education during full-day child care. Data were obtained from a randomized trial with longitudinal…

Barnett, W. S.; Masse, Leonard N.

2007-01-01

95

Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union  

E-print Network

Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459­481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union Laurent L increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91

96

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01

97

Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics  

E-print Network

, some are more useful." To be more useful, The Energy Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1. CopyrightQ2003. Attributed to G. Box, reference unknown. 49 #12;50 / The Energy Journal models for costing GHG reduction need (1991) referred to "the missing models" in arguing for the development of a new generation of models

98

Getting to a Public Option that Contains Costs: Negotiations, Opt-Outs and Triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The debate over a public option has essentially become a debate over the size and role of government in the health care system. The central argument, as we see it, should be one of fiscal conservatism—that a public option should play a role in addressing the very serious problem of health care cost containment. The current debate between the

Robert Berenson; John Holahan; Stephen Zuckerman

2009-01-01

99

Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

100

The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

2010-01-01

101

Waste pricing policies and cost-efficiency in municipal waste services: the case of Flanders.  

PubMed

Major changes in municipal solid waste (MSW)-related services, such as the collection system, often require important initial investments, while the benefits on the output side typically occur over a longer time perspective. However, when analyzing the association between such policy choices and cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal, the time horizon is often not taken into account. This article advocates the use of the Malmquist Productivity Index approach to measure and analyze cost efficiency changes over time after the introduction of the relative new weight-based waste collection and billing system in Flanders. The results and robustness checks indicate that introducing weight-based pricing does not lead to lower cost efficiency of MSW service provision. PMID:23585501

De Jaeger, Simon; Rogge, Nicky

2013-07-01

102

Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a single outpatient visit ranged, according to the different options, from US$2.50 to US$11. Scenario 2 was consistently less costly than scenario 1. The cost per case cured for smear-positive cases was US$16,703 in scenario 1 and US$5946 in scenario 2. The difference in cost between the cheapest option (no DOT) and the more expensive option (DOT, additional staff, incentives) ranged from US$1407 (scenario 1, smear-negative and extrapulmonary cases) to US$1814 (scenario 2, smear-positive cases). The additional cost to society including indirect costs ranged from US$1800 to US$4200. The possible savings at the national level were in the order of US$50 million per year. In conclusion, cost-comparison analysis showed that a relatively minor change in policy can result in significant savings and that the adoption of DOT will represent a relatively modest economic burden, although the real gain in effectiveness resulting from DOT in Italy requires further evaluation. PMID:10427931

Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

1999-01-01

103

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 2. COST ALLOCATION POLICIES FOR REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

104

The tension between cost containment and the underutilization of effective health services.  

PubMed

One of the common ingredients in all attempts to slow escalating health care costs is to control the utilization of services that provide little or uncertain benefit. To reform existing delivery systems, the organization, provision, and financing of health care need to be evaluated critically. Successful reform requires that more rational methods be used to determine which services to provide. The preferences of physicians, patients, and payers of care do not appear optimal from a societal perspective in choosing health care services. While reducing the use of interventions of little or unknown benefit should save money, a policy to restrict the use of medical services may lead to an unwanted result: the underutilization of interventions of proven clinical benefit. Through the determination of the value--by rigorous assessment of both costs and benefits of available alternatives--in a context sensitive to the unique cultural, political, and economic characteristics of individual nations, the health of the population should be improved and growth of health expenditures constrained. This is the first step in health care reform. PMID:8690550

Bloom, B S; Fendrick, A M

1996-01-01

105

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

106

Cost-benefit analysis of the swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.  

PubMed

Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion. PMID:25251946

Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

2014-11-01

107

20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2010-04-01

108

20 CFR 416.2217 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2010-04-01

109

20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.  

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2014-04-01

110

20 CFR 416.2217 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2011-04-01

111

20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2012-04-01

112

20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2011-04-01

113

20 CFR 416.2217 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2013-04-01

114

20 CFR 416.2217 - What costs will be paid.  

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2014-04-01

115

20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2013-04-01

116

20 CFR 416.2217 - What costs will be paid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...appropriate fee schedules, to govern the costs incurred for all VR services...purpose of this subpart, the written cost-containment policies must provide...designed to ensure— (i) The lowest reasonable cost for such services; and...

2012-04-01

117

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-16

118

Supply chain management with cost-containment & financial-sustainability in a tertiary care hospital.  

PubMed

Financial crunch in the present recession results in the non-availability of the right materials at the right time in large hospitals. However due to insufficient impetus towards systems development, situation remains dismal even when funds are galore. Cost incurred on materials account for approximately one-third of the total recurring expenditures in hospitals. Systems development for effective and efficient materials management is thus tantamount to cost-containment and sustainability. This scientific paper describes an innovative model, Hospital Revolving Fund (HRF), developed at a tertiary care research institute in Asia. The main idea behind inception of HRF was to ensure availability of all supplies in the hospital so that the quality of healthcare delivery was not affected. The model was conceptualized in the background of non-availability of consumables in the hospital leading to patient as well as staff dissatisfaction. Hospital supplies have been divided into two parts, approximately 3250 unit items and 1750 miscellaneous items. This division is based on cost, relative-utility and case-specific utilization. 0.1 Million USD, separated from non-planned budget, was initially used as seed money in 1998. HRF procures supplies from reputed firms on concessional rates (8-25%) and make them available to patients at much lesser rates vis-à-vis market rates, levying minimal maintenance charges. In 2009-10, total annual purchases of 14 Million USD were made. The balance sheet reflected 1.4 Million USD as fixed deposit investment. The minimal maintenance charges levied on the patients along with the interest income were sufficient to pay for all recurring expenses related to HRF. Even after these expenses, HRF boosted of 0.2 Million USD as cash-in-hand in financial year 2009-10. In-depth analysis of 'balance sheet' and 'Income and Expenditure' statement of the fund for last five financial years affirms that HRF is a self-sustainable and viable supply chain mechanism to ensure availability of the right materials at the right time at a reasonable cost. Thus innovations like HRF will prove robust in rendering quality healthcare at an affordable cost. PMID:24010261

Chandra, Hem; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Shuchita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, R K

2013-01-01

119

Beyond Business as Usual: A Framework and Options for Improving Quality and Containing Costs in California Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph summarizes the current thinking in the national literature on the subject of cost-containment and productivity in higher education and applies findings to higher education in California. It presents a framework for characterizing the major factors driving higher education costs, outlines potentially promising areas in identifying…

Knutsen, Kirk L.

120

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...State agency must itemize and justify all nutrition services and administration cost adjustments...costs savings and deduct the appropriate nutrition services and administration costs...registered with the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food,...

2013-01-01

121

Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Instructor's Manual. Module Number Five of Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques, Package VI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains the materials necessary for presentation of the fifth of ten modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. This module focuses on cost benefit and cost effectiveness analysis, a methodology for coping with the problem of allocating scarce…

Goldstein, Harvey

122

VII. Cost and Schedule The detailed cost and schedule for E889 is contained in a formal Conceptual Design Report  

E-print Network

.2 contains all technical work related to extracting the proton beam from the AGS, transporting external beam lines and constructed and operated a similar neutrino line in the past. WBS 1.3 contains for all conventional construction, detector systems, particle beam systems, and project support necessary

McDonald, Kirk

123

Diabetes in Argentina: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is an expensive disease in Argentina as well as worldwide, and its prevalence is continuously rising affecting the quality of life of people with the disease and their life expectancy. It also imposes a heavy burden to the national health care budget and on the economy in the form of productivity losses. Aims To review and discuss a) the reported evidence on diabetes prevalence, the degree of control, the cost of care and outcomes, b) available strategies to decrease the health and economic disease burden, and c) how the disease fits in the Argentinian health care system and policy. Finally, to propose evidence-based policy options to reduce the burden of diabetes, both from an epidemiological as well as an economic perspective, on the Argentinian society. The evidence presented is expected to help the local authorities to develop and implement effective diabetes care programmes. Methodology A comprehensive literature review was performed using databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences). Literature published from 1980 to 2011 was included. This information was complemented with grey literature, including data from national and provincial official sources, personal communications and contacts with health authorities and diabetes experts in Argentina. Results Overall diabetes prevalence increased from 8.4% in 2005 to 9.6% 2009 at national level. In 2009, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death with a mortality rate of 19.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, and it accounted for 1,328,802 DALYs lost in the adult population, mainly affecting women aged over fifty. The per capita hospitalisation cost for people with diabetes was significantly higher than for people without the disease, US$ 1,628 vs. US$ 833 in 2004. Evidence shows that implementation of combined educative interventions improved quality of care and outcomes, decreased treatment costs and optimised the use of economic resources. Conclusions Based on the evidence reviewed, we believe that the implementation of structured health care programmes including diabetes education at every level, could improve quality of care as well as its clinical, metabolic and economic outcomes. If implemented across the country, these programmes could decrease the disease burden and optimise the use of human and economic resources. PMID:24168330

2013-01-01

124

INTRODUCTION The increase in energy costs has led to a significant rise in the cost of mixtures containing asphalt cement. This resulted  

E-print Network

containing asphalt cement. This resulted in a need to search for alternatives that reduce the cost of those mixed with low percentages (1 percent below standard HMA mixtures) of paving grade asphalt cement and lower percentages of asphalt cement binder and easier compaction efforts. Asphalt treated mixtures can

Harms, Kyle E.

125

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs Background from NIH Grants Policy Statement: The following definition should be kept in mind when answering questions regarding research patient care costs. Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided by hospitals

Minnesota, University of

126

The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era  

PubMed Central

Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Results Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were —$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR. market share. Conclusions EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. PMID:24139984

Stone, David H.; Horvath, Alexander J.; Goodney, Philip P.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Nolan, Brian W.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Zwolak, Robert M.; Powell, Richard J.

2014-01-01

127

Cost-analysis of different management policies for patients with mild hepatitis A virus infection in Kazakhstan  

PubMed Central

Objective For patients with mild hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, this study compared estimates of total costs associated with managing cases under a policy of mandatory hospitalization in the Republic of Kazakhstan and estimates of total costs associated with managing cases in outpatient settings. Costs were estimated both from the perspective of the Ministry of Health and from a broader societal perspective. Methods Data were collected by using a standardized structured questionnaire. For cases of mild HAV infection, medical records were obtained from 200 patients managed by hospitalization and from 251 patients managed in an outpatient setting. Personal interviews were also conducted to collect information on productivity losses and out-of-pocket expenses. Results Nationally, we estimated about 21,600 cases of mild HAV infection annually. The mean annual treatment costs in hospital for mild HAV infection was estimated at US$3.39 million (2001 US$) (95% confidence interval [CI] = [US$3.26 million – US$3.52 million]). The total annual mild HAV infection cost to the society, including direct medical and nonmedical costs and productivity losses due to 721,440 lost work days, was estimated at US$6.26 million (95% CI [US$6.05 million – US$6.47 million]). In sensitivity analyses, the total annual cost of mild HAV infection ranged from US$4.37 million to US$24.66 million. The survey results showed that a relatively minor change in the current policy of mandatory hospitalization could result in an estimated total annual savings of US$4.62 million (2001 US$) in Kazakhstan. Conclusion Adoption of an outpatient management policy for cases of mild HAV infection would generate substantial cost savings to the Ministry of Health and society. PMID:15890070

Yassin, Abdiaziz S; Favorov, Michael; Maes, Edmond; Sadek, Ramses; Jumagulova, Aliya; Merker, Victor; Surdina, Tatiana; Chorba, Terence

2005-01-01

128

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment  

E-print Network

Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States;Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost for the Degrees of Master of Science in Technology and Policy and Master of City Planning ABSTRACT Carbon capture

129

Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of geothermal power in the United States, and to recognize that not all policy or energy technology is created equal. Further study options are provide to expand the scope and granularity of this research design to better support a growing market.

Richard, Christopher L.

130

Policy expectations and reality of telemedicine - a critical analysis of health care outcomes, costs and acceptance for congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

A critical review of evidence was carried out to discover whether the actual performance of telemedicine fulfils the expectations of German policy-makers. The analysis was conducted using the example of telemedicine for congestive heart failure (CHF). It was based on both German and international evidence. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as public sources from the German Federal Ministry of Health. Forty-five studies reporting patient outcomes, costs or acceptance of telemedicine for CHF were included in the review, of which 28 were interventional. The policy expectations of telemedicine generally are: high technology acceptance and improved patient outcomes at lower costs. However, in the field of CHF, policy-makers underestimate the complexity of telemedicine and the technology has not yet lived up to its expectations. Although some studies show improvements in all-cause mortality and CHF-related hospitalisations, there is excessive study heterogeneity and vagueness in the areas of costs and acceptance. Methodological insufficiencies as well as the scarcity of evidence in the German context do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. Policy-makers and other stakeholders should increase their efforts to consolidate isolated telemedicine projects, establish guidelines for clinical treatment procedures and economic evaluations, and define industry/technical device standards to enhance the comparability of interventions. Imposing the use of telemedicine on patients and physicians is not likely to be fruitful. A successful adaptation requires an analysis of needs and continuous education on both sides. PMID:24803273

Achelrod, Dmitrij

2014-05-01

131

A systematic review to assess the policy-making relevance of dementia cost-of-illness studies in the US and Canada.  

PubMed

A systematic review of dementia cost-of-illness (COI) studies in the US and Canada was conducted to explore the policy-making relevance of these studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EconLit, AMED and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2010 for English-language COI articles. Content analysis was used to extract common themes about dementia cost from the conclusions of articles that passed title, abstract and full-text screening. These themes informed our exploration of the policy-making relevance of COI studies in dementia. The literature search retrieved 961 articles and data were extracted from 46 articles. All except three articles reported data from the US; 27 articles included Alzheimer's dementia only. Common themes pertained to general observations about dementia cost, cost drivers in dementia, caregiver cost, items that may lower dementia cost, social service cost, Medicare and Medicaid cost, and cost comparisons with other diseases. The common themes suggest policy-oriented research for the future. However, the extracted COI studies were typically not conducted for policy-making purposes and they did not commonly provide prescriptive policy options. Researchers and policy makers need to consider whether the optimal research focus in dementia should be on programme evaluations instead of more COI studies. PMID:21090840

Oremus, Mark; Aguilar, S Carolina

2011-02-01

132

METRA rail car cost-containment study. Final report, 1990-91  

SciTech Connect

The Study/Program was directed to consideration of procurement and operation issues which could affect the total cost of ownership for the METRA BiLevel Cars which are planned for purchase in the near future. The issues addressed were organized in two parts: (1) Technical items such as Car Definition, Car Specifications, Car Cost Projections, Car(Procurement) Work Breakdown Structure, Standardization, Off-the-shelf Hardware, Energy Savings, and Handicapped Accessibility Requirements. (2) Non-Technical items included Contract Terms and Conditions, Project Management, Contract Types, Order Size, Chicago Area Assembly, Financing Alternatives, Life-Cycle Costing, Reliability and Maintainability with many of the above discussed in detail with existing rail car builders. The most significant findings included major savings to be derived in procurement through innovative financing and application of modern management methods, plus operational savings available from system-wide use of thorough maintenance and reliability provisions in planning, tracking and evaluation of car repair operations.

Not Available

1991-05-01

133

The controversy over employment policy: Low labor costs and openness, or demand policy? A sectoral analysis for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of labor cost, openness, and demand side variables on employment for the case of Turkey using the panel data of private manufacturing industry at three digit level for 25 sectors for the period of 1973-2001. We use a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model, which allows for cross-sectoral heterogeneity. The estimation

Özlem Onaran; Nursel Aydiner-Avsar

2006-01-01

134

The Influence of Local Urban Containment Policies and Statewide Growth Management on the Size of United States Urban Areas &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In an attempt to slow the consumption of urban land for a given population, and the negative outcomes thought by some to be generated by such sprawl, regulations in the form of (i) the local imposition of urban containment policies that restrict or prohibit the amount and/or the type of urban settlement beyond a certain line and (ii) the statewide

Robert W. Wassmer

2006-01-01

135

78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and System for Award Management which currently hosts...in providing policy leadership to the grants community...Subrecipient Monitoring and Management is created to co-locate...for consistent award management across entities, OMB...and clarifying policy differences would relieve...

2013-02-01

136

77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...charged. 6. Including the cost of certain computing devices as allowable direct cost supplies...involve explicitly including the cost of computing devices not otherwise subject to inventory...consolidate data centers and operate in a cloud-based environment, data centers...

2012-02-28

137

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

138

High performance, low cost, self-contained, multipurpose PC based ground systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of embedded processors greatly enhances the capabilities of personal computers when used for telemetry processing and command control center functions. Parallel architectures based on the use of transputers are shown to be very versatile and reusable, and the synergism between the PC and the embedded processor with transputers results in single unit, low cost workstations of 20 less than MIPS less than or equal to 1000.

Forman, Michael; Nickum, William; Troendly, Gregory

1993-01-01

139

Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs  

E-print Network

An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

Matthews, Isaac A

2010-01-01

140

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

141

The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1980-01-01

142

Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue  

SciTech Connect

For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

NONE

1996-05-01

143

Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

144

Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

Xie, Yan

2010-01-01

145

The Benefits and Costs of Head Start. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review what is known about Head Start's impacts on children and argue that the program is likely to generate benefits to participants and society as a whole that are larger than program costs. Our conclusions differ from those in some previous reviews because we use a more appropriate standard to judge program effectiveness (benefit-cost

Ludwig, Jens; Phillips, Deborah

2007-01-01

146

Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Perry Preschool Program and Its Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Benefit-cost analysis is applied to the Perry Preschool Program and its long-term follow-up in order to examine preschool education as a social investment. The net present value of benefits and costs is positive, indicating that the program was a profitable social investment. (Author/LMO)

Barnett, W. Steven

1985-01-01

147

The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost

Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

2012-01-01

148

Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

2011-01-01

149

Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium  

SciTech Connect

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

1996-03-01

150

Keeping Teachers on the Job Costs Less than Advertised. Policy Memorandum #168  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A misplaced obsession with the size of federal budget deficits remains the single biggest obstacle to enacting new measures to create jobs on a scale commensurate with the crisis in the American labor market. Even assuming that budget scoring rules can't be changed, at the very least policy makers should be aware of the true impact a given piece…

Bivens, Josh

2010-01-01

151

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

152

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

153

Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.

Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

2010-01-01

154

Development and evaluation of die and container materials. Low cost silicon solar array project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific compositions of high purity silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and silicon beryllium oxynitride (Sibeon) solid solutions were shown to be promising refractory materials for handling and manipulating solar grade silicon into silicon ribbon. Evaulation of the interaction of these materials in contact with molten silicon indicated that solid solutions based upon beta-Si3N4 were more stable than those based on Si2N2O. Sibeon was more resistant to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Both materials should preferably be used in an inert atmosphere rather than under vacuum conditions because removal of oxygen from the silicon melt occurs as SiO enhances the dissolution of aluminum and beryllium. The wetting angles of these materials were low enough for these materials to be considered as both die and container materials.

Wills, R. R.; Niesx, D. E.

1979-01-01

155

Aging and aggregate costs of medical care: conceptual and policy issues.  

PubMed

The conventional wisdom says that because the cost of health care for the aged is more than that of the young at any time, there is a positive relationship between the aging or higher life expectancy of the population and aggregate health care spending. It is difficult, however, to find evidence to support this argument. We present a simple framework that shows how aging of the population may not necessarily increase the total cost of medical care over time or be observed across nations. This follows because numerous other factors that change with aging affect cost of care in ways that are not age-neutral. Such factors include age-specific shifts in morbidity and mortality, growth in income and insurance coverage, rising levels of education and changing technology. Consequently, the relative medical costs of the aged may indeed increase, at least for demographic reasons. Simultaneously, however, the costs of the young may decrease for the same reasons. The Israeli experience, used as a basis for a cursory empirical discussion of the issues, supports the line of reasoning presented in the paper. PMID:15185385

Chernichovsky, Dov; Markowitz, Sara

2004-06-01

156

Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations  

E-print Network

=L: where ZE is a factor defined as N ZE (~)i (3b) N 1 + x i=1 L: Table 1 shows some values of ZE which can also be interpreted as the levelized factor or the weight of the energy price when the entire life cycle N is taken into account.... ZE is low when fuel costs escalate only slowly, but is high when fuel costs escalate fast. Typical values of ZE in the era of cheap energy are smaller than 1. When fuel escalates at rates exceeding 10 percent per year, a value of ZE between 1...

Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

1980-01-01

157

Costs and Policy Options for Federal Student Loan Programs. A CBO Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education oversees various programs to help students pay for the costs of postsecondary education. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study focuses on the two largest student loan programs created under the authority of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended): (1) The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program, which…

Lucas, Deborah; Moore, Damien

2010-01-01

158

Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

2012-01-01

159

Scientific Programming 12 (2004) 253262 253 A low-cost rescheduling policy for efficient  

E-print Network

, such as the Grid. In this environment, an initial schedule may be built based on estimates, but run approach is to plan in advance, build a static schedule using the available estimates, and pos- sibly). This cost may be offset by gains in the execution of the schedule; however, ISSN 1058-9244/04/$17.00 2004

Sakellariou, Rizos

160

They Spend What? The Real Cost of Public Schools. Policy Analysis. No. 662  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although public schools are usually the biggest item in state and local budgets, spending figures provided by public school officials and reported in the media often leave out major costs of education and thus understate what is actually spent. To document the phenomenon, this paper reviews district budgets and state records for the nation's five…

Schaeffer, Adam

2010-01-01

161

Cost and Policy Implications of AIN-Based Local Number Portability Implementations  

E-print Network

, such as integrated digital services network (ISDN). A true solution would provide for portability across all such as network evolution and the provision of future service are considered, the cost of LNP might prove more and institutional opportunities for anti-competitive behavior. This work will assume an Advanced Intelligent Network

162

Draft environmental assessment: Swisher County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Swisher County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Swisher site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Swisher site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Deaf Smith site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site in the Permian Basin and is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site rather than the Swisher site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

163

Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

NONE

1997-01-01

164

Cost Containment Through Risk-Sharing by Primary Care Physicians: A History of the Development of United Healthcare  

PubMed Central

A new type of Independent practice association has been organized to encourage primary care physicians in private practice to become coordinators and financial managers for their patients' medical care. Each patient chooses one internist, family or general physician, or pediatrician and must be referred by that physician for all specialized care. The primary care physician authorizes payment from his/her own account for hospital and referral care provided to patients. He or she shares any deficit or surplus remaining at the end of the year. This is a background paper detailing the history of development and specific features contained in this new concept of putting the physician in charge and “at risk” for the costs of medical care to his/her patients. The plan has been operating in northern California, Washington, and Utah and has 40,000 members and 750 participating physicians. This historical background paper is part of a large project—State Employees' Insurance Benefits Utilization Study (SEIBUS) being done by the University of Washington School of Public Health to evaluate use and costs of medical care under this innovative plan. PMID:10309220

Moore, Stephen H.; Martin, Diane P.; Richardson, William C.; Riedel, Donald C.

1980-01-01

165

A Systematic Review to Assess the PolicyMaking Relevance of Dementia Cost-of-Illness Studies in the US and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of dementia cost-of-illness (COI) studies in the US and Canada was conducted to explore the policy-making relevance of these studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EconLit, AMED and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2010 for English-language COI articles. Content analysis was used to extract common themes about dementia cost from the conclusions of articles that passed

Mark Oremus; S. Carolina. Aguilar

2011-01-01

166

Draft environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment, which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Swisher site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site. The DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Deaf Smith site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Deaf Smith site is one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

167

Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricultural activities and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums for chemical-free and reduced-chemical corn indicate that if the society is willing to pay a price premium, risks can be reduced without a large reduction in the total economic surplus and net benefits may be higher. The results also show that this methodology provides an improved scientific framework for future decision making and policy evaluation in pesticide management.

Tesfamichael, Aklilu A.; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

2005-05-01

168

Rigorous Program Evaluations on a Budget: How Low-Cost Randomized Controlled Trials Are Possible in Many Areas of Social Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing ability of social policy researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at low cost could revolutionize the field of performance-based government. RCTs are widely judged to be the most credible method of evaluating whether a social program is effective, overcoming the demonstrated inability of other, more common methods…

Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2012

2012-01-01

169

Booster Breaks: An Easy-to-Implement Workplace Policy Designed to Improve Employee Health, Increase Productivity, and Lower Health Care Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace stress and physical inactivity are major health problems. To combat them, Booster Breaks have been proposed, which represent a new way of thinking about work breaks. This article introduces a workplace program and policy to improve employee health and productivity and lower healthcare costs by implementing Booster Breaks. This innovation uses break times to promote health and is based

Wendell C. Taylor

2011-01-01

170

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

171

Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

Titus, James G.

1991-01-01

172

Costs of Introducing and Delivering HPV Vaccines in Low and Lower Middle Income Countries: Inputs for GAVI Policy on Introduction Grant Support to Countries  

PubMed Central

Background In November 2011, the GAVI Alliance made the decision to add HPV vaccine as one of the new vaccines for which countries eligible for its funding (less than $1520 per capita income) could apply to receive support for national HPV vaccination, provided they could demonstrate the ability to deliver HPV vaccines. This paper describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI policymakers for this decision regarding GAVI HPV vaccine support. The paper reviews why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are different from other vaccines and what is known about the cost components from available data that originated primarily from HPV vaccine delivery costing studies in low and middle income-countries. Methods Financial costs of HPV vaccine delivery were compared across three sources of data: 1) vaccine delivery costing of pilot projects in five low and lower-middle income countries; 2) cost estimates of national HPV vaccination in two low income countries; and 3) actual expenditure data from national HPV vaccine introduction in a low income country. Both costs of resources required to introduce the vaccine (or initial one-time investment, such as cold chain equipment purchases) and recurrent (ongoing costs that repeat every year) costs, such as transport and health personnel time, were analyzed. The cost per dose, cost per fully immunized girl (FIG) and cost per eligible girl were compared across studies. Results Costs varied among pilot projects and estimates of national programs due to differences in scale and service delivery strategy. The average introduction costs per fully immunized girl ranged from $1.49 to $18.94 while recurrent costs per girl ranged from $1.00 to $15.69, with both types of costs varying by delivery strategy and country. Evaluating delivery costs along programme characteristics as well as country characteristics (population density, income/cost level, existing service delivery infrastructure) are likely the most informative and useful for anticipating costs for HPV vaccine delivery. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the importance of country level cost data to inform global donor policies for vaccine introduction support. Such data are also valuable for informing national decisions on HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:24968002

Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan A.; Levin, Carol; Tsu, Vivien; Hutubessy, Raymond

2014-01-01

173

Buchanan on Cost and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses James Buchanan?s contribution to the important topic of cost-containment in the area of health care. Historical and ideational in its thrust, it seeks also to make a more general contribution by showing how the methodology of public choice can be applied to a specific issue in economic and social policy. Examines the precise body of theory which Buchanan brings

David A. Reisman

1994-01-01

174

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09

175

The Reduction of Faculty Reassigned Time as a Community College Cost Containment Initiative: A Case Study of the Maricopa County Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that community colleges can contain costs by reducing faculty reassigned time, defined as a conscious or deliberate management action, either discretionary or mandated, that releases full-time faculty from teaching duties in order to perform other tasks. According to the paper, standard financial accounting systems have a…

Petrowsky, Michael C.

176

76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP),...

2011-08-26

177

An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.  

PubMed

Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

2014-01-13

178

US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Contains a list of attendees, agenda, report summaries, and a financial report  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

Not Available

1993-03-16

179

An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Expenditure Alternatives. Learning Packages in the Policy Sciences, PS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revised edition of PS-14, "An Introduction to Benefit-Cost Analysis for Evaluating Public Programs," presents concepts and techniques of benefit-cost analysis as tools that can be used to assist in deciding between alternatives. The goals of the new edition include teaching students to think about the possible benefits and costs of each…

LaPlante, Josephine M.; Durham, Taylor R.

180

What are the Implications for Policy Makers? A Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Misuse in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBIs) for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however, evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programs are likely to be cost-effective but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. Methods: Studies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programs combining SBIs in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations. Results: The search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however, almost all studies reported SBI programs to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result. Conclusion: This review provides strong evidence that SBI programs in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse. PMID:25225487

Angus, Colin; Latimer, Nicholas; Preston, Louise; Li, Jessica; Purshouse, Robin

2014-01-01

181

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

182

Evaluating Self-Funded Health Insurance for the Lakeshore Technical Institute as a Cost-Containment Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the rising costs of health care and large increases in insurance premiums, a study was conducted at Lakeshore Technical Institute (LTI) to investigate the feasibility of using a self-funded health insurance plan at the college. Data were obtained through a literature review; telephone and on-site discussions with a personnel…

Holstein, Karen E.

183

Evaluation and Cost Analysis of National Health Policy of Thalassaemia Screening in West-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Thalassaemia is one of the most common Mendelian disorders in Mediterranean area. Iran has about 26,000 Thalassaemic patients, so it is one of the most affected countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening program and cost analysis of Thalassaemia prevention program in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of Health system's Thalassaemia prevention program with a sensitivity analysis for its costs. The second five years of the program was evaluated. The economic burden of Thalassaemia is determined by the birth prevalence of the affected infants and the cost that is accrued to treat the infected individuals and was compared with the total cost of screening the couples for thalassemia trait. Results: The average incidence rate of major Thalassaemia was 19.8 per 100,000 live births and mean coverage rate of program was 74%. The rate of canceling the marriage among carrier couples was 53%. Cost analysis showed that the cost of screening and prenatal diagnosis program was much lower than the cost of treatment in potential thalassaemic patients. Conclusions: The prevention program of Thalassaemia including a premarital and pre-natal screening in west Azerbaijan province is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Taking some actions in order to increase the coverage of pre-marital screening, providing pre-natal diagnosis in private and public sector, complete insurance coverage for the high-risk couples to perform the investigations more easily, were recommended. PMID:23112894

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Jahani, Farshid Fayyaz; Hatami, Sanaz; Kargar, Catauon; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

184

Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes prevention and control plan. PMID:24564974

2014-01-01

185

Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

Somerset, Anthony

2011-01-01

186

77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards...

2012-07-25

187

Policies, Policies, Policies! What Antibiotic Policies Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ntibiotics should be used rationally in order to improve patient outcome; to contain the cost of treatment and most importantly to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, inappropriate use of antibiotics appears to be a universal phenomenon and numerous surveys from around the world have shown high rates of inappropriate prescribing. There is abundant circumstantial evidence linking emergence of

Victor Lim

2005-01-01

188

Race-Conscious Policy Analysis and the Healthcare Reform Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an inherent tension between cost containment and expansion of coverage for the uninsured. African Americans disproportionately\\u000a benefit from expanded health care options but they also bear a disproportionate burden in attempts to control costs. This\\u000a recognition justifies a race-conscious analysis of health policy changes that appear race-neutral on their face.

Samuel L. Myers

2010-01-01

189

Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing, Henry D. Jacoby and Ronald G. Prinn*  

E-print Network

. Abatement costs for emissions of PFCs and CO2 are compared in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Contents 1 ...........................................................................................................17 1. INTRODUCTION The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of the protocol the 39 countries (hereafter the "Annex B" nations) commit themselves to restrict their emissions

190

Optimal pricing and inventory control policy in periodic-review systems with fixed ordering cost and lost sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a periodic-review pricing and inventory control problem for a retailer, which faces stochastic price- sensitive demand, under quite general modeling assumptions. Any unsatisfied demand is lost, and any leftover inventory at the end of the finite selling horizon has a salvage value. The cost component for the retailer includes holding, shortage, and both variable and fixed ordering

Saibal Ray; Yuyue Song

2006-01-01

191

Costs and Benefits of Eliminating the Medicare Waiting Period for SSDI Beneficiaries. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Disability Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program provides a safety net for individuals who must stop working because of a disability. Although Medicare coverage is available to people with disabilities, they must wait for that coverage until 24 months after they become eligible for SSDI. This brief discusses the costs and benefits associated with eliminating the Medicare waiting period for

Gina Livermore; David Stapleton; Henry Claypool

2009-01-01

192

Safety Policy LEAD IN PAINT POLICY  

E-print Network

Safety Policy (10/96) LEAD IN PAINT POLICY protection from excessive exposure to lead. Paints and coatings manufactured prior to 1978 often contained disturbing surfaces coated with lead paint or primer, potentially exposing University employees

Powers, Robert

193

75 FR 64684 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts Executed and...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Notice...

2010-10-20

194

76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION:...

2011-10-05

195

77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION:...

2012-11-19

196

Pricing Strategies of low-cost airlines: the Ryanair case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyse the pricing policy adopted by Ryanair, the main low-cost carrier in Europe. The first part of the study reviews the results of literature addressing the subject of dynamic pricing, with specific reference to the air transport industry. The methodological section contains the models of reference for determining the optimal price and the

Paolo Malighetti; Stefano Paleari; Renato Redondi

2007-01-01

197

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

DOE Data Explorer

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

198

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

SciTech Connect

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-12-16

199

From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy.  

PubMed

In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of Europeanization. This process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lisbon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision. PMID:17625641

Gerlinger, Thomas; Urban, Hans-Jürgen

2007-01-01

200

76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

2011-08-26

201

DIRECT RESEARCH COSTS -A guide for research and administrative staff. This information has been drawn from NHMRC Grant policies and the Deed of  

E-print Network

of the project costs of animal agistment and animals purchased which are a direct requirement of the research for research staff o administrative services o office services and laboratory services o ethics approval costs1 DIRECT RESEARCH COSTS - A guide for research and administrative staff. This information has been

Blennerhassett, Peter

202

Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Economic Development Institute Seminar Background Papers (Washington, D.C., April 1987). EDI Seminar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discusses the major options decisionmakers face when they are dealing with teacher career and remuneration policies. The document deals with a central question: how can remuneration and managerial policies help improve teacher effectiveness? The book is divided into three parts containing 15 papers. The first part, "The Cost and…

Farrell, Joseph P., Ed.; Oliveira, Joao B., Ed.

203

Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

1984-01-01

204

The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.  

PubMed

Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

Chen, Mei-Lan

2014-10-21

205

Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

206

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2011-10-01

207

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2012-10-01

208

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

209

The Impact of Incarceration on the Employment Outcomes of Former Inmates: Policy Options for Fostering Self-Sufficiency and an Assessment of the Cost-Effectiveness of  

E-print Network

July 2007 The Impact of Incarceration on the Employment Outcomes of Former Inmates: Policy Options;Abstract This chapter documents recent incarceration trends, discusses the evidence pertaining-release behavior. I also assess the likely effects on crime of reducing the U.S. incarceration rate below current

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

210

Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

211

EPS Policy on Financial Support for Student Travel / Research Students requesting financial support to help offset costs to attend and present research at  

E-print Network

EPS Policy on Financial Support for Student Travel / Research Students requesting financial support) Student Travel grants, and 4) EPS Travel Awards. All students should discuss these options and AGU). The GSNB and EPS travel request forms are attached. 3) Students must submit application

212

Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

2014-05-01

213

Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

1979-01-01

214

LIABILITY INSURANCE University Policy No: FM5300  

E-print Network

1 LIABILITY INSURANCE University Policy No: FM5300 Classification: Financial Management Approving, its officers, employees, volunteers and certain other named insureds, Comprehensive General Liability, Errors and Omissions and other insurance policies. These policies contain certain exclusions requiring

Victoria, University of

215

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy  

E-print Network

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

Kasman, Alex

216

Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

2000-01-01

217

The welfare costs of not being part of the knowledge economy: why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract All forms of knowledge, from advanced science to the simple idea of finding a new use for an old good, con- tribute to economic growth, not by competing for scarce resources in existing markets but by creating new mar- kets. Current agricultural, environmental and develop- ment policies ignore the social welfare generated by new markets because they

Philipp Aerni

218

33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.  

...local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project features which are included to make positive contributions to the EQ account are being developed. Until such policies are developed, proposals to cover channels on this basis will be...

2014-07-01

219

33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project features which are included to make positive contributions to the EQ account are being developed. Until such policies are developed, proposals to cover channels on this basis will be...

2012-07-01

220

33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project features which are included to make positive contributions to the EQ account are being developed. Until such policies are developed, proposals to cover channels on this basis will be...

2011-07-01

221

33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project features which are included to make positive contributions to the EQ account are being developed. Until such policies are developed, proposals to cover channels on this basis will be...

2013-07-01

222

33 CFR 239.8 - Cost sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...local protection projects. Cost-sharing policies for project features which are included to make positive contributions to the EQ account are being developed. Until such policies are developed, proposals to cover channels on this basis will be...

2010-07-01

223

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

224

Cost-Estimation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

Cox, Brian

1995-01-01

225

Managing international medical costs.  

PubMed

Many countries are experiencing medical cost increases exceeding those in the United States, both in real terms and as a percentage of GDP. Although in most foreign countries the majority of medical costs are directly borne by governmental programs, there is a growing trend to cost shift more of this responsibility onto the corporate sector, perhaps leading multinational corporations to consider devising international cost-containment strategies. PMID:10121852

Richerson, M C

1992-01-01

226

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

2011-01-01

227

Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 3(2): 161-175, 2004 Costs of Portable Sawmilling Timbers from the Acacia Woodlands of  

E-print Network

Sawmilling Timbers from the Acacia Woodlands of Western Queensland, Australia Tyron J. Venn Risk of Primary Industries and Fisheries Brisbane, Australia, 4068 Portable sawmilling trials with Acacia aneura and portable sawmilling of western Queensland acacias an expensive undertaking for landholders. The cost

Venn, Tyron

228

The Perry Preschool Program and Its Long-Term Effects: A Benefit-Cost Analysis. High/Scope Early Childhood Policy Papers, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool program and describes the program's long-term effects. Conducted since 1962, research on the Perry Preschool program constitutes one of the strongest and best-known sources of support for the long-term efficacy of early intervention with disadvantaged children. The Perry Project…

Barnett, W. Steven

229

Enrollment and Cost Effects of Financial Aid Plans for Higher Education. Project on Quantitative Policy Analysis Models of Demand and Supply in Higher Education. Technical Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model to estimate higher education enrollments and cost effects of financial aid plans is presented. A combination of the freshman demand and transition models allows the prediction of high school graduates who enter colleges, complete sequential levels of education, and complete degree programs. The freshman demand model is adapted from that of…

Hurd, Joseph

230

Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

231

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

SciTech Connect

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

Zotos, G. [Division of Business Studies, Dept. of Economics, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zampetoglou, S. [Municipal Development Company of Kalamaria, GR-55132 (Greece); Malamakis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: amalama@aix.meng.auth.gr; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tchobanoglous, G. [Department of civil and environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis (United States)

2009-05-15

232

Re po rt F rom Th e F ield Mission Not Yet Accomplished? Massachusetts Contemplates Major Moves On Cost Containment After filling coverage gaps, Massachusetts reformers turn their attention to containing costs. Would a new global payment system transform this medical mecca?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern in Massachusetts that rising health care costs will derail the state's move to universal health coverage. A special state panel has recom- mended moving from fee-for-service to a new system of global payments as the best way to reduce unnecessary care and expenses, while improving the health of patients. The com- mission points to specific examples

Martha Bebinger

2009-01-01

233

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2010-04-01

234

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2013-04-01

235

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2011-04-01

236

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2014-04-01

237

23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

2012-04-01

238

An Approach to Evaluating Equipment Efficiency Policies  

E-print Network

to the evaluation of these and related policy options is under development. The approach includes equipment classification and characterization, market characterization, and the subsequent evaluation of effectiveness and costs of the policy options. Technical...

Newsom, D. E.; Evans, A. R.

1980-01-01

239

The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date  

SciTech Connect

More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

2014-03-12

240

The University of Pittsburgh Cost Containment Efforts  

E-print Network

with Health/Retirement Benefits Other Revenue Sources Limiting Spending on Travel, Meetings, Events, delayed, or reduced the scope of as many construction projects as possible. The University has redesigned and volume discounts. Through energy conservation initiatives, the University achieved recurring utilities

Jiang, Huiqiang

241

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

242

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

243

Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual cost- function learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policy-language biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve. In particular, we induce high-quality domain-specific plan ners for clas- sical planning domains (both deterministic and stochastic variants) by

Alan Fern; Sung Wook Yoon; Robert Givan

2003-01-01

244

National Drought Policy Commission Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 16, 2000, the National Drought Policy Commission (NDPC) released its final report and recommended improved preparedness and coordination in anticipation of the threat of droughts in the US. The NDPC's site offers two documents, the Report of the National Drought Policy Commission and the National Drought Policy Commission Executive Summary. The reports were drafted in response to the severe droughts in recent years that have cost the US approximately $6 billion per year in economic losses.

2000-01-01

245

Diversity, Doctoral Education and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues the importance of diversity for research and doctoral education and the key role of policy in encouraging it. It considers the impact of higher education policy on diversity in doctoral education through the three prevailing themes of cost, concentration and relevance, illustrating in each instance both positive and negative influences. It is a time of dynamic change

Ruth Neumann

2002-01-01

246

Costs of groundwater contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1990-01-01

247

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

248

Rural Policy Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past several decades, a number of policy institutes and think-tanks have been formed to open a substantial dialogue about issues affecting rural communities. The Rural Policy Research Institute is one of these organizations, and involves scientists and policy analysts from Iowa State University, the University of Missouri, the University of Nebraska and other affiliated institutions. The Web site is divided into a number of sections, including a publications area, a section that contains editorials written by Institute fellows and staff members, and an area dedicated to providing information about helpful resources such as basic statistics about rural America. On the left side of the home page, visitors can also browse the Web pages of the Institute's affiliated centers such as the Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis and the Rural Poverty Research Center. Finally, users can elect to sign up for an electronic newsletter that will update them about upcoming events, conferences, and publications related to rural policy issues.

249

A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

1988-02-01

250

NIH and NCI Grants-Related Policies  

Cancer.gov

This section contains links compiled by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI policies related to grant applications and has FAQs related to grants policies.

251

Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium  

EPA Science Inventory

The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

252

Security Policy Facilities Management Policy  

E-print Network

Security Policy Facilities Management Policy © Victoria University of Wellington Page 1 Effective are provided within the University precincts. The aim of the policy is: (a) To ensure the management of this policy, unless otherwise stated, the following definitions shall apply: Incident: Any unexpected event

Frean, Marcus

253

44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.  

...Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral...and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual...

2014-10-01

254

An analysis of the retail and lifecycle cost of battery-powered electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulators, policy analysts, automobile manufacturers, environmental groups, and others are debating the merits of policies regarding the development and use of battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs). At the crux of this debate is lifecycle cost: the annualized initial vehicle cost, plus annual operating and maintenance costs, plus battery replacement costs. To address this issue of cost, we have developed a detailed

Mark A Delucchi; Timothy E Lipman

2001-01-01

255

POLICY NUMBER 2002-39 February 25, 2002  

E-print Network

of Connecticut Health Center policy. The Principal Investigator must authorize all expenditures of project fundsPOLICY NUMBER 2002-39 February 25, 2002 POLICY: DIRECT COST EXPENDITURES (RESEARCH/SPONSORED PROGRAMS) PURPOSE: To establish guidelines for the charging and approval of direct cost expenditures

Oliver, Douglas L.

256

Cost goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

Hoag, J.

1981-01-01

257

Tracking Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

Erickson, Paul W.

2010-01-01

258

Option values of low carbon technology policies  

E-print Network

this `non?convexity’’, a support policy should be sufficiently important in order to ensure that LCTs are competitive. These policies constitute a bet; whether the cost to subsidize LCTs today is worth will depend on their relative cost tomorrow. Many... uncertainties surround these relative costs among which the uncertainty of the future price of greenhouse gas emissions. The terms of this bet should be acknowledged. A support to LCT opens an option to face high carbon price...

Finon, Dominique; Meunier, Guy

2012-06-19

259

POLICY TITLE: Tobacco-free AHSC Policy Contact: Andrew Comrie  

E-print Network

POLICY TITLE: Tobacco-free AHSC Policy Contact: Andrew Comrie Senior Vice President for Academic Center colleges. Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, hookah, and other products containing tobacco. The University of Arizona Health Network is the entity

Ziurys, Lucy M.

260

Policy Problematization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

Webb, P. Taylor

2014-01-01

261

Toward a Record Retention Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

Vaughan, Jason

2007-01-01

262

Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

263

Toward a National Energy Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief historical and contemporary review of the U.S. energy situation, containing statistics related to energy needs, population growth, legislative policies and acts, and industrial efforts. Maintains that current energy crisis'' does not come from a shortage of resources, but rather from short-sighted policy. (LK)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

264

IMPLICATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE POLICIES ON NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the cost effectiveness of alternative environmental policies for controlling nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Seymour aquifer region of Texas. Results from biophysical simulation model are integrated with a farm-level optimization model. The study also compares the cost of bottled water, used as the lower-bound estimate of benefits of groundwater protection, with the least costly environmental policy.

Manzoor E. Chowdhury; Ronald D. Lacewell

1996-01-01

265

Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

Gale, Trevor

2001-01-01

266

Can Latent Groups Influence Policy Decisions? The Case of Telecommunications Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electoral constituencies recognize favorable policy outcomes in high-turnout jurisdictions. In this article I evaluate whether underlying institutions might provide a finer explanation of this relationship. To do so I formally examine variation in telecommunications policy across U.S. states. The resulting evidence is consistent with residential customers recognizing more favorable policy when institutions reduce voting's resource cost (measured by registration rules)

Dino Falaschetti

2003-01-01

267

7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

2010-01-01

268

Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings  

E-print Network

A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

269

Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly  

E-print Network

In the Medicare program, increases in cost sharing by a supplemental insurer can exert financial externalities. We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public ...

Chandra, Amitabh

270

48 CFR 9904.417 - Cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction. 9904.417 Section...FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND...money as an element of the cost of capital assets under...

2010-10-01

271

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of

P. C. Sanford; J. L. Stevens; R. Brandt

2002-01-01

272

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs listed here are estimated and based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you document  

E-print Network

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs listed estimated student budgets to determine the total costs for your first year of studies. Budgets are based. Possible Additional Expenses (not included in the above estimated total costs): a) International

Galles, David

273

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2004, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy offered recommendations for a coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy. Commission regional working groups included state governors, scientists and stakeholders. The Commission's final report, "An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century," contains 212 recommendations addressing all aspects of ocean and coastal policy. Report results are presented here.

274

Cost Analysis in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost analysis is of interest for: its operating and management uses within each institution; its help in providing critical inputs for planning; making major changes in capacity, program structure, or institutional policies; its uses in obtaining comparisons between institutions which help in sharing insights about what targets to set for…

Balderston, F. E.

275

Hypergraph containers  

E-print Network

with probability p, then with probability tending to 1 as N ? ?, any subset of X of size #15;|X| contains an arithmetic progression of length `. Further examples and details can be found in [57]. 3. Containers A couple of simple notions are needed for the statement... ]), and it is the application which has shaped the algorithm that we use to construct containers. The technical details of the list colouring and extremal graph theory applications are supplied later in §8–10. As for the arithmetical applications, we state them here in order...

Saxton, David; Thomason, Andrew

2015-01-01

276

Sharps container  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

Lee, Angelene M. (inventor)

1992-01-01

277

COST MODEL FOR LARGE URBAN SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COST SUBMODEL OF AN URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THIS MODEL REQUIRES THAT PUPIL POPULATION AND PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING ARE KNOWN. THE COST ELEMENTS ARE--(1) CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF NEW PLANTS, (2) ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF BUILDING SITES, (3) CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES OF THE PROPOSED SCHOOL, (4) PUPIL…

O'BRIEN, RICHARD J.

278

GRADUATE STUDENT TUITION ON RESEARCH AWARDS Graduate Student salaries and tuition costs are allowable costs on sponsored projects and are  

E-print Network

are allowable costs on sponsored projects and are often a required cost. Policy BACKGROUND In accordance to their research projects must include a line item in the direct cost budget proposal for tuition remission based and budgets for non-competing renewals that include salary costs for a Research Project Assistant must also

Krovi, Venkat

279

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy  

E-print Network

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy Responsible Executive Vice President of Information Technology and CIO Jay Dominick Responsible Office Office of Information Technology, Operations and Planning Endorsed by Information Security Policy Committee Contact Chief Information Security

Rowley, Clarence W.

280

Opportunity Cost of Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

Turkoglu, Recep

2004-01-01

281

7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

2011-01-01

282

7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

2013-01-01

283

7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.  

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

2014-01-01

284

7 CFR 28.909 - Costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.909 Costs. (a) Costs incident to sampling, tagging, and...

2012-01-01

285

Health promotion in nursing and cost-effectiveness.  

PubMed

Close examination of the different healthcare systems and the present economic crisis worldwide suggests that all health organizations should re-evaluate the concept of health promotion and its relationship to cost-effectiveness. When choosing the most efficient and cost-effective system, each nation's healthcare system must seriously start to implement strategies for the change. Health professions, including nursing, must change their vision of education both in academic and practice settings, to focus on health promotion and illness prevention. The key principle underlying this paper is to illustrate the importance of health promotion and cost-effectiveness being adopted by all health organizations worldwide, as well as to observe the experiences of selected counties in developing a health policy related to education in primary healthcare. The paper will include a plan adopted by the General Nursing Directorate (GND) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), which contains a health promotion policy for the nursing administrations in all governmental primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22924205

Jadelhack, Raja

2012-01-01

286

How to Cut Publications Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

287

Cost Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

288

Labor Demand and the Source of Adjustment Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most models of dynamic labor demand are written in terms of costs of adjusting employment (net adjustment costs). A few are based on the costs of hiring and firing (gross adjustment costs). This study derives several models containing both types of adjustment costs. A dynamic-programming model with quadratic adjustment costs generates an estimate of the lower bound on the fraction

Daniel S. Hamermesh

1995-01-01

289

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Policy in the United States, visit NIAAA's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow Us Share Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA Contact Us Material en Español USA.gov—Government Made Easy U.S. Department of Health ...

290

Cost Analysis of CATV Components. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study was conducted for the Office of Telecommunications Policy to determine the capital outlay and operating costs of community antenna television (CATV) systems. Six major tasks were undertaken: 1) the development of a body of technical information about CATV; 2) the production of a complete work breakdown structure; 3) a cost

Weinberg, Gary

291

Cost benefit analysis and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust of the principles enunciated in Arrow et al. is that economic benefits and costs can be a great help in organizing disparate concerns, in identifying issues, and in designing regulatory policies and individual projects with environmental impact. While this true, I must disagree with the authors that 'formal benefit-cost analysis should not be viewed as either necessary or

ANANDARUP RAY

1997-01-01

292

Cost Sharing in Public Universities: A Kenyan Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of government policy on higher education finance in Kenya, outlines parameters of an appropriate tuition policy (cost recovery, equity, equal access, affordability, student loan program objectives), and provides a model for simulating loan program outcomes. Suggests several proposed policy and administrative reforms concerning…

Rodrigues, Anthony J.; Wandiga, Shem O.

1997-01-01

293

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

294

Standard cost elements for technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

1992-01-01

295

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2010-10-01

296

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2012-10-01

297

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2013-10-01

298

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2011-10-01

299

43 CFR 12.810 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.810 Policy. (a) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic construction...

2012-10-01

300

43 CFR 12.710 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.710 Policy...act should be American-made. (d) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic...

2012-10-01

301

43 CFR 12.810 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.810 Policy. (a) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic construction...

2010-10-01

302

43 CFR 12.810 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.810 Policy. (a) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic construction...

2013-10-01

303

43 CFR 12.810 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.810 Policy. (a) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic construction...

2011-10-01

304

43 CFR 12.710 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.710 Policy...act should be American-made. (d) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic...

2010-10-01

305

43 CFR 12.710 - Policy.  

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.710 Policy...act should be American-made. (d) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic...

2014-10-01

306

43 CFR 12.710 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.710 Policy...act should be American-made. (d) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic...

2011-10-01

307

43 CFR 12.710 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Supplies § 12.710 Policy...act should be American-made. (d) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic...

2013-10-01

308

43 CFR 12.810 - Policy.  

...REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.810 Policy. (a) The Buy American Act requires that only domestic construction...

2014-10-01

309

48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.  

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

2014-10-01

310

Welfare distortions of climate change policies  

E-print Network

The economic cost of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is an important policy consideration. As public awareness of climate change consequences increase, there is increased political support for greenhouse gas emission ...

Tay, Kok Hou, 1978-

2004-01-01

311

Guide to Writing University Policy About This Manual  

E-print Network

Guide to Writing University Policy About This Manual This guide contains information about, instructions and forms. This manual is broken into two major sections for your reference: 1. Administrative Policy Format 2. Writing an Administrative Policy The policies and procedures that you write will become

Salzman, Daniel

312

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

313

CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

314

REACTOR CONTAINMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is presented of the technical and economic aspects of the ; containment problem and an accounting of the work in thae United States which is ; providing solutions to various facets of the problem. Studies show that release ; to the atmosphere of radioactive contents of reactors operating at useful power ; levels results in a public disaster

R. O. Brittan; J. C. Heap

1958-01-01

315

Solid waste management: a public policy study  

E-print Network

for the waste problem. First, it studies imperfections in the evaluation of landfill costs. It explores in some detail the magnitude of scarcity rents for landfill space. Second, it provides some insight into aspects of resource policy bearing upon the waste... for the social costs of waste disposal. Adequate consideration of these various effects together with the benefits possible through effective demand management should be made when designing waste policy. Objectives This study is aimed at laying the groundwork...

Jayawant, Mandar Prabhatkumar

1993-01-01

316

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

of 35% and developing renovated buildings to achieve savings of 25%, when compared with the Model processes to promote development and operation of sustainable buildings. #12;Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Sustainable Building Policy Policy

Haykin, Simon

317

Hedging Cattle with an LRP Policy  

E-print Network

or put option price is the cost of the respective premiums. LRP policies also have these advantages: They provide coverage in months when ? CME contracts are not available. They instill confi dence that the policy ? can/will be purchased at the rates... to Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) put options. LRP policies can be effective hedging tools for livestock produc- ers. Basics of Hedging Hedging is the process of trying to secure an attractive or acceptable price now for a com- modity...

Thompson, Bill; Bevers, Stan; Pena, Jose G.

2008-12-05

318

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library  

E-print Network

G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library Collection Management Policy 1. Introduction The University of Sussex Library contains 800,000 books, to which about 15,000 new items are added each year. The Library also provides access to over 20,000 print and online

Sussex, University of

319

Lumpy Investment and Corporate Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the impact of corporate tax policy on the economy in the presence of both convex and nonconvex capital adjustment costs in a dynamic general equilibrium model. We show that corporate tax policy generates both intensive and extensive margin effects via the channel of marginal Q. Its impact is determined largely by the strength of the extensive margin

Jianjun Miao; Pengfei Wang

320

48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the establishment of cost-plus-incentive-fee...efforts shall contain, at a minimum, the following— ...and (ii) A detailed cost/price estimate and supporting...on an incentive basis, minimum and maximum cost estimates should be...

2010-10-01

321

48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the establishment of cost-plus-incentive-fee...efforts shall contain, at a minimum, the following— ...and (ii) A detailed cost/price estimate and supporting...on an incentive basis, minimum and maximum cost estimates should be...

2011-10-01

322

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIH Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

323

Policy Handout  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NCI Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

324

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIDA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

325

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

326

Privacy Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... and interact with you. Examples include social media Web sites such as Twitter and Facebook. Your activity on these non-government sites is governed by the security and privacy policies of those sites. When you ...

327

Cost and Cost Effectiveness of Venous and Pressure Ulcer Protocols of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To meet the challenge of an aging population, providers and payors must optimize chronic wound care outcomes and contain costs. Objective: To explore the costs, outcomes, and effects of outcomes on costs of pressure and venous ulcer woundcare protocols. Design: Modeling study using outcomes from a literature review. Methods: The cost of 12 weeks of wound care was modeled

Morris D. Kerstein; Eric Gemmen; Lia van Rijswijk; Courtney H. Lyder; Tania Phillips; George Xakellis; Katharine Golden; Catherine Harrington

2001-01-01

328

Cost Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

Foreman, Phillip

2009-01-01

329

Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of

Gregory F. Nemet

2006-01-01

330

Estimated One-Year Budgets for International Graduate Students for 2014-2015 The total costs below are estimated and based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you verify funds for your  

E-print Network

, International and Development Economics, Public Affairs, Urban Affairs and Web Science (18 UNITS; 9 MONTH BUDGET are estimated and based on typical full-time course loads. U.S. immigration policies require that you verify total amount. See Additional Expenses below. Living Expenses includes rent (housing), food, and health

Galles, David

331

Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems  

PubMed Central

The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime. PMID:25383258

Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

2014-01-01

332

Repository containment  

SciTech Connect

UK Nirex Limited is concentrating its further investigations at Sellafield in Cumbria to establish the sites suitability as a safe location for a deep disposal facility for intermediate and low level radioactive waste. Good progress has been achieved in the Site Characterization Program. The emerging picture of the geology and hydrogeology continues to suggest that the site holds good promise as a potential repository location. This paper sets out the latest results from site investigations at Sellafield and reviews some possibilities for enhancing waste containment deep underground at the site.

Beale, H.; Mogg, C.

1994-12-31

333

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL Department of Biological Sciences The Policies and Procedures Manual for the Department of Biological Sciences contains information to help active research program means complex activities. This manual is intended to minimize misunderstanding

334

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

335

Essays in monetary policy conduction and its effectiveness: monetary policy rules, probability forecasting, central bank accountability, and the sacrifice ratio  

E-print Network

, Gordon and King, 1982, and Romer and Romer, 1989). But what is the cost of those monetary policy tightening policies in the real world? In an effort to measure those costs and their possible determinants, several authors have estimated the sacrifice...

Gabriel, Casillas Olvera,

2004-11-15

336

7 CFR 1709.601 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Recovery of Financial...Used for Unauthorized Purposes § 1709.601 Policy...the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) when it is...High Energy Cost Rural Communities program loan or...

2010-01-01

337

JERM model of care: an in-principle model for dental health policy.  

PubMed

Oral diseases are the most prevalent conditions in the community. Their economic burden is high and their impact on quality of life is profound. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that oral diseases have wider implications beyond the confines of the mouth. The importance of oral health has not been unnoticed by the government. The Commonwealth (Federal) government under the Howard-led Coalition in 2004 had broken tradition by placing dentistry in its universal health insurance scheme, Medicare. Known as the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme (CDDS), the program aimed to manage patients with chronic conditions as part of the Enhanced Primary Care initiative. This scheme was a landmark policy for several reasons. Besides being the first major dental policy under Medicare, the program proved to be the most expensive and controversial. Unfortunately, cost containment and problems with service provision led to its cessation in 2012 by the Gillard Labor Government. Despite being seen as a failure, the CDDS provided a unique opportunity to assess national policy in practice. By analysing the policy-relevant effects of the CDDS, important lessons can be learnt for policy development. This paper discusses these lessons and has formulated a set of principles recommended for effective oral health policy. The JERM model represents the principles of a justified, economical and research-based model of care. PMID:23927886

Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

2014-01-01

338

The structure of railroad costs and the benefits\\/costs of mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the cost conditions present in the Class I railroad industry. Recent mergers and merger proposals have brought forth questions regarding the desirability of maintaining competition in areas impacted by horizontal mergers and, similarly, the desirability of end-to-end mergers. As we consider the costs and benefits of various merger oversight policies, it is imperative that we understand the

John D. Bitzan

1999-01-01

339

Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong cost-side effects heavily constrain the policy rate response to inflation from above, so that inflation tar- geting policies may

D. Pfajfar; E. Santoro

2012-01-01

340

Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of passthrough of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong cost-side effects heavily constrain the policy rate response to inflation from above, so that inflation tar- geting policies may

D. Pfajfar; E. Santoro

2012-01-01

341

Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

2014-10-01

342

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$). Results Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. Conclusion TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease. PMID:23150901

2012-01-01

343

Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for

Robin Naidoo; Taylor H. Ricketts

2006-01-01

344

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01

345

Special Feature: Policy Theory and Policy Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles on the relationship between policy theory and the practice of policy evaluation are presented. Articles address basic theoretical issues, theories in practice, the epistemological foundations of decision technology, selection of policy analysis instrumentation, utilization of public policy analysis, and justifying policy arguments.…

Nagel, Stuart S., Ed.; Dunn, William N., Ed.

1990-01-01

346

The Next 25 Years and the National Policy on Vocational Education: Looking back to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerations for policy research include environment at the time the policy was developed, policy-making tactics, rules, regulations and maintenance of policy. Advances in research methodology provide new frameworks for data collection and analysis. These considerations can help set the agenda for national vocational education policy. (Contains

Garner, C. William

1998-01-01

347

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions  

E-print Network

the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may directly benefit that project and are generally counted as cost sharing. Direct-cost cost sharing support, and other resources as direct support for the project, as well as related indirect costs

Finley Jr., Russell L.

348

Working Healthy Participants: Earning More & Costing Less  

E-print Network

Policy Brief Making health care work H E A L T H YW O R K I N G UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MEDICAID INFRASTRUCTURE CHANGE EVALUATION PROJECT Working Healthy Participants: Earning More & Costing Less Number 12 • March 2009 By Jean P. Hall, Ph..., Graduate Research Assistants Emily Tonsfeldt, Student Assistant Kansas Health Policy Authority Mary Ellen O’Brien Wright, Senior Manager Nancy Scott, Program Manager H E A L T H YW O R K I N G ...

Hall, Jean P.; Kurth, N. K.

2009-03-01

349

Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Smear-Positive Tuberculosis by Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia: An Ancillary Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEvidence for policy- and decision-making related to the cost of delivering tuberculosis (TB) control is lacking in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of involving health extension workers (HEWs) in TB treatment under a community-based initiative in Ethiopia. This paper presents an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of data from a RCT, from which the main outcomes have already

Daniel G. Datiko; Bernt Lindtjørn; J. Jaime Miranda

2010-01-01

350

Cost-effectiveness of SSRIs: a European perspective.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Evaluating treatments for depression is of great importance given that estimates of lifetime prevalence range up to 20 per cent. The class of antidepressants known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) has been a major innovation in this area, but has also raised questions about their cost-effectiveness as a first-line treatment, due to their high price compared to other drugs. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to contribute to this debate, from within the context of European health care systems. These systems share a common set of pressures to contain costs, many of which, in Europe, are funded from public finances, unlike the US system, with its greater private sector involvement. METHODS: A range of published papers were reviewed. They all covered the general area of costs and SSRIs and were evaluated in a European context. RESULTS: Some studies have considered the possible use of SSRIs purely as a matter of accounting costs. Not surprisingly, they have argued against switching, on the grounds of high acquisition costs. However, studies based alongside clinical trials have incorporated efficacy into the analysis. They have produced cost-effectiveness or cost utility based arguments in favour of the SSRIs or other innovative, high-price antidepressants. Another approach has used retrospective analysis of real patients'experience of treatment. This has shown that, if the full costs of treatment are considered, there is an argument for switching from Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) to first-line use of SSRIs. Most economic evaluations have used decision analysis techniques and thus are subject to all the qualifications that apply to such modelling exercises. With only one exception, all the studies in this category were in favour of switching to newer antidepressants. While efficacy was generally accepted as roughly equal, the newer products were seen as less toxic and better tolerated. The consequence was savings in health care costs that outweighed the increase in drug acquisition costs. DISCUSSION: The economic evaluation papers in this review have almost all challenged the view that health care providers should regard SSRIs as 'too expensive' for widespread use. Instead, if one integrates clinical outcomes with a full range of health care costs the high-price products may be more cost-effective. Certainly that is the message from this review, although the observations must be qualified, as most of the studies considered were UK based. CONCLUSIONS: In all health care systems there are now incentives to control costs, which may act as a disincentive to the use of SSRIs, but if those responsible for drug budgets also have financial responsibilities outside the drug budget they will also have an incentive to control those areas. In this case, there is a body of evidence to suggest they would gain by switching to SSRIs. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: Decisions on favoured classes of antidepressant for first-line treatment should not be made purely on the basis of drug costs. The implications for all aspects of health spending should be included in the deliberations. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICY FORMULATION: The impact of spending across all budgets should be considered when drawing up policy on the use of new health care technologies, such as the SSRIs. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Most studies in this area have used modelling techniques, which are subject to a number of limitations. They have also used results taken from the artificial environment of clinical trials. Future research should aim to generate economic evaluations based on effectiveness amongst real patients in clinical practice. PMID:11964490

Stewart, Alan

1998-03-01

351

Unemployment, policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive increase in unemployment throughout the OECD since the early 1970s has led governments in many countries to introduce, or to expand, labour market policies such as training schemes, employment subsidies, public works or schemes of counselling or assistance in job search. Such programmes have the objective of reducing unemployment by improving the workings of the labour market. After

Richard Jackman; Christopher Pissaricies; Sawas Savouri

352

Hospitalwide medication policies and standards.  

PubMed

The development and composition of a hospitalwide medication policies and standards manual are described. Medication policies and procedures developed independently by individual hospital departments and services at a 789-bed private teaching institution created problems related to consistency, the approval process, accreditation standards, and retrievability. Therefore, a joint nursing-pharmacy task force was formed to create a master document containing medication policies and standards for the entire institution. The manual also contains departmental medication-related procedures, the formulary of approved drugs, and key drug information. Its format allows for periodic updating and ease of use by nurses, pharmacists, physicians, and other health care professionals. It meets the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requirement of a collaborative framework to ensure optimal medication-use outcomes. All medication-related procedures in individual departments must comply with the new policies and standards. A hospitalwide medication policy manual, created through multidisciplinary collaboration, made the policies and procedures consistent and more accessible and met JCAHO and other regulatory requirements. PMID:7879805

Laine, G A; Galt, M A; Langford, J A; Prout, D L; Puckett, W H

1994-12-01

353

Alcohol Industry & Policy Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

Problems., Marin I.

354

Research and Funding Policies  

Cancer.gov

Research and Funding Policies General NCI Grant Policies NIH Grants Policy and Guidance NIH Data Sharing Policy Human Subjects Protection of Human Subjects Certificates of Confidentiality Inclusion of Women and Minorities Inclusion of Children HIPAA Privacy

355

ENVIRONMENTAL PURCHASING POLICY  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL PURCHASING POLICY The University of Leeds Environmental Policy includes the following the environmental policy and, in turn, that all suppliers and contractors progressively improve their own environmental performance". In line with this the University's Environmental Purchasing Policy requires

Haase, Markus

356

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01

357

Solving the Resource Allocation Problem in a Multimodal Container Terminal as a Network  

E-print Network

the cheapest allocation to serve all vessels. [1] presents a predictive control approach based on a queuing policies for fleet management in real time, minimiz- ing fleet operating costs and vessel waiting costs. [7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Fuzzy age-dependent replacement policy and SPSA algorithm based-on fuzzy simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the performance of deteriorating systems can be achieved through the adoption of suitable maintenance policies. One of the most popular maintenance policies is the age-dependent replacement policy. In this paper, a fuzzy age- dependent replacement policy is considered in which the lifetimes of components are treated as fuzzy variables. To min- imize the long-term expected cost per

Jiashun Zhang; Ruiqing Zhao; Wansheng Tang

2008-01-01

359

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

360

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

361

48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired by DoD (deliverables and construction...

2011-10-01

362

48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired by DoD (deliverables and construction...

2013-10-01

363

Globally optimal vaccination policies in the SIR model: smoothness of the value function and  

E-print Network

and all possible side-effects and rI the unitary cost incurred by infected persons. The costGlobally optimal vaccination policies in the SIR model: smoothness of the value function focuses on optimal vaccination policies for a SIR model; the total cost of the disease is optimized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change  

E-print Network

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets://MIT.EDU/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan Sergey Paltsev, John and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus

365

48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads that— (1) Contain items in...

2010-10-01

366

Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at Low-Level Waste Burial facilities. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fifth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1994, superseding the values given in the June 1994 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1995 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01

367

A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development  

PubMed Central

Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

2014-01-01

368

Parametric Cost Deployment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

Dean, Edwin B.

1995-01-01

369

THE VALUE OF ROLLING-HORIZON POLICIES FOR RISK-AVERSE ...  

E-print Network

This robust policy is considered in Bertsimas and Thiele (2006) for inventory problems. For our .... Table 4 reports the cost statistics obtained with the different policies. ..... [30] Shapiro, A., On a time consistency concept in risk averse multi-

2011-09-17

370

The effectiveness of a simple policy for coordinating inventory control and pricing strategies  

E-print Network

We investigate the effectiveness of an (s, S, p) policy relative to an (s, S, A, p) policy in a single product, periodic review, finite horizon model with stochastic multiplicative demand and fixed ordering cost, in which ...

Sun, Zhibo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

371

Policy Report  

E-print Network

This report is aimed at UK, EU and international policy makers, as well as at industry. We hope that it can make a useful contribution and help to frame the public debate in the UK. Chapter 2 considers where we are now with GM, what is already on the market and what is happening in other countries. Chapter 3 considers what could be coming down the track, including modifications involving plants, animals, fish, insects and microorganisms

Gm Dilemmas Consumers

372

Internet Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

373

The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan  

E-print Network

This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

374

Determination of optimal LWR containment design, excluding accidents more severe than Class 8  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented concerning the restrictive effect of existing NRC requirements; definition of possible targets for containment; possible containment systems for LWR; optimization of containment design for class 3 through class 8 accidents (PWR); estimated costs of some possible containment arrangements for PWR relative to the standard dry containment system; estimated costs of BWR containment.

Cave, L.; Min, T.K.

1980-04-01

375

Purchase Card Policy Purchase Card Policy  

E-print Network

Cardholder use the Purchase Card for his/her own business expenses. The following may be purchased on behalfPurchase Card Policy Purchase Card Policy Originator name: Robin Hunt Department: Finance This policy governs the use of the University's Purchase Card. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this policy

Doran, Simon J.

376

Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both…

Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

2011-01-01

377

Policy archaeology: a new policy studies methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy archaeology is a radically different approach to policy studies in education, drawn from the post?structuralist work of Foucault, which completely reconceptualizes policy studies and, thus, significantly expands it as a critical problematic. Rather than beginning after social and education problems have emerged into social visibility, policy archaeology studies the social construction of these problems. Rather than acquiescing to the

James Joseph Scheurich

1994-01-01

378

Self Contained Temperature Actuated Control Valves  

E-print Network

There is a virtually unlimited potential for energy conservation by utilizing self contained temperature actuated valves. As steam costs soar it becomes more and more important to conserve feed stock dollars as well as the energy these dollars...

Pirkle, F.

1979-01-01

379

Policy #6400 Tuition Assistance Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy #6400 ­ Tuition Assistance Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #6400, and who is employed in a classified position. #12;Policy #6400 ­ Tuition Assistance Policy 2 Creditable

380

Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question

Hans JM van Grinsven; Ari Rabl; Theo M de Kok

2010-01-01

381

Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

Walker, W. Reed

382

Global Policy Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Policy Forum (GPF) monitors the United Nations' global policy making. Based in New York City, the internationally represented GPF has consultative status at the UN. Their visually simple, information-rich Website is divided into the following subsections: UN Financial Crisis, Security Council, Social/ Economic Policy, NGOs, Nations and States, and UN Reform. The content includes essays from the GPF staff, issue summaries, excerpts from conference presentations, news articles, and reports from the UN and other government agencies. Other special in-depth sections on the Iraq crisis, international justice, globalization, and additional timely topics are definitely worth a look. Also, check out GPF's What's New section to keep on top of current UN issues -- for instance, this week's What's New contains critical articles and essays on middle east peace negotiation, sanctions against Iraq, and the rumblings of a possible second genocide in Rwanda, among other topics. In addition, the GPF site offers a publications list, numerous links, an electronic mailing list, a search engine, an index, and a virtual visitors center.

383

Cut Costs! Not Corners! The Helping Hand Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help employees in the hotel and catering industry to cut costs without cutting corners by showing more concern to cost containment measures and increasing personal productivity. The first three sections discuss the importance of the individual employee's behavior to overall cost containment in the workplace, and different…

Nash, Claire

384

Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?  

E-print Network

agency x Tracking of committed cost share is required to meet federal regulations (OMB A-110) x UCSD has has been met #12;2 Cost Sharing System Components and Functions x Search Locate award with cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data

Tsien, Roger Y.

385

Production costing with explicit recognition of unit duty cycle effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel probabilistic production costing algorithm called the OPCOST method is presented which recognizes the stochastic nature of the duty cycle of a unit and models the generation system with explicit consideration of such operating characteristics as the system generation reserve policy, unit start-up delay, unit start-up failure, unit commitment policy, and unit outage postponability. The OPCOST method has been

Shoukat H. Ansari; A. D. Patton

1990-01-01

386

Avoided cost standard under PURPA  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

1983-04-01

387

Thoreau's Pencil and Baumol's Cost Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows perfectly well that tuitions have outpaced inflation every year since Homer was a pup. Tuition sticker shock, that ineluctable annual rise in school costs, causes the nation sporadic fits of hand wringing, belt tightening, and taxpayer revolt. Most troubling of all, it has inspired an industry of policy wonks, efficiency experts,…

Buxton, Bruce E.

2004-01-01

388

Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

Baker, Keith

1983-01-01

389

HIV COST AND SERVICES UTILIZATION STUDY (HCSUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) is the first major research effort to collect information on a nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV infection. HCSUS is funded through a cooperative agreement between the Agency for Health Care Policy Resea...

390

Is Subsidizing Inefficient Bidders Actually Costly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

widespread practice, particularly in public-sector procurement and dispersal, is to sub- sidize a class of competitors believed to be at an economic disadvantage. Arguments for such policies vary, but they typically assume that benefits of subsidization must be large enough to outweigh a presumed economic cost of the subsidy. When disadvantaged com- petitors compete in auctions, the subsidy serves to

Michael H. Rothkopf; Ronald M. Harstad; Yuhong Fu

2003-01-01

391

Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

1998-01-01

392

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

NONE

1998-02-01

393

Nonpoint source groundwater pollution and endogenous regulatory policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory suggests that in the absence of transaction costs, pollution externalities can be mitigated efficiently by charging polluters a tax equal to the marginal social cost of pollution. All other regulatory mechanisms therefore may be no more efficient than a marginal cost pollution tax. We developed a stylized model of dynamic groundwater pollution without transaction costs to examine alternate policies. Using mitigation cost, tax burden, and excess burden we compared the relative efficiency of each tax policy under competitive market conditions. For groundwater nitrate pollution in a Midwestern farming region, results show that the least cost policy is a constant tax on the polluting input, followed by a variable tax on the polluting input and a pollution tax.

Lee, Donna J.; Kim, C. S.

2002-12-01

394

Cost Benefit Analysis--Trade and Technical Education. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains introductory material on cost-benefit analysis, reviews of cost benefit studies by Andrew J. Corazzini and by Jacob J. Kaufman and others, a discussion of the basic concepts of cost-benefit analysis, and a discussion of two possible approaches to cost-benefit analysis of vocational education: (1) vocational versus academic…

Reinhart, Bruce; Blomgren, Glen H.

395

Doing More Harm than Good? A Commentary on the Politics of Cost Adjustments for Wage Variation in State School Finance Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the design and application of cost adjustments in state school finance policies intended to compensate local public school districts for differences in the costs of recruiting and retaining teachers. Broadly speaking, the state policy objective for including cost adjustments to state aid for such things as teacher cost

Baker, Bruce D.

2008-01-01

396

Expenses Policy Staff Expenses Policy  

E-print Network

on University business, they may apply for an Expenses Visa card. If approved, the card may be used off campus for specific travel, subsistence or appropriate business entertainment costs. Applications for this card. Misuse of the card, will be subject to disciplinary action. 3.3 Business Travel 3.3.1 UK travel The most

Doran, Simon J.

397

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

398

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-print Network

forecasting. A cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare the average cost for achieving a certainA Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies

399

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

400

CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY  

E-print Network

CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY POLICY 8.6 Volume: 8, Risk Management and Public Safety Chapter/environment.cfm University Policy Office: www.policy.cornell.edu 1 #12;Cornell Policy Library Volume: 8, Risk Management Library Volume: 8, Risk Management and Public Safety Responsible Executive: Associate Vice President

Davis, H. Floyd

401

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01

402

Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

403

Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative Consensus resulting from the 2000 elections has disregarded and even ridiculed scientific experts, their analyses, and their data. The first step in rebuilding an effective policy consensus based on sound science is recognizing the phase transition that privileges conservative policy solutions which minimize science and elevate economic principles.

McCurdy, K. M.

2007-12-01

404

40 CFR 1.39 - Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.  

...of Agency programs, policies, standards, and regulations, including the estimation of abatement costs; research into developing new benefits models; benefit-cost analyses; impact assessments; intermediate and long-range...

2014-07-01

405

40 CFR 1.39 - Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Agency programs, policies, standards, and regulations, including the estimation of abatement costs; research into developing new benefits models; benefit-cost analyses; impact assessments; intermediate and long-range...

2012-07-01

406

40 CFR 1.39 - Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Agency programs, policies, standards, and regulations, including the estimation of abatement costs; research into developing new benefits models; benefit-cost analyses; impact assessments; intermediate and long-range...

2013-07-01

407

40 CFR 1.39 - Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Agency programs, policies, standards, and regulations, including the estimation of abatement costs; research into developing new benefits models; benefit-cost analyses; impact assessments; intermediate and long-range...

2011-07-01

408

Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV).

Patterson, R.E.; Eng, C.; Horowitz, S.F.; Gorlin, R.; Goldstein, S.R.

1984-08-01

409

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12

410

Very Fast Containment of Scanning Worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer worms — malicious, self-propagating pro- grams — represent a significant threat to large networks. One possible defense, containment, seeks to limit a worm's spread by isolating it in a small subsection of the network. In this work we develop containment algorithms suitable for deployment in high-speed, low-cost network hardware. We show that these techniques can stop a scanning host

Nicholas Weaver; Stuart Staniford; Vern Paxson

2004-01-01

411

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

Carleton University

412

Climate Change Policy: What Do the Models Tell Us?  

E-print Network

Very little. A plethora of integrated assessment models (IAMs) have been constructed and used to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC) and evaluate alternative abatement policies. These models have crucial flaws that ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

413

Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to  

E-print Network

the costs both of solar technology and of grid integration, so enabling solar deployment nationwide for PV. We discuss existing energy-policy mixes in those countries leading the development of solar power...................................................................................................................... 8 3.3. GREEN JOBS ...........................................................................ERROR

414

No Child Left Behind: Costs and Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes cost and benefits of No Child Left Behind Act based on projected costs for 10 states. Finds that state and federal funding falls far short of that required to make No Child Left Behind a reality. (Contains 43 references.) (PKP)

Mathis, William J.

2003-01-01

415

The net cost of biofuels in Thailand—An economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are expected to represent a growing portion of liquid fuel consumption in Thailand due to environmental and social considerations in conjunction with policy goals supporting their domestic production and consumption. This paper reviews the economic costs associated with biofuel policy implementation in Thailand in the short term target year of 2011. Internal (production) and external (environmental, social, etc.) costs

David R. Bell; Thapat Silalertruksa; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Richard Kamens

2011-01-01

416

47 CFR 27.1174 - Termination of Cost-Sharing Obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and...2175-2180 MHz) in which the relocated FMS link was located terminates. AWS or MSS...Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation From the...

2011-10-01

417

47 CFR 27.1174 - Termination of Cost-Sharing Obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and...2175-2180 MHz) in which the relocated FMS link was located terminates. AWS or MSS...Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation From the...

2010-10-01

418

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

419

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...savings in the single-supplier competitive system based...calculated for a single-supplier competitive system...and reasonable for the development and implementation of...implement the single-supplier competitive system...effective operation of the program. Examples of...

2010-01-01

420

Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly divided into two…

Baker, Bruce D.

2006-01-01

421

Costs and energy efficiency of a dual-mode system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life cycle costs of a dual mode system for both public and semiprivate ownership are examined, and the costs in terms of levelized required revenue per passenger mile are presented. The energy use of the dual mode vehicle is analyzed by means of a detailed vehicle simulation program for the control policy and guideway system. Several different propulsion systems are considered.

Heft, R. C.

1977-01-01

422

Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza A: balancing conflicting policy objectives.  

PubMed

Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R(0) and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the impact of an influenza pandemic. PMID:21347316

Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Klinkenberg, Don; Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M

2011-01-01

423

76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specifications for quality, production, handling...adds an unnecessary cost. The cost of official...allow exporters of high quality specialty grain shipped...containers to ship high quality specialty grain without the cost burden of...

2011-07-29

424

Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs  

E-print Network

Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi· Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length · Set-up time, etc. · Personal time

Colton, Jonathan S.

425

KSC Construction Cost Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

Brown, J. A.

1983-01-01

426

Evaluation of hospital medication inventory policies.  

PubMed

As supply chain costs constitute a large portion of hospitals' operating expenses and with $27.7 billion spent by the US hospitals on drugs alone in 2009, improving medication inventory management provides a great opportunity to decrease the cost of healthcare. This study investigates different management approaches for a system consisting of one central storage location, the main pharmacy, and multiple dispensing machines located in each department. Each medication has a specific unit cost, availability from suppliers, criticality level, and expiration date. Event-driven simulation is used to evaluate the performance of several inventory policies based on the total cost and patient safety (service level) under various arrangements of the system defined by the number of drugs and departments, and drugs' criticality, availability, and expiration levels. Our results show that policies that incorporate drug characteristics in ordering decisions can address the tradeoff between patient safety and cost. Indeed, this study shows that such policies can result in higher patient safety and lower overall cost when compared to traditional approaches. Additional insights from this study allow for better understanding of the medication inventory system's dynamics and suggest several directions for future research in this topic. Findings of this study can be applied to help hospital pharmacies with managing their inventory. PMID:24014095

Gebicki, Marek; Mooney, Ed; Chen, Shi-Jie Gary; Mazur, Lukasz M

2014-09-01

427

Policy Title: Policy Number: Real Estate  

E-print Network

Policy Title: Policy Number: Real Estate Transactions and Management 2.3.4 Category: Financial(s): Planning + Design + Construction University of Cincinnati Real Estate Transactions and Management Policy aspects of real estate transactions and management, including the delegation of responsibility for all

Papautsky, Ian

428

Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement  

E-print Network

Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement St. Anne's College has a commitment to food safety The fundamental aim of this Food Safety Policy is to minimize the risk of contamination from harmful bacteria of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Procedures (HACCP) must be followed to ensure that food safety

429

Policy & Procedure Academic Staff Promotion Policy 2014  

E-print Network

is effective from 01 January 2014. Preamble: If the University is to achieve its strategic goals then, or the last promotion within, the University, whichever is more recent; 1.3 Staff in all Academic Work ProfilePage 1 Policy & Procedure Academic Staff Promotion Policy 2014 January 01 Purpose: This Policy

430

Decision Making for Bioterror Preparedness: Examples from Smallpox Vaccination Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision making for bioterror preparedness involves estimating the consequences of different attack scenarios paired with\\u000a alternative preparedness and response policies, and selecting an appropriate strategy to minimize deaths, disease, and costs\\u000a to society. Smallpox vaccination policy provides an excellent case study of these concepts in action. We review both the smallpox\\u000a vaccination policy debate in the United States circa 2002,

Edward H. Kaplan; Lawrence M. Wein

431

The Economics Of Alcohol Abuse And Alcohol-Control Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consump- tion and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that

Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

2002-01-01

432

Climate Policy Memo #1 Cap and Trade v Taxes  

E-print Network

Policy Memo #1 Cap and Trade v Taxes ing carbon or expanding carbon sinks. Both require and a carbon tax are two distinct policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each approach the environment at lower than expected costs, and is politically more attractive. Those supporting a carbon tax

Kammen, Daniel M.

433

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY COURSE BUY-OUT POLICY  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY COURSE BUY-OUT POLICY August 1, 2014 PREAMBLE. As a department, we view the concept of teaching buy-outs as a justifiable means of furthering the collective goals of the department. At the same time, we recognize that a buy- out policy has costs as well as benefits; buy-outs could

434

Effects of behavioral response and vaccination policy on epidemic  

E-print Network

Effects of behavioral response and vaccination policy on epidemic spreading - an approach based to achieve widespread vaccination coverage so as to prevent epidemic outbreak? The answer largely depends of vaccination is offset, and free-subsidy policy in which donees are randomly selected and vaccinated at no cost

Zhang, Junshan

435

Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

1972-01-01

436

An optimal anti-drug law enforcement policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a model for a drug law enforcement policy whose objective is harm reduction, including the net cost of law enforcement, social harm and surplus of agents. We consider a vertically organized distribution system with two levels, traffickers and retailers. The two questions concern which type of sellers have to be prosecuted and which law enforcement policy should

Sylvaine Poret

2009-01-01

437

Policy 6320 Sexual Harassment Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy 6320 ­ Sexual Harassment Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #6320 SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Responsible Oversight Executive: Assistant Vice President, Office/contractor from contracting with the Commonwealth. Sexual Harassment - Unwelcome and unsolicited conduct

438

Price and cost estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

Stewart, R. D.

1979-01-01

439

Meso-Economic Filters Along the Policy Chain: Understanding the Links Between Policy Reforms and Rural Poverty in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper clarifies the “meso-economy” concept by defining it as comprising both the market mechanisms and administrative procedures through which policy decisions and market signals trickle down to the household level. Three main bodies of literature are reviewed: the policy-oriented literature in which the meso-economy was initially considered; the transaction cost approach analyzing market and policy failures, and the “micro-economy”

Luis Llamb??; Luis Llambi

2002-01-01

440

Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions  

SciTech Connect

State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

2012-10-01

441

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

442

The Superconducting Supercollider and US Science Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reasons for the Superconducting Supercollider's (SSC's) termination include significant changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects originating with management reforms introduced decades earlier. In the 1980s, the government insisted on inclusion of elements of these reforms in the SSC's management contract, including increased demands for accountability, additional liability for contractors, and sanctions for infractions. The SSC's planners could not have opted out of the reforms, which were by then becoming part of all large publicly funded projects. Once these reforms were in place, management mistakes in the SSC's planning and construction became highly visible, leading to termination of the machine. This episode contains two key lessons about science policy. One is that the momentum of the government's management reforms was unstoppable, and its impact on large scientific facilities and projects could not be reversed. The other is that specific measures such as cost and schedule-tracking systems to provide measures of program performance and impact were also inevitable; large scientific projects needed new parameters of accountability and transparency in what can be called the Principle of Assurance.

Marburger, John H.

2014-06-01

443

Building a secondary containment system  

SciTech Connect

Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

Broder, M.F.

1994-10-01

444

Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.  

PubMed

The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

2013-05-01

445

A Characterization of Piecemeal Second Best Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives conditions under which prices may be set proportional to margin cost in some sectors of the economy when fixed distortions exist in other sectors. Two simple neo-classical economies are considered -- one with fixed producer prices and one with variable producer prices. In the former case, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for piecemeal policy in terms

Robin Boadway; Richard Harris

1975-01-01

446

Computer Search Service Group. Policy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy manual explains computer search services at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst, University Library. The service is available to anyone willing to assume the cost of the services and able to schedule time for both the search strategy interview and the search itself. Requests for computer services are not accepted over the phone or…

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Univ. Libraries.

447

Layoff Policies Could Diminish Teacher Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that with the poor economy endangering more novice teachers' jobs, researchers and policymakers have begun to question the human-capital costs of "last hired, first fired" layoff policies. Such layoffs, those experts argue, do not consider teacher effectiveness, meaning that teachers who make vital contributions to school…

Sawchuk, Stephen

2009-01-01

448

Agricultural cooperative insurance: Policy advantages & growth routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract-- Agricultural insurance cooperatives (hereafter abbreviated AIC) have great policy advantages in operating agriculture insurance. Development of agricultural cooperative insurance involves series of difficulties, such as lag in legislation, weak in taxation, lack of effective risk diversification mechanisms, low familiarity and acceptance of farmers, higher costs of organizational problems. Therefore, it is urgent to

Xie Wangsong; Jiang Chen

2011-01-01

449

Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

Ruhm, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

450

Center for Science & Technology Policy Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Science and Technology Policy Research (CSTPR) was created in 2001 and their goal is "to improve how science and technology policies address societal needs, through research, education and service." Part of this goal is accomplished via their well-designed site, which features policy papers, news updates, and highlights from recent conferences and seminars sponsored under their direction. Visitors can click on the "CSTPR Multimedia Gallery", found on the left hand side of the homepage, to view presentations such as "Environmental Human Rights" and "Loving Science to Death: Problems at the Intersection of Science and Policy". Moving on, visitors shouldn't miss their newsletter, "Ogmius". Each edition contains highlights of recent research, news about Center events, and policy commentary. Scholars won't want to miss the "Publications" area, which features information about recently published books by Center affiliates and listings of their work in professional journals.

451

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

452

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

453

Graduate School POLICY STUDIES  

E-print Network

Graduate School Graduate School POLICY STUDIES Doctor of Philosophy Certificate clemson university offers graduate studies leading to a Phd degree and a certificate in Policy Studies. Graduate work in policy studies enables a student to attain a high degree of specialized competence in policy analysis

Stuart, Steven J.

454

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

455

Foreign Policy In Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Foreign Policy In Focus (FPIF), a cooperative project of two independent foreign policy research and analysis institutions--the Interhemispheric Resource Center and the Institute for Policy Studies, aims to provide the public and policy-makers with "recommendations for a more responsible and visionary US foreign policy." The FPIF project publishes a series of In Focus policy briefs as well as an electronic newsletter entitled The Progressive Response, which summarizes the In Focus briefs and informs readers about new developments in policy issues. Recent In Focus briefs include "US Russia Security Relations," "Aid to Russia," "Drug Certification," and "Democratizing the Trade Debate."

456

Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

2002-01-01

457

Health Care Politics and Policy  

PubMed Central

This article is a condensed and edited version of a speech delivered to The Business of Medicine: A Course for Physician Leaders symposium presented by Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Medical Directors Leadership Council at Yale University in November 2012 and drawn from Politics, Health, and Health Care: Selected Essays by Theodore R. Marmor and Rudolf Klein [1]. It faithfully reflects the major argument delivered, but it does not include the typical range of citations in a journal article. The material presented here reflects more than 40 years of teaching a course variously described as Political Analysis and Management, Policy and Political Analysis, and The Politics of Policy. The aim of all of these efforts is to inform audiences about the necessity of understanding political conflict in any arena, not least of which is the complex and costly world of medical care. PMID:24058315

Marmor, Theodore Richard

2013-01-01

458

Tax Policy Center: TaxVox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brookings Institution offers comment on topics such as financial restructuring, international relations, and metropolitan policy. Its Tax Policy Center is one of its thematic centers that provides access to white papers, commentaries, data sets and other resources related to this complex subject. This in-house blog, TaxVox, offers up thoughtful musings on the wide world of taxes that will be of note to policy makers and journalists, as well as the general public. Visitors can scan through these posts at their leisure, which include "Taxing Bitcoin" and "Time to Park the Commuter Tax Subsidy." Additionally, the site contains a search engine and a list of Recent Entries.

2014-01-21

459

75 FR 36089 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Announcement...As part of its Payment System Risk Policy, the...posting rules for a new same-day automated...contained in these new posting rules...Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk The...

2010-06-24

460

78 FR 64197 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Livermore, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in...counterparts for a U.S.-Japan Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable on...commitments contained in the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency...

2013-10-28

461

40 CFR 761.135 - Effect of compliance with this policy and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.135 Effect of compliance with...material containing 50 ppm or greater PCBs is considered improper PCB disposal, this policy establishes requirements...

2010-07-01

462

Review of Australian health economic evaluation – 245 interventions: what can we say about cost effectiveness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing body of published cost-utility analyses of health interventions which we sought to draw together to inform research and policy. METHODS: To achieve consistency in costing base and policy context, study scope was limited to Australian-based cost-effectiveness analyses. Through a comprehensive literature review we identified 245 health care interventions that met our study criteria. RESULTS: The

Kim Dalziel; Leonie Segal; Duncan Mortimer

2008-01-01

463

Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'credit channel' theory of monetary policy transmission holds that informational frictions in credit markets worsen during tight- money periods. The resulting increase in the external finance premium--the difference in cost between internal and external funds-- enhances the effects of monetary policy on the real economy. We document the responses of GDP and its components to monetary policy shocks and

Ben S. Bernanke; Mark Gertler

1995-01-01

464

Optimization of China’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policy: A Markovian Decision Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is in the process of building Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) as a utility for its oil supply security. In this paper we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model to optimize China’s stockpile policy with the objective of minimizing the discounted SPR policy costs over a finite time horizon. It is shown that a deterministic and Markovian policy is optimal

Ziming Zhu; Liwen Liu; Jiamin Wang

465

Tuition fee policies in a comparative perspective: Theoretical and political rationales  

Microsoft Academic Search

As governments are increasingly turning to cost sharing in order to meet the growing demand for, and decreasing government investment in, public higher education, the choice among different tuition fee policies becomes of great importance. Tuition fee policies and the financial assistance policies that accompany them are critical both for the very considerable revenue at stake and for the potential

Pamela N. Marcucci; D. Bruce Johnstone

2007-01-01

466

Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

2010-01-01

467

Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

2009-01-01

468

Tuition Fee Policies in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Political Rationales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As governments are increasingly turning to cost sharing in order to meet the growing demand for, and decreasing government investment in, public higher education, the choice among different tuition fee policies becomes of great importance. Tuition fee policies and the financial assistance policies that accompany them are critical both for the very…

Marcucci, Pamela N.; Johnstone, D. Bruce

2007-01-01

469

Accounting for the cost of scaling-up health interventions.  

PubMed

Recent studies such as the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health have highlighted the need for expanding the coverage of services for HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, immunisations and other diseases. In order for policy makers to plan for these changes, they need to analyse the change in costs when interventions are 'scaled-up' to cover greater percentages of the population. Previous studies suggest that applying current unit costs to an entire population can misconstrue the true costs of an intervention. This study presents the methodology used in WHO-CHOICE's generalised cost effectiveness analysis, which includes non-linear cost functions for health centres, transportation and supervision costs, as well as the presence of fixed costs of establishing a health infrastructure. Results show changing marginal costs as predicted by economic theory. PMID:15386683

Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob

2004-11-01

470

Student Representation System Policy Student Representation System Policy  

E-print Network

Policy Student Representation System Policy 2013-14 Student Representation System Policy UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM STUDENT REPRESENTATION SYSTEM POLICY #12;Policy Student Representation System Policy 2013-14 Student Representation System Policy Index of points 1. Introduction 2. Purpose 3. Core Principles 4

Birmingham, University of

471

Systems Engineering Cost Estimation  

E-print Network

1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost behind such approaches, giving examples. 3 Cost Estimation Associating estimates of effort & time

Bryson, Joanna J.

472

Research on Optimal Policy of Single-Period Inventory Management with Two Suppliers  

PubMed Central

We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy. PMID:25506067

Sui, Lihui; Zhu, Peipei

2014-01-01

473

Research on optimal policy of single-period inventory management with two suppliers.  

PubMed

We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy. PMID:25506067

Yang, Baimei; Sui, Lihui; Zhu, Peipei

2014-01-01

474

Estimating airline operating costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

Maddalon, D. V.

1978-01-01

475

A National Science Policy at the Turning Point.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Foundation Academic Research Facilities Modernization Program, enacted in 1988, is a significant and promising first step toward comprehensive federal response to the costly and pressing need for research facilities, but is insufficient. Provision for facility modernization, modernization of federal costing policies, and tax…

Crowley, John C.

1989-01-01

476

Science Policy: Behind the Scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I served nine weeks as an intern in the House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology. For the majority of the summer I served in the Research and Science Education Subcommittee, researching, among other things, cyber-enabled learning, cybersecurity, and alternate energy costs. My internship was created and funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for the Arts and Sciences, and as the only merit-based science committee intern, I felt a great responsibility to prove my worth in the Committee. Immersed in government and science policy, I feel very learned and prepared to participate in these fields.

Barnett, Travis

2010-10-01

477

SPS cost considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent solar power satellite (SPS) system definition studies have emphasized cost estimation for the operational phase of an SPS program, in order to assess economic practicality of SPS. A cost analysis approach is described. Cost results for a silicon photovoltaic SPS are reported, showing SPS costs from $1700 to $2700 per kilowatt and busbar power costs from 3 cents to 7 cents per kilowatt-hour. Rationales behind the estimates are discussed.

Woodcock, G. R.

1978-01-01

478

OOTW COST TOOLS  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01

479

78 FR 78366 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability AGENCY...Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances.'' The United States...compendial drug products that contain a salt. Under the new policy, drug names...

2013-12-26

480

Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

Jones, John; Redding, Adam

2007-01-01

481

National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.  

PubMed

The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP. PMID:23912732

Jayakrishnan, T

2013-01-01

482

The Policy Machine for Security Policy Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different access control policies and models have been deve l- oped to suit a variety of goals; these include Role-Based Access Control, One-directional Information Flow, Chinese Wall, Clark-Wilson, N-person Control, and DAC, in addition to more informal ad hoc policies. While e ach of these policies has a particular area of strength, the notational differences b e- tween these

Vincent C. Hu; Deborah A. Frincke; David F. Ferraiolo

2001-01-01

483

Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for

Sebastian Schneeweiss

2007-01-01

484

10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) An eligible dwelling unit may be weatherized without regard to the limitations contained in § 440.18 (e)(2) or § 440.21(b) from funds designated by the grantee for carrying out low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities...

2010-01-01

485

The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

Pines, Marion, Ed.

486

Legal thoughts on the implications of cost-reducing guidelines for the quality of health care.  

PubMed

Health care expenditures in European countries are increasing. Many cost containment mechanisms have been developed, one of which is the introduction of clinical practice guidelines in binding legislation. In developing recent patients' rights laws, many legislators refer to practice guidelines when specifying the right to quality in health care. The courts often follow this example. Initially, practice guidelines were used to improve the quality of care. Recently, their potential to reduce costs is being discovered by policy makers and compliance with the cost-controlling guidelines is mandatory and subject to financial sanctions. This article will question the impact of the 'new generation' guidelines aimed at reducing health care costs and their impact on the quality of care, in particular. The authors will analyse whether a physician, in case of a conflict with a patient, who claims that his right to quality care has been violated, can defend himself in court by stating that he complied with 'financially' inspired guidelines, especially now that non-compliance with these guidelines is sanctioned. PMID:16740337

Callens, Stefaan; Volbragt, Ilse; Nys, Herman

2007-03-01

487

The cost of breast cancer recurrences.  

PubMed Central

Information about the costs of recurrent breast cancer is potentially important for targeting cost containment strategies and analysing the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control programmes. We estimated these costs by abstracting health service and consumable usage data from the medical histories of 128 patients, and valuing each of the resources used. Resource usage and costs were summarised by regarding the recurrence as a series of episodes which were categorised into five anatomical site-based groups according to the following hierarchy: visceral, central nervous system (CNS), bone, local and other. Hospital visits and investigations comprised 78% of total costs for all episodes combined, and there were significant differences between the site-based groups in the frequency of hospital visits and most investigations. Total costs were most accurately described by separate linear regression models for each group, with the natural logarithm of the cost of the episode as the dependent variable, and predictor variables including the duration of the episode, duration squared, duration cubed and a variable indicating whether the episode was fatal. Visceral and CNS episodes were associated with higher costs than the other groups and were more likely to be shorter and fatal. A fatal recurrence of duration 15.7 months (the median for our sample) was predicted to cost $10,575 (Aus + 1988; or 4,877 pounds). Reduction of the substantial costs of recurrent breast cancer is likely to be a sizable economic benefit of adjuvant systemic therapy and mammographic screening. We did not identify any major opportunities for cost containment during the management of recurrences. PMID:1558803

Hurley, S. F.; Huggins, R. M.; Snyder, R. D.; Bishop, J. F.

1992-01-01

488

Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and Métis health policy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? Methods The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. Results The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Conclusion Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue. PMID:24380077

Lavoie, Josée G.

2013-01-01

489

Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Costs of Production, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains 121 tables that estimate the costs of production of various commodities on United States farms in 1986. The report first assesses costs and returns on a per-unit basis, such as one acre or one animal, under three sections of a budget: cash receipts, cash expenses, and economic costs. The budgets are based on national…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

490

Current and projected annual direct costs of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Concern over the cost of screening for asymptomatic prostate cancer by means of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has played an important role in PSA screening policy. However, little is known about the true costs of current PSA screening in Canada and how costs may change in the future. Methods: The authors performed a cost identification study from the perspective

Murray D. Krahn; Isra G. Levy

491

Indirect land use change and biofuel policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

2009-09-01

492

The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to study the costs of achieving pollution reductions under a range of environmental policy instruments in a second-best setting with pre-existing factor taxes. We compare the costs and efficiency impacts of emissions taxes, emissions quotas, fuels taxes, performance standards, and mandated technologies, and explore how costs change with the magnitude of

Lawrence H. Goulder; Ian W. H. Parry; Roberton C. Williams III; Dallas Burtraw

1998-01-01

493

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise Masahiro Sugiyama  

E-print Network

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise by Masahiro Sugiyama Bachelor of Science in Earth and Policy Program #12;2 (This page is intentionally made blank) #12;3 Estimating the economic cost of sea To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change

494

Application of Aerojet: In pursuit of coverage for environmental investigation costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aerojet?General Corp. v. Transport Indemnity Co., 17 Cal. 4th 38 (1997) (hereinafter Aerojet), the California Supreme Court confirmed that the costs of conducting environmental investigation activities designed to avoid or at least minimize liability may be covered as defense costs under comprehensive general liability (CGL) policies and set forth certain basic parameters for insureds’ recovery of environmental investigation costs.

Clyde M. Hettrick Esq; Whitney E. Stein Esq

1999-01-01

495

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS, VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE AND CULTURE: CHALLENGES FOR REGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies three aspects of human live valuation and its relation with and cost benefit analysis in administrative regulation. More precisely, the author addresses the problem of valuation of a statistical human life and its relation with cost benefit analysis in mortality risk reduction policies. First, studies the debate about Valuation of a Statistical Human Life (VSL) and Cost-Benefit

Carlos Pablo MÆrquez Escobar

2007-01-01

496

CO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands Justin David Anderson  

E-print Network

, alternative to fossil fuels. The results are also dependent, to a lesser extent, on international CO2 policyCO2 Mitigation Costs for Canada and the Alberta Oil Sands By Justin David Anderson Bachelor. Impact and cost assessments aim to alleviate some of these difficulties by attempting to treat the costs

497

Prevailing Wage Regulations and School Construction Costs: Evidence from British Columbia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of prevailing wage laws on school construction costs, using final cost data from six British Columbia school districts. When controlling for factors such as construction business cycle, number of competitors, and school type, there was no significant unit cost change following the Skill Development and Fair Wage Policy Act.…

Bilginsoy, Cihan; Philips, Peter

2000-01-01

498

Immediate colposcopy or cytological surveillance for women with mild dyskaryosis: a cost effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aim of the study was to compare the cost effectiveness of immediate diagnosis and treatment of mild dyskaryosis compared with the usual policy of cytological surveillance. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was carried out alongside a randomized clinical trial. Results Immediate diagnosis and treatment increased total costs by 50 per cent from £54.42 per treated woman (95 per

G. Flannelly; M. K. Campbell; P. Meldrum; D. J. Torgerson; A. Templeton; H. C. Kitchener

2010-01-01

499

Patent and Copyright Policy I. Patent Policy  

E-print Network

K-1 04/2013 Appendix K Patent and Copyright Policy I. Patent Policy A. Functions of Patents Illinois Institute of Technology recognizes that patents on inventions arising from university research serve several important functions. A patent: 1. ensures that the potential scientific and social

Heller, Barbara

500

Policy Title: Policy Number: Employee Reward,  

E-print Network

to the individual. The $100 limit for non-cash rewards/bonuses applies to the total value of all non-cash rewardsPolicy Title: Policy Number: Employee Reward, Recognition and Acknowledgement 3.3.1 Category: Human Resources Payroll Operations Tax Compliance University of Cincinnati Employee Reward Recognition

Papautsky, Ian