Science.gov

Sample records for cost containment policies

  1. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Conclusion Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure “to cure and not to care”, did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost containment are not successful; rather, a bottom-up approach based on consensus among professionals should become the preferred option. PMID:26635482

  2. Cracking the Books: Policy Measures to Contain Textbook Costs. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    As parents and students struggle with increasing college costs, one issue receiving considerable attention over the past several years has been the rising price of textbooks. The question of whether a relationship exists between textbook pricing and the overall cost of college has attracted notice from consumer interest groups and, subsequently,…

  3. State Strategies to Contain Costs in the Early Intervention Program: Policy and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows states to create family-centered developmental services for infants and toddlers (birth-3 yrs) with delays. Part C Early Intervention (EI) programs have grown enormously in size and cost since becoming operational in 1994. In this article, the author describes strategies that states…

  4. Defensive medicine, cost containment, and reform.

    PubMed

    Hermer, Laura D; Brody, Howard

    2010-05-01

    The role of defensive medicine in driving up health care costs is hotly contended. Physicians and health policy experts in particular tend to have sharply divergent views on the subject. Physicians argue that defensive medicine is a significant driver of health care cost inflation. Policy analysts, on the other hand, observe that malpractice reform, by itself, will probably not do much to reduce costs. We argue that both answers are incomplete. Ultimately, malpractice reform is a necessary but insufficient component of medical cost containment. The evidence suggests that defensive medicine accounts for a small but non-negligible fraction of health care costs. Yet the traditional medical malpractice reforms that many physicians desire will not assuage the various pressures that lead providers to overprescribe and overtreat. These reforms may, nevertheless, be necessary to persuade physicians to accept necessary changes in their practice patterns as part of the larger changes to the health care payment and delivery systems that cost containment requires. PMID:20143176

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  6. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-print Network

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, ...

  7. The Netherlands: the struggle between universalism and cost containment.

    PubMed

    Da Roit, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    The Dutch home-care system is embedded in a universalistic and comparatively generous long-term care (LTC) scheme that was introduced in the late 1960s. The tension between guaranteeing access to good-quality care and controlling costs has been a key issue since the inception of the LTC scheme. The article addresses the question of how these two distinct objectives have been dealt with in the political debate and by policy-making in the past 20 years. It does so by looking at existing studies, official statistics and policy documents. First, the analysis shows that home care - the development of which results from the de-institutionalisation policies pursued since the 1980s - has shifted from being considered a cost-containment measure to representing a battlefield on cost containment. Second, the article argues that the issue of cost containment is a leitmotif in the development of home care that has been accompanied and legitimised over time by distinct normative views. On the one hand, traditional forms of cost containment - namely direct budgetary controls - have been predicated on the need to ensure the financial sustainability of the system and its universalistic features. On the other hand, the discourse and practice of cost containment has, since the early 1990s, also been accompanied by normative views that structurally challenge universalism through the introduction of new ideas about the responsibility for LTC risks, resource allocation and regulation of the system. PMID:22260416

  8. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  9. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  10. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable. PMID:10961833

  11. Trends in Managed Care Cost Containment: An Analysis of the Managed Care Backlash.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    Consumer dissatisfaction with the quality and limitations of managed health care led to rapid disenrollment from managed care plans and demands for regulation between 1998 and 2003. Managed care organizations, particularly health maintenance organizations (HMOs), now face quality and coverage mandates that restrict them from using their most aggressive strategies for managing costs. This paper examines the effect of this backlash on managed care's ability to contain costs among short-term, non-federal hospitals between 1998 and 2008. The results show that the impact of increased HMO penetration on inpatient costs reversed over the study period, but HMOs were still effective at containing outpatient costs. These findings have important policy implications for understanding the continuing role that HMOs should play in cost containment policy and for understanding how effective the latest wave of cost containment institutions may perform in heavily regulated markets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25302480

  12. Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports 

    E-print Network

    Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due...

  13. Quantifying the cost uncertainty of climate stabilization policies

    E-print Network

    Franck, Travis Read

    2005-01-01

    Climate change researchers are often asked to evaluate potential economic effects of climate stabilization policies. Policy costs are particularly important because policymakers use a cost/benefit framework to analyze ...

  14. Cost-effective critical care: cost containment and rationing.

    PubMed

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2012-08-01

    Rationing occurs whenever the demand for a good or service exceeds its supply. Therefore rationing is an inevitable occurrence in medicine and in critical care where the potential demand for effective medical care will exceed supply. Although there are many strategies to allocate medical resources one that is often considered is based on cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to estimate the value of individual medical treatments in terms of dollars and outcomes. Allocation of medical treatments based on cost-effectiveness analysis requires valid estimates of both the costs and the effectiveness of treatments as well as some overarching body with the authority to enforce allocation based on these analyses. Limitations of allocation based on cost-effectiveness analysis in critical care include difficulties in estimating marginal costs of critical care treatments, limited evidence for any treatments with efficacy, and the ethical principle of rescuing identifiable lives in imminent risk of death. The prospect of a pandemic influenza-like infection has stimulated a lot of interest in hypothetical rationing strategies for the intensive care unit, none of which has been tested in actual pandemic scenarios. Given the burden of critical illness and the wide variation in resources a global approach to rationing is untenable. The article concludes with a vision of the future of allocation in critical care. PMID:22875388

  15. Energy management system helps container manufacturer contain costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-10

    In the highly competitive cardboard box business, where a penny apiece can mean the difference between getting and losing an order, St. Hart Container Corp., Placentia, CA, has gained a competitive edge by reducing its overhead with an energy management system (EMS). The Orange County firm, a division of Sunclipse, Inc., fabricates boxes to customer specifications from cardboard stock. The company is saving $2000 a month in electricity since it installed a Gereral Electric ECON-S programmable energy management system with telephone override capability late in 1984 to control lighting, air conditioning, and nine large blower and compressor motors. Installed by Hughes Electrical Management Systems (HEMS), City of Industry, CA, the $18,000 system paid for itself in only 9 mo. It initially controlled just 32 points and will be expanded to control the conveyors in the 60,000 sq ft plant. The primary savings, HEMS president Bob Hughes noted, accrue not from controlling lighting, but from automatically limiting the operating time of large blower motors that draw cardboard scrap from six fabrication areas on the shop floor up 2 ft dia funnels into a roof-mounted silo. The scrap is later compacted, baled, and sold for recycling.

  16. Containing the costs of the EMF problem

    SciTech Connect

    Florig, H.K. )

    1992-07-24

    The uncertainty surrounding possible health effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF's) is fueling a costly controversy over the safety of high voltage transmission lines, neighborhood power-distribution circuits, home and office wiring, elelctrical appliances, and office equipment. Mounting public concerns are driven primarily by a number of epidemiological studies that show increased risks of cancer among populations thought to experience unusual patterns of EMF exposure. Because the scientific evidence on EMF bioeffects is both complicated and contradictory, regulatory bodies and scientific standard-setting organizations have been unable to reach consensus on prescriptive approaches to EMF risk management. Although scientific opinion varies widely about whether the EMF-cancer connection is real, public apprehension over potential EMF hazards has prompted a host of political, legal, and market reactions.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Education Policies: Extending Cost-Benefit Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jon R.; Ammentorp, William

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic analysis offers a comprehensive view of the cost benefit and cost effective dimensions of policy problems. It also provides the computational power to investigate the long term effects of policy decisions on the flow of resources in organizations and government agencies. (Author/MV)

  18. FAYETTEVILLE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 310.1 Direct Cost Policy

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    .g., cost share, service or recharge centers, etc. Costs incurred for the same purpose, in similar objective that is used to accumulate indirect costs or service center costs that are subsequently allocated direct and indirect costs to university cost centers. It is the responsibility of Principal Investigators

  19. Chemical Container and Glassware Disposal Policy

    E-print Network

    Lance, Veronica P.

    , Corrosive, Reactive and Toxic Chemicals Disposal of Unbroken Chemical Containers Follow all hazardous waste bins removed contact EH&S by submitting a Chemical Waste Pick Up Request. Proper Handling Wear lab and minimize hazardous waste. Columbia University joined 35 other colleges and universities in the Chem

  20. Probabilistic Cost Enforcement of Security Policies Yannis Mallios1

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Lujo

    Probabilistic Cost Enforcement of Security Policies Yannis Mallios1 , Lujo Bauer1 , Dilsun Kaynar1- lated the overall cost of enforcement based on costs as- signed to the en- forcement actions performed, UK Abstract. This paper presents a formal framework for run-time enforcement mechanisms, or monitors

  1. Health care cost-containment regulation: prospects and an alternative.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, C C

    1977-01-01

    Regulation of the health care system to achieve appropriate containment of overall costs is characterized by Professor Havighurst as requiring public officials to engage, directly or indirectly, in the rationing of medical services. This rationing function is seen by the author as peculiarly difficult for political institutions to perform, given the public's expectations and the symbolic importance of health care. An effort on the part of regulators to shift the rationing burden to providers is detected, as is a trend toward increasingly arbitrary regulation, designed to minimize regulators' confrontations with sensitive issues. Irrationality and ignorance are found to plague regulatory decision making on health-related issues, even though it is the consumer who is usually thought to suffer most from these disabilities. The author argues that consumer choice under some cost constraints is a preferable mechanism for allocating resources because it better reflects individuals' subjective preferences, has a greater capacity for facing trade-offs realistically, and can better contend with professional dominance of the resource allocation process. In view of the unlikelihood of regulation that is both sensitive and effective in containing costs, the author proposes that we rely primarily on consumer incentives to reform the system. A simple change in the tax treatment of health insurance or other health plan premiums, to strengthen consumers' interest in cost containment while also subsidizing needy consumers, is advocated. Steps to improve opportunities for innovation in cost containment by health insurers, HMOs, and other actors are outlined briefly. PMID:415601

  2. Why managed care has failed to contain health costs.

    PubMed

    Enthoven, A C

    1993-01-01

    Much evidence points to the fact that managed care plans (health maintenance organizations and preferred provider insurance) reduce costs and offer value for money. Yet they apparently have not helped to slow national health expenditures. One explanation is that the practices of purchasers (including government and employers), the tax laws, and other market imperfections have reduced the demand for real cost containment, depriving managed care plans of an adequate incentive to cut cost and price. These market conditions can and should be corrected; the managed competition proposal being discussed at the national level is a comprehensive plan for doing so. PMID:8244240

  3. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP...

  4. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda...Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  5. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

  6. Uncertainty analysis of the cost of climate policies

    E-print Network

    Cossa, Paul F. (Paul Francois), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Every climate change policy issue is inherently limited by two questions: what are exactly the consequences of climate change for our lives? How much will it cost to deal with them? Almost twelve years after the parties ...

  7. Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long. There are alternative definitions of cost and the evolution of technologies and preferences is a complex and highly, some are more useful." To be more useful, The Energy Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1. CopyrightQ2003

  8. The Fiscal Costs of Immigration: Analytical and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; McCarthy, Kevin

    Recent debate about immigration policy has focused on whether or not immigrants' contributions to public revenues cover the costs of the public services they use, and if not, should the federal government reimburse state and local governments for those net costs. Findings of recent studies have varied widely, because of differences in data…

  9. Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

    1983-01-01

    The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be applied logically to the high-cost patient and particularly toward the complex patient. The complex patient is especially suited for consideration, since it is postulated that these patients are endemic to all general hospitals and to all clinical services. Strategies to be developed should include: 1) a managerial system in which physicians have an incentive to contain costs, 2) an online data system, 3) an accurate, efficient way to identify prospective high-cost and complex patients and, 4) awareness by physicians, patients, and society that less expensive modes of diagnosis and therapy are an appropriate response to rationed health resources. PMID:6412640

  10. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation...

  11. Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute congestion is considered one of the most significant transportation problems. The capacity of a road depends, Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, 13th Edition, Institute of Transportation Studies, UBC (Berkeley; www

  12. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund...Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

  13. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... implementing Executive Order No. 12866 (October 4, 1993, 58 FR 51735). OMB policy guidelines are issued under... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting...

  14. Priorities of health policy: cost shifting or population health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jeff RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is an edited version of an invited paper submitted to the Australian Health Care Summit on 17–19 August 2003. It comments upon the policies which have dominated recent debate and contrasts their importance with the importance of five issues which have received relatively little attention. Methods Policy is usually a response to identified problems and the paper examines the nature and size of the problems which heave led to recent policy initiatives. These are contrasted with the magnitude and potential cost effectiveness policies to address the problems in five areas of comparative neglect. Results It is argued that recent and proposed changes to the financing and delivery of health services in Australia have focused upon issues of relatively minor significance while failing to address adequately major inequities and system deficiencies. Conclusion There is a need for an independent review of the health system with the terms of reference focusing attention upon large system-wide failures. PMID:15679895

  15. Cost containment and quality of care in Japan: is there a trade-off?

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ikegami, Naoki; Shibuya, Kenji; Izumida, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Haruko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Acuin, Jose M; Reich, Michael R

    2011-09-24

    Japan's health indices such as life expectancy at birth are among the best in the world. However, at 8·5% the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health is 20th among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries in 2008 and half as much as that in the USA. Costs have been contained by the nationally uniform fee schedule, in which the global revision rate is set first and item-by-item revisions are then made. Although the structural and process dimensions of quality seem to be poor, the characteristics of the health-care system are primarily attributable to how physicians and hospitals have developed in the country, and not to the cost-containment policy. However, outcomes such as postsurgical mortality rates are as good as those reported for other developed countries. Japan's basic policy has been a combination of tight control of the conditions of payment, but a laissez-faire approach to how services are delivered; this combination has led to a scarcity of professional governance and accountability. In view of the structural problems facing the health-care system, the balance should be shifted towards increased freedom of payment conditions by simplification of reimbursement rules, but tightened control of service delivery by strengthening of regional health planning, both of which should be supported through public monitoring of providers' performance. Japan's experience of good health and low cost suggests that the priority in health policy should initially be improvement of access and prevention of impoverishment from health care, after which efficiency and quality of services should then be pursued. PMID:21885098

  16. Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Tilmans, Sebastien; Russel, Kory; Sklar, Rachel; Page, Leah; Kramer, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum,(1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities. PMID:26097288

  17. 75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...for managing cost containment interventions at the systems level; (2) gather supplemental materials designed to provide concrete and practical strategies for planning, implementing, and sustaining cost containment interventions (The intent is to...

  18. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe. PMID:24703855

  19. Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasica, Edward R.

    Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

  20. A dynamic model for costing disaster mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Altay, Nezih; Prasad, Sameer; Tata, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    The optimal level of investment in mitigation strategies is usually difficult to ascertain in the context of disaster planning. This research develops a model to provide such direction by relying on cost of quality literature. This paper begins by introducing a static approach inspired by Joseph M. Juran's cost of quality management model (Juran, 1951) to demonstrate the non-linear trade-offs in disaster management expenditure. Next it presents a dynamic model that includes the impact of dynamic interactions of the changing level of risk, the cost of living, and the learning/investments that may alter over time. It illustrates that there is an optimal point that minimises the total cost of disaster management, and that this optimal point moves as governments learn from experience or as states get richer. It is hoped that the propositions contained herein will help policymakers to plan, evaluate, and justify voluntary disaster mitigation expenditures. PMID:23601023

  1. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn. PMID:17408494

  2. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers). PMID:26258438

  3. In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other published information, this policy prevails.

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Page | 1 In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other taken outside Columbia University, Barnard College or Teachers College. In the event;Page | 2 In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other published

  4. In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other published information, this policy prevails.

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Page | 1 In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other Tuition Rate Program does not cover courses taken outside Columbia University. In the event;Page | 2 In the event that the information contained in this policy conflicts with any other published

  5. Cost Sharing in Higher Education in Kenya: Examining the Undesired Policy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngolovoi, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Cost sharing in higher education is a policy that comes from the United States. The policy advocates that costs of higher education should be shared between the government, parents, students and/or donor organizations. Proponents of the policy (such as the World Bank) have over the years been advocating for its implementation in African countries.…

  6. Financial Policy Manual 1106.7 PLANT ASSETS -INTERNAL USE SOFTWARE COSTS

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    This policy applies to all schools and centers that incur software costs. POLICY 1. Internal-use software externally. 2. The external cost of purchased internal use software applications in excess of $5-effective basis, the software must be totally expensed. 3. External costs incurred under a software agreement

  7. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...ID FEMA-2010-0022] Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation...accepting comments on a draft Environmental Planning and Historic...

  8. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  9. Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control

    E-print Network

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control G. Ferrari-Trecate1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 #12;Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy 213 algebraic graph of the followers violate the containment property. This strategy also explains the title "Laplacian Sheep" since

  10. Cost containment strategies by private hospitals: their effectiveness, importance, and use.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, R W; Parsons, S; Bernard, B

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a study that identifies cost issues and strategies in a highly competitive hospital service area. Specifically, the study seeks to determine the most important cost issues that are currently facing hospitals and to examine the effectiveness of various cost containment strategies. Additionally, the study examines the extent of agreement among hospitals regarding the effectiveness of cost containment strategies. The current study focused on all private hospitals in the Baton Rouge service area. A high degree of consensus was found regarding the importance of cost issues in the service area. One of the more significant findings was the strong agreement that physician involvement (in the category of physician use of resources) was the most important cost issue facing hospitals in the Baton Rouge service area. The group of cost containment strategies with the greatest success related to the issue of budgeting and patient accounts. In particular, electronic billing and the use of collection agencies were favored. PMID:8777703

  11. Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.

    PubMed

    Martin, B G

    1985-12-01

    In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has previously been predicted. The patient's length of stay in the hospital has already been reduced. There will continue to be decreases in laboratory utilization and consumption of resources necessary to provide laboratory services. Cost competitiveness coupled with the laboratory's need for increased productivity will further expand savings. To summarize, the laboratory manager in the mid-1980's will have the following goals. To provide quality, cost-efficient, and timely laboratory services. To sustain and nurture the growth of the clinical laboratory profession as dictated by the needs of society and new scientific trends and discoveries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085189

  12. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  13. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  14. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  15. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  16. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Average cost of a health insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  17. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  18. Cost-Sensitive Classification Methods for the Detection of Smuggled Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers 

    E-print Network

    Webster, Jennifer B

    2013-07-09

    special nuclear material being smuggled inside large cargo crates while balancing the cost of invasively searching suspect containers against the risk of al lowing radioactive material to escape detection? This may be phrased as a classification...

  19. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  20. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  1. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-12-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. PMID:7998650

  2. 100% container scanning : security policy implications for global supply chains

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Allison C. (Allison Christine)

    2008-01-01

    On August 3, 2007, President George Bush signed into law HR1 the "Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007." The 9/11 Act requires 100% scanning of US-bound containers at foreign seaports by 2012 ...

  3. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stamp(s) and create a profile of the typical cost characteristics of the comparable stamp(s) (e.g... determination of comparable stamps may change during or after the sales period, and different comparable stamp(s... to package comparable stamps; (2) Printing costs of flyers and special receipts; (3) Costs of...

  4. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stamp(s) and create a profile of the typical cost characteristics of the comparable stamp(s) (e.g... determination of comparable stamps may change during or after the sales period, and different comparable stamp(s... to package comparable stamps; (2) Printing costs of flyers and special receipts; (3) Costs of...

  5. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stamp(s) and create a profile of the typical cost characteristics of the comparable stamp(s) (e.g... determination of comparable stamps may change during or after the sales period, and different comparable stamp(s... to package comparable stamps; (2) Printing costs of flyers and special receipts; (3) Costs of...

  6. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stamp(s) and create a profile of the typical cost characteristics of the comparable stamp(s) (e.g... determination of comparable stamps may change during or after the sales period, and different comparable stamp(s... to package comparable stamps; (2) Printing costs of flyers and special receipts; (3) Costs of...

  7. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  8. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  9. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  10. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  11. 42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

  12. Decreasing spine implant costs and inter-physician cost variation: the impact of programme of cost containment on implant expenditure in spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Oren, J; Hutzler, L H; Hunter, T; Errico, T; Zuckerman, J; Bosco, J

    2015-08-01

    The demand for spinal surgery and its costs have both risen over the past decade. In 2008 the aggregate hospital bill for surgical care of all spinal procedures was reported to be $33.9 billion. One key driver of rising costs is spinal implants. In 2011 our institution implemented a cost containment programme for spinal implants which was designed to reduce the prices of individual spinal implants and to reduce the inter-surgeon variation in implant costs. Between February 2012 and January 2013, our spinal surgeons performed 1493 spinal procedures using implants from eight different vendors. By applying market analysis and implant cost data from the previous year, we established references prices for each individual type of spinal implant, regardless of vendor, who were required to meet these unit prices. We found that despite the complexity of spinal surgery and the initial reluctance of vendors to reduce prices, significant savings were made to the medical centre. PMID:26224828

  13. Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case. PMID:24755942

  14. U.S. pharmacy policy: a public health perspective on safety and cost.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Lal, Lincy S; Glasser, Jay H

    2009-01-01

    A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and "cost-sharing" do not. Switching medications to over-the-counter (OTC) status, pill splitting, and importing medication from abroad are poor substitutes for authentic public health pharmacy policy. Where policy changes yield savings, public health insists that these savings should be used to increase access and improve population health. In the future, pharmacy policies may emphasize public health accountability more than individual liberty because of potential cost savings to society. Fear of litigation, as an informal mechanism of focusing manufacturer's attention on safety, is inefficient; public health pharmacy policy regarding safety looks toward a more active regulatory role on the part of government. A case study of direct-to-consumer advertising illustrates the complexity of public health pharmacy policy. PMID:19821192

  15. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 16451658 Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    2006-01-01

    Energy Policy 34 (2006) 1645­1658 Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy$ Peter H. Kobosa,Ã, Jon D. Ericksonb , Thomas E. Drennena,c a Office online 22 January 2005 Abstract This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy

  16. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY...--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery Directorate..., temporary, and contract employees who perform emergency work (Categories A and B). DATES: Comments must...

  17. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

  18. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs

    E-print Network

    Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

  20. The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries. PMID:24864386

  1. Cost-Share Policy for Wake Forest University, Reynolda Campus This policy will serve as a reference for faculty who are preparing a proposal that

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    7/1/09 Cost-Share Policy for Wake Forest University, Reynolda Campus Background This policy will serve as a reference for faculty who are preparing a proposal that includes funds for cost share, or matching. Cost share can be provided in the form of a cash match, third-party contributions, and in

  2. Course Redesign Improves Learning and Reduces Cost. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    American Colleges and Universities are continuously challenged to increase access to higher education, improve the quality of student learning, and control or reduce the rising cost of instruction. These challenges are interrelated. As tuition costs continue to rise, access is curtailed. When high failure rates prevent students from successfully…

  3. New Center Applies Cost-Benefit Analysis to Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, at Teachers College, Columbia University. Launched last year by a pair of economists, the center specializes in calculating and comparing the long- and short-term costs--and probable payoffs--of different educational strategies that promise to improve students' lives. Studies…

  4. Financial Policy Manual 1106.4 PLANT ASSETS PLANT CONSTRUCTION COSTS

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 1106.4 PLANT ASSETS ­ PLANT CONSTRUCTION COSTS Effective: December and capitalized to the appropriate plant asset account. Refer to Capital Project Accounting Procedures. `http costs will be capitalized as buildings and fixed equipment and depreciated in accordance

  5. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled...contract employees who perform emergency work (Categories A and B). DATES:...

  6. Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

    Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

  7. Improving air pollution control policy in China-A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy. PMID:26595398

  8. Induced technical change and the cost of climate policy

    E-print Network

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    This paper investigates the potential for a carbon tax to induce R&D, and for the consequent induced technical change (ITC) to lower the macroeconomic cost of abating carbon emissions. ITC is modelled within a general ...

  9. The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States

    E-print Network

    Morris, Jennifer F.

    We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

  10. Health cost containment: what it will mean for workers and local economies.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C E

    1998-01-01

    After decades of rapid growth, the rate of increase in health services spending appears to be moderating. Although a slowdown in health expenditure growth would release resources for other uses in the economy, concerns have been raised about the effects of a spending slowdown on health workers and regional economies. Based on projections carried out by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the health reform debate and on state health sector employment data, the author concludes that health workers may experience costly dislocation as health spending growth slows, and some regions may be more affected than others. However, the appropriate response is a general economic policy supporting economic growth and full employment policy with regard to health expenditure growth cannot be held hostage to concerns about employment effects. Images p205-a p212-a PMID:9633864

  11. A cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Lavee, Doron

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a full cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel. We examine all cost elements of the program - storage, collection, and treatment costs of empty containers, and all potential benefits - savings in alternative treatment costs (waste collection and landfill disposal), cleaner public spaces, reduction of landfill volumes, energy-savings externalities associated with use of recycled materials, and creation of new workplaces. A wide variety of data resources is employed, and some of the critical issues are examined via several approaches. The main finding of the paper is that the deposit-refund program is clearly economically worthwhile. The paper contributes to the growing body of literature on deposit-refund programs by its complete and detailed analysis of all relevant factors of such a program, and also specifically in its analysis of the savings in alternative waste management costs. This analysis reveals greater savings than are usually assumed, and thus shows the deposit-refund program to be highly efficient.

  12. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... established in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35383) (FRL-8877-9). In that document, EPA sought... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN 2070-ZA11 Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing...

  13. Deposits on single use containers--a social cost-benefit analysis of the Danish deposit system for single use drink containers.

    PubMed

    Vigsø, Dorte

    2004-12-01

    This study compares the social costs and environmental benefits of collecting single use drink containers through the Danish deposit system with the social costs and benefits of treating the containers as part of the municipal waste-disposal system. It focuses on single use polyethylene terphthalate and glass bottles, and steel and aluminium cans. The social costs of handling these containers in the deposit system includes the costs of collection, sorting, and transportation, adjusted against the profit from selling the collected material for recycling. The social cost of incinerating these containers as municipal waste consists of the expenses for the collection, incineration of the containers and disposal of ashes. If there is any income from energy generation accompanying incineration, this is adjusted against costs. The main environmental effects related to both strategies are quantified, valuated and included in the assessment. The results of the analysis show that there are significant social costs compared to the benefits connected with the new deposit system. This is true for all four types of single use drink containers examined. All in all, Denmark bears a net social cost of 6.7 to 8.1 million Euros per year compared to a baseline of incineration with energy recovery. PMID:15666450

  14. Risk informed resource allocation policy: safety can save costs.

    PubMed

    Pasman, H J

    2000-01-01

    During economic doldrums, decision making on investments for safety is even more difficult than it already is when funds are abundant. This paper attempts to offer some guidance. After stating the present challenge to prevention of losses in the process industries, the systematic approach of quantified risk assessment is briefly reviewed and improvements in the methodology are mentioned. In addition, attention is given to the use of a risk matrix to survey a plant and to derive a plan of action. Subsequently, the reduction of risk is reviewed. Measures for prevention, protection, and mitigation are discussed. The organization of safety has become at least as important as technical safety of equipment and standards. It is reflected in the introduction of a safety management system. Furthermore, the design process in a pro-active approach is described and the concept of inherent safety is briefly addressed. The concept of Layer of Protection Analysis is explained and also the reason why it is relevant to provide a cost-benefit analysis. Finally, after comments regarding the cost of accidents, the basics of costing and profitability are summarized and a way is suggested to apply this approach to risk-reducing measures. An example is provided on how a selection can be made from a number of alternatives. PMID:10677670

  15. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  16. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-10-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: investing in health systems.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Kreuser, J.; Whang, W.

    1994-01-01

    The role of health systems infrastructure in studies of cost-effectiveness analysis and health resource allocation is discussed, and previous health sector cost-effectiveness analyses are cited. Two substantial difficulties concerning the nature of health system costs and the policy choices are presented. First, the issue of health system infrastructure can be addressed by use of computer models such as the Health Resource Allocation Model (HRAM) developed at Harvard, which integrates cost-effectiveness and burden of disease data. It was found that a model which allows for expansion in health infrastructure yields nearly 40% more total DALYs for a hypothetical sub-Saharan African country than a model which neglects infrastructure expansion. Widespread use of cost-effectiveness databases for resource allocations in the health sector will require the cost-effectiveness analyses shift from reporting costs to reporting production functions. Second, three distinct policy questions can be treated using these tools, each necessitating its own inputs and constraints: allocations when given a fixed budget and health infrastructure, or when given resources for marginal expansion, or when given a politically constrained situation of expanding resources. Confusion concerning which question is being addressed must be avoided through development of a consistent and rigorous approach to using cost-effectiveness data for informing resource allocations. PMID:7923545

  18. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  19. Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects with Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2009-01-01

    The common reporting of effect sizes has been an important advance in education research in recent years. However, the benchmarks used to interpret the size of these effects--as small, medium, and large--do little to inform educational administration and policy making because they do not account for program costs. The author proposes an approach…

  20. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost?benefit assessment of climate policies

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.; Narita, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Most current cost?benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost?benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost?benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost?benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Education Interventions in Poor Countries. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David K.; Ghosh, Arkadipta

    2008-01-01

    Poor countries need development programs that are both effective and cost-effective. To assess effectiveness, researchers are increasingly using randomized trials (or quasi-experimental methods that imitate randomized trials), which provide a clear picture of which outcomes are attributable to the program being evaluated. This "Policy Insight"…

  2. Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    Energy Policy 31 (2003) 459­481 The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union Laurent L increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91

  3. Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalew, Sewale Abate

    2013-01-01

    Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

  4. Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition. PMID:3083133

  5. GO Grant Policy 2014-2015 The policy contained herein is the result of the state regulations SFA No. S2013-01.

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    GO Grant Policy 2014-2015 The policy contained herein is the result of the state regulations SFA No. S2013-01. Eligibility Requirements To be eligible for a Louisiana Go Grant, a student must: Be a Louisiana Resident;* File a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); Receive a federal Pell grant

  6. The influence of budget-holding on cost containment and work procedures in primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Nirel, N; Boussidan, S; Zmora, I; Elhayany, A; Regev, S

    1996-07-01

    In 1990, Kupat Holim Clalit (KHC), Israel's largest health insurance fund, initiated a demonstration program for transforming primary care clinics in the Negev district of southern Israel into autonomous budget-holding units. Four program components were implemented in nine clinics: allocation of a fixed budget; expansion of day-to-day decision-making authority; establishment of a computerized information system for producing monthly reports on expenditure; and provision of incentives for budgetary responsibility (returning part of a clinic's savings for use at its discretion). The demonstration program had three objectives: budgetary control and cost containment; improvement of services and increased client satisfaction; and improvement in the motivation, initiative, responsibility, and satisfaction of clinic staff. This report presents interim findings from an evaluation study of the budget-holding program conducted in 1991-1992. The report considers three questions: How was the demonstration program implemented? Did work procedures in the clinics change following implementation of the program? How did budget-holding influence levels of expenditure in the clinics? The program components were implemented gradually in the nine clinics during 1991-1992. Not all, however, were fully implemented. The staff survey conducted after implementation of the program identified a number of changes in the work procedures of the clinics: heightened cost consciousness, discussion of the monthly expenditure reports, emphasis on the need to economize, and attempts to economize. Data on expenditure in the budget-holding clinics were analyzed and compared to data on expenditure in primary care clinics in the Negev district as a whole. It was found that while the average quarterly per capita expenses in the district increased in real terms from 1991-1992, expenses in the budget-holding clinics remained stable or, in some cases, actually decreased. While we cannot conclude categorically from the existing data that the budget-holding program is responsible for the unique patterns of expenditure in the nine clinics, we can confidently state that work procedures in the nine clinics changed following implementation of the program and that the clinics achieved cost containment relative to the district as a whole. Findings from the various research tools support one another, and reinforce the conclusion that budget-holding can potentially promote cost containment. PMID:8844922

  7. Shared decision-making as a cost-containment strategy: US physician reactions from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Tilburt, Jon C; Wynia, Matthew K; Montori, Victor M; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Egginton, Jason S; Sheeler, Robert D; Liebow, Mark; Humeniuk, Katherine M; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess US physicians’ attitudes towards using shared decision-making (SDM) to achieve cost containment. Design Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting US medical practice. Participants 3897 physicians were randomly selected from the AMA Physician Masterfile. Of these, 2556 completed the survey. Main outcome measures Level of enthusiasm for “Promoting better conversations with patients as a means of lowering healthcare costs”; degree of agreement with “Decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in my practice” and agreement with “should promoting SDM be legislated to control overall healthcare costs”. Results Of 2556 respondents (response rate (RR) 65%), two-thirds (67%) were ‘very enthusiastic’ about promoting SDM as a means of reducing healthcare costs. Most (70%) agreed decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in their practice, but only 24% agreed with legislating SDM to control costs. Compared with physicians with billing-only compensation, respondents with salary compensation were more likely to strongly agree that decision support tools showing costs would be helpful (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Primary care physicians (vs surgeons, OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) expressed more enthusiasm for SDM being legislated as a means to address healthcare costs. Conclusions Most US physicians express enthusiasm about using SDM to help contain costs. They believe decision support tools that show costs would be useful. Few agree that SDM should be legislated as a means to control healthcare costs. PMID:24430879

  8. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p < 0.001). Overall, the mean total costs of patients with and without CLABSI were € 18,241 and € 9,087, respectively (p < 0.001). On average, the extra cost for drugs was € 843 (p < 0.001), for supplies € 133 (p = 0.116), for lab tests € 171 (p < 0.001), and for specialist visits € 15 (p = 0.019). The mean extra cost for hospital stay (overhead) was € 7,180 (p < 0.001). The closed infusion container was a dominant strategy. It resulted in lower CLABSI rates (3.5 vs. 8.2 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days for closed vs. open infusion container) without any significant difference in total production costs. The higher acquisition cost of the closed infusion container was offset by savings incurred in other phases of production, especially waste management. Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets. PMID:20459753

  9. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  10. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  11. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included. PMID:26178782

  12. Costs of genetic testing: Supporting Brazilian Public Policies for the incorporating of molecular diagnostic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Schlatter, Rosane Paixão; Matte, Ursula; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Koehler-Santos, Patrícia; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies and describes the operating costs associated with the molecular diagnosis of diseases, such as hereditary cancer. To approximate the costs associated with these tests, data informed by Standard Operating Procedures for various techniques was collected from hospital software and a survey of market prices. Costs were established for four scenarios of capacity utilization to represent the possibility of suboptimal use in research laboratories. Cost description was based on a single site. The results show that only one technique was not impacted by rising costs due to underutilized capacity. Several common techniques were considerably more expensive at 30% capacity, including polymerase chain reaction (180%), microsatellite instability analysis (181%), gene rearrangement analysis by multiplex ligation probe amplification (412%), non-labeled sequencing (173%), and quantitation of nucleic acids (169%). These findings should be relevant for the definition of public policies and suggest that investment of public funds in the establishment of centralized diagnostic research centers would reduce costs to the Public Health System. PMID:26500437

  13. Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Michael R.

    This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate ...

  14. Cost Containment in Higher Education: Issues and Recommendations. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 5. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Walter A.; Gamber, Cayo

    This book provides an overview of strategies colleges and universities can use to help contain costs. It also describes a range of strategies that have been used to contain costs and refine budgeting systems in an era of low returns on investment and greater competition. The volume synthesizes research on internal cost containment strategies…

  15. Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future. PMID:23374611

  16. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan

    2006-09-15

    Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

  17. The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era

    PubMed Central

    Stone, David H.; Horvath, Alexander J.; Goodney, Philip P.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Nolan, Brian W.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Zwolak, Robert M.; Powell, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Results Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were —$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR. market share. Conclusions EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. PMID:24139984

  18. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  19. Multifunctional polymer composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel low-cost carbonaceous fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongchao

    Advanced polymer nanocomposites/composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel carbonaceous fillers were processed and evaluated for the multifunctional purposes. To prepare the high performance conformal coating materials for microelectronic industries, epoxy resin was incorporated with zirconium tungstate (ZrW 2O8) nanoparticles synthesized from hydrothermal reaction to alleviate the significant thermal expansion behavior. Three types of ZrW 2O8 at different loading levels were selected to study their effect of physical (morphology, particle size, surface area, etc.) and thermal (thermal expansivity) properties on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy resin incorporated by Type-1 ZrW2O8 exhibited the overall excellent performance. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets were non-covalently encapsulated by a versatile and mussel-adhesive protein polydopamine through the strong pi-pi* interaction. The high-temperature thermoset bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) reinforced with homogenously dispersed h-BN at different volume fractions and functionalities were processed to investigate their effect on thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Different theoretical and empirical models were also successfully applied for the prediction of CTE, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of h-BN/BECy nanocomposites. On the basis of the improvement in dimensional stability, the enhancement in storage modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions, associated with the increment in thermal conductivity without deterioration of thermal stability, glassy transition temperature and dielectric properties, pristine h-BN/BECy nanocomposites exhibited the prospective application in microelectronic packaging industry. Polydopamine functionalized h-BN significantly increased the dielectric constant of cyanate ester at lower frequency region. Asphaltene, a carbonaceous by-product of crude oil extraction, was studied as a novel and low-cost additives in polymer matrices. Two kinds of asphaltene were extracted and investigated using different analytical techniques for the comparison of their elemental composition, molecular structure, and morphology. One asphaltene underwent the successful molecular functionalization via two silane coupling agents prior to the preparation of epoxy composites. Another asphaltene was incorporated into poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) copolymers (SBS) for the fabrication of hybrid composites using melt compounding technique. Based on it intrinsic rigid molecular structure, the reinforcement effect of asphaltene was recognized to be more pronounced in a softer matrix (SBS) than the rigid one (epoxy).

  20. POLICY 4213-CHEMICAL SAFETY NOTE: Much of the information contained in this Chemical Safety section is duplicated from the

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    POLICY 4213- CHEMICAL SAFETY NOTE: Much of the information contained in this Chemical Safety section is duplicated from the "Chemical Hygiene Plan for Laboratories" in the Louisiana Tech University working with chemicals. REQULATORY BASIS FOR RULES GOVERNING THE SAFE USE OF CHEMICALS A number of federal

  1. Between Too Little and Too Late: Political Opportunity Costs in Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Vandenbergh, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Discussion of climate policy has focused almost exclusively on comprehensive regulatory instruments to price emissions with tradeable permits or emissions taxes. More recently, a number of proposals have been advanced to abandon comprehensive emissions pricing in favor of focusing exclusively on clean-energy innovation. Neither approach adequately accounts for the combination of timing and scale. Advocates of emissions pricing are persuasive that this is the most likely way to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at desirable levels. However, as innovation advocates point out, the political climate is inhospitable to such sweeping regulations and it is unlikely that comprehensive carbon pricing can be enacted and implemented in the next decade. However, clean-energy innovation by itself is a high-stakes gamble that may fail to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize GHG concentrations, and may reduce support for the kind of comprehensive pricing measures that could stabilize GHG concentrations.We propose that analysis of climate policies take account of the opportunity costs associated with the process of enacting a proposed policy: If one measure is much more controversial than another, how does the difference in time necessary to persuade the public and legislators to adopt them affect their ultimate impact? As General Patton is reputed to have said, "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later." Similarly, it is important to consider whether adopting one measure would build or erode support for complementary ones. As an example, we consider the largely neglected role of nonregulatory measures, such as private governance and household-level behavior change, as examples of actions that could buy time by producing rapid, although modest, impacts without eroding support for more comprehensive measures later on.

  2. [Consequences of the judicialization of health policies: the cost of medicines for mucopolysaccharidosis].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzes expenditures backed by court rulings to ensure the public provision of medicines for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a rare disease that requires high-cost drugs not covered by the Brazilian government's policy for pharmaceutical care and which have disputed clinical efficacy. The methodology included a review of files from 196 court rulings ordering the Brazilian Ministry of Health to provide the medicines, in addition to Ministry of Health administrative records. According to the analysis, the "judicialization" of the health system subjected the Brazilian government to a monopoly in the distribution of medicines and consequently the loss of its capacity to manage drug purchases. The study also indicates that the imposition of immediate, individualized purchases prevents obtaining economies of scale with planned procurement of larger amounts of the medication, besides causing logistic difficulties in controlling the amounts consumed and stored. In conclusion, litigation results from the lack of a clear policy in the health system for rare diseases in general, thereby leading to excessive expenditures for MPS treatment. PMID:22415180

  3. Reference test review by pathology house staff: a cost-containment strategy for the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elliot; Bennett, Betsy D

    2002-01-01

    In this era of fiscal responsibility in health care, new strategies are evolving to decrease costs in the clinical laboratory. At our institution, one such strategy implemented in 1994 consisted of the review by pathology housestaff of all send-out tests that cost more than $75 to ensure that an appropriate diagnostic test hierarchy was being used and that clerical misorders were corrected. Throughout the first fiscal year this system was implemented, the annual institutional reference laboratory costs decreased by 10% ($24,784), and the number of send-out tests decreased by 23% (2,707 tests). Over the next 2 fiscal years, the number of sendout tests maintained a level approximately 25% lower than the original pre-review level and the reference laboratory costs remained 4% to 13% below the pre-review level. A major factor preventing a more extensive cost reduction over this time period was the increased frequency of orders for expensive molecular studies. Even with the increased use of these relatively expensive tests, however, our annual reference laboratory budget and number of send-out tests have remained consistently below the levels of 1994. Implementation of similar test review systems in other health-care laboratories could provide useful budgetary reductions. PMID:11828785

  4. 48 CFR 23.403 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials and Biobased Products 23.403 Policy. Government...products containing recovered materials and biobased products considers cost, availability...products containing recovered materials and biobased products to the maximum extent...

  5. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  6. Telemedicine in a box: overcoming complexity and high-cost telemedicine barriers using self-contained videoconferencing units.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, L G; Toma, C S; Bell, C K

    2001-08-01

    This report describes our experience using low-and moderate-cost videoconferencing systems for telemedicine. After determining that low-cost systems using a standard personal computer and personal computer camera were unsatisfactory, a demonstration project was carried out using a $4000 self-contained videoconferencing unit (telemedicine in a box), using eight simulated telemedicine consultation scenarios. The quality of the videoconferencing was good for all eight scenarios. All eight consultation simulations demonstrated different ways of improving patient care. Two of the major problems hindering the broad proliferation of telemedicine (high cost and high complexity) are solved by the telemedicine in a box concept. Focussing on the telemedicine in a box concept when planning a telemedicine system will improve its feasibility in the real world of health care. PMID:11493833

  7. LOBOT: Low-Cost, Self-Contained Localization of Small-Sized Ground Robotic Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Shi, Weisong

    the robot instead of requiring external facilities to obtain the position; the system should work indoors vehicles. LOBOT provides accurate real-time, three-dimensional positions in both indoor and outdoor-contained positioning system for the robot: ideally, the localization system should be completely integrated onto

  8. Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost Analysis of Potential Power Plant Deployment

    E-print Network

    Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States;Economics and Policies for Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the Western United States: A Marginal Cost for the Degrees of Master of Science in Technology and Policy and Master of City Planning ABSTRACT Carbon capture

  9. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method for integrating health and environmental outcomes in transport and urban planning. Citation: Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307250 PMID:24496244

  10. Containing the Cost of Heart Failure Management: A Focus on Reducing Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Soundarraj, Dwarakraj; Singh, Vini; Satija, Vaibhav; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) consumes a large proportion of the total national health care budget. Incidence and prevalence of HF are increasing and may give rise to an unsustainable increase in health care spending. Hospitalizations account for the vast majority of HF-related expenses, and 20% to 25% of patients discharged with a diagnosis of HF are readmitted within 60 days. Thus, efforts to reduce HF readmissions are a reasonable target for reducing overall expenses. It is to be seen if targeting readmission rates will lead to significant cost savings, and more importantly, to improved patient outcomes. PMID:26596803

  11. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  12. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sepai, Ovnair; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Berglund, Marika; Crettaz, Pierre; Rudnai, Peter; Halzlova, Katarina; Mulcahy, Maurice; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Becher, Georg; Fréry, Nadine; Jensen, Genon; Van Vliet, Lisette; Koch, Holger M; Den Hond, Elly; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Esteban, Marta; Exley, Karen; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Ligocka, Danuta; Hohenblum, Philipp; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Botsivali, Maria; DeFelip, Elena; Guillou, Claude; Reniero, Fabiano; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Rivas, Teresa C; Sanchez, Jinny; Koppen, Gudrun; Smolders, Roel; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Mannion, Rory; Jakubowski, Marek; Fucic, J Aleksandra; Pereira-Miguel, Jose; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Lehmann, Andrea; Larsson, Kristin; Dumez, Birgit; Joas, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of the European Commission recognised the value of HBM and the relevance and importance of coordination of HBM programmes in Europe. Based on existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) funded COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. The pilot study protocol was tested in 17 European countries in the DEMOCOPHES feasibility study (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) cofunded (50%) under the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES. PMID:25526891

  13. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...rate negotiation process than the current practice of metering by...Federal rule- making process for agency grants policies; improvements in data quality...committed to continuing improvements in the policies, practices, and systems...

  14. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... implementing Executive Order No. 12866 (October 4, 1993, 58 FR 51735). OMB policy guidelines are issued under...; Executive Order No. 11541; and other specific authority as cited. OMB Circulars and OFPP Policy...

  15. Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations 

    E-print Network

    Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

    1980-01-01

    the extra cost and extra energy saving. Due to higher costs of energy at present and in the foreseeable future, good opportunities exist to retrofit existing thermal envelopes with extra insulation. Potential costs and savings in the residential, commercial...

  16. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  17. Development and evaluation of die and container materials. Low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Niesx, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Specific compositions of high purity silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and silicon beryllium oxynitride (Sibeon) solid solutions were shown to be promising refractory materials for handling and manipulating solar grade silicon into silicon ribbon. Evaulation of the interaction of these materials in contact with molten silicon indicated that solid solutions based upon beta-Si3N4 were more stable than those based on Si2N2O. Sibeon was more resistant to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Both materials should preferably be used in an inert atmosphere rather than under vacuum conditions because removal of oxygen from the silicon melt occurs as SiO enhances the dissolution of aluminum and beryllium. The wetting angles of these materials were low enough for these materials to be considered as both die and container materials.

  18. SIMULATION FOR POLICY EVALUATION, PLANNING AND DECISION SUPPORT IN AN INTERMODAL CONTAINER TERMINAL

    E-print Network

    Gambardella, Luca Maria

    is used as a tool to validate alternative management policies, such as resource allocation and ship section discusses the use of the simulation model as a mechanism to evaluate medium and long term planning and trains arriving at terminal gate; ships arriving at terminal pier, etc.). Truck Pool QC Op Queue YC Op

  19. Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

    We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

  20. Survey of consumer attitudes and awareness of the metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Barsby, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    The survey was conducted as part of a policy and planning evaluation study. The overall study was an examination of a completed private sector conversion to the metric system, in the light of the US Metric Board's planning guidelines and procedures. The conversion of distilled spirits containers took place prior to the establishment of the USMB. The study's objective was to use the completed version to determine if the guidelines and related procedures were adequate to help the conversion process. If they were not, the study was designed to provide suggestions for improvement.

  1. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and... for the Proposed Guidance on Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements... Assistance Reform please visit www.cfo.gov/cofar . Daniel I. Werfel, Controller. BILLING CODE P...

  2. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  3. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...charged. 6. Including the cost of certain computing devices as allowable direct cost supplies...involve explicitly including the cost of computing devices not otherwise subject to inventory...consolidate data centers and operate in a cloud-based environment, data centers...

  4. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  5. The Policy Implications of the Cost Structure of Home Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Mukamel, Dana B; Fortinsky, Richard H; White, Alan; Harrington, Charlene; White, Laura M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cost structure of home health agencies by estimating an empirical cost function for those that are Medicare-certified, ten years following the implementation of prospective payment. Design and Methods 2010 national Medicare cost report data for certified home health agencies were merged with case-mix information from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS). We estimated a fully interacted (by tax status) hybrid cost function for 7,064 agencies and calculated marginal costs as percent of total costs for all variables. Results The home health industry is dominated by for-profit agencies, which tend to be newer than the non-profit agencies and to have higher average costs per patient but lower costs per visit. For-profit agencies tend to have smaller scale operations and different cost structures, and are less likely to be affiliated with chains. Our estimates suggest diseconomies of scale, zero marginal cost for contracting with therapy workers, and a positive marginal cost for contracting with nurses, when controlling for quality. Implications Our findings suggest that efficiencies may be achieved by promoting non-profit, smaller agencies, with fewer contract nursing staff. This conclusion should be tested further in future studies that address some of the limitations of our study. PMID:24949224

  6. Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xuesong

    1 Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost Abstract To improve safety measures of loading containers on double-stack rail cars

  7. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  8. Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Isaac A

    2010-01-01

    An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

  9. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  10. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: Policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-14

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  11. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: Policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-14

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declinedmore »faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.« less

  12. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  13. A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    The report establishes the historical baseline regarding events that occurred, the reasons for the events, their impacts, and the lessons learned from the conversion. The report consists of eight chapters and an appendix: (1) an overview of the distilled spirits industry, (2) an analysis of the motivation phase of the conversion, (3) an analysis of the planning phase, (4) a description and analysis of the events of the implementation phase, (5) an analysis of the costs and savings resulting from the conversion, (6) an analysis of the impact of the conversion on prices of distilled spirits, (7) an analysis of the impacts on consumption, profitability, industry structure, and size, product and brand preferences, (8) a summary of the findings and conclusions from the assessment of the process, and (9) (the appendix) a detailed chronology of events.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…

  15. 48 CFR 23.403 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials and Biobased Products 23.403 Policy. ...products containing recovered materials and biobased products considers cost, availability...highest percent of recovered material or biobased content practicable, or at least...

  16. 48 CFR 23.403 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials and Biobased Products 23.403 Policy. ...products containing recovered materials and biobased products considers cost, availability...highest percent of recovered material or biobased content practicable, or at least...

  17. 48 CFR 23.403 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials and Biobased Products 23.403 Policy. ...products containing recovered materials and biobased products considers cost, availability...highest percent of recovered material or biobased content practicable, or at least...

  18. The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost

  19. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  20. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  1. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  2. The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union

    E-print Network

    Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

    To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

  3. NanoCOT: Low-Cost Nanostructured Electrode Containing Carbon, Oxygen, and Titanium for Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhichao; Archana, Panikar Sathyaseelan; Shen, Gang; Gupta, Arunava; Bakker, Martin G; Pan, Shanlin

    2015-09-23

    Developing high-efficiency, durable, and low-cost catalysts based on earth-abundant elements for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for renewable energy conversion and energy storage devices. In this study, we report a highly active nanostructured electrode, NanoCOT, which contains carbon, oxygen, and titanium, for efficient OER in alkaline solution. The NanoCOT electrode is synthesized from carbon transformation of TiO2 in an atmosphere of methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen at a high temperature. The NanoCOT exhibits enhanced OER catalytic activity in alkaline solution, providing a current density of 1.33 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 0.42 V. This OER current density of a NanoCOT electrode is about 4 times higher than an oxidized Ir electrode and 15 times higher than a Pt electrode because of its nanostructured high surface area and favorable OER kinetics. The enhanced catalytic activity of NanoCOT is attributed to the presence of a continuous energy band of the titanium oxide electrode with predominantly reduced defect states of Ti (e.g., Ti(1+), Ti(2+), and Ti(3+)) formed by chemical reduction with hydrogen and carbon. The OER performance of NanoCOT can also be further enhanced by decreasing its overpotential by 150 mV at a current density of 1.0 mA/cm(2) after coating its surface electrophoretically with 2.0 nm IrOx nanoparticles. PMID:26340536

  4. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  5. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and...: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Advance notice of proposed guidance; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is extending...

  6. Keeping Teachers on the Job Costs Less than Advertised. Policy Memorandum #168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens, Josh

    2010-01-01

    A misplaced obsession with the size of federal budget deficits remains the single biggest obstacle to enacting new measures to create jobs on a scale commensurate with the crisis in the American labor market. Even assuming that budget scoring rules can't be changed, at the very least policy makers should be aware of the true impact a given piece…

  7. Procedures for Unallowable Costs A list of costs that are considered "unallowable" for federal reimbursement is contained within OMB Circular A-21

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    . The remaining expenditure cost categories (over the risk based amount as approved by MSU Internal Audit the expense from the federal award. In addition, the Banner administrative software system research accounting by identifying account codes such as entertainment and moving them to an unallowable cost category on the OSP

  8. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexandra M.; Lindley, Megan C.; Chang, Kristen H.M.; Cox, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs’ policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  9. Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

  10. An integrated assessment of two decades of air pollution policy making in Spain: Impacts, costs and improvements.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Conlan, Beth; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Narros, Adolfo

    2015-09-15

    This paper analyses the effects of policy making for air pollution abatement in Spain between 2000 and 2020 under an integrated assessment approach with the AERIS model for number of pollutants (NOx/NO2, PM10/PM2.5, O3, SO2, NH3 and VOC). The analysis of the effects of air pollution focused on different aspects: compliance with the European limit values of Directive 2008/50/EC for NO2 and PM10 for the Spanish air quality management areas; the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen on ecosystems; the exceedance of critical levels of NO2 and SO2 in forest areas; the analysis of O3-induced crop damage for grapes, maize, potato, rice, tobacco, tomato, watermelon and wheat; health impacts caused by human exposure to O3 and PM2.5; and costs on society due to crop losses (O3), disability-related absence of work staff and damage to buildings and public property due to soot-related soiling (PM2.5). In general, air quality policy making has delivered improvements in air quality levels throughout Spain and has mitigated the severity of the impacts on ecosystems, health and vegetation in 2020 as target year. The findings of this work constitute an appropriate diagnosis for identifying improvement potentials for further mitigation for policy makers and stakeholders in Spain. PMID:25965050

  11. The Evidence on Universal Preschool: Are Benefits Worth the Cost? Policy Analysis. Number 760

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Calls for universal preschool programs have become commonplace, reinforced by President Obama's call for "high-quality preschool for all" in 2013. Any program that could cost state and federal taxpayers $50 billion per year warrants a closer look at the evidence on its effectiveness. This report reviews the major evaluations of preschool…

  12. Wrestling Rising Costs with Innovation. Policy Matters. Volume 4, Number 1, January 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    While tuition costs are likely the most talked about topic in higher education, focusing on the institutional finance is equally important. The growing expenses associated with educating students is often a catalyst for rising tuition and fees, and they play a large role as educators plan for the future of their institutions. Although higher…

  13. Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

  14. Measuring (and Managing) the Invisible Costs of Postsecondary Attrition. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane; Johnson, Nate; Steele, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The collision between funding realities and the paramount goal of increasing educational attainment has brought new attention to ways to reduce postsecondary attrition and get more students who enroll in college to complete a degree or credential. Reductions in attrition are both educationally effective and cost effective. Students reach…

  15. Costs and Policy Options for Federal Student Loan Programs. A CBO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Deborah; Moore, Damien

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education oversees various programs to help students pay for the costs of postsecondary education. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study focuses on the two largest student loan programs created under the authority of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended): (1) The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program, which…

  16. Potential of trans fats policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from coronary heart disease in England: cost effectiveness modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Hooton, William; Diggle, Peter; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine health and equity benefits and cost effectiveness of policies to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids from processed foods, compared with consumption remaining at most recent levels in England. Design Epidemiological modelling study. Setting Data from National Diet and Nutrition Survey, Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey, Office of National Statistics, and health economic data from other published studies Participants Adults aged ?25, stratified by fifths of socioeconomic circumstance. Interventions Total ban on trans fatty acids in processed foods; improved labelling of trans fatty acids; bans on trans fatty acids in restaurants and takeaways. Main outcome measures Deaths from coronary heart disease prevented or postponed; life years gained; quality adjusted life years gained. Policy costs to government and industry; policy savings from reductions in direct healthcare, informal care, and productivity loss. Results A total ban on trans fatty acids in processed foods might prevent or postpone about 7200 deaths (2.6%) from coronary heart disease from 2015-20 and reduce inequality in mortality from coronary heart disease by about 3000 deaths (15%). Policies to improve labelling or simply remove trans fatty acids from restaurants/fast food could save between 1800 (0.7%) and 3500 (1.3%) deaths from coronary heart disease and reduce inequalities by 600 (3%) to 1500 (7%) deaths, thus making them at best half as effective. A total ban would have the greatest net cost savings of about £265m (€361m, $415m) excluding reformulation costs, or £64m if substantial reformulation costs are incurred outside the normal cycle. Conclusions A regulatory policy to eliminate trans fatty acids from processed foods in England would be the most effective and equitable policy option. Intermediate policies would also be beneficial. Simply continuing to rely on industry to voluntary reformulate products, however, could have negative health and economic outcomes. PMID:26374614

  17. Public College and University Procurement: A Survey of the State Regulatory Environment, Institutional Procurement Practices and Efforts toward Cost Containment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study contends that one area rich for reform and cost-saving opportunities is college and university procurement--the billions of dollars public institutions spend annually to purchase goods and services. While considerable cost savings may be realized in the reform of current procurement practices, these practices are largely shaped by state…

  18. Annual CLERY Act Fire Requirement Report 2012 2014 Fire Safety Report: the campus publishes this report, containing information about fire safety policies, procedures, and statistics.

    E-print Network

    Annual CLERY Act Fire Requirement Report 2012 ­ 2014 Fire Safety Report: the campus publishes this report, containing information about fire safety policies, procedures, and statistics. Fire Requirement in 2014: On Campus Student Housing Facilities - Fire Summary http://www.ehs.ucr.edu/fire

  19. Barriers to constraining health care cost growth.

    PubMed

    Chernew, Michael E; Jacobson, Peter D; Hofer, Timothy P; Aaronson, Keith D; Fendrick, A Mark

    2004-01-01

    Managing health care cost growth is a fundamental challenge facing our health care system. Through analysis of semistructured interviews, we conclude that barriers to health plan-level cost containment activities and strong forces outside the control of individual health plans will prevent many health system reforms (such as more competition among plans or modest increases in patient copayments) from stemming health care cost inflation. Policy debates and budgetary discussions must recognize that health care cost growth in excess of gross domestic product (GDP) growth is likely inevitable in the foreseeable future. The policy focus should be directed toward encouraging value. PMID:15537589

  20. Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricultural activities and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfamichael, Aklilu A.; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2005-05-01

    This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums for chemical-free and reduced-chemical corn indicate that if the society is willing to pay a price premium, risks can be reduced without a large reduction in the total economic surplus and net benefits may be higher. The results also show that this methodology provides an improved scientific framework for future decision making and policy evaluation in pesticide management.

  1. Secondary Schools in a County in Kenya Seem to Be Taking Advantages of the Cost Sharing Policy: Understanding Its Practice and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makori, Andrew; Chepchieng, Gideon; Misoi, Pauline; Kiplagat, Rotich

    2015-01-01

    The study set out to research on parents' views regarding the practice of cost sharing policy in secondary schools in Kenya in relation to form one entry items requirement and fee payment. This article reports on its findings. The study adopted a quantitative survey and employed a questionnaire (both closed and open-ended) to collect data. The…

  2. Appendix C: Cost of Climate Policy and the Waxman-Markey American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (H.R. 2454)1

    E-print Network

    Appendix C: Cost of Climate Policy and the Waxman-Markey American Clean Energy and Security Act The American Clean Energy and Security Act (H.R.2454) passed the House of Representatives after the completion version. H.R. 2454 is composed of five main titles. Title I deals with clean energy, setting up a combined

  3. Commercial Insurance vs Community-Based Health Plans: Time for a Policy Option With Clinical Emphasis to Address the Cost Spiral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship…

  4. Policies

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

  5. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  6. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  7. Value-based insurance design: aligning incentives to bridge the divide between quality improvement and cost containment.

    PubMed

    Fendrick, A Mark; Chernew, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Rising costs and suboptimal clinical quality have spawned efforts to redesign healthcare benefit packages. Momentum has gathered behind 2 trends; the first, represented by disease management initiatives and pay-for-performance programs, focuses on the quality of care, and uses tools to manage patient health. The second trend, represented by increased patient cost sharing and consumer-driven health plans, focuses on the cost of care and uses financial incentives to alter patient and provider behavior. These 2 trends create a conflict for the patient in that disease management programs--designed to improve patient self-management--aim to enhance compliance with specific clinical interventions, while rising copayments create financial barriers that discourage the use of these recommended services. When patients are required to pay more for their healthcare, they buy less, even if the intervention is potentially lifesaving. Thus, the challenge for purchasers is to devise benefit packages that incorporate a range of features that complement each other in the effective and efficient delivery of care while explicitly avoiding the unwanted negative clinical effects associated with increased cost sharing. PMID:17173492

  8. Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

    Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

  9. Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

  10. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  11. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP),...

  12. Cost assessment of the movement restriction policy in France during the 2006 bluetongue virus episode (BTV-8).

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at evaluating the costs of the movement restriction policy (MRP) during the 2006 BTV-8 epidemic in France for the producers of 6-9 month old Charolais beef weaned calves (BWC), an important sector that was severely affected by the restrictions imposed. This study estimates the change in the number of BWC sold that was due to the movement restrictions, and evaluates the economic effect of the MRP. The change in BWC sold by producers located inside the restriction zone (RZ) was analyzed for 2006 by using a multivariate matching approach to control for any internal validity threat. The economic evaluation of the MRP was based on several scenarios that describe farms' capacity constraints, feeding prices, and the animal's selling price. Results show that the average farmer experienced a 21% decrease in animals sold due to the MRP. The economic evaluation of the MRP shows a potential gain during the movement standstill period in the case of no capacity constraint faced by the farm and food self-sufficiency. This gain remains limited and close to zero in case of a low selling price and when animals are held until they no longer fit the BWC market so that they cannot be sold as an intermediate product. Capacity constraints represent a tremendous challenge to farmers facing movement restrictions and the fattening profit becomes negative under such conditions. The timing and length of the movement standstill period significantly affect the profitability of the strategy employed by the farmer: for a 5.5 month-long standstill period with 3.5 months of cold weather, farmers with capacity constraints have stronger incentives to leave their animals outside during the whole period and face higher mortality and morbidity rates than paying for a boarding facility for the cold months. This is not necessarily true for a shorter standstill period. Strategies are also sensitive to the feed costs and to the food self-sufficiency of the farm. Altogether, the present work shows the farmer's vulnerability to animal movement restrictions and quantifies the costs of the standstill. These results should assist decision-makers who seek to calculate adequate subsidies/aid or to efficiently allocate resources to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:25458706

  13. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Contains a list of attendees, agenda, report summaries, and a financial report

    SciTech Connect

    Guertin, Donald L.; Davis, W. Kenneth; Ikuta, Toyoaki

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  14. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

  15. Spallation Neutron Source high-power Rf transmitter design for high availablility, ease of installation and cost containment

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J. T. , III; Rees, D. E.; Hardek, T. W.; Lynch, M. T.; Roybal, W. T.; Tallerico, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    The availability goals and installation schedule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have driven the availability and installation of the SNS linac's high-power RF systems. This paper discusses how the high-power RF systems' availability and installation goals have been addressed in the RF transmitter design and procurement. Design features that allow R1; component failures to be quickly diagnosed and repaired are also presented. Special attention has been given lo interlocks, PLC fault logging and real-time interfaces to thc accelerator's Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) archive system. The availability and cost motivations for the use of different RF transmitter designs in the normalconducting and super-conducting sections of the linac are reviewed. Factory iicceptance tests used to insure fully functional equipment and thereby reduce the time spent on installation and cotnmissioning of the RF transmitters are discussed. Transmitter installation experience and klystron conditioning experience is used to show how these design features have helped and will continue to help the SNS linac to meet its availability and schedule goals.

  16. Evidence-based medicine, cost-containment, care effectiveness: is it a new trilogy aimed at transforming the surgical mystique or the reality of double standards?

    PubMed

    Michel, L A

    2001-01-01

    Clinically relevant attitudes and guidelines issued by a rational Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) approach integrate individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. However, many surgeons, while considering the ultraliberal world they are practicing in and fearing that the primary goal of managed care in a market environment is reducing cost in order to make profit or decrease spending, remain suspicious of this kind of tentative protocol-driven medicine when applied to surgical practice. If surgeons want to develop a health policy agenda that emphasizes patient care issues above provider's or payor's interests, they should also enhance education programs, improve continuing objective assessment of the way surgery is performed, face moral issues raised by innovation, and assume an increased leadership role in sound critical evaluation of nonvalidated new techniques. They should no more consider EBM as a weapon turned against the surgical profession, but as a tool that may provide some answers to chronically unresolved questions in the evolving art of surgery. PMID:11501394

  17. Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes prevention and control plan. PMID:24564974

  18. Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance. Policy Brief Series on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    Deferring maintenance in small rural schools creates poor conditions that can affect the health and safety of everyone who uses the facility, damage the morale of students and teachers, impair their ability to teach and learn, and threaten the facility itself. Numerous recommendations for policy changes that affect maintenance are presented. A…

  19. Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs Jochen Harnisch, Ian Sue Wing, Henry D. Jacoby and Ronald G. Prinn*

    E-print Network

    . Abatement costs for emissions of PFCs and CO2 are compared in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Contents 1 ...........................................................................................................17 1. INTRODUCTION The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of the protocol the 39 countries (hereafter the "Annex B" nations) commit themselves to restrict their emissions

  20. Give Our Kids a Break: How Three-Year Degrees Can Cut the Cost of College. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Paul, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The American higher education system is the finest in the world. Students from across the globe continue to flock to American universities, while the competition among U.S. students for slots at these elite schools is tougher than ever. There are cracks in the fiscal foundations of higher education, however, and they are growing wider. The costs

  1. Administration and Finance Policy No: 3702 Policy Name

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Administration and Finance Policy No: 3702 Policy Name: Contract and Grant Financial Reporting and Finance 2 Policy No: 3702 Policy Name: Contract and Grant Financial Reporting and Closeout Related / Impacted Policies: Administration and Finance Policy #3311 ­ Cost Transfers Administration and Finance

  2. UPDATING PERFORMANCE AND COST OF NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA uses the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to evaluate the cost and emission impacts of proposed policies. Studies were undertaken recently to update the performance and cost factors contained in this model for various NOx control technologies. The studies showed a sig...

  3. 77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION:...

  4. 76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION:...

  5. 75 FR 64684 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts Executed and...of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Commercial insurance vs community-based health plans: time for a policy option with clinical emphasis to address the cost spiral.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship between various clinical strategies and reductions in utilization and costs. This article describes the organization of health services, including integration of delivery and financing systems, at the community level as a model that effectively addresses the critical structural flaws that have frustrated control of costs. Community-based health plans (CHPs) have been developed and have demonstrated viability. The key elements of CHPs are a legal organizational structure, a full provider network, advanced care-management systems, and the ability to assume financial risk. Common misconceptions regarding obstacles to CHP development are the complexity of the undertaking, difficulty assuming the insurance function, and insured pools that are too small to be viable. The characteristics of successful CHPs and 2 case studies are described, including the types of advanced care-management systems that have resulted in strong financial performance. The demonstrated ability of CHPs to establish financial viability with small numbers of enrollees challenges the common assumption that there is a fixed relationship between health plan enrollment size and financial performance. Organizing the health system at the community/regional level provides an attractive alternative model in the health-reform debate. There is an opportunity for clinical systems and state and federal leaders to support the development of community-based integrated delivery and financing system models that, among other advantages, have significant potential to modulate the pernicious cost spiral. PMID:15859046

  7. The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities. PMID:17562103

  8. The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities.

  9. An open, parallel, randomized, comparative, multicenter study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, performance, tolerance, and safety of a silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing (intervention) vs silver sulfadiazine cream.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Paul; Heimbach, David; Meites, Herbert; Latenser, Barbara; Mozingo, David; Mullins, Fred; Garner, Warren; Turkowski, Joseph; Shupp, Jeffrey; Glat, Paul; Purdue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    An open, parallel, randomized, comparative, multicenter study was implemented to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, performance, tolerance, and safety of a silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing (Mepilex Ag) vs silver sulfadiazine cream (control) in the treatment of partial-thickness thermal burns. Individuals aged 5 years and older with partial-thickness thermal burns (2.5-20% BSA) were randomized into two groups and treated with the trial products for 21 days or until healed, whichever occurred first. Data were obtained and analyzed on cost (direct and indirect), healing rates, pain, comfort, ease of product use, and adverse events. A total of 101 subjects were recruited. There were no significant differences in burn area profiles within the groups. The cost of dressing-related analgesia was lower in the intervention group (P = .03) as was the cost of background analgesia (P = .07). The mean total cost of treatment was $309 vs $513 in the control (P < .001). The average cost-effectiveness per treatment regime was $381 lower in the intervention product, producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1688 in favor of the soft silicone foam dressing. Mean healing rates were 71.7 vs 60.8% at final visit, and the number of dressing changes were 2.2 vs 12.4 in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Subjects reported significantly less pain at application (P = .02) and during wear (P = .048) of the Mepilex Ag dressing in the acute stages of wound healing. Clinicians reported the intervention dressing was significantly easier to use (P = .03) and flexible (P = .04). Both treatments were well tolerated; however, the total incidence of adverse events was higher in the control group. The silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing was as effective in the treatment of patients as the standard care (silver sulfadiazine). In addition, the group of patients treated with the soft silicone foam dressing demonstrated decreased pain and lower costs associated with treatment. PMID:21979855

  10. Financial Policy Manual DEBT FINANCING POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual DEBT FINANCING POLICIES 1801 Debt Financing Selection 1802 Determination;Financial Policy Manual Page 1 1801 DEBT FINANCING SELECTION Subject: Debt Financing Effective: December.P. for Finance and Treasurer PURPOSE To ensure selection and use of the most cost effective debt financing

  11. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  12. Sustainability Policy and Environmental John C. V. Pezzey*

    E-print Network

    Pezzey, Jack

    Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy John C. V. Pezzey* Australian National University policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy

  13. 1988 selected papers and presentations by DOE's Policy Integration Office staff

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Cost Effectiveness of Future Fuel Economy Improvements; Economic and Security Issues of Methanol Supply; Timing of Methanol Supply and Demand; US Policies and Technology Options; Alternative Fuels Market Development; The Cost of Making Methanol Available to a National Market; Method for Energy Policy Analysis; Transportation Energy to the Year 2000; Energy Conservation Potential; Least-Cost Utility Planning; Appropriate Comparisons of International Energy Data; The Role of Energy Costs in the CPI-U; Trash to Energy, a Burning Issue; Methanol's Contribution to Energy Security in the USA; The Senegal River Basin Development Program; and The US Transportation Sector in Perspective.

  14. Policy #3310 Allowance for Usage of Personal Mobile Devices and Wireless Service for University Business 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Business 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3310 ALLOWANCE FOR USAGE OF PERSONAL MOBILE for University business in order to contain costs and ensure departmental and personal accountability. BPolicy #3310 ­ Allowance for Usage of Personal Mobile Devices and Wireless Service for University

  15. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    DISCLAIMER: If there is a Discrepancy between this electronic policy and the written copy held by the policy, minimal packaging, and low toxicity. 2. POLICY McMaster University is committed to environmental of duplexing, products containing the EcoLogo or Energy Star label); o have minimal or no packaging

  16. 76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

  17. From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Thomas; Urban, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of Europeanization. This process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lisbon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision. PMID:17625641

  18. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-12-16

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  19. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost...

  20. Study program to develop and evaluate die and container materials for the growth of silicon ribbons. [for development of low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addington, L. A.; Ownby, P. D.; Yu, B. B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Romero, H. V.; Zealer, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The development and evaluation of proprietary coatings of pure silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and aluminum nitride on less pure hot pressed substrates of the respective ceramic materials, is described. Silicon sessile drop experiments were performed on coated test specimens under controlled oxygen partial pressure. Prior to testing, X-ray diffraction and SEM characterization was performed. The reaction interfaces were characterized after testing with optical and scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the molten silicon contact angle, apparently because adsorbed oxygen lowers the solid-vapor interfacial free energy. It was also found that adsorbed oxygen increased the degree of attack of molten silicon upon the chemical vapor deposited coatings. Cost projections show that reasonably priced, coated, molten silicon resistant refractory material shapes are obtainable.

  1. Controlling the Costs of Education in Eastern Africa: A Review of Data, Issues, and Policies. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 702.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence

    Data and issues on costs of primary, secondary, and higher education in Eastern Africa are presented. Practical recommendations for controlling or reducing costs while paying attention to effects on quality and equity are made. For each level of education the report reviews student-teacher ratios, teacher salaries, non-teaching costs, and…

  2. Assess Policy Retire Policy

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    . Incorporate feedback 11. Determine revision cycle no longer than 3 years 12. Submit draft policy & procedures. Incorporate feedback 9. Determine effective term no longer than 1 year 10. Submit draft interim policyAssess Policy Need Retire Policy Revise Policy Evaluate Effectiveness Enforce Compliance Educate

  3. Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

  4. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation...Act. The five sources are electricity...No. 2 heating oil, propane, and...unit costs of energy contained in this...that of heating oil, based on the...two fuels. The source for these price...2011, Monthly Energy Review...

  5. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation...Act. The five sources are electricity...No. 2 heating oil, propane, and...unit costs of energy contained in this...that of heating oil, based on the...two fuels. The source for these price...2009, Monthly Energy Review...

  6. The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Lan

    2014-10-21

    Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

  7. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive.

  8. Ramjet cost estimating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, H. T.; Norwood, D. L.; Rasmusen, J. E.; Reynolds, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Research conducted under Air Force Contract F33615-76-C-2043 to generate cost data and to establish a cost methodology that accurately predicts the production costs of ramjet engines is presented. The cost handbook contains a description of over one hundred and twenty-five different components which are defined as baseline components. The cost estimator selects from the handbook the appropriate components to fit his ramjet assembly, computes the cost from cost computation data sheets in the handbook, and totals all of the appropriate cost elements to arrive at the total engine cost. The methodology described in the cost handbook addresses many different ramjet types from simple podded arrangements of the liquid fuel ramjet to the more complex integral rocket/ramjet configurations including solid fuel ramjets and solid ducted rockets. It is applicable to a range of sizes from 6 in diameter to 18 in diameter and to production quantities up to 5000 engines.

  9. University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, John K.

    2010-01-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

  10. Policy for inclusion of a computer in a student's cost of attendance. The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 included a provision that allows an

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    . The maximum allowance for purchase of a computer is $2,500, which can include the cost of a printer. 2. The cost of non-bundled software, diskettes, printer cartridges, monthly online service fees, etc for undergraduate studies and once for advanced degree graduate studies). 8. Request must be submitted no later than

  11. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  12. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  13. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  14. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  15. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

  16. Introduction Container Library Container Tools FUSE Container File System Evaluation Container Library and FUSE Container File

    E-print Network

    Introduction Container Library Container Tools FUSE Container File System Evaluation Container Library and FUSE Container File System Softwarepraktikum f¨ur Fortgeschrittene Michael Kuhn Parallele und;Introduction Container Library Container Tools FUSE Container File System Evaluation 1 Introduction

  17. An Evidence-Based Approach to Estimating the National and State Costs of PreK-3rd. FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3rd. No.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Goetz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the costs of providing a high-quality PreK-3rd education approach in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Relying on an Evidence-Based approach to school finance adequacy, it identifies the staffing resources needed to offer high-quality integrated PreK-3rd programs and then estimates the costs of those resources. By…

  18. CAMPUS RECHARGE DEFINITIONS, BACKGROUND, & University of California, Berkeley, Recharge Centers Policy and Procedures

    E-print Network

    operations R) Recharge forms S) Records retention A. References Business & Finance Bulletin A-47 http units, to ensure compliance with both university accounting policies and government regulations reflect government regulatory costing principles such as those contained in the Office of Management

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires

    E-print Network

    Change and Wildfires 81 Economics of Forest Fire Management: Spatial Accounting of Costs and Benefits1 Ranger District. Each pixel in the data layer contains an estimate of the most prominent nonmarket values at the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires

  20. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  1. Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems. Methods Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify ADR from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin (AS) use. ADR were identified by trained clinicians at health facilities (passive surveillance) and through cross-sectional household surveys (active surveillance). Potential cases were followed up at home, where a complete history and physical examination was undertaken, and household cost data collected. Patients were classified as having ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ ADR by a physician. Results A total of 95 suspected ADR were identified during a two-year period, of which 79 were traced, and 67 reported use of SP and/or AS prior to ADR onset. Thirty-four cases were classified as ‘probable’ and 33 as ‘possible’ ADRs. Most (53) cases were associated with SP monotherapy, 13 with the AS/SP combination (available in one of the two areas only), and one with AS monotherapy. Annual ADR incidence per 100,000 exposures was estimated based on ‘probable’ ADR only at 5.6 for AS/SP in combination, and 25.0 and 11.6 for SP monotherapy. Median ADR treatment costs per episode ranged from US$2.23 for those making a single provider visit to US$146.93 for patients with four visits. Seventy-three per cent of patients used out-of-pocket funds or sold part of their farm harvests to pay for treatment, and 19% borrowed money. Conclusion Both passive and active surveillance methods proved feasible methods for anti-malarial ADR surveillance, with active surveillance being an important complement to facility-based surveillance, given the widespread practice of self-medication. Household costs associated with ADR treatment were high and potentially catastrophic. Efforts should be made to both improve pharmacovigilance across Africa and to identify strategies to reduce the economic burden endured by households suffering from ADR. PMID:23844934

  2. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  10. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-12

    More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

  11. OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

  12. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  13. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A. Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-05-15

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  14. Small self-contained payload overview. [Space Shuttle Getaway Special project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The low-cost Small Self-Contained Payload Program, also known as the Getaway Special, initiated by NASA for providing a stepping stone to larger scientific and manufacturing payloads, is presented. The steps of 'getting on board,' the conditions of use, the reimbursement policy and the procedures, and the flight scheduling mechanism for flying the Getaway Special payload are given. The terms and conditions, and the interfaces between NASA and the users for entering into an agreement with NASA for launch and associated services are described, as are the philosophy and the rationale for establishing the policy and the procedures.

  15. Lecture outline What is a policy?

    E-print Network

    Powell, Warren B.

    is a policy? 1) Policy function approximations (PFAs) » Lookup table · Recharge the battery between 2am and 6am each morning, and discharge as needed. » Parameterized functions · Recharge the battery when be organized into major groups: » Policy function approximations (PFAs) » Policies based on cost function

  16. FUEL CARD POLICY Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    FUEL CARD POLICY Table of Contents 1. Policy 2. Procedures 3. Appendix I ­ Litres Plus Card to strengthen controls over vehicle operating costs, the University has adopted a policy of using "fuel cards for implementing the Fuel Card Policy and procedures is entrusted to the director of auxiliary services who may

  17. Rice University Policy No. 836 Service Center Policy

    E-print Network

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    for similar services and include the direct costs and overhead costs. Departments selling to both external with sound business practices, Federal regulations and cost accounting and financial reporting principles. The University establishes such units as Service Centers to ensure compliance. This policy applies to all Rice

  18. Policy 3508 Information Technology Project Management 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Policy 3508 ­ Information Technology Project Management 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3508 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President project management activities to assure that projects are accomplished in a timely, cost effective manner

  19. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

  20. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

  1. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

  2. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

  3. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and cost...

  4. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  5. 41COLLEGE POLICIES College Policies

    E-print Network

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    41COLLEGE POLICIES College Policies Academic and Grade Appeal Process.............................................................74 Student Health Insurance ..............................................................76 HIV-Discrimination Policy ...................................................................92 Parking

  6. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost...

  7. Policy for Purchases containing Logos and

    E-print Network

    or altered and must meet the institution's branding standards, which can be found at the following link: http://inside.mines.edu/UserFiles@mines.edu) prior to submitting it to Procurement Services for processing. 6. The purchase requisition must with production of the order ­ Section 2.2.1 of http://inside.mines.edu/UserFiles/File

  8. Informing mental health policies and services in the EMR: cost-effective deployment of human resources to deliver integrated community-based care.

    PubMed

    Ivbijaro, G; Patel, V; Chisholm, D; Goldberg, D; Khoja, T A M; Edwards, T M; Enum, Y; Kolkiewic, L A

    2015-07-01

    For EMR countries to deliver the expectations of the Global Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 & the ongoing move towards universal health coverage, all health & social care providers need to innovate and transform their services to provide evidence-based health care that is accessible, cost-effective & with the best patient outcomes. For the primary and community workforce, this includes general medical practitioners, practice & community nurses, community social workers, housing officers, lay health workers, nongovernmental organizations & civil society, including community spiritual leaders/healers. This paper brings together the current best evidence to support transformation & discusses key approaches to achieve this, including skill mix and/or task shifting and integrated care. The important factors that need to be in place to support skill mix/task shifting and good integrated care are outlined with reference to EMR countries. PMID:26442888

  9. Sharps container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  10. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  11. Deriving a Standard Cost Base for Cost/Benefit Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGurn, Wealtha Collins

    This paper presents a standard costing model appropriate for determining real costs of programs which are not entirely self-contained. Central to the model is the concept of allocation pools involving resources which are not attributable to a single program or program component, but whose costs must be shared by any given program which is part of…

  12. Rinse food containers. PLASTIC CONTAINERS

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    Rinse food containers. PLASTIC CONTAINERS PLASTIC BOTTLES & BOTTLE CAPS PLASTIC CUPS EXCEPT FOAM CUPS PLASTIC LIDS PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SANDWICH BAGS BUBBLE WRAP ALUMINUM/STEEL CANS GLASS of any color - www.jmu.edu/stewardship JMU WASTE BIN GUIDE Food residue, liquids and trash contaminate the recycling

  13. Financial Policy Manual ACCOUNTING POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    is to account for resources in accordance with objectives established by the Trustees, management, donorsFinancial Policy Manual Page 1 ACCOUNTING POLICIES 1101 General Accounting Policy ­ University Financial Activity 1102 General Accounting Policy ­ Financial Resources 1103 Accounting System Maintenance

  14. Costs of groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

  15. MODELING CLIMATE POLICY: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES OF POLICY EFFECTIVENESS AND

    E-print Network

    Supervisor Professor, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University Andre Plourde External examiner of international competitiveness, and concentration of costs amongst vulnerable demographic groups, regions. These models are applied to examine both proposed and existing climate change and energy efficiency policies

  16. Sustainability Policy Statement of Intent

    E-print Network

    Lasenby, Joan

    Sustainability Policy Statement of Intent Trinity Hall Conference and Catering Department. · Ensure that sustainability criteria are included in specifications to suppliers. · Ensure that sustainability criteria are used in the award of contracts. · Consider whole life costs when assessing product

  17. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

  18. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  19. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible...Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will reimburse...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual costs....

  20. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible...Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will reimburse...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual costs....

  1. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible...Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will reimburse...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual costs....

  2. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible...Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will reimburse...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual costs....

  3. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible...Participating Agencies. To make an Alert or Activation cost-neutral, DHS will reimburse...Participating Agency incurs during the Alert or Activation. (b) Actual costs....

  4. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  5. 48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired...

  6. 48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired...

  7. 48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired...

  8. 48 CFR 223.7301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Minimizing the Use of Materials Containing Hexavalent Chromium 223.7301 Policy. It is DoD policy to minimize hexavalent chromium (an anti-corrosive) in items acquired...

  9. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  10. NIH and NCI Grants-Related Policies

    Cancer.gov

    This section contains links compiled by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI policies related to grant applications and has FAQs related to grants policies.

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  12. Financial Policy Manual GIFT POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 GIFT POLICIES 2201 Gift Date Policy 2202 Gift Receipt Policy 2203 Gift Valuation for Publicly-Traded Securities 2204 Gifts of Securities (liquid) 2205 Gifts of Service 2206 Illiquid Gift Acceptance Policy 2207 Gifts in Kind 2208 Gifts of Currency 2209 Gifts of Insurance

  13. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  14. 48 CFR 1516.303-72 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 1516.303-72 Section 1516.303-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-72 Policy. (a) The Agency shall use cost-sharing contracts where...

  15. 33 CFR 277.6 - Basic policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interests desire improvements or modifications in the new bridge design for reasons other than that required... WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: NAVIGATION POLICY: COST APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS... costs of bridge alterations recommended by reporting officers in the interest of navigation...

  16. 33 CFR 277.6 - Basic policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interests desire improvements or modifications in the new bridge design for reasons other than that required... WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: NAVIGATION POLICY: COST APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS... costs of bridge alterations recommended by reporting officers in the interest of navigation...

  17. 33 CFR 277.6 - Basic policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interests desire improvements or modifications in the new bridge design for reasons other than that required... WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: NAVIGATION POLICY: COST APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS... costs of bridge alterations recommended by reporting officers in the interest of navigation...

  18. 33 CFR 277.6 - Basic policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interests desire improvements or modifications in the new bridge design for reasons other than that required... WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: NAVIGATION POLICY: COST APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS... costs of bridge alterations recommended by reporting officers in the interest of navigation...

  19. 33 CFR 277.6 - Basic policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interests desire improvements or modifications in the new bridge design for reasons other than that required... WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: NAVIGATION POLICY: COST APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS... costs of bridge alterations recommended by reporting officers in the interest of navigation...

  20. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  1. Repository containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, H.; Mogg, C.

    1994-12-31

    UK Nirex Limited is concentrating its further investigations at Sellafield in Cumbria to establish the sites suitability as a safe location for a deep disposal facility for intermediate and low level radioactive waste. Good progress has been achieved in the Site Characterization Program. The emerging picture of the geology and hydrogeology continues to suggest that the site holds good promise as a potential repository location. This paper sets out the latest results from site investigations at Sellafield and reviews some possibilities for enhancing waste containment deep underground at the site.

  2. Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy University Facilities POLICY 9 in them through every major building project. Contained in the policy are procedures, responsibilities that will be LEED certified, and those that will adhere to sustainable building practices. 1.0 Sustainable Building

  3. 48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  4. COST MODEL FOR LARGE URBAN SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'BRIEN, RICHARD J.

    THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COST SUBMODEL OF AN URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THIS MODEL REQUIRES THAT PUPIL POPULATION AND PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING ARE KNOWN. THE COST ELEMENTS ARE--(1) CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF NEW PLANTS, (2) ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF BUILDING SITES, (3) CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES OF THE PROPOSED SCHOOL, (4) PUPIL…

  5. Predictable Unpredictability: the Problem with Basing Medicare Policy on Long-Term Financial Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry; Zaylor, Abigail

    2015-07-01

    The authors assess how Medicare financing and projections of future costs have changed since 2000. They also assess the impact of legislative reforms on the sources and levels of financing and compare cost forecasts made at different times. Although the aging U.S. population and rising health care costs are expected to increase the share of gross domestic product devoted to Medicare, changes made in the program over the past decade have helped stabilize Medicare's financial outlook--even as benefits have been expanded. Long-term forecasting uncertainty should make policymakers and beneficiaries wary of dramatic changes to the program in the near term that are intended to alter its long-term forecast: the range of error associated with cost forecasts rises as the forecast window lengthens. Instead, policymakers should focus on the immediate policy window, taking steps to reduce the current burden of Medicare costs by containing spending today. PMID:26219117

  6. POLICY NUMBER 2006-13 June 23, 2006

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    costs (RC) of a Cancer Clinical Trial. http://www.cslib.org/psaindex.htm SCOPE: This policy applies onlyPOLICY NUMBER 2006-13 June 23, 2006 POLICY: HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS to routine costs (RC) of a Qualifying Cancer Clinical Trial as described in the Connecticut General Statutes

  7. Administration Policy Admin-FinAffairs-AP-01

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    conform to this policy or external restrictions before the cost is incurred. Definitions Individual: Any additional expense specific policy information. Scope This policy applies to any individual seeking reimbursement from the University for costs incurred by the individual in carrying out University business

  8. Prince George's Community College Annual Cost Containment Report. Submitted to the Maryland Higher Education Commission and the Maryland General Assembly in Compliance with Section 8 of Chapter 465 of the Acts of 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Board of Trustees.

    Each year, the Board of Trustees of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) in Largo, Maryland, must submit a report evaluating the effectiveness of PGCC's financial plan to the state's Higher Education Committee and General Assembly. This report, for fiscal year (FY) 1993, is divided into four sections. The first section reviews the cost

  9. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations. (a) General. EPA policy is that the cost or...

  10. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations. (a) General. EPA policy is that the cost or...

  11. Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Amitabh

    In the Medicare program, increases in cost sharing by a supplemental insurer can exert financial externalities. We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public ...

  12. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...established personnel policy. Types of salary increases given—merit, cost of living, etc. —should be discussed...should state the percentage and provide a justification for that figure. (6) Other Direct Costs. The offeror shall briefly...

  13. 13 CFR 120.884 - Ineligible costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Loan-Making Policies Specific to 504 Loans § 120.884 Ineligible costs for 504 loans. Costs not directly attributable and...

  14. Seeking value as cancer drug costs soar.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-08-01

    As significant increases in the costs of cancer drugs cause financial difficulties for many U.S. patients, some oncologists suggest that changes in pricing policies at the federal and state levels are inevitable. PMID:23928760

  15. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  16. Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

  17. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  18. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  19. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  20. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  9. A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management 

    E-print Network

    Spencer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

  10. Opportunity Cost of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkoglu, Recep

    2004-01-01

    In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

  11. Critical Policy Sociology: Historiography, Archaeology and Genealogy as Methods of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    Examines the essential characteristics of three approaches to conducting critical policy sociology of higher education: Historiography, archaeology, and genealogy. Draws on Australian higher education policy research to illustrate the use of these three methods. (Contains 65 references.) (PKP)

  12. NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

  13. On the Cost of Educating a Medical Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.; Korn, David

    1997-01-01

    Reviews studies of costs of medical education and looks at trends and issues in medical school cost containment. Finds curricular trends are tending to increase costs, and proposals to restructure medical education to reduce costs are generally maneuvers to transfer cost responsibility to other entities. Sees minimal opportunities for cost

  14. Commentary on NTIS Document Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Robert J.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes it would be appropriate to review the current National Technical Information Service (NTIS) pricing policy in terms of its rationale, legality, and the possibility of mitigating or reversing the demonstrated pattern of repeated cost increases. (Author/SJ)

  15. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  16. Handbook for estimating fabrication costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Guide helps design engineers determine total cost of fabricating electronic equipment. It contains tables of "factors" for determining costs associated with fabrication. "Standards" section includes estimations of time required for procedures ranging from machining, to wiring, to printed-circuit board fabrication.

  17. How to Cut Publications Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

    This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

  18. 25 CFR 700.81 - Monthly housing cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monthly housing cost. 700.81 Section 700.81 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.81 Monthly housing cost. (a) General. The term monthly housing...) Computation of monthly housing cost for replacement dwelling. A person's monthly housing cost for...

  19. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  20. Health promotion in nursing and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jadelhack, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Close examination of the different healthcare systems and the present economic crisis worldwide suggests that all health organizations should re-evaluate the concept of health promotion and its relationship to cost-effectiveness. When choosing the most efficient and cost-effective system, each nation's healthcare system must seriously start to implement strategies for the change. Health professions, including nursing, must change their vision of education both in academic and practice settings, to focus on health promotion and illness prevention. The key principle underlying this paper is to illustrate the importance of health promotion and cost-effectiveness being adopted by all health organizations worldwide, as well as to observe the experiences of selected counties in developing a health policy related to education in primary healthcare. The paper will include a plan adopted by the General Nursing Directorate (GND) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), which contains a health promotion policy for the nursing administrations in all governmental primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22924205

  1. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  2. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting...

  3. A comparison of public policies for lead recycling

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01

    Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

  4. Three Essays on Impact Evaluation of Public Policies 

    E-print Network

    Sanchez, Gonzalo Eduardo

    2015-03-03

    This dissertation analyzes the impact of three public policies. Each essay attempts to identify the effects of a specific public policy using different methods. The first studies the effect of low-cost intervention on tax ...

  5. Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to

    E-print Network

    Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to Achieve Solar Penetration Targets: Accounting States. Keywords: Photovoltaics, policy, financing, environmental, emissions, costs, SunShot *tel +1212...................................................................................... 14 4.1.5. FINANCING OPTIONS / LOAN GUARANTEES

  6. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case 2012-D038) AGENCY: Defense...to explicitly state that fringe benefit costs incurred or estimated that are contrary...Defense Pricing policy memo ``Unallowable Costs for Ineligible Dependent Health Care...

  7. 39 CFR 261.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 261.3 Section 261.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT § 261.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Postal Service: (a) To, as appropriate, create, preserve, protect and disclose records which contain adequate and...

  8. Student Development Enrolled Student Records Policy

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Megan

    1 Student Development Enrolled Student Records Policy Policy: It is the policy of Student records of enrolled students, including the files containing materials obtained by the Admissions Office as enrolled students sought admission to the College, per the regulations set forth by the Family Education

  9. Reagan's Foreign Policy: An Assessment (I) Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Whittle

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between former U.S. President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and those of his predecessors. Focuses on the differences between Reagan's policies and those of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Analyzes Reagan's policies of containment, human rights, and arms control. Discusses criticisms launched against Reagan's…

  10. Estimation of health care costs and cost recovery: the case of Rafidya Hospital in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer F K; Plante, Catherine; Forgione, Dana A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimation model for health care costs and cost recovery, and evaluate service sustainability under an uncertain environment. The Palestinian National Authority's recent focus on improving financial accountability supports the need to research health care costs in the Palestinian territories. We examine data from Rafidya Hospital from 2005-2009 and use step-down allocation to distribute overhead costs. We use an ingredient approach to estimate the costs and revenues of health services, and logarithmic estimation to prospectively estimate the demand for 2011. Our results indicate that while cost recovery is generally insufficient for long-term sustainability, some services can recover their costs in the short run. Our results provide information useful for health care policy makers in setting multiple-goal policies related to health care financing in Palestine, and provide an important initiative in the estimation of health service costs. PMID:24003761

  11. Uncertainty Quantification and Calibration in Well Construction Cost Estimates 

    E-print Network

    Valdes Machado, Alejandro

    2013-08-05

    The feasibility and success of petroleum development projects depend to a large degree on well construction costs. Well construction cost estimates often contain high levels of uncertainty. In many cases, these costs have been estimated using...

  12. Electoral backlash against climate policy : a natural experiment on retrospective voting and local resistance to public policy

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Leah C

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective voting studies typically examine policies where the public has common interests. By contrast, climate policy has broad public support but concentrated opposition in communities where costs are imposed. This ...

  13. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  14. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  16. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  17. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  1. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  3. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recognized as expenditures in compliance with OMB Cost Policies, i.e., OMB Circular A-87, 24 CFR 85.36, and... and equipment, and costs associated with self evaluation or assessment (not to exceed one percent of... to administering medication, purchase of medical supplies, equipment and medications,...

  4. How to calculate total purchase cost.

    PubMed

    Harding, M L

    1998-05-01

    Companies wanting to implement a total cost-based supplier selection process often stumble over how to include nonmonetary issues such as delivery and quality performance, lead time, services, and social policies. This article describes a process that allows a company to include any issue it deems relevant and to determine its cost factor. PMID:10178553

  5. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  6. Standard cost elements for technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

  7. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Financial Policy Manual CASH POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 CASH POLICIES 1501 Banking Relationships 1502 Working Capital Management 1503 Signatory Authority 1504 Deposit of Cash Receipts 1505 Facsimile Signatures 1506 Imprest Balance Accounts ­ Petty Cash 1507 Imprest Balance Accounts ­ Separately Administered Bank Accounts 1508

  9. University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist

    E-print Network

    Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist The University Policy Office (UPO) has designed the Policy Development Checklist to assist you develop or revise university policy practices. #12;University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist Page 2 of 6 University policies may

  10. Determination of optimal LWR containment design, excluding accidents more severe than Class 8

    SciTech Connect

    Cave, L.; Min, T.K.

    1980-04-01

    Information is presented concerning the restrictive effect of existing NRC requirements; definition of possible targets for containment; possible containment systems for LWR; optimization of containment design for class 3 through class 8 accidents (PWR); estimated costs of some possible containment arrangements for PWR relative to the standard dry containment system; estimated costs of BWR containment.

  11. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1989-09-01

    ``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

  12. 76 FR 5180 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  13. 77 FR 801 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  14. 75 FR 2551 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  15. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources...amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it relates to the...amounts of an average cost of a health insurance policy, as determined by...

  16. 77 FR 801 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it... available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline...

  17. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy... available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline...

  18. Self Contained Temperature Actuated Control Valves 

    E-print Network

    Pirkle, F.

    1979-01-01

    There is a virtually unlimited potential for energy conservation by utilizing self contained temperature actuated valves. As steam costs soar it becomes more and more important to conserve feed stock dollars as well as the energy these dollars...

  19. Fat Tails, Thin Tails, and Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy is complicated by the considerable compounded uncertainties over the costs and benefits of abatement. We don’t even know the probability distributions for future temperatures and impacts, making cost-benefit ...

  20. Fat Tails, Thin Tails, and Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy is complicated by the considerable uncertainties concerning the benefits and costs of abatement. We do not even know the probability distributions for future temperatures and impacts, making benefit–cost ...

  1. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non-traded inflation produces a unique solution so long as the nominal interest rate is raised more than one for one with increases in non-traded inflation. A policy of stabilizing core inflation, however, produces a unique solution only if the response is greater than one for one and less then one divided by one minus the share of the non-traded good in the CPI. In the third chapter I consider monetary and fiscal policy responses to oil price shocks in a low income oil importing country. The model used in this chapter differs from the model in the second chapter in that there is currency substitution, household demand for oil products, and a potential subsidy on the purchase of oil products by households. I examine the dynamic properties and the welfare implications of a set of inflation targeting policies and a group of policies that subsidize the price of oil and finance the subsidy through a combination of raising lump sum taxes and printing money. The dynamic properties of the inflation targeting policies are similar in many regards to those in the second chapter as the key assumptions driving the results are the same in the two models. For the policies which subsidize the price of oil I show that both the choice to have the subsidy and how to finance it matter a great deal for the behavior of the macroeconomic variables. In terms of welfare, for most calibrations there are only minor differences between the inflation targeting polices, the policy with a subsidy funded by lump sum taxes, and the baseline policy with no subsidy. The policy with a subsidy financed by the inflation tax generally causes significant welfare losses compared to the policy with no pass through.

  2. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  3. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  4. G:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    and research, from which it allocates an annual budget to the Library. #12;G:\\library-managementG:\\library-management\\Policies\\Coll_Man_PolicySept08.doc 1 University of Sussex Library Collection Management Policy 1. Introduction The University of Sussex Library contains 800,000 books, to which about 15

  5. 48 CFR 1334.201-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.201-70 Policy. (a) In accordance with the Department's Information Technology Investment Performance Measurement and Performance Reporting... information technology development in which the development/modernization/enhancement costs are anticipated...

  6. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  7. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  8. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  9. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  10. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  11. 48 CFR 201.301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of DoD or a significant cost or administrative... Logistics) (USD (AT&L)) approval for use of the policy, procedure, clause, or form (see 201.304(1))...

  12. 48 CFR 201.301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of DoD or a significant cost or administrative... Logistics) (USD (AT&L)) approval for use of the policy, procedure, clause, or form (see 201.304(1))...

  13. 48 CFR 201.301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of DoD or a significant cost or administrative... Logistics) (USD (AT&L)) approval for use of the policy, procedure, clause, or form (see 201.304(1))...

  14. 48 CFR 201.301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of DoD or a significant cost or administrative... Logistics) (USD (AT&L)) approval for use of the policy, procedure, clause, or form (see 201.304(1))...

  15. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  16. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  17. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  18. 48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy. In selecting offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities...

  19. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  20. 48 CFR 48.102 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.102...establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes. Agencies...Contracting activities will include value engineering provisions in appropriate...

  1. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  2. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  3. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  4. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. PMID:26051754

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  6. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  8. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  9. Listening for Prescriptions: A National Consultation on Pharmaceutical Policy Issues

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steve; Cunningham, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Methods: Pharmaceutical policy is an increasingly costly, essential and challenging component of health system management. We sought to identify priority pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada and to translate them into research priorities using key informant interviews, stakeholder surveys and a deliberative workshop. Results: We found consensus on overarching policy goals: to provide all Canadians with equitable and sustainable access to necessary medicines. We also found widespread frustration that many key pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada — including improving prescription drug financing and pricing — have been persistent challenges owing to a lack of policy coordination. The coverage of extraordinarily costly medicines for serious conditions was identified as a rapidly emerging policy issue. Conclusion: Targeted research and knowledge translation activities can help address key policy issues and, importantly, challenges of policy coordination in Canada and thereby reduce inequity and inefficiency in policy approaches and outcomes. PMID:22043223

  10. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The cost-sharing formula. 27.1164 Section...2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave...2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1164 The cost-sharing formula. An AWS...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The cost-sharing formula. 27.1180 Section...2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband...2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1180 The cost-sharing formula. (a) An AWS...

  12. GUIDELINES FOR REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF RESEARCH COST SHARE FUNDS

    E-print Network

    Salama, Khaled

    8/28/00 GUIDELINES FOR REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF RESEARCH COST SHARE FUNDS Rensselaer Polytechnic its commitment to cost sharing of research awards, with emphasis on areas of strategic priority. This policy is intended to provide a consistent and efficient means to allocate cost share funds

  13. Costs and effects of new professional roles: Evidence from a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tsiachristas, A; Wallenburg, I; Bond, C M; Elliot, R F; Busse, R; van Exel, J; Rutten-van Mölken, M P; de Bont, A

    2015-09-01

    One way in which governments are seeking to improve the efficiency of the health care sector is by redesigning health services to contain labour costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of new professional roles on a wide range of health service outcomes and costs. A systematic literature review was performed by searching in different databases for evaluation papers of new professional roles (published 1985-2013). The PRISMA checklist was used to conduct and report the systematic literature review and the EPHPP-Quality Assessment Tool to assess the quality of the studies. Forty-one studies of specialist nurses (SNs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) were selected for data extraction and analysis. The 25 SN studies evaluated most often quality of life (10 studies), clinical outcomes (8), and costs (8). Significant advantages were seen most frequently regarding health care utilization (in 3 of 3 studies), patient information (5 of 6), and patient satisfaction (4 of 6). The 16 ANP studies evaluated most often patient satisfaction (8), clinical outcomes (5), and costs (5). Significant advantages were seen most frequently regarding clinical outcomes (5 of 5), patient information (3 of 4), and patient satisfaction (5 of 8). Promoting new professional roles may help improve health care delivery and possibly contain costs. Exploring the optimal skill-mix deserves further attention from health care professionals, researchers and policy makers. PMID:25899880

  14. Grantee Research Highlight: Developing Innovative Methods to Estimate Costs of Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Estimating the total cost of cancer care, from diagnosis to death, is an important goal for researchers and policy makers. These costs generally follow a U-shaped curve, in which initial costs around diagnosis and primary treatment are very high. Costs then diminish during survivorship. If the cancer recurs, costs escalate again because of renewed treatment and end-of-life care.

  15. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  16. Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments in large reservoirs.

  17. Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Student Event Risk Management Policy ............................................................................................................................................................5 #12;Student Event Risk Management Policy Page 1 May 1, 2009 PREAMBLE/PURPOSE 1. All student).......................................................................................................3 Primary Event Organizer

  18. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard....501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  19. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard....501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Accounting for...

  1. DPPS SCHEDULING POLICIES IN SEMICONDUCTOR Jim Dai and Steven Neuroth

    E-print Network

    Dai, Jiangang "Jim"

    DPPS SCHEDULING POLICIES IN SEMICONDUCTOR WAFER FABS Jim Dai and Steven Neuroth School MEASURES Performance of a fab is commonly measured using cost, throughput, WIP, and cycle-time. Generally of a fab is considered. A scheduling policy can have an effect on inventory that directly relates to cost

  2. Three air quality policy case studies: Evaluating mass balance closure and the federal reference method for PM2.5, impacts of light duty diesel vehicles for GHG emissions control, and fleet hybridization as a cost-effective carbon dioxide reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Sarah L.

    This dissertation examines several policy issues in air quality regarding fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. First, mass balance closure for the Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring PM2.5 is examined using extensive data available from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS). Evaluating the data from PAQS for different measurement techniques provides insight as to the measurement artifacts associated with the FRM, which is the legal definition of PM2.5. This insight is in turn helpful in evaluating effective control technologies to attain PM 2.5 regulatory standards. The second policy issue evaluated is that of light duty diesel vehicles, and whether they provide the reductions in GHG emissions promised. If so, whether they produce corresponding adverse air quality impacts, and how significant these are. Finally, the current trend of purchasing hybrid vehicles for government fleet use is examined using real time data from the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Evaluating these data allows for a determination as to whether the fuel savings and GHG emission reductions achieved from the widespread use of hybrids in the fleet are worth the additional capital cost from the purchase of hybrids, and whether there are other strategies that could achieve similar reductions without incurring such capital costs.

  3. Public Policy and Pharmaceutical Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Henry G.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

  4. On Mechanisms for Deadlock Avoidance in SIP Servlet Containers

    E-print Network

    Stirewalt, Kurt

    On Mechanisms for Deadlock Avoidance in SIP Servlet Containers Y. Huang, L. K. Dillon, and R. E. K to multi- threaded SIP servlet containers. Unfortunately, the standard specifica- tion for these containers threads. In addition to the obvious portability problems, some policies make servlet code prone

  5. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  6. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  7. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  8. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  9. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  10. Administration Policy Admin-FinAffairs-AP-01

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    expenses conform to this policy or external restrictions before the cost is incurred. Definitions of funding is external and additional restrictions apply guiding reimbursements the external restrictions and to provide additional expense specific policy information. Scope · This policy applies to any individual

  11. 25 CFR 36.94 - What must a homeliving handbook contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contain all of the following, and may include additional information: (a) Mission/Vision Statement; (b...) Transportation Policy; (m) Check-Out Procedures; (n) Dress Code; (o) Drug/Alcohol Policy; (p) Computer...

  12. 25 CFR 36.94 - What must a homeliving handbook contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contain all of the following, and may include additional information: (a) Mission/Vision Statement; (b...) Transportation Policy; (m) Check-Out Procedures; (n) Dress Code; (o) Drug/Alcohol Policy; (p) Computer...

  13. 25 CFR 36.94 - What must a homeliving handbook contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contain all of the following, and may include additional information: (a) Mission/Vision Statement; (b...) Transportation Policy; (m) Check-Out Procedures; (n) Dress Code; (o) Drug/Alcohol Policy; (p) Computer...

  14. 25 CFR 36.94 - What must a homeliving handbook contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contain all of the following, and may include additional information: (a) Mission/Vision Statement; (b...) Transportation Policy; (m) Check-Out Procedures; (n) Dress Code; (o) Drug/Alcohol Policy; (p) Computer...

  15. 25 CFR 36.94 - What must a homeliving handbook contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contain all of the following, and may include additional information: (a) Mission/Vision Statement; (b...) Transportation Policy; (m) Check-Out Procedures; (n) Dress Code; (o) Drug/Alcohol Policy; (p) Computer...

  16. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  17. State and Local Clean Energy Policy Primer: Getting from Here to Clean Electricity with Policy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This fact sheet proposes a framework for how states and localities can build policy portfolios by first setting the stage for clean energy in the market with low cost policies, and then growing the market with successive policies until the need for financial incentives can be reduced and eventually eliminated.

  18. UMBC Policy # IV 2.00.02 Page 1 of 3 UMBC POLICY ON SPONSORED PROJECTS AND GIFTS

    E-print Network

    Suri, Manil

    This policy applies to all externally funded projects and gifts. IV. DEFINITIONS Classifying funding, accounts for the funds provided, applies Facilities and Administrative (F&A or "indirect") costs.00.02 I. POLICY STATEMENT This policy is created to assist in the solicitation of external funding from

  19. Cut Costs! Not Corners! The Helping Hand Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Claire

    This guide is intended to help employees in the hotel and catering industry to cut costs without cutting corners by showing more concern to cost containment measures and increasing personal productivity. The first three sections discuss the importance of the individual employee's behavior to overall cost containment in the workplace, and different…

  20. Public policy and healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Nuwer, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Public policy in healthcare affects physician and patient choices. In many ways it may limit choices. These choices present conflicts that are discussed here. Some issues depend on the laws enacted to enable either a single-payer system or that mixed with a private-payer system. In each case, the systems attain some cost controls through means such as gatekeepers, long wait lists, authorization processes, national fee schedules, complex coding schemes, or placing physicians on salary. National health systems are compared here. No one system has proven completely satisfactory, and each has its advantages. There are many factors that contribute to the escalating costs of care that lead to many healthcare public policies to constrain costs. Initiatives to incentivize preventive actions are a more positive step, but ones that are difficult to define in detail. PMID:24182385

  1. Policy Chart

    Cancer.gov

    Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

  2. Policy Chart

    Cancer.gov

    Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIH Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

  3. Policy Handout

    Cancer.gov

    Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NCI Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

  4. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The renewable energy penetration model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the regional or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decisions; and the Regional Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM) which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. In 1993, the OUT supported the Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE) to form an expert panel to provide an independent review of the REP model and TFRM. This report contains the panel`s evaluation of the REP model; the TFRM is evaluated in a companion report. The panel did not review the REPAM. The panel met for a second time in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this second meeting. The remainder of this chapter provides a description of the REP model and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, transmission, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  5. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis: is it ethical?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A

    1992-01-01

    Many clinicians believe that allowing costs to influence clinical decisions is unethical. They are mistaken in this belief, because it cannot be ethical to ignore the adverse consequences upon others of the decisions you make, which is what 'costs' represent. There are, however, some important ethical issues in deciding what costs to count, and how to count them. But these dilemmas are equally strong with respect to what benefits to count and how to count them, some of which expose ethically untenable assumptions about such widely-used clinical criteria as survival rates. One of the advantages of systematic cost-effectiveness analysis is that it exposes these hidden assumptions, and requires explicit judgements to be made about which ethical position is appropriate in a particular policy context. This should have the important incidental benefit of improving the accountability of policy-makers to the community they are serving. PMID:1573655

  7. Program Costs and Student Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  8. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi?bik, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  9. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi?bik, Andrzej

    2011-11-01

    Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  10. Introduction of Filtration Systems in Container Nurseries for Nonchemical

    E-print Network

    In a 3-year project the elimination of Phytophthora spp. from the recirculation water with different horticultural industry. The plants are cultivated outdoors in containers in special areas (container stands nutrition, pH etc. will be analysed. Costs ­ Cost for running the recirculation system under commercial

  11. The Disappearing Fourth Wall: John Marburger, Science Policy, and the SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert

    2015-04-01

    John H. Marburger (1941-2011) was a skilled science administrator who had a fresh and unique approach to science policy and science leadership. His posthumously published book Science Policy up Close contains recollections of key science policy episodes in which he participated or observed closely. One was the administration of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC); Marburger was Chairman of the Universities Research Association, the group charged with managing the SSC, from 1988-1994. Many accounts of the SSC saga attribute its demise to a combination of transitory factors: poor management, rising cost estimates, the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus of the Cold War threat, complaints by ``small science'' that the SSC's ``big science'' was consuming their budget, Congress's desire to cut spending, unwarranted contract regulations imposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to environmental lapses at nuclear weapons laboratories, and so forth. Marburger tells a subtler story whose implications for science policy are more significant and far-reaching. The story involves changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects that reach back to management reforms introduced by the administration of Presidents Johnson, Nixon, and Carter in the 1960s and 1970s. This experience impressed Marburger with the inevitability of public oversight of large scientific projects, and with the need for planners of such projects to establish and make public a cost and schedule tracking system that would model the project's progress and expenditures.

  12. Editor's notes: POLICY TITLE: Carnegie Mellon University Business and Travel Expense Policy

    E-print Network

    . Miscellaneous Travel Costs 6. Personal and Companion/Spousal Business and Travel Expenses a. General b. Personal1 Editor's notes: POLICY TITLE: Carnegie Mellon University Business and Travel Expense Policy DATE business and travel expenses incurred and/or expense reports submitted on or after March 14, 2011

  13. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  14. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...system, the State agency's bid solicitation...date of the State agency's current infant formula...section). FNS reserves the right to exclude a State agency...that the State agency's procurement...

  15. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...system, the State agency's bid solicitation...date of the State agency's current infant formula...section). FNS reserves the right to exclude a State agency...that the State agency's procurement...

  16. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and... in that round of the national bid solicitation and selection. (5) At a minimum, in soliciting...

  17. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and... in that round of the national bid solicitation and selection. (5) At a minimum, in soliciting...

  18. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

  19. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

  20. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  1. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  2. 48 CFR 439.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 439.101 Policy. (a) In addition to policy and regulatory guidance contained in the FAR and AGAR: (1) The USDA Information Technology Capital Planning and Investment Control Guide (CPIC) establishes requirements for the acquisition of information technology....

  3. 75 FR 78798 - Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...airports/aip/bc_analysis/. In addition, hard...policy on Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) requirements for airport capacity projects; factors leading to these requirements...Regarding Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) on Airport...

  4. Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/

    E-print Network

    Sonnet, Maria Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

  5. Uncertainty in Greenhouse Emissions and Costs of Atmospheric Stabilization

    E-print Network

    Webster, Mort D.

    We explore the uncertainty in projections of emissions, and costs of atmospheric stabilization applying the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. ...

  6. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, L.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

  7. The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan

    E-print Network

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

  8. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the...

  9. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the...

  10. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the...

  11. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the...

  12. 10 CFR 603.575 - Repayment of Federal cost share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.575 Repayment of Federal cost share. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58), section 988(e), the...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... information required by CAR 1352.215-70, the cost/price proposal must contain an explanation of the...

  14. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... information required by CAR 1352.215-70, the cost/price proposal must contain an explanation of the...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... information required by CAR 1352.215-70, the cost/price proposal must contain an explanation of the...

  16. 75 FR 2551 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it... insurance policy, as determined by the Secretary, are to be published periodically in a notice in...

  17. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy as it... insurance policy, as determined by the Secretary, are to be published periodically in a notice in...

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-print Network

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets://MIT.EDU/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan Sergey Paltsev, John and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus

  19. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    agency x Tracking of committed cost share is required to meet federal regulations (OMB A-110) x UCSD has has been met #12;2 Cost Sharing System Components and Functions x Search Locate award with cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data

  20. Content Development Policy 1 Content Development Policy

    E-print Network

    Abrahams, I. David

    Content Development Policy 1 Content Development Policy #12;2 Content Development Policy Contents...................................................................................................................................................................8 #12;Content Development Policy 3 Introduction This Content Development Policy sets out the Library, learning and research at The University of Manchester. It has been developed to respond both to the needs

  1. English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This Policy sets out the University's requirements for, and expectations of, UTS students' English language proficiency at admission and during Language Policy 2 1. Purpose This Policy sets out the University's requirements for, and expectations of

  2. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  3. Promotion: Responsibilities, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez, Miguel; And Others

    Designed by librarians and administrators of the Florida International University in compliance with the requirements of the Florida Board of Regents, this document contains a list of responsibilities, policies, and procedures for the promotion process in library administration. It is noted that the promotion decision is one of the most important…

  4. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

  5. Solar array cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brief description is given of the cost of solar power systems over the last decade and means by which cost reductions may be achieved in the future. Costs were broken down into nonrecurring and recurring costs for solar array, battery, and power conditioning. Correlation of costs with power were poor; however, costs correlated reasonably well with the array area.

  6. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  7. 18 CFR 292.306 - Interconnection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interconnection costs. 292.306 Section 292.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS UNDER SECTIONS 201 AND 210 OF THE...

  8. Thoreau's Pencil and Baumol's Cost Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone knows perfectly well that tuitions have outpaced inflation every year since Homer was a pup. Tuition sticker shock, that ineluctable annual rise in school costs, causes the nation sporadic fits of hand wringing, belt tightening, and taxpayer revolt. Most troubling of all, it has inspired an industry of policy wonks, efficiency experts,…

  9. Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

  10. 2012 NASA Cost Estimating Handbook Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Stukes, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The major goal is to ensure that appropriate policy is adopted and that best practices are being developed, communicated, and used across the Agency. -- Accomplished by engaging the NASA Cost Estimating Community representatives in the update. Scheduled to be complete by the end of FY 2012. Document has been through 3 detailed reviews across NASA.

  11. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligible costs. 27.1238 Section 27.1238 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing...

  12. HIV COST AND SERVICES UTILIZATION STUDY (HCSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) is the first major research effort to collect information on a nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV infection. HCSUS is funded through a cooperative agreement between the Agency for Health Care Policy Resea...

  13. Free Chair Massage No cost. No Kidding.

    E-print Network

    ···························································· Free Chair Massage No cost. No Kidding. On Tuesdays and Fridays, treat yourself to a Free Chair Massage at the Student Recreation Center starting June;···························································· Policies: 1. This service is intended for SRC members only. 2. Massage will be provided on a first come

  14. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15...

  15. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15...

  16. Neurosurgery value and quality in the context of the Affordable Care Act: a policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Guthikonda, Bharat; Storey, Christopher M; Nanda, Anil; McGirt, Matthew; Asher, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Neurosurgeons provide direct individualized care to patients. However, the majority of regulations affecting the relative value of patient-related care are drafted by policy experts whose focus is typically system- and population-based. A central, prospectively gathered, national outcomes-related database serves as neurosurgery's best opportunity to bring patient-centered outcomes to the policy arena. In this study the authors analyze the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the determination of quality and value in neurosurgery care through the scope, language, and terminology of policy experts. The methods by which the ACA came into law and the subsequent quality implications this legislation has for neurosurgery will be discussed. The necessity of neurosurgical patient-oriented clinical registries will be discussed in the context of imminent and dramatic reforms related to medical cost containment. In the policy debate moving forward, the strength of neurosurgery's argument will rest on data, unity, and proactiveness. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD) allows neurosurgeons to generate objective data on specialty-specific value and quality determinations; it allows neurosurgeons to bring the patient-physician interaction to the policy debate. PMID:26621419

  17. Rate Regulation as a Policy Tool: Lessons From New York State

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Irene

    1995-01-01

    For over a decade, New York State has used hospital rate regulation (the New York Prospective Hospital Reimbursement Methodology [NYPHRM]) as a policy tool to achieve three objectives: containing costs, supporting financially stressed hospitals, and financing access to care for the uninsured. This case study of NYPHRM suggests that the regulatory approach, if pursued with vigor, can achieve any one of these goals. On the other hand, the New York experience also shows that these are competing goals, and that achieving all of them over a period of time can prove to be difficult. PMID:10142575

  18. Teaming up to take down costs.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Brent W; Mann, Howard G; Martin, Cole O; Menninger, Bonar

    2014-12-01

    By linking specialty-specific clinical teams with supply chain experts, Saint Luke's Health System established cost-containment strategies that align with clinical pathways and create new leverage with vendors. Since the initiative launched in January 2013, Saint Luke's has reduced medical supply costs by more than $6 million. In several instances, physicians have led the way in formulating cost-cutting ideas that exceeded the expectations of supply chain administrators. PMID:25647929

  19. Financial Policy Manual RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 RISK MANAGEMENT POLICIES 2601 Departmental Scope & Responsibility;Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2601 DEPARTMENTAL SCOPE & RESPONSIBILITY Subject: Risk Management & Insurance Effective: December 1986 Revised: May 2011 Last Reviewed: March 2014 Resp. Office: Risk Management

  20. 78 FR 78366 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...Industry on Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances; Availability AGENCY...Naming of Drug Products Containing Salt Drug Substances.'' The United States...compendial drug products that contain a salt. Under the new policy, drug names...