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1

Cost containment and the backdraft of competition policies.  

PubMed

This article offers an explanation of why governments and other purchasers found competition policies attractive, and it summarizes a set of new case studies. Faced with economic slowdown and the need to retrench social services, governments felt their legitimacy threatened and sought a new approach that would legitimize controlling costs. Starting in the 1980s, a group of pro-capitalist "moral entrepreneurs" launched an international business movement focused on reducing waste in governmental and welfare services through competition and privatization. Political leaders in a number of the developed industrialized countries enthusiastically embraced "managed competition" as a way to control the costs of health care services and to make them more accountable. The dangers of implementation and the extensive market failures that are ever-present in medicine, however, led most governments to pull back. Most nations that implemented competition policies experienced a political backdraft of protest from patients and providers that swept them out of office. PMID:11809005

Light, D W

2001-01-01

2

Cracking the Books: Policy Measures to Contain Textbook Costs. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As parents and students struggle with increasing college costs, one issue receiving considerable attention over the past several years has been the rising price of textbooks. The question of whether a relationship exists between textbook pricing and the overall cost of college has attracted notice from consumer interest groups and, subsequently,…

McBain, Lesley

2009-01-01

3

The impact of repeated cost containment policies on pharmaceutical expenditure: experience in Spain.  

PubMed

The growth in expenditure on the financing of pharmaceuticals is a factor that accounts for a large part of the increase in public health spending in most developed countries. In an attempt to kerb this growth, many health authorities, particularly in Europe, have introduced numerous regulatory measures that have affected the market, especially on the supply side. These measures include the system of reference pricing, the reduction of wholesale distributors' and retailers' markups and compulsory reductions of ex-factory prices. We assess the impact of these cost containment measures on expenditure per capita, prescriptions per capita and the average price of pharmaceuticals financed by the public sector in Catalonia (Spain), from 1995 to 2006. We apply an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series model using dummy variables to represent the various cost containment measures implemented. Twelve of the 16 interventions analysed that were intended to contain the overall pharmaceutical expenditure were not effective in reducing it even in the short term, and the four that were effective were not so in the long term, thus amounting to a moderate annual saving. PMID:20809092

Moreno-Torres, Iván; Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Raya, Josep M

2010-09-01

4

Health care cost containment experiments: policy, individual rights, and the law.  

PubMed

In a climate of increasing pressure to contain health care costs, legislators and health services researchers from time to time have proposed experiments involving reductions in benefits currently authorized under the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This paper examines three court challenges to the conduct of such experiments in California, New York, and Georgia. The rulings on the California and New York cases were in favor of continuing the experiments on the grounds that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare had judged the projects to be helpful in promoting the objectives of Titles XIX and IV-A, respectively, of the Social Security Act. In the Georgia case, however, the plaintiffs contended that federal regulations protecting human subjects were applicable to the experiment at issue. While the precedent of past cases upholding the Secretary's authority to approve benefit-reducing experiments was not overturned in Georgia, the Court held that the human subjects regulations were applicable and, consequently, that such experiments must be reviewed prior to implementation by an Institutional Review Board. If the experiment places human subjects at risk, the regulations require that informed consent be obtained from participating subjects. The paper concludes by examining the implications of the Georgia ruling in terms of future efforts to contain health care costs while ensuring that the rights of individual beneficiaries are adequately safeguarded. PMID:365931

Galblum, T W

1978-01-01

5

Pharmaceutical cost containment and innovation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, government has played a limited role in containing the costs of pharmaceuticals. There are no price controls, no national drug formularies, no universal cost-sharing policies, and perhaps most important, no national coverage of prescription drugs. Rather, pharmaceutical cost containment was historically left to private insurers and managed care companies, while consumers paid out of pocket for

Nancy M. Kane

1997-01-01

6

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

7

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

2003-05-09

8

Containing revenue-cycle costs.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations can achieve revenue-cycle improvement while maintaining optimum staffing levels by taking a three-step approach-developing a plan, measuring costs, and using benchmarks to measure performance. Planned cost reductions can be achieved without a negative impact on the organization. Cost-reduction strategies should look at purchased services, staffing, and the cost-to-collect ratio. Healthcare organizations should reach target performance levels before implementing a cost-reduction strategy. PMID:12735186

Geer, Robert; Burton, Eric

2003-04-01

9

Patent Policy and Costly Imitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of optimal patents to allow for costly imitation of patented innovations. With costly imitation, a rival's decision to imitate depends on the length of patent protection awarded to the patentee: the longer the patent life, the more likely it is that rivals will \\

Nancy T. Gallini

1992-01-01

10

Cost Containment through Health Planning and Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is based on the assumption that cost containment is a euphemism for the reallocation of resources within the health care sector of the economy. This reallocation takes place because the existing allocation system is deemed inappropriate. Govern...

J. B. Reiss

1978-01-01

11

The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

2006-01-01

12

Cost-containment, computers and confidentiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profession of social work has clear standards to follow in protecting confidentiality when a client discloses information in a psychotherapy session. These standards are examined in relation to an ever-increasing diresrefard for privacy as staff of managed care for mental health services and employee assistance programs gather and store information in computer databases, with the overall objective of cost-containment.

Tim Davidson; Jeanette R. Davidson

1995-01-01

13

Policies for Reducing the Costs of Cigarette Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies for regulating tobacco smoking in Australia are examined. Cigarette management policies need to account for the addictive nature of nicotine, information failures and the existence of externalities and internalities. The external costs of smoking are low relative to internalised private costs. In so far as externalities do arise they can be addressed by taxes and by direct controls on

Harry Clarke; Louise Collis

14

Health Care Cost Containment. A Seminar on Health Cost Containment, March 14-15, 1985, Washington, D.C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the texts of speeches from a conference on health care cost containment. Topics presented include Medicare solvency, capitated programs, diagnostic related groups (DRGs), Medicaid restructuring, long term care financing, private sector cost containment strategies, British health cost containment, health maintenance…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

15

Why Public Policy is Weak Medicine for Industrial Energy Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little doubt about the impact of rising energy costs on the profitability of American industrial activity. Energy consumers, producers, and government leaders are all compelled to “do something” about this challenge. As a result, energy issues have been a prominent feature of federal policy agendas in recent years. However, the policy-making process draws participants with highly varied perceptions

Christopher Russell

2007-01-01

16

Sleeping policy cost analysis for sensor nodes collecting heterogeneous data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleeping policies are widely used in many contexts to reduce energy consumption in sensor nodes, ad-hoc terminals or mobile cell phones. Although there is extensive literature on energy saving in sensor networks, little has been done with respect to comparing additional costs, such as packet drop probability and buffer occupancies of sleeping versus non-sleeping policies, especially for multiple classes of

Zhen Zhao; A. Elancheziyan; J. C. de Oliveira

2009-01-01

17

Space Planning: A Basis for Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decreasing budgets and enrollments, the reluctance of state legislatures to provide funds for higher education facilities, and the rising costs of energy necessitate the development of space ownership management. Three patterns of space planning problems have developed at different colleges: (1) costly, underutilized facilities due to optimistic…

Snyder, Fred A.; And Others

18

Space Planning: A Basis for Cost Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decreasing budgets and enrollments, the reluctance of state legislatures to provide funds for higher education facilities, and the rising costs of energy necessitate the development of space ownership management. Three patterns of space planning problems have developed at different colleges: (1) costly, underutilized facilities due to optimistic…

Snyder, Fred A.; And Others

19

Cost Shifting: A Public Policy Debate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost shifting refers to the practice of hospitals charging one group of patients more because another group of patients does not pay an appropriate share of the costs incurred to provide care. It is alleged that payment under Medicare, Medicaid, and even ...

B. W. Greenman

1984-01-01

20

Cost-effective critical care: cost containment and rationing.  

PubMed

Rationing occurs whenever the demand for a good or service exceeds its supply. Therefore rationing is an inevitable occurrence in medicine and in critical care where the potential demand for effective medical care will exceed supply. Although there are many strategies to allocate medical resources one that is often considered is based on cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to estimate the value of individual medical treatments in terms of dollars and outcomes. Allocation of medical treatments based on cost-effectiveness analysis requires valid estimates of both the costs and the effectiveness of treatments as well as some overarching body with the authority to enforce allocation based on these analyses. Limitations of allocation based on cost-effectiveness analysis in critical care include difficulties in estimating marginal costs of critical care treatments, limited evidence for any treatments with efficacy, and the ethical principle of rescuing identifiable lives in imminent risk of death. The prospect of a pandemic influenza-like infection has stimulated a lot of interest in hypothetical rationing strategies for the intensive care unit, none of which has been tested in actual pandemic scenarios. Given the burden of critical illness and the wide variation in resources a global approach to rationing is untenable. The article concludes with a vision of the future of allocation in critical care. PMID:22875388

Rubenfeld, Gordon D

2012-08-08

21

Life Cycle Costing: Problems, Policies, and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The merits of life cycle costing (LCC) as a method of procurement by the Departments of Defense and Army are noted. The logic of LCC is appealing, but after years of effort, only a handful of LCC contracts have been awarded by the Army. The study investig...

G. Lange P. F. Arvis H. F. Candy R. F. Williams

1970-01-01

22

Dual Containment and Iran: Understanding and Assessing Us Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dual Containment is a complex policy by which the United States attempts to simultaneously deal with two hostile nations that are themselves bitter enemies. To analyze the impact of this policy on Iran, one must first unlock its interwoven objectives and ...

P. J. Bunce D. F. Offer

1997-01-01

23

Containing the costs of the EMF problem  

SciTech Connect

The uncertainty surrounding possible health effects of power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF's) is fueling a costly controversy over the safety of high voltage transmission lines, neighborhood power-distribution circuits, home and office wiring, elelctrical appliances, and office equipment. Mounting public concerns are driven primarily by a number of epidemiological studies that show increased risks of cancer among populations thought to experience unusual patterns of EMF exposure. Because the scientific evidence on EMF bioeffects is both complicated and contradictory, regulatory bodies and scientific standard-setting organizations have been unable to reach consensus on prescriptive approaches to EMF risk management. Although scientific opinion varies widely about whether the EMF-cancer connection is real, public apprehension over potential EMF hazards has prompted a host of political, legal, and market reactions.

Florig, H.K. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-07-24

24

Optimal Holding, the Cost of Capital, and Tax Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of tax policy on the user cost of capital for real estate, a significant secondhand market which involves the measurement of economic depreciation, are examined. In the absence of taxes, the value of a property to an investor is equal to the s...

C. D. MacRae

1980-01-01

25

Priorities of health policy: cost shifting or population health  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is an edited version of an invited paper submitted to the Australian Health Care Summit on 17–19 August 2003. It comments upon the policies which have dominated recent debate and contrasts their importance with the importance of five issues which have received relatively little attention. Methods Policy is usually a response to identified problems and the paper examines the nature and size of the problems which heave led to recent policy initiatives. These are contrasted with the magnitude and potential cost effectiveness policies to address the problems in five areas of comparative neglect. Results It is argued that recent and proposed changes to the financing and delivery of health services in Australia have focused upon issues of relatively minor significance while failing to address adequately major inequities and system deficiencies. Conclusion There is a need for an independent review of the health system with the terms of reference focusing attention upon large system-wide failures.

Richardson, Jeff RJ

2005-01-01

26

Cost-benefit considerations for filtered-vented containment systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of Sandia's severe accident research program for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, we have been investigating the cost-benefit tradeoffs of filtered-vented containment (FVC) systems for a variety of reactory types. To quantify these evaluations, we have been assessing the reduction in accident risks that is achievable from a variety of containment venting concepts and the costs associated with retrofitting these concepts into existing reactors. We have been appraising our results in terms of the Commission's proposed safety goals and in terms of the true costs of reactor accidents. Our preliminary results indicate that FVC systems are not cost effective for most of the pressurized water reactors that we have evaluated. On the other hand, they appear to be potentially cost effective for the boiling water reactors. The promising results for BWRs, however, are predicted on a simple, inexpensive containment venting design that uses only the existing suppression pool as a scrubber. 2 figures, 6 tables.

Benjamin, A.S.; Strip, D.R.

1982-01-01

27

Cost Containment Measures and Impacts in Six Departments of Correction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many correctional agencies continue to face a need to balance decreases or freezes in funding against elevated offender populations. Recognizing the need for resources to address ongoing cost containment pressures, the NIC Prisons Division, working with t...

1994-01-01

28

Cost containment analysis of childhood vaccination against varicella in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The low cost of safe and effective vaccines prompted a cost-containment evaluation of a nationwide vaccination campaign against varicella.Methods. A model incorporating demographic, epidemiologic and economic data from Israeli sources (supplemented by data from International literature) was constructed to estimate the decrease in morbidity and the consequent reductions in treatment costs and time-off work of a nationwide programme vaccinating

G. M Ginsberg; E Somekh

2004-01-01

29

Cost-benefit considerations for filtered-vented containment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of Sandia's severe accident research program for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, we have been investigating the cost-benefit tradeoffs of filtered-vented containment (FVC) systems for a variety of reactory types. To quantify these evaluations, we have been assessing the reduction in accident risks that is achievable from a variety of containment venting concepts and the costs associated with

A. S. Benjamin; D. R. Strip

1982-01-01

30

Landpower and Dual Containment: Rethinking America's Policy in the Gulf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author of this study contends that America's Dual Containment policy has failed. He outlines in what way he thinks that it has, and suggests alternative polices, which he believes might prove successful, and which would not destablize the Gulf-the ris...

S. C. Pelletiere

1999-01-01

31

Environmental policy, adjustment costs, and behavior of the firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of environmental policy, in the form of emission charges or emission limits, on the firm's optimal choices of productive and abatement inputs are analyzed. Short-run and long-run impacts on inputs, and the properties of static emission function, are determined through comparative static analysis. Comparative dynamics reveal the properties of the cumulative emission function and the cumulative shadow-cost-of-emission-limits function.

A. P. Xepapadeas

1992-01-01

32

Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?  

PubMed

Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. PMID:16323750

Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

2005-11-15

33

Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

Jensen, J?rgen D; Smed, Sinne

2007-01-01

34

Honoring the Trust: Quality and Cost Containment in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book asserts that improvements in quality and cost containment are required not only for the well-being of individual institutions of higher education, but also to honor the trust placed in academe by society. The book outlines a practical program for improvement. The chapters of part 1, "The Case for Change," are: (1) "The Erosion of Trust";…

Massy, William F.

35

Design and behavioral strategies for cost containment and quality assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and behavioral strategies for cost containment and quality assurance in hospitals are related closely to similar issues in larger organizations. Using a taxonomy developed by Georgopoulos it is possible to develop a research outline examining design and behavioral strategies. The most important determinant of the shape and direction of these strategies in the VA medical care system appears

Beaufort B. Longest

1981-01-01

36

Cost-Benefit Considerations for Filtered-Vented Containment Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of Sandia's severe accident research program for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, we have been investigating the cost-benefit tradeoffs of filtered-vented containment (FVC) systems for a variety of reactory types. To quantify these evaluati...

A. S. Benjamin D. R. Strip

1982-01-01

37

U.S. Pharmacy Policy: A Public Health Perspective on Safety and Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and “cost-sharing”

Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau; Lincy S. Lal; Jay H. Glasser

2009-01-01

38

A dynamic model for costing disaster mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The optimal level of investment in mitigation strategies is usually difficult to ascertain in the context of disaster planning. This research develops a model to provide such direction by relying on cost of quality literature. This paper begins by introducing a static approach inspired by Joseph M. Juran's cost of quality management model (Juran, 1951) to demonstrate the non-linear trade-offs in disaster management expenditure. Next it presents a dynamic model that includes the impact of dynamic interactions of the changing level of risk, the cost of living, and the learning/investments that may alter over time. It illustrates that there is an optimal point that minimises the total cost of disaster management, and that this optimal point moves as governments learn from experience or as states get richer. It is hoped that the propositions contained herein will help policymakers to plan, evaluate, and justify voluntary disaster mitigation expenditures. PMID:23601023

Altay, Nezih; Prasad, Sameer; Tata, Jasmine

2013-04-18

39

Administration knowledge of economic costs of foreign policy export controls  

SciTech Connect

The Export Administration Act of 1979 requires consultation, as appropriate, with businesses affected by proposed controls and consideration of the controls economic impact. GAO found that although there was minimal formal business consultation, the business community and the Commerce and State Departments did provide decision-makers with the essential economic arguments against the use of export controls. Administration economic analyses usually did not provide estimates of the controls indirect effects, but important limits exist to Commerce's ability to better quantify such economic costs. GAO's review does not support the conclusion that the administration might have acted differently had it been aware of the total economic costs, and it shifts the debate back to the usefulness of such foreign policy controls.

Not Available

1983-09-02

40

Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies: Issues in the Interpretation of Common Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the 'area under a marginal cost curve,' the discounted present value of consumption, ...

W. D. Montgomery A. E. Smith S. L. Biggar

2003-01-01

41

Cost Sharing in Higher Education in Kenya: Examining the Undesired Policy Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cost sharing in higher education is a policy that comes from the United States. The policy advocates that costs of higher education should be shared between the government, parents, students and/or donor organizations. Proponents of the policy (such as the World Bank) have over the years been advocating for its implementation in African…

Ngolovoi, Mary S.

2010-01-01

42

Dual Containment: US Policy in the Persian Gulf and a Recommendation for the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a critical analysis of the US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically, and militarily. This paper evaluates recent American policy...

J. L. Mraz

1997-01-01

43

Dual Containment in the Persian Gulf: Strategic Considerations and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a critical analysis of US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as a policy of dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically and militarily. This thesis evaluates American cond...

J. L. Mraz J. P. McCallen

1996-01-01

44

Evaluation of Costs and Benefits of the Navy's Drug Prevention Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis evaluates the costs and benefits of the Navy's drug prevention policies. Benefits stem from both deterrence and detection effects of the policies. By using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and Department of Defense Survey...

M. J. McCrea M. Hey

2001-01-01

45

Managed care as a public cost-containment mechanism.  

PubMed

This article identifies the impact of managed-care reforms on the utilization of medical services within the military health-services system. The data come from a recent demonstration project that substituted an HMO and PPO for traditional FFS arrangements. Results from a semiparametric model indicate that the generosity of benefits in the HMO increased demand for ambulatory services. Unlike the private-sector experience with managed care, aggressive utilization review did not significantly curtail inpatient stays. These results vitiate the presumed effectiveness of reform strategies that rely on large, geographically diffused managed-care networks to contain public-sector health costs. PMID:10160534

Goldman, D P

1995-01-01

46

Cost of energy and environmental policy in Portuguese CO 2 abatement—scenario analysis to 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the contribution of Portuguese energy policies for total and marginal abatement costs (MAC) for CO2 emissions for 2020. The TIMES_PT optimisation model was used to derive MAC curves from a set of policy scenarios including one or more of the following policies: ban on nuclear power; ban on new coal power plants without carbon sequestration and storage;

Sofia Simões; João Cleto; Júlia Seixas; Gjalt Huppes

2008-01-01

47

Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

Krutilla, Kerry

2005-01-01

48

The Social Costs and Benefits of Biofuels: The Intersection of Environmental, Energy and Agricultural Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of alternative biofuel policies in achieving energy, environmental and agricultural policy goals is assessed using economic cost-benefit analysis. Government mandates are superior to consumption subsidies, especially with suboptimal fuel taxes and the higher costs involved with raising tax revenues. But subsidies with mandates cause adverse interaction effects; oil consumption is subsidized instead. This unique result also applies to

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just

2010-01-01

49

Energy security policies in EU25—The expected cost of oil supply disruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analyzing the impact on the expected cost of oil disruption by energy policies in EU-25 is developed. The framework takes into account how energy policies affect the oil market, the expected oil price increase, and the disruption costs. OPEC's strategic behavior is modelled as a dominant firm, and the model includes price interdependence between different energy commodities

Fredrik Hedenus; Christian Azar; Daniel J. A. Johansson

2010-01-01

50

Quality-Adjusted Cost Functions and Policy Evaluation in the Nursing Home Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper evaluation of cost-quality trade-offs inherent in regulatory policy requires identifying the structure of production from the behavioral response of quality to the policy change. However, estimating the structure of production with endogenous quality is difficult because of both measurement problems and data availability. The authors develop a simple method for identifying and estimating cost functions in the presence of

Paul J. Gertler; Donald M. Waldman

1992-01-01

51

Costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital\\u000a during 2001 through 2006. Variable costs included costs for isolation, contact tracing, treatment of carriers and closure\\u000a of wards. Fixed costs were the costs for the building of isolation rooms and the salary of one full-time infection

M. M. L. van Rijen; J. A. J. W. Kluijtmans

2009-01-01

52

A Primer on Competitive Strategies for Containing Health Care Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Policymakers are considering several approaches to control health care costs including increased competition among providers. GAO's study focuses on the two procompetitive approaches--the cost-sharing approach which relies on increased consumer sharing of...

1982-01-01

53

39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 551.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS...establishing a baseline for cost comparison purposes. The determination...may be used for specific cost comparisons. (d) Except as...

2013-07-01

54

Nutrition Policy for the Prevention of Disease: Issues of Cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Governments should implement nutrition policies that will improve population health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These policies include reducing the salt content of processed foods, use of dietary supplements of proven value, eliminating\\u000a hydrogenated oils that contain trans fatty acids from food.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Implementation of the proposed policies would cost relatively little and should achieve significant health benefits within\\u000a a few years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Norman J. Temple

55

Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

Stasica, Edward R.

56

Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

Stasica, Edward R.

57

Medicare Payment Policy and the Controversy over Hospital Cost Shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines (i) the background and debate over cost shifting; (ii) hospitals as business institutions that often shift the financial responsibility for their costs in the form of differential pricing; and (iii) how the cost-shifting debate affects and is affected by Medicare. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how changes in reimbursement by large government health

Rick Mayes; Jason S. Lee

2004-01-01

58

Dollarization in Latin America: seigniorage costs and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the seigniorage costs of official dollarization in 15 Latin American countries. We show that the total costs can be decomposed into two components: seigniorage transferred to the U.S. and seigniorage lost due to greater financial stability in the dollarized country. Results indicate that seigniorage costs and their components are significant, yet differ considerably across countries. A cluster

Carsten Lange; Christine Sauer

2005-01-01

59

The High Cost of Teacher Turnover. Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher turnover in five school districts. The selected districts varied in size, location, and demographics enabling exploration of how these variations affected costs. Costs of recruiting, hiring, processing, and training…

National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007

2007-01-01

60

Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative.

Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

2011-01-01

61

SIMULATION FOR POLICY EVALUATION, PLANNING AND DECISION SUPPORT IN AN INTERMODAL CONTAINER TERMINAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different uses of a simulation tool in an intermodal container terminal are presented. Initially, the simulation model of the container terminal of La Spezia (LSCT) in Italy is described. Then it is shown its calibration and validation. The resulting model is used as a tool to validate alternative management policies, such as resource allocation and ship loading and unloading policies.

Monaldo Mastrolilli; Nicoletta Fornara; Luca Maria Gambardella; Andrea E. Rizzoli; Marco Zaffalon

62

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES VACCINE INJURY COMPENSATION § 100.2 Average cost of a health insurance policy. For purposes of...

2012-10-01

63

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28

64

Prisoner Healthcare Co-Payment Policy: A Cost-Cutting Measure that Might Threaten Inmates' Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective provision of adequate healthcare to prisoners is a core problematic issue in contemporary correctional healthcare settings. An increasingly popular policy for reducing prison healthcare costs is prisoner co-payment systems for health services. Advocates of this policy assert that it facilitates efficient healthcare delivery in prison settings. This article examines the appropriateness and consequences of prisoner healthcare co-payment systems in

Niyi Awofeso

2005-01-01

65

The high cost of neglecting children: The need for a preventive policy agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of children in the United States suffer from poor care and inadequate services due to neglectful national social policy. More than 13 million children live in poverty and its negative consequences, at great individual and social cost. This paper outlines the need to seriously advocate for a preventive policy approach to child welfare and presents a blueprint for individual

Elizabeth A. Segal; Nora S. Gustavsson

1990-01-01

66

Benefits and Costs of Antismoking Policies: Executive Summary and Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project studies the effects of anti-smoking policies on cigarette consumption and the tobacco-producing economy, and attempts to assess the total costs and benefits of these policies. The limitations of some of the numerical estimates are stressed by...

K. E. Warner

1982-01-01

67

Cost and policy implications from the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), among children and adults, has posed important policy and budgetary considerations to government, health insurance companies, employers, physicians, and health care delivery systems.Objective: This article examines issues that are common to obesity and DM, including cost, clinical research, and treatment barriers, and proposes health policies to address these

John G. Ryan

2009-01-01

68

U.S. pharmacy policy: a public health perspective on safety and cost.  

PubMed

A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and "cost-sharing" do not. Switching medications to over-the-counter (OTC) status, pill splitting, and importing medication from abroad are poor substitutes for authentic public health pharmacy policy. Where policy changes yield savings, public health insists that these savings should be used to increase access and improve population health. In the future, pharmacy policies may emphasize public health accountability more than individual liberty because of potential cost savings to society. Fear of litigation, as an informal mechanism of focusing manufacturer's attention on safety, is inefficient; public health pharmacy policy regarding safety looks toward a more active regulatory role on the part of government. A case study of direct-to-consumer advertising illustrates the complexity of public health pharmacy policy. PMID:19821192

Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Lal, Lincy S; Glasser, Jay H

69

Health Care Cost Containment in North Central Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health care costs in the U.S. and in North Central Wisconsin are absorbing an increasing share of personal, business and governmental resources. If the trend of the last ten years continues the cost of health care will triple by 1990. All the actors in th...

1982-01-01

70

CRRT in the area of cost containment: Is it justified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive care accounts for at least 25% of health care costs. One third of this goes to 10% of patients who, in general, have combined respiratory and renal failure. The cost of renal replacement therapy is, therefore, of major importance. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has many potential advantages over intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). These include better nutritional support, better volume

David B. Hoyt

1997-01-01

71

Course Redesign Improves Learning and Reduces Cost. Policy Alert  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Colleges and Universities are continuously challenged to increase access to higher education, improve the quality of student learning, and control or reduce the rising cost of instruction. These challenges are interrelated. As tuition costs continue to rise, access is curtailed. When high failure rates prevent students from successfully…

Twigg, Carol A.

2005-01-01

72

Cost-effectiveness analysis of policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the agricultural sector.  

PubMed

Market-based policy instruments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generally considered more appropriate than command and control tools. However, the omission of transaction costs from policy evaluations and decision-making processes may result in inefficiency in public resource allocation and sub-optimal policy choices and outcomes. This paper aims to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of market-based GHG mitigation policy instruments in the agricultural sector by incorporating transaction costs. Assuming that farmers' responses to mitigation policies are economically rationale, an individual-based model is developed to study the relative performances of an emission tax, a nitrogen fertilizer tax, and a carbon trading scheme using farm data from the Scottish farm account survey (FAS) and emissions and transaction cost data from literature metadata survey. Model simulations show that none of the three schemes could be considered the most cost effective in all circumstances. The cost effectiveness depends both on the tax rate and the amount of free permits allocated to farmers. However, the emissions trading scheme appears to outperform both other policies in realistic scenarios. PMID:22868381

Bakam, Innocent; Balana, Bedru Babulo; Matthews, Robin

2012-08-04

73

Optimal production policy for a remanufacturing system with virtual inventory cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a cost management problem of a remanufacturing system with stochastic demand. We model the system with consideration for two types of inventories. One is the actual product inventory in the factory. The other is the virtual inventory that is being used by the customer. For this virtual inventory, it should be required to consider an operational cost that we need in order to observe and check the quantity of the inventory. We call this the virtual inventory cost and model the system by including it. We define the state of the remanufacturing system by the two inventory levels. It is assumed that the cost function is composed of various cost factors such as holding, backlog and manufacturing costs. We obtain the optimal policy that minimizes the expected average cost per period. Numerical results reveal the effects of the factors on the optimal policy.

Nakashima, Kenichi; Gupta, Surendra M.

2005-11-01

74

Costs and Benefits of Recycling Liquid Board Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of packaging material has become more or less mandatory in many European countries, including Norway. Through so-called voluntary agreements quantitative targets are set for the proportion of total waste to be recycled. At the same time the strategic objective for Norwegian waste policy is that there should be a socio-economic balance between different waste treatment options. On the basis

Karin Ibenholt; Henrik Lindhjem

2003-01-01

75

Examining Cost Fulfillment: Child Care Policy and Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most advanced industrialized countries have established social support to aid families in balancing productive and reproductive labor during child-bearing years. Secondary data analysis was used to examine patterns of public support for low-income working families. Key findings highlight four types of policy strategies (Conservative, Limited, Average, and Universal) suggesting differentiated social citizenship opportunities based on place of residence. This research

Lucy Porter Jordan

2012-01-01

76

Funding and Cost Analysis. Policy Paper Series: Document 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five policy papers address methods of funding vocational/special education and relative benefits versus expenditures for different employment training systems for moderately and severely handicapped persons. The first paper critiques the present vocational education funding system for handicapped students. Federal funding mechanisms, state and…

Cobb, H. Brian, Ed.; Larkin, Dave, Ed.

77

The benefits and costs of alternative solid waste management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years controlling the size and composition of the solid waste flow has moved substantially up the public policy agenda in many countries. With this has come the question of what are the appropriate types of public interventions in the economy to control this flow. The most dramatic of the interventions have involved adoption of high recycling

Haynes C. Goddard

1995-01-01

78

Laboratory Costs and Utilization: A Framework for Analysis and Policy Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are presented from a Canadian study to show that the cost of laboratory testing is escalating and represents a sizable proportion of hospital costs. Policy interventions will require thorough analysis and will require sophisticated control programs at various levels in the laboratory inquiry system. (Author/MLW)

Hardwick, David F.; And Others

1981-01-01

79

Spread of Low-Cost Carriers: Tourism and Regional Policy Effects in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vera Rebollo J. F. and Ivars Baidal J. A. Spread of low-cost carriers: tourism and regional policy effects in Spain, Regional Studies. Low-cost carriers form the most dynamic segment in the international tourism traffic toward Spain. Their recent evolution shows high growth rates that contrast with the stagnation of traditional companies, a phenomenon which is part of the transformations experienced

J. Fernando Vera Rebollo; Josep A. Ivars Baidal

2009-01-01

80

75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency...RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled...contract employees who perform emergency work (Categories A and B). DATES:...

2010-08-13

81

EEC energy costs seen higher than U. S. [Need for policy imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe's dependence on imported oil, depletion of North Sea oil after 1990, and the relation of economic growth to energy costs combine to make a comprehensive energy policy for Europe imperative. Dr. Guido Brunner, the new commissioner of energy affairs for the Common Market (EEC) sees a widening gap in energy costs compared to all major industrial competitors except Japan

Zahn

1977-01-01

82

Costs of two alternative Salmonella control policies in Finnish broiler production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Costs and benefits of two Salmonella control policies for broiler production were described and compared. The control options were the Zoonosis Directive 92\\/117\\/EC and the more intense strategy, the Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP). METHODS: The comparison included the Salmonella control costs in primary and secondary production and the direct and indirect losses due to Salmonella infections in humans

Susanna Kangas; Tapani Lyytikäinen; Jukka Peltola; Jukka Ranta; Riitta Maijala

2007-01-01

83

Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates risk, well-being and energy based indices to provide realistic cost/reliability measures of utilizing renewable energy. The concepts presented and the examples illustrated in this thesis will help system planners to decide on appropriate installation sites, the types and mix of different energy generating sources, the optimum operating policies, and the optimum generation expansion plans required to meet increasing load demands in small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy sources.

Karki, Rajesh

84

Policing Cost Containment: The Medicare Peer Review Organization Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article will first examine the problem of health care cost inflation and the payment strategies the Medicare program has adopted to address that problem. It will then discuss the perverse incentives that these payment strategies create, and the role of the PRO program in addressing harmful provider behavior encouraged by those perverse incentives. The Article examines evidence on whether

Timothy Stoltzfus Jost

1991-01-01

85

Economic Policy in Health Care: Sickness Absence and Pharmaceutical Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of a summary and four papers. The first two concerns health care and sickness absence, and the last two pharmaceutical costs and prices. Paper [I] presents an economic federation model which resembles the situation in, for example, Sweden. In the model the state governments provide health care, the federal government provides a sickness benefit and both levels

David Granlund

2007-01-01

86

Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a

Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

1994-01-01

87

Costs of two alternative Salmonella control policies in Finnish broiler production  

PubMed Central

Background Costs and benefits of two Salmonella control policies for broiler production were described and compared. The control options were the Zoonosis Directive 92/117/EC and the more intense strategy, the Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP). Methods The comparison included the Salmonella control costs in primary and secondary production and the direct and indirect losses due to Salmonella infections in humans in 2000. Results The total annual costs of the FSCP were calculated to be 990 400 EUR (0.02 €/kg broiler meat). The average control costs in the broiler production chain were seven times higher with the FSCP than with the Zoonosis Directive alone. However, the public health costs were 33 times higher with the Zoonosis Directive alone. The value of one prevented loss of life per year exceeded the annual control costs of the FSCP. Conclusion Due to significant savings in public health costs compared to costs of FSCP, the FSCP was found to be economically feasible.

Kangas, Susanna; Lyytikainen, Tapani; Peltola, Jukka; Ranta, Jukka; Maijala, Riitta

2007-01-01

88

Innovation amidst radical cost containment in health care.  

PubMed

The changing health care environment is requiring nurse executives within a hospital setting to design and implement innovative workforce practices that will both improve patient outcomes and lower costs. Since registered nurses comprise the largest percentage of a hospital's workforce, finding ways to incorporate them in these efforts is essential. The Magnet Recognition Program through the American Nurses Credentialing Center is one successful evidence-based strategy that can be adopted to engage nurses in quality improvement processes. This article describes how two community hospitals used the principles of the Magnet Recognition Program to develop and implement new approaches to meet the health care imperative of providing safer, high-quality, cost-effective care. PMID:23454990

Beard, Edward L; Sharkey, Kim

89

Let's merge competitive and regulatory strategies to achieve cost containment.  

PubMed

Whether market-driven or government-driven approaches should be used to curtail future health care expenditures has become the debate of the decade on Capitol Hill and in state legislatures. After examining both the competitive and the regulatory models to constrain health care costs, it is argued that to achieve an effective and efficient health care system, a properly structured market-driven approach should be blended with a minimal number of safety and soundness regulations. To successfully implement such a half-competitive, half-regulatory system in the United States, it will be necessary, for example, to empower thirdparty payers and providers to negotiate prices without direct government involvement; to modify enormous regional differences in use rates and health care costs for various treatments with more rigid treatment protocols that are promulgated by the managed care plans; to minimize administrative-type expenditures that have no visible, beneficial effect in improving quality patient care; and to curtail the supply of underutilized health care resources as another means to constrain health care expenditures. These strategies would have significant political, social, economic, and patient care implications for the United States but might result in our health care cost dilemma appearing to the public as finally being "under control." PMID:10094060

Weil, T P

1999-01-01

90

Tritium Accident Containment within a Large Fusion Enclosure: Cost, Benefit, and Risk Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Containment of a tritium accident within a large fusion device building will be difficult and costly. Complete containment is impossible, and with this fact in mind, the global dispersion and health effects of tritium are reviewed. Atmospheric tritium emi...

A. E. Sherwood

1983-01-01

91

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind. 12/01/2009 through 11/30/2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power through Policy: Best Practices for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examin...

H. Rhoads-Weaver

2012-01-01

92

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

93

Norms and Costs of Government Domestic Violence Policies: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence and governmental domestic violence policies impact many families and produce considerable economic costs.\\u000a This paper reviews literature related to domestic violence including false claims of domestic violence. Domestic violence\\u000a literature is considered in relation to economic literature on norm theory and the procedural justice concept. Norm theory\\u000a provides a basis to understand and evaluate domestic violence policies and

Benjamin P. Foster

2011-01-01

94

Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Around the globe, school closures were used sporadically to mitigate the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, such closures can detrimentally impact economic and social life. Methods Here, we couple a decision analytic approach with a mathematical model of influenza transmission to estimate the impact of school closures in terms of epidemiological and cost effectiveness. Our method assumes that the transmissibility and the severity of the disease are uncertain, and evaluates several closure and reopening strategies that cover a range of thresholds in school-aged prevalence (SAP) and closure durations. Results Assuming a willingness to pay per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) threshold equal to the US per capita GDP ($46,000), we found that the cost effectiveness of these strategies is highly dependent on the severity and on a willingness to pay per QALY. For severe pandemics, the preferred strategy couples the earliest closure trigger (0.5% SAP) with the longest duration closure (24?weeks) considered. For milder pandemics, the preferred strategies also involve the earliest closure trigger, but are shorter duration (12?weeks for low transmission rates and variable length for high transmission rates). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of obtaining early estimates of pandemic severity and provide guidance to public health decision-makers for effectively tailoring school closures strategies in response to a newly emergent influenza pandemic.

2012-01-01

95

Initiatives for Containing the Cost of Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author offers a comprehensive reform agenda for policymakers interested in cost containment. Massy lays out a series of initiatives that, working in tandem, can promote the larger goal of compelling colleges to spend money wisely. Among the individual reforms Massy proposes are creating a national database of cost-containment

Massy, William F.

2013-01-01

96

Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.  

PubMed

In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has previously been predicted. The patient's length of stay in the hospital has already been reduced. There will continue to be decreases in laboratory utilization and consumption of resources necessary to provide laboratory services. Cost competitiveness coupled with the laboratory's need for increased productivity will further expand savings. To summarize, the laboratory manager in the mid-1980's will have the following goals. To provide quality, cost-efficient, and timely laboratory services. To sustain and nurture the growth of the clinical laboratory profession as dictated by the needs of society and new scientific trends and discoveries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4085189

Martin, B G

1985-12-01

97

How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

Welner, Kevin

2011-01-01

98

United States-Iran Policy: From Dual Containment to Constructive Conditional Engagement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States should change its Iran policy from 'Dual Containment' to what we term 'Constructive Conditional Engagement' in keeping with U.S. core values, to foster cooperation in order to achieve U.S. regional security interests. 'Dual Containment' ...

R. P. Swan

1998-01-01

99

Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26?063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25?444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18?000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society.

Suelves, Josep M; Barberia, Eneko

2013-01-01

100

The Application of Design-to-Cost Acquisition Policies to Selected Electronics Subsystem Development Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents findings and conclusions resulting from a one-year study to observe, record, and analyze the Department of Defense (DoD) experience in applying Design-to-Cost (DTC) acquisition policies to electronics subsystems. Eleven DTC subsystems...

C. D. Weimer

1975-01-01

101

Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were

A. N. Anozie; A. R. Bakare; J. A. Sonibare; T. O. Oyebisi

2007-01-01

102

The Cost-Effectiveness of Education Interventions in Poor Countries. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor countries need development programs that are both effective and cost-effective. To assess effectiveness, researchers are increasingly using randomized trials (or quasi-experimental methods that imitate randomized trials), which provide a clear picture of which outcomes are attributable to the program being evaluated. This "Policy Insight"…

Evans, David K.; Ghosh, Arkadipta

2008-01-01

103

Using contingent valuation and cost-benefit analysis to design a policy for restoring cultural heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical heritage is proving an ideal field to apply contingent valuation for estimating individual as well as collective preferences as goods tend to be non-market and publicly owned. Yet despite this, findings are seldom used to draw up cultural policies or assess cultural heritage related projects. The current paper thus posits an approach which merges contingent valuation and cost-benefit analysis

Andrea Báez Montenegro; Luis Cesar Herrero Prieto

104

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price increases and other tobacco- control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides conservative estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco-control policies. Using a model of the cohort of smokers alive in 1995, we find that tax increases that would raise the real price of cigarettes by 10% worldwide would cause about 42 million of these smokers to quit. This price increase would prevent a minimum of 10 million

Kent Ranson; Prabhat Jha; Frank J. Chaloupka

105

Permanent pacemaker implantation after cardiac transplantation: extra cost of a conservative policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs of a change in permanent pacemaker implantation policy to later implantation (day 21+) after cardiac transplantation. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient records including duration of temporary pacing, timed of permanent pacemaker implantation, and length of hospital stay for every patient surviving > or = 14 days from November 1990 to August 1995 (period 2) and

N. D. Holt; G. Parry; M. M. Tynan; J. H. Dark; J. M. McComb

1996-01-01

106

Effects of setup cost and random yield on the structure of optimal ordering policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider an economic order quantity (EOQ) model with multiple suppliers and random yield. We show that the structure of the optimal ordering policy is not only dependent on the structure of setup cost but also on the distributions of random yield. For some particular cases of random yield, the optimal order quantity from each supplier can

Xiaoming Yan; Ke Liu

2010-01-01

107

How Cost-of-Illness Studies Can be Made More Useful for Illicit Drug Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-of-illness (COI) studies seemingly provide a solid foundation for quantifying the potential benefits of illicit drug policy interventions that reduce drug use at the population level. However, their usefulness is severely limited. In this paper, we suggest several improvements to substance abuse COI studies. The first set of improvements can be implemented with little change to the current framework: developing

Timothy J. Moore; Jonathan P. Caulkins

2006-01-01

108

A Production Batch Policy for a Manufacturing System under Imperfect Quality and Continuous Cost Decrease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To consider decreasing trend in unit cost and imperfect quality process in a production system, this study presents an optimal batch policy under the maturity stage of a product life cycle. We assume a manufacturing system that receives raw materials with an income quality control (IQC) process and converts them to a finished product with an outcome quality control (OQC)

Bing-Chang Ouyang; Ya-Chung Sun

2011-01-01

109

Litigation Costs, Budget Impacts, and Cost Containment Strategies: Evidence from California Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litigation costs are straining many municipalities' budgets and creating more uncertainty and flux in their annual budgetary processes. A 1996 mail survey of California cities conducted by the League of California Cities, to which 210 cities (45 percent) responded, shows that the level of litigation-driven budgetary strain is intensifying. The budgetary impacts of litigation have been quite substantial, no matter

Susan A. MacManus

1997-01-01

110

Change in the Navy's Drug Testing Policy: How Will it Affect Costs and the Probability of Detecting Drug Users.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis analyzes changes in the Navy's drug testing policy as they relate to costs and the probability of detecting a gaming or non-gaming drug user. Additionally, this thesis considers actual command level testing policies; showing how a policy chang...

J. R. Jones

1995-01-01

111

Evaluation of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System Demonstration. Second Outcome Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second outcome report on the Arizona Long Term Care System (ALTCS) addresses outcome issues through September 1991. The first outcome report showed savings for the acute care program of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS) for the ...

N. McCall J. Korb L. Paringer D. Balaban C. W. Wrightson

1993-01-01

112

The U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry: Why Major Growth In Times Of Cost Containment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four factors affecting drug use have driven costs upward since 1994, but their future role is uncertain. by Ernst R. Berndt ABSTRACT: Growth in utilization rather than price, particularly since 1994, has been the primary driver of increased pharmaceutical spending. In this paper I focus on four factors that have increased utilization, even as cost containment efforts have flourished: (1)

Ernst R. Berndt

2001-01-01

113

COST MINIMIZATION MODEL OF OCEANGOING CARRIERS ON A LARGE-SCALE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME CONTAINER SHIPPING NETWORK CONSIDERING CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a cost minimization problem of oceangoing carriers on a large-scale network of international maritime container shipping industry, in order to measure impact of port policies for each country including Japan. Concretely, the authors develop a model to decide ports to call and size of containership in each route by ocean-going carrier group, with consideration of construction of deeper berths to deal with enlargement of containership, decrease of various port charges per cargo by attracting cargos into one port, and congestion by exceeding aggregation. The developed model is applied to the actual large-scale international maritime container shipping network in Eastern Asia. The performance of the model developed is validated. Also, the sensitivity of the model output is confirmed from the viewpoints of economy and diseconomy of scale included in the model.

Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Tomihiro; Ieda, Hitoshi

114

Policy considerations based on a cost analysis of alternative test formats in large scale science assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article compares the costs of four assessment formats: multiple choice, open ended, laboratory station, and full investigation. The amount of time spent preparing the devices, developing scoring consistency for the devices, and scoring the devices was tracked as the devices were developed. These times are presented by individual item and by complete device. Times are also compared as if 1,000 students completed each assessment. Finally, the times are converted into cost estimates by assuming a potential hourly wage. The data show that a multiple choice item costs the least, and that it is approximately 80 times as much for an open ended item, 300 times as much for a content station, and 500 times as much for a full investigation item. The very large discrepancies in costs are used as a basis to raise several policy issues related to the inclusion of alternative assessment formats in large scale science achievement testing.

Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

2000-08-01

115

US Policy of Dual Containment Toward Iran and Iraq in Theory and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The policy of dual containment has been adopted by the Clinton administration as a method whereby the nations of Iran and Iraq may be simultaneously prevented from embarking upon actions deemed counter to the interests of the international community in ge...

H. L. Myers

1997-01-01

116

Sustainability of least cost policies for meeting Mexico City's future water demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meeting future water demand without degrading ecosystems is one important indicator of sustainable development. Using simulations, we showed that compared to existing policy, more sustainable water supply options are similar or cheaper in cost. We probabilistically forecasted the Mexico City metropolitan zone population for the year 2015 to be 23.5 million and total required water supply to be 106 m3 s-1. We optimized existing and potential supply sources from aquifers, surface water, treatment/reuse, and efficiency/demand management by cost to meet future supply needs; the applied source supply limits determined the degree of sustainability. In two scenarios to supply 106 m3 s-1, the business-as-usual scenario (zero sustainability) had an average relative unit cost of 1.133; while for the most sustainable scenario (it includes reducing potential supply basins' exploitation limits by 50%), the value was 1.121. One extreme scenario to supply the forecast's 95% confidence value (124 m3 s-1) showed little unit cost change (1.106). The simulation shows sustainable policies can be cost-effective.

Downs, Timothy J.; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; DomíNguez-Mora, Ramón; Suffet, I. H.

2000-08-01

117

Policy decisions on improving science education: A cost-effectiveness analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A form of policy analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, is described and applied to the question of the probable impact of a large number of actions advocated in professional and political circles for improving science education. After identifying the objectives sought, the costs and probable effectiveness of 69 widely advocated interventions were estimated. Because of the highly systemic nature of the situation, analysis of the 69 individual actions was only an intermediate step. Models of the interconnections among these actions were developed based on the research on effective schools and educational change. Clusters of interventions were identified which could be extended to recommendations for policy makers at various levels, e.g., local, state, and federal.

Anderson, Ronald D.

118

Fair Charging Policies and Minimum-Expected-Cost Routing in Internets with Packet Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economics-based definition of fair pricing is proposed, and fair, simple, and mathematically sound charging policies are derived that properly handle costs and risks in lossy internetworks. Also described are simple and efficient source-based algorithms (having both link-state and distance-vector versions) for computing the optimal routing tables with respect to the new charging measures. These charging measures and algorithms have

Vladislav Rutenburg; Richard G. Ogier

1991-01-01

119

Comparative benefit–cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child care and education are to some extent joint products of preschool programs, but public policy and research frequently approach these two goals independently. We present a benefit–cost analysis of a preschool program that provided intensive education during full-day child care. Data were obtained from a randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up through age 21. Study participants were 104 economically disadvantaged

W. S. Barnett; Leonard N. Masse

2007-01-01

120

Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

121

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

122

Waste pricing policies and cost-efficiency in municipal waste services: the case of Flanders.  

PubMed

Major changes in municipal solid waste (MSW)-related services, such as the collection system, often require important initial investments, while the benefits on the output side typically occur over a longer time perspective. However, when analyzing the association between such policy choices and cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal, the time horizon is often not taken into account. This article advocates the use of the Malmquist Productivity Index approach to measure and analyze cost efficiency changes over time after the introduction of the relative new weight-based waste collection and billing system in Flanders. The results and robustness checks indicate that introducing weight-based pricing does not lead to lower cost efficiency of MSW service provision. PMID:23585501

De Jaeger, Simon; Rogge, Nicky

2013-04-12

123

Three Policy Issues in Deciding the Cost of Nursing Home Care: Provincial Differences and How They Influence Elderly Couples' Experiences  

PubMed Central

Nursing home care is subsidized in all Canadian provinces, but residents must personally contribute to the cost. This paper explores policy issues that have led to differences in costs of nursing home care among provinces, and how policy and cost differences influence the experiences of married couples when one spouse requires nursing home care. The paper is based on a multiple-case study of three Canadian provinces, each of which had a different system for determining personal contributions to the cost of care. Cross-case analysis of payment systems showed that provinces addressed three main policy issues in determining the cost of care: (a) what costs should be the responsibility of nursing home residents, (b) how subsidies should be determined and (c) how community-dwelling spouses of nursing home residents should be assured of an adequate income. In provinces with policies that resulted in higher care costs to couples and lower amounts of income and assets available to the community-dwelling spouses, study participants described reduced discretionary spending, increased financial concerns and perceptions of system unfairness. This paper discusses the implications of these three policy issues and recent related changes to provincial policies.

Stadnyk, Robin L.

2009-01-01

124

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01

125

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax. PMID:19560605

Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

2009-06-27

126

Examination of the Cost Reimbursement Policies and Procedures Followed by DOD When Providing Services to Private Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the billing policies followed by the Department of Defense (DoD) in recovering costs incurred from providing services to private enterprises. Examples studied include DoD assistance provided to the Paramount Pictures Corporation in th...

M. D. Conn

1991-01-01

127

Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy  

PubMed Central

Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future.

2013-01-01

128

PLANNING MODELS FOR URBAN WATER SUPPLY EXPANSION. VOLUME 2. COST ALLOCATION POLICIES FOR REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-volume report was developed relative to the modelling of investment strategies for regional water supply planning. Volumes 2 and 3 are successive parts of the research related to the study of cost allocation policies among participants in a regional system. Such policies ...

129

Health cost containment: what it will mean for workers and local economies.  

PubMed Central

After decades of rapid growth, the rate of increase in health services spending appears to be moderating. Although a slowdown in health expenditure growth would release resources for other uses in the economy, concerns have been raised about the effects of a spending slowdown on health workers and regional economies. Based on projections carried out by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the health reform debate and on state health sector employment data, the author concludes that health workers may experience costly dislocation as health spending growth slows, and some regions may be more affected than others. However, the appropriate response is a general economic policy supporting economic growth and full employment policy with regard to health expenditure growth cannot be held hostage to concerns about employment effects. Images p205-a p212-a

Bishop, C E

1998-01-01

130

Does public subsidy of the cost of malaria chemoprophylaxis reduce imported malaria? A comparative policy analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK’s Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy was provided. Methods Between 2007 and 2010 prescriptions for malaria chemoprophylaxis were collected from pharmacy records and PCTs, and all cases of imported malaria reported from the tertiary hospital in each of the two boroughs were compared. Results The dispensed chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were nearly 8.8 times higher in Lambeth (where subsidized drugs were provided), than in Hackney. A Poisson model revealed significantly fewer reports of imported malaria per capita were made in Lambeth compared to Hackney (p?=?0.042). Conclusions The difference in malaria reports between the boroughs only just reached statistical significance, despite the considerable difference in chemoprophylaxis prescribing between the boroughs. Some travellers may not consider using chemoprophylaxis, irrespective of the cost. Regular evaluations of the recent policy changes in areas where malaria is subsidized will be important.

2013-01-01

131

The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side. PMID:22043644

Chang, Li

2011-01-01

132

Building Housing for the Low-Income Elderly: Cost Containment in the Section 202 Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed cost containment and modest design requirements for the Section 202 Direct Loan Program using projects in five Housing and Urban Development (HUD) field offices. Concluded that project design changes and amenities may be undermining Section 202 as a housing production program. (NRB)|

Turner, Margery Austin

1985-01-01

133

COST CONTAINMENT AND ACCESS TO CARE: THE SHANGHAI HEALTH CARE FINANCING MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical savings account (MSA) model of health care financing is viewed as a health care cost containment strategy. Yet, health care expenditure in Shanghai has increased sharply since the adoption of the MSA system. This paper looks into the health care reforms in Shanghai, especially since the introduction of the MSA scheme.From the Labor Insurance Scheme and Government Insurance

WEIZHEN DONG

2008-01-01

134

Getting to a Public Option that Contains Costs: Negotiations, Opt-Outs and Triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The debate over a public option has essentially become a debate over the size and role of government in the health care system. The central argument, as we see it, should be one of fiscal conservatism—that a public option should play a role in addressing the very serious problem of health care cost containment. The current debate between the

Robert Berenson; John Holahan; Stephen Zuckerman

2009-01-01

135

Medicare program; changes in payment policy for direct graduate medical education costs--HCFA. Final rule.  

PubMed

This rule sets forth changes in Medicare policy concerning payment for the direct graduate medical education costs of providers associated with approved residency programs in medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, and podiatry. These changes implement section 1886(h) of the Social Security Act, which was added by section 9202 of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986. Also, we are making a conforming change that affects the indirect medical education payments of hospitals that became subject to the prospective payment system during the period October 1, 1983 through December 31, 1983. PMID:10303884

1989-09-29

136

Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the number of lung cancer deaths relatedtoindoorradoninthehomeandtoexplorethecost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. Design Cost effectiveness analysis. Setting United Kingdom. Data sources Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention

Alastair Gray; Simon Read; Paul McGale; Sarah Darby

2009-01-01

137

Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate is presented for new supercritical pulverized coal plants, both with and without CCS. The capital cost escalation of recent years can be attributed to rising materials, plant supply,

Michael R. Hamilton; Howard J. Herzog; John E. Parsons

2009-01-01

138

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

139

Effect of changes in DOE pricing policies for enrichment and reprocessing on research reactor fuel cycle costs  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs with HEU and LEU fuels for the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor are updated to reflect the change in DOE pricing policy for enrichment services as of October 1985 and the published charges for LEU reprocessing services as of February 1986. The net effects are essentially no change in HEU fuel cycle costs and a reduction of about 8 to 10% in the fuel cycle costs for LEU silicide fuel.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1986-11-03

140

The devil is in the details: Managed care and the unforeseen costs of utilization review as a cost containment mechanism.  

PubMed

This article addresses issues of liability when a single-payor in a national health care system makes a decision based on a utilization review program that injures the patient as a result. In Part I, the history of Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) is discussed to establish an understanding of the current health care landscape. Part II explains MCOs' use of utilization review to contain costs and analyzes the manner in which courts have addressed the issue of MCO liability for patient injuries sustained from denial ofcoverage. Finally, Part III concludes that current case law may limit a patient's access to a remedy for injuries sustained from a utilization review decision in a single-payor national health care system. PMID:21919314

Saunier, Benjamin

2011-01-01

141

Full Costs of Urban Transport. Part I. Economic Efficiency in Bus Operations; Preliminary Intermodal Cost Comparisons and Policy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Derivation of unit costs; Structure for assessing the short and long run costs of bus service; Long run equilibria and system capacity; Integrated bus service and inter-modal cost comparisons. Portions of this document are not fully legible.

T. E. Keeler L. A. Merewitz P. Fisher P. Viton

1974-01-01

142

Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

Jones, E.; Eto, J.

1997-09-01

143

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-16

144

Unburned carbon as a low-cost adsorbent for treatment of methylene blue-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash, natural zeolite, and unburned carbon separated from fly ash have been employed as low-cost adsorbents for dye adsorption in methylene blue-containing wastewater. It is found that the unburned carbon exhibits a much higher adsorption capacity than raw fly ash and natural zeolite. The adsorption capacities of fly ash, natural zeolite, and unburned carbon for methylene blue are 2×10?5,

Shaobin Wang; Lin Li; Hongwei Wu; Z. H. Zhu

2005-01-01

145

Life cycle cost analysis for replacement of fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

NONE

1992-04-29

146

Tritium accident containment within a large fusion enclosure: cost, benefit, and risk considerations  

SciTech Connect

Containment of a tritium accident within a large fusion device building will be difficult and costly. Complete containment is impossible, and with this fact in mind, the global dispersion and health effects of tritium are reviewed. Atmospheric tritium emissions lead to an estimated population dose to the Northern Hemisphere of 5.6 x 10/sup -3/ man-rem/Ci, which may also be interpreted as 1 cancer fatality per MCi. Updating the NRC $1000 per man-rem criterion to 1982 costs gives 9.5 $/y per Ci/y as the unit annual health benefit rate from averting tritium release at a continuous rate. Present worth considerations lead to an estimate of $100 per Ci/y for the maximum capital investment justified per expected curie per year of tritium release averted. A simplified enclosure model is used to explore the trade-off between processing capacity and recycle time with the health cost of residual tritium release included in the analysis.

Sherwood, A.E.

1983-01-01

147

Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. METHODS: A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without

Rosanna Tarricone; Aleksandra Torbica; Fabio Franzetti; Victor D Rosenthal

2010-01-01

148

The cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injection in healthcare settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Poor injection practices transmit potentially life-threatening pathogens. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Methods The incidence of injection-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was modelled

Gerald Dziekan; Daniel Chisholm; Benjamin Johns; Juan Rovira; Yvan J. F. Hutin

2003-01-01

149

Global and regional estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price increases and other tobacco control policies.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide conservative estimates of the global and regional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies. Using a static model of the cohort of smokers alive in 1995, we estimated the number of smoking-attributable deaths that could be averted by: (1) price increases, (2) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and (3) a package of non-price interventions other than NRT. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of these policy interventions by weighing the approximate public-sector costs against the years of healthy life saved, measured in disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs. Even with deliberately conservative assumptions, tax increases that would raise the real price of cigarettes by 10% worldwide would prevent between 5 and 16 million tobacco-related deaths, and could cost 3-70 US dollars per DALY saved in low-income and middle-income regions. NRT and a package of non-price interventions other than NRT are also cost-effective in low-income and middle-income regions, at 280-870 US dollars per DALY and 36-710 US dollars per DALY, respectively. In high-income countries, price increases were found to have a cost-effectiveness of 83-2771 US dollars per DALY, NRT 750-7206 US dollars per DALY and other non-price interventions 696-13,924 US dollars per DALY. Tobacco control policies, particularly tax increases on cigarettes, are cost-effective relative to other health interventions. Our estimates are subject to considerable variation in actual settings; thus, local cost-effectiveness studies are required to guide local policy. PMID:12215240

Ranson, M Kent; Jha, Prabhat; Chaloupka, Frank J; Nguyen, Son N

2002-08-01

150

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

151

Cost Analysis and its Use in Simulation of Policy Options: The Papua New Guinea Education Finance Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the structure and operations of a computer simulation model used in Papua New Guinea, developed with technical assistance from UNESCO. Notes that model establishes baseline data on student enrollments, teacher posts, and costs of education, and can be used to simulate policies under consideration and provide output on student flows,…

Webster, Thomas

1997-01-01

152

Effects and costs of policies to increase bioenergy use and reduce GHG emissions from heating in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many European countries, the use of policy measures to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption, including heating, is high on the political agenda. Also, increasing the absolute consumption of bioenergy seems to partly be an objective in itself. But neither the costs of replacing fossil fuels with bioenergy in heating, nor the effects on the GHG emission

Hanne K. Sjølie; Erik Trømborg; Birger Solberg; Torjus F. Bolkesjø

2010-01-01

153

A consistent and cost-effective quantification of containment performance criteria  

SciTech Connect

Containment performance criteria (CPC) are derived systematically, given top level safety goals related to public risk. The main focus is on the relationships between the top level safety goals and lower level design objectives, and the way in which the latter are determined. A set of CPC is identified in terms of the reliabilities of the systems that perform various containment functions. The multiobjective optimization approach is used as a method for deriving a finite manageable set of self-consistent relations between the top level safety goals and specific containment performance. As a global set of measures of plant performance or objective functions, acute and latent fatalities and the total reliability cost are chosen. The latter is included because it represents both technical and economic limitations in achieving a certain level of the first two members of the global set. A specific application is made to a large dry containment. A set of noninferior solutions (optimized solutions in a multi-objective optimization problem) is shown and discussed.

Park, C.K.; Bari, R.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, NY (US)); Kerr, W. (Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (US))

1988-06-01

154

United States high-technology export control policy: An assessment of relative costs and implications for national security  

SciTech Connect

Controls on the export of high technology and scientific information exchanges and data flows to the Soviet Bloc engendered a lively debate within the US and spawned periodic acrimony within the Atlantic Alliance. This study examines, tests, and evaluates the effectiveness of US high technology export controls in achieving their objectives, the significance of these controls for US commercial interests, and for Alliance technological cooperation, and the impact of US and West European differences for the political cohesion of the Alliance. Assessment and evaluation of policy efficacy and of its relative costs, measured in terms of possible damage to US economic and national security interests, will suggest the desirability of this policy. The study concludes that US policy has been successful in denying and delaying Soviet access to, and development of, dual-use technology with only relatively minor costs to overall US high technology industries and export performance.

McDaniel, D.E.

1990-01-01

155

Cost-neutral policies to increase Social Security benefits for widows: a simulation for 1992.  

PubMed

Among older women, widows are more likely to live in poverty than married women. Thus, increasing Social Security benefits to widows seems desirable. Shifting some Social Security benefits from the period when women live as part of a couple to the period when they are widows could reduce poverty. This article uses the 1991 Survey of Income and Program Participation exactly matched to the Social Security Administration's record of benefits to evaluate the effect on poverty rates of four cost-neutral proposals that transfer Social Security benefits from married couples to surviving widows. The policies would moderately decrease poverty rates among older women by reducing the rate for widows more than the slight increase in the rate for couples. The evaluated proposals include a proposal supported by the majority of the 1994-96 Advisory Council on Social Security that would calculate the survivor's benefit as 75 percent of the couple's benefit, reduce the spouse's benefit from 50 to 33 percent of the husband's benefit, and reduce benefits by 1.5 percent. PMID:9674070

Iams, H M; Sandell, S H

1998-01-01

156

Rollback, Liberation, Containment, or Inaction? U.S. Policy and Eastern Europe in the 1950s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the Eisenhower administration's policy toward Eastern Europe in the years leading up to the 1956 Hungarian revolution. The article first considers the broader context of U.S. Cold War strategy in Eastern Europe, including policies of economic warfare and psychological warfare, as well as covert operations and military supplies. It then examines U.S. policy toward Hungary, particularly during

László Borhi

1999-01-01

157

Why be wasteful when preserving a valuable resource? A review article on the cost-effectiveness of European biodiversity conservation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues related to the cost-effectiveness of biodiversity conservation policies have not yet been prominent in European conservation research and policy-making. Nevertheless, there is a small but growing literature which analyses such issues. The article reviews this literature, and focuses on reserves and compensation payments for conservation measures as the two most relevant conservation policy instruments in Europe. Understanding of the

Frank Wätzold; Kathleen Schwerdtner

2005-01-01

158

Strategic Trade Policy with Endogenous Choice of Quality and Asymmetric Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the strategic trade policy incentives for investment policies towards quality improvements in a vertically differentiated exporting industry. Firms first compete in qualities and then export to a third country market based on Bertrand or Cournot competition. Optimal policies are asymmetric across the two producing countries. Under Bertrand competition, the low-quality country subsidizes investment to raise export quality,

Dongsheng Zhou; Barbara J. Spencer; Ilan Vertinsky

2000-01-01

159

Cost Containment Under P.L. 93-641: Strengthening the Partnership between Health Planning and Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a study which clarifies the issues that surround the linking of health planning to certain types of health regulation under the 1974 National Health Planning and Resources Development Act in the search for cost containment, and explor...

K. G. Bauer

1978-01-01

160

It's Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize Key Acquisition Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unless program managers (PM) tackle cost containment head-on, future weapon system acquisition successes may be jeopardized, resulting in fewer products and services to equip the nation's warfighters. The United States can ill afford any decrease in its p...

D. Seligman R. Tremaine

2010-01-01

161

A Study of Physician Reactions to the Medicare Cost Containment Pilot Program in the State of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having reduced the unit cost of physician fees during the 1980s, the federal government set up a Medicare pilot study in the state of Georgia in 1989 to test the impact of its cost containment strategies aimed at reducing volume of services. This research has attempted not only to clarify the nature of physician reaction to the Medicare pilot study

Michael C. Mobley; Mary F. Mobley; Sheila K. ONeal

1996-01-01

162

78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consolidated cost principles, and whether any...consolidated cost principles may conflict with the cost principles provided in the...by avoiding the complexities of the negotiation...availability of a minimum flat rate for...

2013-02-01

163

Medicaid Managed Care and Cost Containment in the Adult Disabled Population  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increasing enrollment of adult disabled beneficiaries into Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs) there is little evidence of its (hoped for) effectiveness at reducing Medicaid expenditures. Objective To evaluate the impact of Medicaid MCOs on health care expenditures for adults with disabilities. Research Design I employ a repeated observations design comparing individual monthly Medicaid expenditures across beneficiaries who reside in counties with mandatory, voluntary, and no MCOs. County-level Medicaid MCO program status for adults with disabilities was merged with the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the Area Resource File for 1996–2004. Two-part regression models are used to estimate the probability and level of Medicaid expenditure. Subjects Working age Medicaid beneficiaries who receive Supplement Security Income for disability comprise the sample of 1,613 individuals. Measures Outcome measures include total and service-specific Medicaid expenditures. Results On average, total monthly Medicaid expenditures per beneficiary do not differ between FFS and MCO counties although some service-specific spending differs. Relative to FFS counties, average monthly Medicaid spending per beneficiary is higher for prescription medications in voluntary ($24) and mandatory ($25) MCO counties. Average Medicaid monthly spending for other medical care and dental care is $4 – $11 higher per beneficiary in MCO relative to FFS counties. Conclusions Medicaid MCO programs as implemented are not associated with lower Medicaid spending; thus, state Medicaid programs should consider additional policy tools to contain health care expenditures in this population.

Burns, Marguerite E.

2010-01-01

164

Least-cost cheap-food policies: some implications of international food aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many low-income countries pursue cheap-food policies in which consumers pay subsidized prices for bread, rice and other staples. This paper addresses the issue of why different governments select different food subsidy policies, using multiple instruments rather than a simple across-the-board subsidy to provide consumers with access to cheap food. It examines the optimal structure of cheap-food policies in the context

Julian M. Alston; Vincent H. Smith; Albert Acquaye; Safdar Hosseini

1999-01-01

165

The cost of containment: The Cold War and US international drug control at the UN, 1950–58  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the influence of the Cold War on the formulation and application of US narcotic foreign policy at the UN. Examination of Washington's approach toward drug control in South East Asia and the Middle East reveals how the ideologically rich and longstanding US international crusade against narcotics was often subordinated to the containment of communist expansionism. The article

1999-01-01

166

Global and regional estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price increases and other tobacco control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide conservative estimates of the global and regional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies. Using a static model of the cohort of smokers alive in 1995, we estimated the number of smoking-attributable deaths that could be averted by: (1) price increases, (2) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and (3) a package of non-price

M. Kent Ranson; Prabhat Jha; Frank J. Chaloupka; Son N. Nguyen

2002-01-01

167

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

168

PRICE AND VERTICAL CONTROL POLICIES FOR A VERTICALLY INTEGRATED UPSTREAM MONOPOLIST WHEN SABOTAGE IS COSTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies welfare-optimal input pricing and vertical control policies for industries character- ized by an upstream monopolist selling to a downstream oligopoly in which the monopolist has a retail affiliate. Of particular concern is the possibility that the monopolist might favor its affiliate via nonprice discrimination. The degree of vertical control is formally introduced as a policy tool, and

David M. Mandy

169

Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

Kahn, Lawrence M.

2012-01-01

170

Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual

Rajesh Karki

2000-01-01

171

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

172

Trade Cost, Trade Policy and Trade Volume: A Study of Indian Apple Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade Cost form a significant part of moving goods from producer to consumer. These cost are particularly high in developing countries. As a representative country, we look at India’s apple trade. Although tariff on apple imports is high, local distribution cost are much higher. While Tariff reduction will somewhat benefit the consumer, liberalization that promotes lowering of traders’ margins may

Satish Y. Deodhar

173

Cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in adults with severe asthma: Results from the Asthma Policy Model  

PubMed Central

Background Omalizumab (trade name Xolair) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Given the high acquisition cost of omalizumab, its role and cost-effectiveness in disease management require definition. Objective We sought to identify the clinical and economic circumstances under which omalizumab might or might not be a cost-effective option by using a mathematic model. Methods We merged published data on clinical and economic outcomes (including acute event incidence, frequency/severity of hospitalizations, and health-related quality of life) to project 10-year costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness of treatment with omalizumab in addition to inhaled corticosteroids. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using input data ranges from a variety of sources (published clinical trials and observational databases). Results For patients with baseline acute event rates, omalizumab conferred an additional 1.7 quality-adjusted months at an incremental cost of $131,000 over a 10-year planning horizon, implying a cost-effectiveness ratio of $821,000 per QALY gained. For patients with 5 times the baseline acute event rate, the cost-effectiveness ratio was $491,000 per QALY gained. The projected cost-effectiveness ratio could fall within a range of other programs that are widely considered to be cost-effective if the cost of omalizumab decreases to less than $200. Conclusion Omalizumab is not cost-effective for most patients with severe asthma. The projected cost-effectiveness ratios could fall within a favorable range if the cost of omalizumab decreases significantly. Clinical implications Based on the high cost of omalizumab, it is especially important that clinicians explore alternative medications for asthma before initiating omalizumab.

Wu, Ann C.; Paltiel, A. David; Kuntz, Karen M.; Weiss, Scott T.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.

2012-01-01

174

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...obtained from the most recent annual Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust...

2009-10-01

175

42 CFR 100.2 - Average cost of a health insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insurance policy. 100.2 Section 100.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...obtained from the most recent annual Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust...

2010-10-01

176

Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Water Conservation Policies in a Depleting Aquifer: A Dynamic Analysis of the Kansas High Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effectiveness of these two policies, a dynamic model simulated a representative irrigator’s optimal technology choice, crop selection, and irrigation water

Ya Ding; Jeffrey M. Peterson

2012-01-01

177

7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency must deduct from the food cost savings projected for each...system or components of its food delivery system(s), and of training participants, local agencies, vendors, and licensed...State agency must calculate the food costs savings and...

2013-01-01

178

Marginal cost analysis and pricing of water and electric power: methodology notes. [Contains glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case studies in Latin America confirm the usefulness of marginal-cost principles as a pricing technique for setting appropriate rates and for promoting a rational use of the public service and the orderly planning of investment requirements. The studies also point to the need for further work in the area of distribution of costs among consumers. Part one of the book

Albouy

1983-01-01

179

Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue  

SciTech Connect

For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

NONE

1996-05-01

180

The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources

Kathryn E. McCollister; Michael T. French; Hai Fang

2010-01-01

181

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of ‘learning by doing’ and developments in ‘learning by searching’ with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing

Peter H. Kobos; Jon D. Erickson; Thomas E. Drennen

2006-01-01

182

Cost-effective ordering policies for inventory systems with emergency order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the studies on inventory control reported in earlier contributions deal with the optimization problems minimizing an expected cost criterion such as the long-run average cost. However, when the plant engineers design the inventory systems in practical situations, they must take account of reliability into the inventory system as well as economical aspect, where reliability can be defined as

B. C. Giri; T. Dohi

2009-01-01

183

77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the application of the cost principles in the circulars. 8. Eliminating...idea would update the cost principles to reflect the media now used...Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and with standard...consider increasing the minimum threshold for disclosure...

2012-02-28

184

Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

Xie, Yan

2010-01-01

185

Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

Marra, Simona

2008-01-01

186

Cost Sensitive Pushout Policy for the Buffer Management in Versatile Traffic Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presenting here a buffer management policy for versatile traffic. In the case of ATM switch, we have to drop only one packet of low priority to accommodate a packet of high priority, because all packets (cells) are of same size. Thus if we have to improve QoS of high priority packets we can give the worse treatment to

K. Padmanabh; R. Roy

2005-01-01

187

Information Policy and Genetically Modified Food: Weighting the Benefits and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labeling of genetically modified foods is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the US and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes Gmf labelling an international trade issue. The US and Canada do not require Gmfs to be labeled unless the Gmf is significantly different than the

Mario F. Teisl; Julie A. Caswell

2003-01-01

188

Strategic trade policy with endogenous choice of quality and asymmetric costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines strategic trade and joint welfare maximizing incentives towards investment in the quality of exports by an LDC and a developed country. Firms first compete in qualities and then export to an imperfectly competitive, third country market. Under Bertrand competition, unilateral policy involves an investment subsidy by the low-quality LDC and an investment tax by the developed country,

Dongsheng Zhou; Barbara J. Spencer; Ilan Vertinsky

2002-01-01

189

Blue Cross market share, economies of scale, and cost containment effort.  

PubMed

This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economies of scale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness. PMID:7263273

Feldman, R; Greenberg, W

1981-01-01

190

Blue Cross market share, economies of scale, and cost containment effort.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economies of scale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness.

Feldman, R; Greenberg, W

1981-01-01

191

76 FR 35383 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...minimizing the frequency of spray-applied surface disinfection. These could contribute to improved human and environmental safety and could lower pest control costs. For example, as a materials preservative, nanosilver should maintain...

2011-06-17

192

The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in developing nutrition policy.  

PubMed

Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society. Mandatory regulation of salt in processed foods, in particular, is highly recommended. Future research should focus on lacunae in the current evidence base: effectiveness of interventions addressing the marketing, availability, and price of healthy and unhealthy foods; modeling health impacts of complex dietary changes and multi-intervention strategies; and modeling health implications in diverse subpopulations to identify interventions that will most efficiently and effectively reduce health inequalities. PMID:23642205

Cobiac, Linda J; Veerman, Lennert; Vos, Theo

2013-04-29

193

77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Federal Financial Management ``Grant Reform...address only: Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th St NW...of Federal Financial Management ``Grant Reform...Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

2012-03-26

194

Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial.

2011-01-01

195

The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs for carbon dioxide (COâ) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6-75\\/t COâ. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning-by-doing until

S J Friedmann; J Dooley; H Held; O Edenhofer

2005-01-01

196

Costs and Benefits of Two Alternative Salmonella Control Policies in Finnish Broiler Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, costs and benefits of two Salmonella control options in broiler production were compared. The first option was to control Salmonella as set by Council Directive 92\\/117\\/EEC, so-called Zoonosis Directive. The second option was more intense control programme, the so-called Finnish Salmonella control programme. The costs of controlling Salmonella in primary and secondary production and the direct and

Susanna Kangas; Tapani Lyytikainen; Jukka Peltola; Jukka Ranta; Riitta Maijala

2004-01-01

197

The new era of payment reform, spending targets, and cost containment in Massachusetts: early lessons for the nation.  

PubMed

As its 2012 session drew to a close, the Massachusetts legislature passed a much-anticipated cost control bill. The bill sets annual state spending targets, encourages the formation of accountable care organizations, and establishes an independent commission to oversee health care system performance. It is Massachusetts's third law to address health spending since the state's landmark health insurance coverage reforms in 2006. The 2012 legislation is a notable step beyond other recent cost control efforts. Although it lacks strong mechanisms to enforce the new spending goals, it creates a framework for increased regulation if spending trends fail to moderate. Massachusetts's experience provides several lessons for state and federal policy makers. First, implementing near-universal coverage, as is planned under the Affordable Care Act for 2014, will increase pressure on government to begin controlling overall health care spending. Second, introduction of cost control measures takes time: Massachusetts enacted a series of incremental but increasingly strong laws over the past six years that have gradually increased its ability to influence health spending. Finally, the effectiveness of new cost control laws will depend on changes in providers' and insurers' behavior; in Massachusetts, private market activity has had a complementary impact on the pace of health system change. PMID:22993207

Mechanic, Robert E; Altman, Stuart H; McDonough, John E

2012-09-19

198

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

2008-01-07

199

Effectiveness of Strategies To Contain Costs of the Post-Retirement Health Benefit Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The management of the cost of post-retirement health benefits (PRHBs) for retirees is a major concern to American corporations because of a declining commitment to the Medicare program by the federal government, new proposed accounting rules that will change the financial treatment of PRHBs, and a growing retiree population. This study was…

Wan, Thomas T. H.; And Others

200

Cost Awareness and Containment : OPD Pharmaceutical Services of a Speciality Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major share of the hospital budget gets consumed in maintaining its pharmacy services. The cost consumption pattern of different group of medicines is directly related to the prescription load and prescription pattern. The Medical Officers and specialists of the hospital have got all important role in rational prescription in term of current therapeutics and saving on over prescription. A

Hem Chandra; A. K. Naik; SHORT ARTICLE

201

Indications for a Cost-Saving Policy in Routine Flow Cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry has known a growing popularity in last decade as an intriguing research and diagnostic tool, favoured by the availability of newly developed monoclonal antibodies directed against cell surface antigens. Unfortunately, equipment and reagents costs are still prohibitive, and it does not allow a more widespread use of this technology. We realised that most producers suggest to add the

Alberto Malacrida; Paolo Perseghin

1998-01-01

202

Education Program Cost Reimbursement in University Hospitals. Is There a Coherent National Policy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medicare reimbursement for educational program costs is a quagmire of conflicting rules, regulations, laws, procedures, and precedents. The reimbursement principles in force fail to recognize the special value to patient care provided by the integration of the university hospital with an academic health sciences center and are illogical and…

Jeddeloh, Norman P.

1981-01-01

203

Education Program Cost Reimbursement in University Hospitals. Is There a Coherent National Policy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medicare reimbursement for educational program costs is a quagmire of conflicting rules, regulations, laws, procedures, and precedents. The reimbursement principles in force fail to recognize the special value to patient care provided by the integration of the university hospital with an academic health sciences center and are illogical and…

Jeddeloh, Norman P.

1981-01-01

204

Cost Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: The Case of Population-Level Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tobacco smoking is one of the leading public health problems in the world. It is also possible to prevent and\\/or reduce the harm from tobacco use through the use of cost-effective tobacco control measures. However, most of this evidence comes from developed countries and little research has been conducted on this issue in developing countries. Objective: The objective of

Hideki Higashi; Khoa D. Truong; Jan J. Barendregt; Phuong K. Nguyen; Mai L. Vuong; Thuy T. Nguyen; Phuong T. Hoang; Angela L. Wallace; Tien V. Tran; Cuong Q. Le; Christopher M. Doran

2011-01-01

205

Increasing Fuel Costs Hit Hard: Districts Change Policies to Offset Rising Prices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports that with fuel prices soaring nationwide, reaching more than $4 for each gallon of gas or diesel, school districts are struggling to supplement transportation-budget shortfalls and find ways to offset the increasing costs as a new school year approaches. Now districts--most of whose buses run on diesel fuel--are scrambling to…

Ash, Katie

2008-01-01

206

The Cost of Higher Education to Students and Parents in Russia: Tuition Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identified patterns of costs of higher education borne by Russian students and parents, using data from a 1997 survey, institutional documents, and interviews with students, parents, and admissions officers at various higher education institutions. Results are presented by patterns related to the admission status of students, their field of…

Bain, Olga

2001-01-01

207

The cost escalation of social health insurance plans in China: Its implication for public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been alarmed by its rapid rise in health care expenditures of social health insurance schemes. The health care expenditure per person for the 155 million people covered by the Chinese social insurance plans has been rising at an accelerative rate. We analyze why health care cost in China has risen, and show how other nations may benefit from

Xingzhu Liu; William C. L. Hsiao

1995-01-01

208

Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service

Ruey Huei Yeh; Yi-Fang Lin

2011-01-01

209

Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service

Ruey Huei Yeh; Yi-Fang Lin

2012-01-01

210

A study of metric conversion of distilled spirits containers: A policy and planning evaluation on findings and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is the Task 4 report and final product for "A Study of Metric Conversion of Distilled Spirits Containers: A Policy and Planning Evaluation,' performed by Applied Concepts Corporation for the United States Metric Board (USMB). This report summarizes the results for the entire project, which entailed: conducting a detailed case study of the distilled spirits conversion; developing and analyzing a set of hypothetical scenarios regarding the circumstances of the conversion and USMB's possible role in it; assessing the completeness and clarity of USMB's planning guidelines; conducting a survey of consumer awareness of and attitudes toward the conversion; and analyzing the implications of the findings from all the above for USMB policy. The report presents a brief overview of the major findings from the case study, regarding the actual events, issues, and impacts of the distilled spirits conversion. It traces the impacts of possible USMB intervention strategies under several alternative scenarios, in the context of the distilled spirits conversion. The study assesses the planning guidelines and analyzes the implications for USMB policy and presents a concise summary of findings and "lessons learned' over the course of this project. Consumer survey results are attached in an Appendix.

Simpson, J. A.; Barsby, S. L.

1981-10-01

211

Cost factors and chemical pretreatment effects in the membrane filtration of waters containing natural organic matter.  

PubMed

This paper compares the membrane processes available for water treatment. Membranes have the advantage of currently decreasing capital cost, a relatively small footprint compared to conventional treatment, generally a reduction in chemicals usage and comparably low maintenance requirements. Three membrane processes applicable to water treatment, micro- (MF), ultra- (UF), and nanofiltration (NF), are compared in terms of intrinsic rejection, variation of rejection due to membrane fouling and increase in rejection by ferric chloride pretreatment. Twelve different membranes are compared on the basis of their membrane pore size which was calculated from their molecular weight cut-off. A pore size of < 6 nm is required to achieve substantial (> 50%) organics removal. For a fouled membrane this pore size is about 11 nm. UV rejection is higher than DOC rejection. Coagulation pretreatment allows a higher rejection of organics by MF and UF and the cut-off criterion due to initial membrane pore size is no longer valid. A water quality parameter (WQP) is introduced which describes the product water quality achieved as a function of colloid, DOC and cation rejection. The relationship between log (pore size) and WQP is linear. Estimation of membrane costs as a function of WQP suggests that open UF is superior to MF (similar cost at higher WQP) and NF is superior to tight UF. Chemical pretreatment could compensate for the difference between MF and UF. However, when considering chemicals and energy costs, it appears that a process operated at a higher energy is cheaper at a guaranteed product quality (less dependent on organic type). This argument is further supported by environmental issues of chemicals usage, as energy may be provided from renewable sources. PMID:11317898

Schäfer, A I; Fane, A G; Waite, T D

2001-04-01

212

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Intervention Services in Massachusetts: Implications for Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of early intervention services in Massachusetts. The findings indicate that (for a $1,000 investment) children demonstrate different levels of improvement in adaptive behavior and child-mother interaction depending on the severity of their disability and their age of entry into early intervention. Estimates of the number of service hours required to produce

Marji Erickson Warfield

1994-01-01

213

Cost Recovery in Public Hospitals in Belize.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains options for improving the current cost recovery system. Although user fee policy implementation is legally mandated, it has not been a priority of the Ministry of Health (MOH). Pressure from the government to improve efficiency and red...

G. La Forgia C. Griffin

1992-01-01

214

Low cost site built fiberglass water containers for thermal mass and small scale aquaculture  

SciTech Connect

A step by step method of constructing water storage tubes from commonly available fiberglass glazings is outlined. Drawing on experience gained in making tubes for the NMSEA demonstration greenhouse aquaculture program, sufficient information is presented to enable the layperson to build his or her own water containers, from a few gallons to hundreds of gallons in capacity.

Shepard, M.

1981-01-01

215

How do Governments Steer Health Policy? A Comparison of Canadian and New Zealand Approaches to Cost Control and Primary Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the ways in which governments in Canada and New Zealand have attempted to pursue reforms in two major health policy arenas – cost control and primary health care – in the period 1992–2005. The framework for comparison is drawn from the “modes of governance” literature that deals with hierarchies, markets, provider-based networks and communities as means of steering policy. Recent literature

Tim Tenbensel

2008-01-01

216

Draft environmental assessment: Swisher County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Swisher County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Swisher site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Swisher site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Deaf Smith site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site in the Permian Basin and is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site rather than the Swisher site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

217

Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricultural activities and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums for chemical-free and reduced-chemical corn indicate that if the society is willing to pay a price premium, risks can be reduced without a large reduction in the total economic surplus and net benefits may be higher. The results also show that this methodology provides an improved scientific framework for future decision making and policy evaluation in pesticide management.

Tesfamichael, Aklilu A.; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

2005-05-01

218

Minimum specific cost control of technological processes realized in a living objects-containing microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present work is to work out an approach for the development of software and the choice of hardware structures\\u000a when designing subsystems for automatic control of technological processes realized in living objects containing limited space\\u000a (microenvironment). The subsystems for automatic control of the microenvironment (SACME) under development use the Devices\\u000a for Air Prophylactic Treatment, Aeroionization, and

Alexander A. Amelkin; Margarita M. Blagoveschenskaya; Yury V. Lobanov; Anatoly K. Amelkin

2003-01-01

219

Current national initiatives about drug policies and cost control in Europe: the Italy example.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge to the financial compatibility of health systems because it is growing faster (+11% per year in the last 5 years in Italy) than any other health sector. In order to curb public pharmaceutical expenditure 2 interventions are commonly used: delisting (de-reimbursement) and reference price, with the difference being paid by patients. The Italian Ministry of Health implemented a set of interventions with the general aim of pharmaceutical governance based on the following criteria: (a) to assure a complete coverage of all clinically and epidemiologically relevant diseases; (b) to provide health professionals with a range of different active drugs with the same therapeutic indications within the same therapeutic class; and (c) to identify a reimbursement threshold in order to save public money by narrowing the (wide) price differentials among drugs with comparable efficacy and safety. In this context, interventions have been undertaken at several levels including drug price reduction, generic drug promotion, delisting of drugs reimbursed, and direct distribution of medicines (by hospital services). Furthermore, a new National Pharmaceutical Formulary has been implemented. Medicines have been classified into homogeneous categories (ie, medicines with the same main indication(s) and with similar clinical efficacy and safety profile). Within each homogeneous category, a reimbursement level (cutoff) was then identified and, accordingly, pharmaceutical companies were asked to adjust their price. This adjustment was based on price per daily drug dose (DDD), cumulative expenditure (at least 50%), and cumulative utilization (at least 60%). This readjustment, at no cost for patients, is expected to save more than Euro 280 million of public money. Seventy-seven percent of this saving will be due to price readjustment of antiulcers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and some antibiotics (mainly cephalosporins). The Italian system was able to cover all relevant diseases and ensured citizens and health professionals a choice among a wide range of valid pharmacological therapies. At the same time it was able to save public money by narrowing wide price differentials among drugs with comparable clinical properties. The set of interventions yielded a new national formulary that was able to have a significant influence on the trend of drug expenditure in Italy. This experience can be a useful reference for other European and non-European states. PMID:15069990

Rocchi, Francesca; Addis, Antonio; Martini, Nello

220

Booster Breaks: An Easy-to-Implement Workplace Policy Designed to Improve Employee Health, Increase Productivity, and Lower Health Care Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace stress and physical inactivity are major health problems. To combat them, Booster Breaks have been proposed, which represent a new way of thinking about work breaks. This article introduces a workplace program and policy to improve employee health and productivity and lower healthcare costs by implementing Booster Breaks. This innovation uses break times to promote health and is based

Wendell C. Taylor

2011-01-01

221

Drug waste minimisation and cost-containment in Medical Oncology: Two-year results of a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-containment strategies are required to face the challenge of rising drug expenditures in Oncology. Drug wastage leads to economic loss, but little is known about the size of the problem in this field. Methods Starting January 2005 we introduced a day-to-day monitoring of drug wastage and an accurate assessment of its costs. An internal protocol for waste minimisation was developed, consisting of four corrective measures: 1. A rational, per pathology distribution of chemotherapy sessions over the week. 2. The use of multi-dose vials. 3. A reasonable rounding of drug dosages. 4. The selection of the most convenient vial size, depending on drug unit pricing. Results Baseline analysis focused on 29 drugs over one year. Considering their unit price and waste amount, a major impact on expense was found to be attributable to six drugs: cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab. The economic loss due to their waste equaled 4.8% of the annual drug expenditure. After the study protocol was started, the expense due to unused drugs showed a meaningful 45% reduction throughout 2006. Conclusion Our experience confirms the economic relevance of waste minimisation and may represent a feasible model in addressing this issue. A centralised unit of drug processing, the availability of a computerised physician order entry system and an active involvement of the staff play a key role in allowing waste reduction and a consequent, substantial cost-saving.

Fasola, Gianpiero; Aita, Marianna; Marini, Luisa; Follador, Alessandro; Tosolini, Marina; Mattioni, Laura; Mansutti, Mauro; Piga, Andrea; Brusaferro, Silvio; Aprile, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

222

Draft environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment, which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Swisher site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site. The DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Deaf Smith site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Deaf Smith site is one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization.

Not Available

1984-12-01

223

Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

Titus, James G.

1991-01-01

224

Home care for life-supported persons: the French system of quality control, technology assessment, and cost containment.  

PubMed Central

Home care for persons who require the prolonged use of life-supportive medical technology is a reality in several nations. France has had more than a quarter of a century of experience with providing home care for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency and with a system to evaluate the patients' outcomes. The French approach features decentralized regional organizations which offer grassroots involvement by the beneficiaries who participate directly in the system. Since June 1981, a national organization has provided patients, professionals, and others concerned with direct access to national funding authorities and governmental officials and has created a data base for evaluation of the experience. This system permits direct input by current users of the services and creates informed opinion among members of the general public, governmental officials, and others involved (health care professionals and service providers). This is essential for the development of responsive public policy and for the determination of the relevancy of programs. In the United States, increasing demands are being made upon expensive hospital services by patients with diseases such as AIDS and other catastrophic, long-term care conditions. Cost-saving, community-oriented home care models serving complex medical-societal needs abroad are worthy of study to discern possible applications to health and social problems in our nation.

Goldberg, A I

1989-01-01

225

Climate change: is Southeast Asia up to the challenge?: forest and climate change policy: what are the costs of inaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation and forest degradation are some of the main contributors to anthropogenic climate change. Accordingly, policies to arrest deforestation or increase forest areas are proposed as important forms of climate change policy. This paper summarizes current proposals for addressing the contribution of forests to climate change, and the political problems of implementing these policies, especially in developing countries. The paper

Tim Forsyth

2010-01-01

226

Do Interventions to Increase Income Improve the Health of the Poor in Developed Economies and Are Such Policies Cost Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health policy has shifted towards placing a greater emphasis on the role of lifestyle and life circumstances in improving health. The factors that are associated with poor health status are known, but the comparative effectiveness of specific policy interventions in improving health and reducing inequalities in health is unclear. For example, there is little evidence that specific policies aimed at

Anne Ludbrook; Kathy Porter

2004-01-01

227

Cost Accounting Standard 414: How DOD's (Department of Defense's) Budget Profit Policy and Contractors' Investments Relate to Standard 414.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the relationship of Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 414, 'Cost of Money as an Element of the Cost of Facilities Capital', to the Department of Defense's (DOD) budget request and contractor profit. Also reviewed was the uncertainty surrou...

1987-01-01

228

Health Care Cost Containment: Are America's Aged Protected? Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing examining the impact on the elderly of the federal health care cost containment measure. Correspondence between the Select Committee on Aging and the Department of Health and Human Services, concerning the government restrictions' harmful effects on the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

229

Health Care Cost Containment: Are America's Aged Protected? Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing examining the impact on the elderly of the federal health care cost containment measure. Correspondence between the Select Committee on Aging and the Department of Health and Human Services, concerning the government restrictions' harmful effects on the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

230

Nursing Home Cost Determinants: Policy Implications from One State's Evidence and Its Support in National Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptive and econometric analysis of the major non-quality determinants of nursing home costs for Florida shows that mean costs, size and occupancy rate increased between 1971 and 1976, that per diem cost and occupancy rate were inversely related and t...

H. G. Traxler

1981-01-01

231

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09

232

Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol\\/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols\\/-stanols were given only to

Simone R. B. M. Eussen; Talitha L. Feenstra; Ido B. Toxopeus; Jeljer Hoekstra; Olaf H. Klungel; Hans Verhagen; Henk J. van Kranen; Cathy J. M. Rompelberg

2011-01-01

233

25 CFR 513.5 - What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false What is the Commission's policy...513.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEBT COLLECTION General...debts from the date that the debt becomes...

2013-04-01

234

Trial results of a new low-cost and covert technology to trace the path of maritime containers worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 7 million maritime style containers within Canada, and 70 million within the USA. The interiors of such containers are rarely inspected. With market globalization, a large amount of these containers enter North America on a daily basis. Such containers may include contraband or dangerous items that present an economic or security risk. Despite significant security improvements, only

René Schmidt; André Gagnon; Dave Allcock

2008-01-01

235

Public College and University Procurement: A Survey of the State Regulatory Environment, Institutional Procurement Practices and Efforts toward Cost Containment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contends that one area rich for reform and cost-saving opportunities is college and university procurement--the billions of dollars public institutions spend annually to purchase goods and services. While considerable cost savings may be realized in the reform of current procurement practices, these practices are largely shaped by state…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

2010-01-01

236

The Costs of Implementing Federally Mandated Social Programs at Colleges and Universities. Policy Analysis Service Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federally mandated social programs that apply to colleges and universities because they are treated as business entities are covered in this report. These programs have contributed to the continually increasing operating costs of colleges and universities over the last decade. This study aims at providing quantified examples of these cost

Van Alstyne, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

237

Using Simple Page Placement Policies to Reduce the Cost of Cache Fills in Coherent Shared-Memory Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost of a cache miss depends heavily on the location of the main memory that backs the missing line. For certain applications, this cost is a major factor in overall performance. We report on the utility of OS-based page placement as a mechanism to in...

M. Marchetti L. I. Kontothanassis R. Bianchini M. L. Scott

1994-01-01

238

The Rising Costs of the "Chapter 220" Program in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, Volume 1, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financing of Wisconsin's "Chapter 220" program, which is the primary means for implementing the 1988 federal court settlement of a school integration lawsuit, needs to be reformed. Total program costs may triple in 5 years, from about $32.5 million in 1986-87 to $90 million by the 1992-93 school year; per pupil costs could rise from about…

Mitchell, George A.

239

Evaluation and Cost Analysis of National Health Policy of Thalassaemia Screening in West-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Thalassaemia is one of the most common Mendelian disorders in Mediterranean area. Iran has about 26,000 Thalassaemic patients, so it is one of the most affected countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening program and cost analysis of Thalassaemia prevention program in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of Health system's Thalassaemia prevention program with a sensitivity analysis for its costs. The second five years of the program was evaluated. The economic burden of Thalassaemia is determined by the birth prevalence of the affected infants and the cost that is accrued to treat the infected individuals and was compared with the total cost of screening the couples for thalassemia trait. Results: The average incidence rate of major Thalassaemia was 19.8 per 100,000 live births and mean coverage rate of program was 74%. The rate of canceling the marriage among carrier couples was 53%. Cost analysis showed that the cost of screening and prenatal diagnosis program was much lower than the cost of treatment in potential thalassaemic patients. Conclusions: The prevention program of Thalassaemia including a premarital and pre-natal screening in west Azerbaijan province is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Taking some actions in order to increase the coverage of pre-marital screening, providing pre-natal diagnosis in private and public sector, complete insurance coverage for the high-risk couples to perform the investigations more easily, were recommended.

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Jahani, Farshid Fayyaz; Hatami, Sanaz; Kargar, Catauon; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

240

Policies, Policies, Policies! What Antibiotic Policies Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ntibiotics should be used rationally in order to improve patient outcome; to contain the cost of treatment and most importantly to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, inappropriate use of antibiotics appears to be a universal phenomenon and numerous surveys from around the world have shown high rates of inappropriate prescribing. There is abundant circumstantial evidence linking emergence of

Victor Lim

2005-01-01

241

Cost-effectiveness analysis of tuberculosis control policies in Ivanovo Oblast, Russian Federation. Ivanovo Tuberculosis Project Study Group.  

PubMed

Many of the current tuberculosis control programmes in the Russian Federation are based on costly strategies which are underfunded and use long, individualized treatment regimens. This article compares, using a cost-effectiveness analysis, the new WHO strategy implemented in the Ivanovo Oblast (case-finding among symptomatic patients (SCF) and shorter regimens) and the old strategy (active screening of the asymptomatic population (ACF) and longer regimens). The cost per case cured was calculated at different levels of cure rate (45-95%) using three scenarios to describe the new WHO strategy (use of WHO-recommended regimens and three options at increasing rates of admission) and a fourth scenario to describe the old strategy (all patients admitted for the whole treatment and longer regimens). The cost per case detected was determined by calculating the following: yield of the new and old strategy (number of examinations necessary to diagnose one case); cost of the diagnostic process; multiplying yield per cost according to the three scenarios describing the new WHO strategy and a fourth scenario describing the old strategy. In the Ivanovo Oblast the cost per case cured, at 85% cure rate level, ranged from US$ 1197 (new strategy, scenario 1 without food) to US$ 6293 (old strategy, scenario 4) the cost per case detected ranged from US$ 1581 (new strategy, scenario 1) to US$ 4000 (old strategy, scenario 4). Significant savings can result from shifting towards the new WHO strategy. Decision-makers and health administrators should be responsible for re-investing the financial and human resources mobilized by the adoption of cost-effective strategies within the TB control programme. PMID:9868838

Migliori, G B; Khomenko, A G; Punga, V V; Ambrosetti, M; Danilova, I; Ribka, L N; Grzemska, M; Sawert, H; Raviglione, M C

1998-01-01

242

Macro-Level Training Data: A Conceptual Model Relating Training Cost and Effectiveness Data to Training Policy Interests and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is the first phase of an analytical effort to determine the types of data required to support the needs of OSD and the Services for formulating and supporting training policy decisions and to assess the adequacy of current training data bases. ...

J. Orlansky R. S. Gibson

1988-01-01

243

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions

Liesbeth Schrooten; Ina De Vlieger; Filip Lefebre; Rudi Torfs

2006-01-01

244

Risk perception, addiction, and costs to others: An assessment of cigarette taxes and other anti-smoking policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a relatively comprehensive assessment of government anti-smoking policies (both taxation and other regulatory measures). I conclude that interventions to engender in smokers and prospective smokers an accurate perception of tobacco's health risks are justified, that except in the case of adolescents addiction by itself does not justify intervention beyond providing adequate information, that the proper goal of

Paul Menzel

1994-01-01

245

Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance. Policy Brief Series on Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deferring maintenance in small rural schools creates poor conditions that can affect the health and safety of everyone who uses the facility, damage the morale of students and teachers, impair their ability to teach and learn, and threaten the facility itself. Numerous recommendations for policy changes that affect maintenance are presented. A…

Lawrence, Barbara Kent

246

Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Mental Disorders: Implications for Public Health Care Funding Policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. Method: We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. Results:

Gail Myhr; Krista Payne

2006-01-01

247

National Health Policy Influence on Medicare Home Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National health policy regulates the delivery of Medicare home health services. These services have grown exponentially over the past several years. Current challenges to service delivery revolve around attempts to contain costs while ensuring quality of and access to care. To meet these challenges, providers must be aware of the societal and ideological influences on national health policies that impact

Virginia M. Conley; Mary K. Walker

1999-01-01

248

Treatment of Advanced or Recurrent Cervical Cancer with Cisplatin or Cisplatin Containing Regimens: A Cost Effective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival with adding paclitaxel (P) or topotecan (T) to cisplatin (C) for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of these regimens. Methods: A decision model was developed based on Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocols 169 and 179. Arm 1 is 6 cycles of cisplatin. Arm 2 is 6 cycles of CP while arm 3 is 6 cycles of CT. Parameters include overall survival (OS), cost and complications. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for C versus CP is $13,654/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. For CT compared to C, the ICER is $152,327/QALY. When compared simultaneously, CT is dominated. At a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY, C is the preferred option but CP is acceptable. Sensitivity analyses suggest that CT would become the preferred option if it was to improve OS to 24 months (compared to 9.4 months). Conclusions: In this model, CP is an acceptable alternative to cisplatin for the treatment of these patients with an increase in cost of only $13,654/QALY. The addition of topotecan did not increase survival enough to justify the increased cost.

Geisler, John P.; Swathirajan, Jayanth; Wood, Katherine L.; Manahan, Kelly J.

2012-01-01

249

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

250

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

251

Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number

DAN CHISHOLM; CHRIS DORAN; KENJI SHIBUYA; J URGEN REHM

2006-01-01

252

Optimal pricing and inventory control policy in periodic-review systems with fixed ordering cost and lost sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a periodic-review pricing and inventory control problem for a retailer, which faces stochastic price- sensitive demand, under quite general modeling assumptions. Any unsatisfied demand is lost, and any leftover inventory at the end of the finite selling horizon has a salvage value. The cost component for the retailer includes holding, shortage, and both variable and fixed ordering

Saibal Ray; Yuyue Song

2006-01-01

253

Using the MAX-NHANES Merged Data to Evaluate the Association of Obesity and Medicaid Costs. Medicaid Policy Brief 16.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Obesity among adults has reached alarming levels in the United States. In 20092010, 35.9 percent of adults age 20 and older were obese (Flegal et al. 2012). Obesity has both individualand societal-level costs. At the individual level, obesity is associate...

A. H. Dodd P. M. Gleason

2013-01-01

254

Grant Guidelines to States For Implementing The Secondary Containment Provision of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in consultation with states, developed these grant guidelines to implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA), enacted by the Underground Storage...

2006-01-01

255

The High Cost of Compromise: Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Control Policy in Virginia, 1977-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in Virginia, taking more than 9,200 lives each year. Tobacco-induced healthcare costs are $1.92 billion annually, including $369 million in Medicaid payments. • The growth of tobacco, and its importance to the economy of Virginia, has declined significantly. In 2008, tobacco was only the fifth most harvested and valuable crop,

Alex JD Kierstein; Richard L. JD Barnes

2010-01-01

256

Titrating versus targeting home care services to frail elderly clients: an application of agency theory and cost-benefit analysis to home care policy.  

PubMed

The article summarizes the shortcomings of current home care targeting policy, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the sources of its problems, and proposes an alternative resource allocation method. Methods required for different aspects of the study included synthesis of the published literature, regression analysis of risk predictors, and comparison of actual resource allocations with simulated budgets. Problems of imperfect agency ranging from unclear goals and inappropriate incentives to lack of information about the marginal effectiveness of home care could be mitigated with an improved budgeting method that combines client selection and resource allocation. No program can produce its best outcome performance when its goals are unclear and its technology is unstandardized. Titration of care would reallocate resources to maximize marginal benefit for marginal cost. PMID:12611411

Weissert, William; Chernew, Michael; Hirth, Richard

2003-02-01

257

Sulfamic acid as a cost-effective catalyst instead of metal-containing acids for acetolysis of cyclic ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfamic acid has been used as an efficient catalyst and green alternative for metal-containing acidic materials to promote the acetolysis reaction of THF to produce 1,4-diacetoxybutane. This method is also applicable to the acetolysis of other cyclic ethers, such as methyl substituted THF and tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane, which is less reactive.

Bo Wang; Yanlong Gu; Weizhong Gong; Yuru Kang; Liming Yang; Jishuan Suo

2004-01-01

258

Policy Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A nonprofit and nonpartisan enterprise, the Policy Library seeks to "place public policy knowledge in the public domain." It does this by linking to an array of policy papers and resources available for free from think tanks, governments, and universities. The focus is on UK think tanks, but visitors will find content from a range of international organizations. The database currently contains over 700 policy and research papers, with additions made daily. Papers may be keyword searched by subject, author, country, institution, or title or browsed by topic under four categories: social policy, economic policy, international issues, and political thought. Each topical resource page also includes a varying number of related links. This is a solid resource that should find ready use by researchers, students, and the interested public.

259

Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

Somerset, Anthony

2011-01-01

260

The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme.  

PubMed

A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further optimized in terms of scientific and policy relevance. Over the past decade, developments in environmental monitoring and risk assessment converged toward the use of indicators and endpoints that are related to soil functioning and ecosystem services. In view of the proposed European Union (EU) Soil Framework Directive, there is an urgent need to identify and evaluate indicators for soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. The recently started integrated project, Ecological Function and Biodiversity Indicators in European Soils (EcoFINDERS), aims to address this specific issue within the EU Framework Program FP7. Here, we 1) discuss how to use the concept of ecosystem services in soil monitoring, 2) review former and ongoing monitoring schemes, and 3) present an analysis of metadata on biological indicators in some EU member states. Finally, we discuss our experiences in establishing a logical sieve approach to devise a monitoring scheme for a standardized and harmonized application at European scale. PMID:23325463

Faber, Jack H; Creamer, Rachel E; Mulder, Christian; Römbke, Jörg; Rutgers, Michiel; Sousa, J Paulo; Stone, Dorothy; Griffiths, Bryan S

2013-04-01

261

Spallation Neutron Source high-power Rf transmitter design for high availablility, ease of installation and cost containment  

SciTech Connect

The availability goals and installation schedule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have driven the availability and installation of the SNS linac's high-power RF systems. This paper discusses how the high-power RF systems' availability and installation goals have been addressed in the RF transmitter design and procurement. Design features that allow R1; component failures to be quickly diagnosed and repaired are also presented. Special attention has been given lo interlocks, PLC fault logging and real-time interfaces to thc accelerator's Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) archive system. The availability and cost motivations for the use of different RF transmitter designs in the normalconducting and super-conducting sections of the linac are reviewed. Factory iicceptance tests used to insure fully functional equipment and thereby reduce the time spent on installation and cotnmissioning of the RF transmitters are discussed. Transmitter installation experience and klystron conditioning experience is used to show how these design features have helped and will continue to help the SNS linac to meet its availability and schedule goals.

Bradley, J. T. (Joseph T.), III; Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Roybal, W. T. (William T.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.)

2003-01-01

262

Costs of Adopting  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications Catalog Resources in ... Stay Connected Home » Costs of Adopting Costs ...

263

Pursuing cost containment in a pluralistic payer environment: from the aftermath of Clinton's failure at health care reform to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.  

PubMed

Following a decade in which Medicare operated as the leading 'change agent' within the US health care system, the private sector rose to the fore in the mid 1990s. The failure of President Clinton's attempt at comprehensive, public sector-led reform left managed care as the solution for cost control. And for a period it worked, largely because managed care organizations were able to both squeeze payments to selective networks of medical providers and significantly reduce inpatient hospital stays. There was a lot of 'fat' in the nation's convoluted health care system that could be (and was) eliminated through competitive negotiations between medical providers and insurers, employers, or managed care organizations. One of our primary arguments in this article is that managed care operated partly as a systematic suppression of price discrimination or differential pricing (often referred to as 'cost shifting'), as managed care organizations qua purchasing agents prevented hospitals and physicians from summarily raising prices to private payers to meet their financial requirements. Over time, however, managed care fell victim to inflated expectations, its own initial success, and larger fiscal forces. During this same period, Republicans and Democrats struggled to reach a consensus over the future direction of Medicare. Their disagreements contributed to the impasse over budget policy in 1995 and the infamous partial federal government shutdown. After President Clinton's reelection in 1996, partisan disagreements over Medicare dissipated. And, in 1997, Congress and the president passed the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which emerged as a massive piece of patchwork legislation that sought to balance the federal budget, rein in Medicare spending, and increase the number of the programme's beneficiaries in private health plans. PMID:18634695

Mayes, Rick; Hurley, Robert E

2006-07-01

264

Estimating the Potential Health Impact and Costs of Implementing a Local Policy for Food Procurement to Reduce the Consumption of Sodium in the County of Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined approaches to reduce sodium content of food served in settings operated or funded by the government of the County of Los Angeles, California. Methods. We adapted health impact assessment methods to mathematically simulate various levels of reduction in the sodium content of food served by the County of Los Angeles and to estimate the reductions’ potential impacts on mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) among food-service customers. We used data provided by county government food-service vendors to generate these simulations. Results. Our analysis predicted that if the postulated sodium-reduction strategies were implemented, adults would consume, on average, 233 fewer milligrams of sodium each day. This would correspond to an average decrease of 0.71 millimeters of mercury in SBP among adult hypertensives, 388 fewer cases of uncontrolled hypertension in the study population, and an annual decrease of $629?724 in direct health care costs. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a food-procurement policy can contribute to positive health and economic effects at the local level. Our approach may serve as an example of sodium-reduction analysis for other jurisdictions to follow.

Kuo, Tony; Dunet, Diane; Schmidt, Steven M.; Simon, Paul A.; Fielding, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

265

Looking Back, Going Forward: The Carnegie Commission Tuition Policy. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In thinking about the design of public policy for higher education finance, it may be instructive to look back at the evolution of finance policy and how it has worked over the last three decades of U.S. higher education. The vehicle for this exploration is the tuition policy framework developed by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education…

Wellman, Jane V.

266

75 FR 64684 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts Executed and...Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Notice...

2010-10-20

267

UPDATING PERFORMANCE AND COST OF NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA uses the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to evaluate the cost and emission impacts of proposed policies. Studies were undertaken recently to update the performance and cost factors contained in this model for various NOx control technologies. The studies showed a sig...

268

The Effect of Cash and Counseling on Medicaid and Medicare Costs: Findings for Adults in Three States. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines how Cash and Counseling affected Medicaid and Medicare service use and cost. In all three states, costs incurred by the treatment group were higher than those incurred by the control group. However, the reasons were different across states, and the patterns differed over time. In two of the states, costs for the treatment group did not exceed

Stacy Dale; Randall Brown

2005-01-01

269

Controlling the Costs of Education in Eastern Africa: A Review of Data, Issues, and Policies. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 702.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data and issues on costs of primary, secondary, and higher education in Eastern Africa are presented. Practical recommendations for controlling or reducing costs while paying attention to effects on quality and equity are made. For each level of education the report reviews student-teacher ratios, teacher salaries, non-teaching costs, and…

Wolff, Laurence

270

Foundations and Health Policy: Identifying Funding Strategies in Health Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the role of one important element of the nonprofit sector in public policymaking by examining the pattern of foundation giving in the health area. It examines the timing of foundation funding in six health policy areas: AIDS, Alzheimer's, cost containment, outcome-based research, minority health care, and the uninsured. Four major foundations funding health are examined: the W.K.

Jack H. Knott; Carol S. Weissert

1995-01-01

271

Strategies for implementing a mitigation policy for light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Possible strategies are considered for implementing a regulatory policy requiring that power reactor containment enclosures be modified to resist severe core-melt accidents without release of radioactive materials. Such modification was found to be feasible, reliable and cost effective in the work reported in previous studies in this NRC series. Incentives, goals, costs and sources of funding are discussed, and a series of possible implementation steps are presented. 11 refs.

Kastenberg, W.E.; Hammond, R.P.; Catton, I.; Dooley, J.L.; Castle, J.N.

1988-01-01

272

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Effect on Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook Largely Depends on Whether Cost Containment Sustained.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GAO regularly prepares long-term federal budget simulations under different assumptions about broad fiscal policy decisions. GAO's Baseline Extended simulation illustrates the long-term outlook assuming current law at the time the simulation was run is ge...

2013-01-01

273

Costs Associated with a Strict Policy to Eradicate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Dutch University Medical Center: A 10Year Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Although the Dutch policy to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is very strict compared to policies employed in other countries, it has proven to be successful epidemiologically\\u000a (incidence of MRSA in the Netherlands, <0.5%). The present study was performed to investigate both the financial and the logistical\\u000a consequences of this strict, so-called \\

M. Vriens; H. Blok; A. Fluit; A. Troelstra; C. van der Werken; J. Verhoef

2002-01-01

274

Federal Medical and Disability Program Costs Associated with Diabetes, 2005. Summary of Methods and Key Findings. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a growing threat to the nation’s health that has serious and costly complications. This paper looks behind the $79.7 billion estimates for 2005 of medical and disability costs to the federal government cited in Mathematica’s main study. The estimates include $2.5 billion in disability payments associated with diabetes and $77.2 billion in increased medical costs. Nearly 80 percent

Marsha Gold; Craig Thornton; Allison Hedley; Cheryl Fahlman; Suzanne Felt-Lisk; Bob Weathers; Thomas Croghan

2007-01-01

275

76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office...Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION...Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is...

2011-08-26

276

Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?  

PubMed

For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy. PMID:11809012

Wörz, M; Wismar, M

2001-01-01

277

Prescription Drugs for Children with Special Health Care Needs in Commercial Managed Care: Patterns of Use and Cost, 1999-2001. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rapidly rising pharmaceutical costs have contributed to increased health expenditures nationwide, few studies have examined this trend in children with special health care needs. This study used data from two large commercial managed care plans in UnitedHealth Group to examine how many and what kinds of prescription drugs these children used, as well as their costs. The researchers found

Henry T. Ireys; Jennifer Humensky; Steven Wickstrom; Paula Rheault

2004-01-01

278

University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-937  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year 2007, the majority of the Department of Defense's (DOD) basic research obligations were provided to higher education institutions. DOD reimburses these institutions for both direct and indirect costs for research. Two federal agencies, DOD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), negotiate indirect cost rates used to…

Needham, John K.

2010-01-01

279

Policy opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

McCray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

280

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology. Background Paper No. 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies. Case Study No. 6: The Cost Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Transplant Therapy and Its Policy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diffusion of biomedical technology in the United States has had a striking impact on health care personnel, institutions, and costs. The rate at which biomedical innovations are diffused within the health care system, although an important characteris...

S. O. Schweitzer C. C. Scalzi

1981-01-01

281

The welfare costs of not being part of the knowledge economy: why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies why rural development needs more creative policy strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract All forms of knowledge, from advanced science to the simple idea of finding a new use for an old good, con- tribute to economic growth, not by competing for scarce resources in existing markets but by creating new mar- kets. Current agricultural, environmental and develop- ment policies ignore the social welfare generated by new markets because they

Philipp Aerni

282

Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

283

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities;

G. Zotos; A. Karagiannidis; S. Zampetoglou; A. Malamakis; I.-S. Antonopoulos; S. Kontogianni; G. Tchobanoglous

2009-01-01

284

Opening a policy window for organisational change and full-cost accounting: The creation of BC Hydro's water use planning program  

Microsoft Academic Search

British Columbia's Water Use Planning (WUP) program is a multi-stakeholder process that revises the operating plans of BC Hydro's hydroelectric facilities in order to consider water values beyond hydropower. Using a model of policy change, this paper analyses the circumstances that enabled the emergence of WUP and prompted BC Hydro to change its decision-making processes to better consider environmental and

Lucia Scodanibbio

2011-01-01

285

Titrating Versus Targeting Home Care Services to Frail Elderly ClientsAn Application of Agency Theory and Cost-Benefit Analysis to Home Care Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article summarizes the shortcomings of current home care targeting policy, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the sources of its problems, and proposes an alternative resource allocation method. Methods required for different aspects of the study included synthesis of the published literature, regression analysis of risk predictors, and comparison of actual resource allocations with simulated budgets. Problems of imperfect

William Weissert; Michael Chernew; Richard Hirth

2003-01-01

286

Insurance policies may have hidden coverage for pollution liability  

SciTech Connect

Insurance coverage for environmental incidents has changed twice in recent years. Besides preventing injury and starting cleanup, the most important actions a property owner confronted with an environmental incident can take are establishing when the incident began -- as opposed to when it was reported to the owner -- and determining the policy language insurers were using at all times from the incident's occurrence until its discovery. A property owner turning in an expensive environmental claim to an insurance broker or company should not simply accept a declaration that the policy does not cover damages or cleanup costs. Relevant insurance coverage is likely to be found in older policies in effect when the incident began. Such older policies almost certainly contain different language than current ones, and their language is nearly always more beneficial to property owners. Older policies typically provide broader coverage for environmental incidents than current ones.

Horn, C.H.

1993-03-01

287

Quality of Health Care and Cost Recovery in Africa: Evidence from Niger and Senegal. Phases 2 and 3: Field Work, Research Results, and Policy Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This applied research paper presents findings from comparative research on health care quality and cost recovery in Niger and Senegal. It also draws conclusions applicable to other African countries. Data are presented from provider, patient, and househol...

A. Wouters

1994-01-01

288

Alcohol Related Casualties and Alcohol Beverage Market Response to Beverage Alcohol Availability Policies in Michigan. Volume II. A Critical Review of Social Cost Estimation of Alcohol Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the feasibility and advisability of basing state and local planning for alcohol problems on social cost estimates. It is concluded that alcohol-related problems, being not exclusively caused by alcohol abuse, require additional resea...

J. A. Freedman R. L. Douglass

1977-01-01

289

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2012-10-01

290

Mapping public policy on genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of public policies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in public policy development overall – including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote – will help determine the future of public policy on genetics.

N E Weisfeld

2002-01-01

291

Rethinking America's Illegal Drug Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical review of the empirical and theoretical literatures on illegal drug policy, including cross-country comparisons, in order to evaluate three drug policy regimes: criminalization, legalization and “depenalization.” Drawing on the experiences of various states, as well as countries such as Portugal and the Netherlands, the paper attempts to identify cost-minimizing policies for marijuana and cocaine by

John J. Donohue III; Benjamin Ewing; David Peloquin

2011-01-01

292

Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

1984-01-01

293

Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Economic Development Institute Seminar Background Papers (Washington, D.C., April 1987). EDI Seminar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discusses the major options decisionmakers face when they are dealing with teacher career and remuneration policies. The document deals with a central question: how can remuneration and managerial policies help improve teacher effectiveness? The book is divided into three parts containing 15 papers. The first part, "The Cost and…

Farrell, Joseph P., Ed.; Oliveira, Joao B., Ed.

294

The Cost of Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of health expenditure has become one of the main axes of health policy. Cost studies are an indispensable tool for determining the economic impact of disease and for assigning the material and human resources required for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with different diseases. Cost studies in stroke are necessary due to the increasing incidence

Eduardo Martínez-Vila; Pablo Irimia

2004-01-01

295

"But what is the object of educating these children, if it costs their lives to educate them?": federal Indian education policy in western Canada in the late 1800s.  

PubMed

Debates in the Canadian House of Commons in the last two decades of the nineteenth century revealed persistent differences between the Conservatives and the Liberals over federal Indian education policy and the administration of industrial schools. Until their defeat in 1896, the Conservatives supported a denominational industrial school system and a policy of rapid assimilation. The Liberals generally opposed denominational schools and believed the industrial school system was too costly and was not leading to rapid assimilation. After gaining power, the Liberals stopped construction of industrial schools in favour of boarding and day schools, but denominational influence remained strong. The Conservative emphasis on assimilation was replaced by measures that supported reserve-based segregation as earlier hopes for rapid assimilation diminished. Despite policy differences, neither the Conservatives nor the Liberals held Aboriginal cultures in high regard, and debates regarding the means and intent of Indian education played out against well-known, high mortality rates and often abysmal conditions in the schools. PMID:20715327

Enns, Richard A

2009-01-01

296

Children with Special Health Care Needs in Commercial Managed Care: Patterns of Service Use and Cost. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research,with Center for Health Care Policy and Evaluation, UnitedHealth Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with special health care needs who are enrolled in commercial, employer-based health insurance plans may be at high risk for inadequate access to needed health services. This report provides new and important information on patterns of service use and cost for 30,000 children with special health care needs enrolled in private managed care plans in 1999-2000.

Henry T. Ireys; Jennifer Humensky; Eileen Paterson; Steve Wickstrom; Bharati Manda; Paula Rheault

2002-01-01

297

Cross-sectional study of morbidity, morbidity-associated factors and cost of treatment in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, with implications for health policy in developing countries and development assistance policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In a population-based epidemiological study in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, we studied cross-sectional child morbidity and the cost of necessary investigation and treatment. METHODS: Three teams of two to three health workers visited haphazardly selected households in all major housing quarters. We asked permission to enter for a health survey. Children with cough, fever or weight loss as well as sick

Knut Holtedahl; Harald Hurum

2002-01-01

298

Pursuing cost containment in a pluralistic payer environment: from the aftermath of Clinton's failure at health care reform to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a decade in which Medicare operated as the leading change agent within the US health care system, the private sector rose to the fore in the mid 1990s. The failure of President Clinton s attempt at comprehensive, public sector-led reform left managed care as the solution for cost control. And for a period it worked, largely because managed care

Rick Mayes; Robert E. Hurley

2006-01-01

299

Insect Biocontrol with Non-endemic Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp.): Conclusions and Recommendations of a Combined OECD and COST Workshop on Scientific and Regulatory Policy Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen invited experts from 10 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and European countries participating in the European Commission's Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technical Research (COST) Action 819, along with 12 other participants, met to review and debate the potential problems associated with the introduction and commercial use of non-indigenous nematodes for insect biological control. The

R.-U. EHLERS; H. M. T. HOKKANEN

1996-01-01

300

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools: Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan. Policy Research Working Paper 5638  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment…

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth

2011-01-01

301

The Perry Preschool Program and Its Long-Term Effects: A Benefit-Cost Analysis. High/Scope Early Childhood Policy Papers, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details a benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool program and describes the program's long-term effects. Conducted since 1962, research on the Perry Preschool program constitutes one of the strongest and best-known sources of support for the long-term efficacy of early intervention with disadvantaged children. The Perry Project…

Barnett, W. Steven

302

The Perry Preschool Program and Its Long-Term Effects: A Benefit-Cost Analysis. High/Scope Early Childhood Policy Papers, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report details a benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool program and describes the program's long-term effects. Conducted since 1962, research on the Perry Preschool program constitutes one of the strongest and best-known sources of support for the long-term efficacy of early intervention with disadvantaged children. The Perry Project…

Barnett, W. Steven

303

Costing Distance Education and Open Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning-- A Survey of Policy and Practice. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideological arguments are made for open learning, economic ones for distance education. If it can produce similar results to those of conventional education at a lower cost, then distance education has a powerful appeal. With increasing demand for access to educational opportunities at all levels, and often decreasing budgets in real terms for…

Commonwealth of Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

304

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction.  

PubMed

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings. PMID:19147341

Zotos, G; Karagiannidis, A; Zampetoglou, S; Malamakis, A; Antonopoulos, I-S; Kontogianni, S; Tchobanoglous, G

2009-01-14

305

Policy analysis of workplace rehabilitation policy within workers' compensation arrangements in NSW coal mines from 1987 to 1997: towards improved occupational health outcomes for injured coal miners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace rehabilitation gained greater prominence as a means of both containing the costs of workers’ compensation claims and improving return to work outcomes for injured workers following a period of policy debate and reform from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s. As a result, rehabilitation was integrated into workers’ compensation arrangements throughout Australia. However, coal mines in NSW took a

Natalie Pelham

2005-01-01

306

Could a policy of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents result in cost savings in acute hip fracture care? The case of Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hip fractures are an important problem in nursing homes. Hip protectors are external devices that decrease the risk of hip\\u000a fracture in elderly nursing home residents. We estimated the overall healthcare cost savings from a hypothetical strategy\\u000a of provision of hip protectors to elderly nursing home residents in Ontario, Canada. In a recent meta-analysis, we determined\\u000a that a strategy of

A. M. Sawka; A. Gafni; P. Boulos; K. Beattie; A. Papaioannou; A. Cranney; D. A. Hanley; J. D. Adachi; A. Cheung; E. A. Papadimitropoulos; L. Thabane

2007-01-01

307

Teaching Self-Sufficiency: An Impact and Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Home Visitation and Life Skills Education Program. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents 30-month impact and benefit-cost analysis findings for the Building Nebraska Families program, an intensive home visitation and life skills education program for hard-to-employ TANF clients in rural Nebraska. The program improved employment near the end of the 30-month followup and significantly improved family income and reduced poverty. It also had major impacts for a subgroup of more

Alicia Meckstroth; rew Burwick; Quinn Moore; Michael Ponza; Shawn Marsh; rew McGuirk; Tim Novak; Zhanyun Zhao

2008-01-01

308

42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the...

2012-10-01

309

42 CFR 50.503 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 50.503 Section 50.503 ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.503 Policy. It is the policy of the...

2011-10-01

310

Cross-sectional study of morbidity, morbidity-associated factors and cost of treatment in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, with implications for health policy in developing countries and development assistance policy  

PubMed Central

Background In a population-based epidemiological study in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, we studied cross-sectional child morbidity and the cost of necessary investigation and treatment. Methods Three teams of two to three health workers visited haphazardly selected households in all major housing quarters. We asked permission to enter for a health survey. Children with cough, fever or weight loss as well as sick adults were offered free-of-charge local hospital examination and treatment. Results From 177 households with 1777 persons, 51 (2.9%) persons were referred. Thirty-five of them had an undiagnosed disease threatening individual health and in many cases also public health. Seven were hospitalised, including three adults with tuberculosis. Malnutrition was diagnosed in nine small children. Four patients had AIDS, seven had malaria. Average total cost for ambulant patients was 15 USD, for hospitalised patients 110 USD. In the households, almost half of the women 16–50 years of age had no schooling. Two per cent of women and nine per cent of men were daily smokers. Coughing children were more likely than non-coughing children to live in a household with at least one smoker (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.72 to 7.46), and they generally lived in more poor households (P = 0.018). Twelve of 16 children with weight loss were referred from households with a high poverty score. Conclusions Adult smoking and poverty affect children's health. The cost of hospitalisation or long-lasting therapy is beyond the means of most ordinary families. Diseases with severe consequences for public health, like tuberculosis, AIDS and malaria should have national programs with free, decentralised examination and treatment. Access to generic drugs is important. A major educational effort is needed to improve public health.

Holtedahl, Knut; Hurum, Harald

2002-01-01

311

Cross-sectional study of morbidity, morbidity-associated factors and cost of treatment in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, with implications for health policy in developing countries and development assistance policy.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In a population-based epidemiological study in Ngaoundere, Cameroon, we studied cross-sectional child morbidity and the cost of necessary investigation and treatment. METHODS: Three teams of two to three health workers visited haphazardly selected households in all major housing quarters. We asked permission to enter for a health survey. Children with cough, fever or weight loss as well as sick adults were offered free-of-charge local hospital examination and treatment. RESULTS: From 177 households with 1777 persons, 51 (2.9%) persons were referred. Thirty-five of them had an undiagnosed disease threatening individual health and in many cases also public health. Seven were hospitalised, including three adults with tuberculosis. Malnutrition was diagnosed in nine small children. Four patients had AIDS, seven had malaria. Average total cost for ambulant patients was 15 USD, for hospitalised patients 110 USD.In the households, almost half of the women 16-50 years of age had no schooling. Two per cent of women and nine per cent of men were daily smokers. Coughing children were more likely than non-coughing children to live in a household with at least one smoker (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.72 to 7.46), and they generally lived in more poor households (P = 0.018). Twelve of 16 children with weight loss were referred from households with a high poverty score. CONCLUSIONS: Adult smoking and poverty affect children's health. The cost of hospitalisation or long-lasting therapy is beyond the means of most ordinary families. Diseases with severe consequences for public health, like tuberculosis, AIDS and malaria should have national programs with free, decentralised examination and treatment. Access to generic drugs is important. A major educational effort is needed to improve public health. PMID:11955291

Holtedahl, Knut; Hurum, Harald

2002-04-15

312

General Enforcement Policy Compendium  

SciTech Connect

The attached documents contained in the report, are an update of the General Enforcement Policy Compendium. The update consists of policies which have been added, revised or deleted since the issuance of the June 11, 1987, update. Some of the policies are: Issuance of Enforcement Considerations for Drafting and Reviewing Regulations and Guidelines for Developing New or Revised Compliance and Enforcement Strategies, Procedures and Responsibilities for Updating and Maintaining the Enforcement Docket, Final Guidance on Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution Techniques in Enforcement Action, Processing of Consent Decrees, Procedures for Assessing Stipulated Penalties, Case Management Plans, and Guidance on Certification of Compliance with Enforcement Agreements. There are also modifications to existing policies.

Not Available

1988-12-16

313

Politicians, the Media, and Domestic Audience Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic audience costs can help leaders establish credible commit- ments by tying their hands. Most studies assume these costs without explaining how they arise. I link domestic audience costs to the citizens' ability to sanction the leadership for pursuing a policy they would not want if they had the same information about its quality. How can citizens learn about policy

BRANISLAV L. SLANTCHEV

2006-01-01

314

State mental health policy: an interactive tool to estimate costs and resources for a first-episode psychosis initiative in new york state.  

PubMed

The New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH), which is a partner in the RAISE (Recovery After Initial Schizophrenia Episode) Connection program, is scaling up services for individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and must estimate the number of specialized treatment teams needed across the state. This column describes a modeling tool that allows users to input various estimates for relevant variables and see the impact on projections for number of FEP teams needed and the costs of those teams. The interactive, Excel-based tool can be adapted for other treatment settings and programs. PMID:24026833

Humensky, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lisa B; Essock, Susan M

2013-09-01

315

Impact of Drug Cost Sharing on Service Use and Adverse Clinical Outcomes In Elderly Receiving Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Background Depression imposes enormous burdens on the elderly. Despite this, rates of initiation of and adherence to recommended pharmacotherapy are frequently low in this population. Although initiatives such as the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) in have improved seniors' access to antidepressants, there are concerns that the patient cost-sharing incorporated in the MMA may have unintended consequences if it reduces essential drug use. Age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes could make seniors particularly vulnerable to antidepressant regimens used inappropriately to save costs, increasing their risks of morbidity, hospitalizations, and nursing home placements. Two sequential large-scale “natural experiments” in British Columbia provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of cost sharing on outcomes and mental health service use among seniors. In January 2002 the province introduced a $25 Canadian copay ($10 for low-income seniors). In May 2003 this copay policy was replaced by a second policy consisting of an income-based deductible, 25% coinsurance once the deductible was met, and full coverage once an out-of-pocket ceiling was met. The transition between the two policies is analogous to what many U.S. seniors experience when they transition from private insurance requiring copays to Medicare Part D requiring deductibles and coinsurance. Aims To evaluate whether declines in antidepressant initiation after the introduction of two drug cost-sharing policies in British Columbia were associated with increased use of physician services, hospitalizations, and nursing home admissions among all British Columbia residents aged 65+. Methods Records of physician service use, inpatient hospitalizations, and residential care admissions were obtained from administrative databases. Population-level patterns over time were plotted, and effects of implementing the cost-sharing policies examined in segmented linear regression models. Results Neither policy affected the rates of visits to physicians or psychiatrists for depression, hospitalizations with a depression diagnosis, or long-term care admissions. Discussion The cost-sharing policies studied may have contained non-essential antidepressant use without substantially increasing mental health service utilization. However, it is possible that the policies had effects that we were unable to detect, such as increasing rates of visits to social workers or psychologists or forcing patients to reduce other spending. Further, the sequential implementation of the policy changes, makes it difficult to estimate the effect of a direct change from full coverage to a coinsurance/income-based deductible policy. Implications for Health Policies It may be possible to design policies to contain non-essential antidepressant use without substantially increasing other service utilization or adverse events. However, because undertreatment remains a serious problem among depressed elderly, well-designed prescription drug policies should be coupled with interventions to address under-treatment.

Wang, Philip S.; Patrick, Amanda R.; Dormuth, Colin; Maclure, Malcolm; Avorn, Jerry; Canning, Claire F.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2010-01-01

316

Laboratory cost control and financial management software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of

Michael Mayer

1998-01-01

317

Technology and international climate policy  

SciTech Connect

Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

2009-05-01

318

Rinsing and management of pesticides' containers.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the effects on the environment, it is necessary to improve the management of pesticides' containers. Usually, users burn or bury empty containers. These methods, even though decreasing must be avoided or even forbidden. Since 1996, empty containers are systematically collected in Belgium and are specifically removed by the firm Phytofar Recover created by the Belgian Federation of pesticides' manufacturers. Since the beginning, the recovery rate (percentage of containers recovered compared with the containers sold) goes on increasing to exceed 85% in 2001. These action and results are a world first (more than 500 tons of empty containers are collected yearly). Once collected, empty containers are subjected to the European Policy about toxic wastes since they contained dangerous products. Their removal must follow a specific removal process by incineration at very high temperature (> 1200 degrees C) with a specific filtration of the smoke. The treatment cost is high and reaches 2 Euros per kg of container. If the container is rinsed and the residue does not exceed 1000, 10,000 or 30,000 mg per kg of container (depending on the dangerousness of product: very toxic, corrosive or toxic), it will be considered as domestic waste and will therefore follow a much more economical energy production process. The study aims at determining the quantities of residue contained in empty containers and the parameters reducing the rinsing efficiency: the formulation (EC, WP, WG), the container's size, packaging's type (plastic container or paper bag), the rinsing technique. Almost 150 tests and analyses of residue have been carried out. A manual rinsing procedure has been set up in order to meet the standards about residue. Rinsing three times with an average volume of water (20 to 30%) allows to reach the lowest residue level. As bags containing powder (WG or WP) container not be rinsed, it is necessary to empty them completely. It is however difficult to reach the 1000 ppm residue limit. PMID:12701405

Huyghebaert, B; Mostade, O; Pigeon, O; Galoux, M; Oger, R

2002-01-01

319

Buying greenhouse insurance. The economic costs of CO{sub 2} emission limits  

SciTech Connect

This book contains an economic analysis of various options in managing a potential global warming problem, arguing that sensible public policy requires balancing benefits and costs. The authors focus on two major questions: what will reductions in emissions buy in terms of reduced environmental damages and what will the price tag be?

Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G. [eds.

1992-12-31

320

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Reserve (Fed) defines monetary policy as the actions it undertakes to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote its congressionally mandated goals, achieving a stable price level and maximum sustainable economic g...

M. Labonte

2010-01-01

321

National Drought Policy Commission Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 16, 2000, the National Drought Policy Commission (NDPC) released its final report and recommended improved preparedness and coordination in anticipation of the threat of droughts in the US. The NDPC's site offers two documents, the Report of the National Drought Policy Commission and the National Drought Policy Commission Executive Summary. The reports were drafted in response to the severe droughts in recent years that have cost the US approximately $6 billion per year in economic losses.

2000-01-01

322

An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation: A Policy Statement by The National Council on Employment Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation--the policy statement of the National Council on Employment Policy--and three background papers by individual members. The statement addresses these topics: Will the Recession End Inflation?, Which Anti-Recession Measures?, But What About Inflation?, and A Policy of…

Briggs, Vernon; And Others

323

Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications?  

PubMed Central

In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering them. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs, presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety, and concludes with some practical implications of implementing RDP policies.

Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2010-01-01

324

Rural Policy Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past several decades, a number of policy institutes and think-tanks have been formed to open a substantial dialogue about issues affecting rural communities. The Rural Policy Research Institute is one of these organizations, and involves scientists and policy analysts from Iowa State University, the University of Missouri, the University of Nebraska and other affiliated institutions. The Web site is divided into a number of sections, including a publications area, a section that contains editorials written by Institute fellows and staff members, and an area dedicated to providing information about helpful resources such as basic statistics about rural America. On the left side of the home page, visitors can also browse the Web pages of the Institute's affiliated centers such as the Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis and the Rural Poverty Research Center. Finally, users can elect to sign up for an electronic newsletter that will update them about upcoming events, conferences, and publications related to rural policy issues.

325

Re po rt F rom Th e F ield Mission Not Yet Accomplished? Massachusetts Contemplates Major Moves On Cost Containment After filling coverage gaps, Massachusetts reformers turn their attention to containing costs. Would a new global payment system transform this medical mecca?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern in Massachusetts that rising health care costs will derail the state's move to universal health coverage. A special state panel has recom- mended moving from fee-for-service to a new system of global payments as the best way to reduce unnecessary care and expenses, while improving the health of patients. The com- mission points to specific examples

Martha Bebinger

2009-01-01

326

Optimal Monetary Policy in a Financially Fragile Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies optimal monetary policy in an economy where …rms use external funds to …nance operational costs. It is shown that direct and indirect cost channels for monetary policy arise when …rms can default on borrowed funds. The direct cost channel calls for milder contractions in the face of in‡ationary pressures. The indirect cost channel, on the other hand,

Ufuk Devrim Demirel

2007-01-01

327

Acquisition Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A policy to insure acquisition of primary international libraries' collections for a library system pertaining to the environmental sciences was prepared by a newly formed Technical Processes Section, ESSA. The policy was developed to be useful not only t...

H. L. De Vore

1970-01-01

328

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & Binge Drinking Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorders ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Alcohol Policy General Alcohol Policy A combination of Federal, ...

329

Current Affordability Policies: Status of Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents policies to enhance academic preparation and progress, assist needy students, and keep college costs affordable in Illinois, and indicates the implementation status of these policies. These policies are designed to heighten awareness among students and families of the effect of academic preparation and sustained academic…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

330

Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much

Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

331

Formulating a Policy on IT Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is difficult to estimate the costs of not writing thorough IT policy. Misuse of IT resources, whether through ignorance or malice, costs money, as do court cases that can result from abuse. Furthermore, a poor university accreditation report caused in part by poor policy documents will likely have an adverse impact on student enrollment. There…

Oxley, Alan

2005-01-01

332

Turkmenistan - The Burden of Current Agricultural Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the economic costs of current agricultural policies in Turkmenistan. It argues that the opportunity cost of continuing with these policies is very high for the budget, the average farmer, and the economy as a whole. The paper calls for the development of nontraditional agricultural crops, which are more profitable than wheat and cotton in the international commodity

Gonzalo C. Pastor; Ron van Rooden

2000-01-01

333

40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Allowable project costs. 35.940-1 ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ...this chapter; (h) Costs of complying with the National Environmental Policy Act, including costs of public notices...

2013-07-01

334

48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Indirect costs. 1552.242-70...Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...242-70 Indirect costs. As prescribed...Contracting Officer: Environmental Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate...

2012-10-01

335

36 CFR 14.22 - Reimbursement of costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administrative and other costs incurred by the...pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (42 U...section except that costs which are not readily...applications, such as costs for an environmental impact statement...

2013-07-01

336

48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Indirect costs. 1552.242-70...Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...242-70 Indirect costs. As prescribed...Contracting Officer: Environmental Protection Agency, Chief, Cost Policy and Rate...

2011-10-01

337

40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Cost and price considerations...Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-6 Cost and price considerations... EPA policy is that the cost or price of all...

2013-07-01

338

Evaluating Pollution Control Policies Using a Farm-level Dynamic Model: An Application to Large Dairy Farms in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal waste from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a significant contributor to the nitrate contamination of groundwater. Some manures also contain heavy metals and salts that may build up either in cropland or groundwater. To find cost-effective policies for pollution reduction at the farm level, an environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs is developed, where the owner of the

Jingjing Wang; Kenneth A. Baerenklau

2012-01-01

339

Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium  

EPA Science Inventory

The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

340

State health policy making determinants, theory, and methods: a synthesis.  

PubMed

The American states exhibit considerable differences in health policy and market characteristics. Not only do they display substantial variation in spending, but they also display substantial variation in the strategies chosen to control costs, improve access, and ensure quality care. This article synthesizes studies that use 50-state statistical techniques to model policy adoption in the health sector. The purpose is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this literature, to place it in the context of comparative state policy research generally, and to identify factors that best predict 17 health policy outcomes at the state level. A database was assembled containing 245 equations abstracted from 63 studies published between 1975 and 2002. Some predictors (such as income, aged population, public opinion, and nursing home beds) were studied much more frequently than others (e.g., education, divided government, federal Medicaid mandates, other states' adoptions). Results show that 43 of the 87 policy making determinants examined consistently predict two or more state-level outcomes, including four that predict five outcomes (non-white, urban, income, unemployment), two that predict six (tax capacity/effort, hospital beds), and two that predict seven (nursing home beds, liberal public opinion). Gaps are shown to exist in our understanding of the policy making effects of political system and intergovernmental characteristics. PMID:16342369

Millar, Edward Alan

2005-12-01

341

State policy affecting pain management: recent improvements and the positive impact of regulatory health policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria-driven policy analysis resources from the University of Wisconsin Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) evaluated drug control and professional practice policies that can influence use of controlled substances for pain management, and documented changes over a 3-year period. Additional research was needed to determine the extent of change, the types of messages contained in the policies, and what has

Aaron M. Gilson; Martha A. Maurer; David E. Joranson

2005-01-01

342

Hormesis: policy implications.  

PubMed

Protecting workers and the public from toxic chemicals, particularly carcinogens, has been a principal focus of public policy. Uncertainty regarding the toxicity of particular chemicals and their dose-response relationship has led to the use of the 'precautionary principle' in which regulators are willing to accept more costly regulation than necessary in order to prevent exposure and disease from these toxic chemicals. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) current policy of using 'mechanism of action' to set regulations means that hormesis could be used by the EPA without any change in policy if hormesis is accepted as scientifically valid. Hormesis could result in a qualitative change in regulatory policy. Because exposure to toxic chemicals conveys no health benefit in the current dose-response model, public risk aversion leads to a Delaney Clause-like 'no-risk' model for policy: ban toxic chemicals or lower exposure to trivial levels. Hormesis implies that individuals benefit from low exposure to toxicants. Although hormesis may not be relevant for individuals with compromised immune systems, it would be expected to help the vast majority of people. If so, permitting exposure levels that provided the greatest health benefit to most people would be balanced against these same levels hurting the most immune-compromised individuals. Public health routinely makes these trade-offs using a 'risk-risk' model. Thus, hormesis could transform the 'no-risk' approach into a 'risk-risk' approach that could tolerate much higher exposures to toxic chemicals than the current policy. PMID:10715612

Lave, L B

343

Federal Policies, American Indian Policies and the "New Federalism."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the position of Indian tribal governments within the national political economy, their limited sovereignty and dependence on federal aid, and the consequences of Reagan's "new federalist" policies for tribal programs. Summarizes federal Indian policies from 1783 to the present. Contains 10 references. (SV)|

Jorgensen, Joseph G.

1986-01-01

344

Costs of employee smoking in the workplace in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDEmployers have responded to new regulations on the effects of passive smoking by introducing a range of workplace policies. Few policies include provision of smoking cessation intervention.OBJECTIVETo estimate the cost to employers of smoking in the workplace in Scotland to illustrate the potential gains from smoking cessation provision. Costs vary with type of smoking policy in place; therefore, to estimate

Steve Parrott; Christine Godfrey; Martin Raw

2000-01-01

345

Health policy and outlook.  

PubMed

Health policy has great influence on the daily work of every cardiologist. The influence of progress of practical cardiology on health policy in our country on the one hand and the influence of health policy on cardiology on the other hand are discussed, In the 1970s cardiac rehabilitation in special rehabilitation clinics was developed as a consequence of the usual therapy at that time with longer periods of bedrest and late invasive diagnostic procedures. Patients got a right on rehabilitation by law. However, in the 1980s the increasing number of rehabilitation clinics in our country and their budgets caused the first controversial discussion on health policy in our society, which was primarily thought to be a scientific one. At that time one of the first guidelines of the Commission of Clinical Cardiology as to coronary dilatation demanded in necessity of immediate cardiac surgery. To get more influence on the ongoing discussion the group of chief clinical cardiologists founded their own working group which had later on considerable influence on policy and scientific work of our society. Overall, the awareness of the need for active health policy was developed relatively late. For instance, the register of nationwide heart catheterization procedures was started in the early 1980s but was not used to influence health policies, for establishment of new catheterization facilities. At present, the development of cardiology is limited by budget and total number of cardiac operations is reduced, so it is time to remember the highly effective conservative "soft" therapy of atherosclerosis with a combination of drugs and changing lifestyle which is well evaluated in prospective studies. It is time to apply and reevaluate the chances of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis and heart insufficiency. New non-invasive techniques as MRT and PET and therapeutic techniques as genetic or stem cell therapy will influence cost and health policy in the near future. PMID:12436758

Gleichmann, U

2002-01-01

346

COST AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GIFTED\\/TALENTED PROGRAMS IN INDIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide policy makers and school administrators with statistical data on the cost and cost effectiveness of operating different types of gifted\\/talented programs, how these costs compare with regular instructional education costs, and the existence within selected programs of Gallagher's essential elements. The population for this study was the 130 gifted\\/talented programs at the

CATHARINE JANET PARKER

1985-01-01

347

Toward a National Energy Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief historical and contemporary review of the U.S. energy situation, containing statistics related to energy needs, population growth, legislative policies and acts, and industrial efforts. Maintains that current energy crisis'' does not come from a shortage of resources, but rather from short-sighted policy. (LK)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

348

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

349

Rethinking dual containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US dual-containment policy of Iraq and Iran is faltering. Efforts to preserve the post-Gulf War status quo of 1991 are failing, as both Western and Arab allies repudiate US rigidity in the face of changing political circumstances. In Iraq, the US must find a balance between security and humanitarian objectives. In Iran, the goal should be to integrate the

G. Sick

1998-01-01

350

Policy Review Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of the Policy Review Section contains a single major article by Bob McKean of the consultancy firm PEIDA and Andrew Coulson of the Institute of Local Government Studies. It reviews the role of enterprise boards and focuses in particular on their investment activities. In recent years enterprise boards have been set up by various local authorities as a

J. Mawson; B. McKean; A. Coulson

1987-01-01

351

Affirmative Action: Psychological Data and the Policy Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses psychological research to examine affirmative action policy, noting that many studies indicate that affirmative action as a policy has more benefits than costs. Discusses issues of merit, asserting that affirmative action policy conforms to the American ideal of fairness and is a necessary policy. Suggests that affirmative action is superior…

Crosby, Faye J.; Iyer, Aarti; Clayton, Susan; Downing, Roberta A.

2003-01-01

352

Affirmative Action: Psychological Data and the Policy Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses psychological research to examine affirmative action policy, noting that many studies indicate that affirmative action as a policy has more benefits than costs. Discusses issues of merit, asserting that affirmative action policy conforms to the American ideal of fairness and is a necessary policy. Suggests that affirmative action is superior…

Crosby, Faye J.; Iyer, Aarti; Clayton, Susan; Downing, Roberta A.

2003-01-01

353

48 CFR 9904.407 - Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407 Use of standard costs...

2012-10-01

354

Defining the Policy Space for Disaster Management: A System Dynamics Approach to U.S. Flood Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines a policy space for a natural hazard policy analysis using a system dynamics approach. In this paper, I present a dynamic hypothesis of problems faced by decision-makers in a flood hazard community. While current policy analysis for hazard mitigation focuses on benefit-cost analysis, I argue that system dynamics can be used to improve the quality of policy

Michael A Deegan

355

[Alcohol-related public policies].  

PubMed

The article is a review of studies on alcohol-related problems and public policies for consumption reduction addressing recent national and international scientific evidences. In this way, literature review was carried out on alcohol-related public policies through searches in MEDLINE, SCiELO and LILACS databases. Policies for alcohol consumption reduction have been implemented in different countries to minimize its effects on people's health and safety but only recently such strategies and interventions have been scientifically evaluated. It is discussed better cost-effectiveness policies for reducing harmful effects and socioeconomic costs associated with alcohol use through the development of strategies favoring changes in behavior and harmful consumption contexts that can be applicable to different communities. PMID:17923906

Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

2007-10-01

356

Policy Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Policy institutions around the United States spend a staggering $1.5 billion on research each year. Many of them do an excellent job in terms of putting their policy papers, working papers, factsheets, and so on online for use by the public and scholars. Of course, it can be very difficult to locate some of them, and that's where the Policy Archive steps in. Sponsored by the Center for Governmental Studies (CGS) and the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Library, the Policy Archive site brings together thousands of full text documents, reports, videos, and multimedia material generated by these various think tanks and institutions. Additionally, policy institutions and the like can learn how to submit their own work to the archive. Visitors can also sign up to receive email newsletters about the latest research in the topic areas that are of interest to them.

357

An analysis of the retail and lifecycle cost of battery-powered electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulators, policy analysts, automobile manufacturers, environmental groups, and others are debating the merits of policies regarding the development and use of battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs). At the crux of this debate is lifecycle cost: the annualized initial vehicle cost, plus annual operating and maintenance costs, plus battery replacement costs. To address this issue of cost, we have developed a detailed

Mark A Delucchi; Timothy E Lipman

2001-01-01

358

48 CFR 9903.302-2 - Change to a cost accounting practice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and...

2012-10-01

359

49 CFR 10.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability and Policy § 10.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Transportation to comply with the letter and the spirit of the Privacy Act (the Act). Therefore, personal data contained in each system of records is afforded adequate protection...

2011-10-01

360

49 CFR 10.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability and Policy § 10.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Transportation to comply with the letter and the spirit of the Privacy Act (the Act). Therefore, personal data contained in each system of records is afforded adequate protection...

2012-10-01

361

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2004, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy offered recommendations for a coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy. Commission regional working groups included state governors, scientists and stakeholders. The Commission's final report, "An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century," contains 212 recommendations addressing all aspects of ocean and coastal policy. Report results are presented here.

362

Security Aspects in EU External Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper explores issues of security integration in a number of external policies of the European Union (EU), and looks at both security policies per se and the security rationale contained in other policy contexts. Following a twin-track approach of presenting both a legal and a political assessment respectively, the contributions have been clustered around three themes: energy security

2009-01-01

363

Tracking Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

Erickson, Paul W.

2010-01-01

364

Tracking Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

Erickson, Paul W.

2010-01-01

365

Preemptive public policy for genomics.  

PubMed

To many, genomics is merely exploitable technology for the leviathan of biotechnology. This is both shallow and short sighted. Genomics is applied knowledge based on profound and evolving science about how living things develop, how healthy or sick we are, and what our future will be like. In health care, genomics technologies are disruptive yet potentially cost-effective because they enable primary prevention, the antidote to runaway costs and declining productivity. The challenges to integration are great, however, and many bioethical and social-policy implications are alarming. Because it is poorly understood today, we must debate genomics vigorously if we are to act wisely. Public policy must lead. PMID:18252856

Carlson, Rick J

2008-02-01

366

Influenza cost and cost-effectiveness studies globally - A review.  

PubMed

Every year, approximately 10-20% of the world's population is infected with influenza viruses, resulting in a significant number of outpatient and hospital visits and substantial economic burden both on health care systems and society. With recently updated WHO recommendations on influenza vaccination and broadening vaccine production, policy makers in middle- and low-income countries will need data on the cost of influenza disease and the cost effectiveness of vaccination. We reviewed the published literature to summarize estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. We searched PUBMED (MEDLINE), EMBASE, WEB of KNOWLEDGE, and IGOOGLE using the key words 'influenza', 'economic cost', 'cost effectiveness', and 'economic burden'. We identified 140 studies which estimated either cost associated with seasonal influenza or cost effectiveness/cost-benefit of influenza vaccination. 118 of these studies were conducted in World Bank-defined high income, 22 in upper-middle income, and no studies in low and lower-middle income countries. The per capita cost of a case of influenza illness ranged from $30 to $64. 22 studies reported that influenza vaccination was cost-saving; reported cost-effectiveness ratios were $10,000/outcome in 13 studies, $10,000 to $50,000 in 13 studies, and ?$50,000 in 3 studies. There were no studies from low income countries and few studies among pregnant women. Substantial differences in methodology limited the generalization of results. Decision makers in lower income countries lack economic data to support influenza vaccine policy decisions, especially of pregnant women. Standardized cost-effectiveness studies of influenza vaccination of WHO-recommended risk groups' methods are urgently needed. PMID:24055351

Peasah, Samuel K; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Breese, Joseph; Meltzer, Martin I; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

2013-09-19

367

Administrative Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Administrative policies and procedures to be observed by the board of trustees, committees, and staff of the North Shore Health Planning Council, Peabody, Massachusetts are set forth. The roles of the board and committees are defined, and the responsibili...

1975-01-01

368

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

369

Technical considerations in materials management policy development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemical...

H. Avci M. Goldberg

1996-01-01

370

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy...offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and storage and disposal...

2012-10-01

371

48 CFR 925.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7002 Policy...offer(s) for award of contracts for nuclear hot cell services, costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and storage and disposal...

2011-10-01

372

2 CFR 220.15 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...220.15 Policy. The principles in this part are designed...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted...successful application of cost accounting principles requires development of...

2013-01-01

373

48 CFR 35.003 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.003 Policy. (a) Use...of the transaction is to stimulate or support research and development for another public purpose. (b) Cost...

2011-10-01

374

48 CFR 328.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 328.301 Policy. It is...Government's reimbursement, of its contractors' liability to third persons for claims not covered by insurance in cost-reimbursement...

2012-10-01

375

48 CFR 328.301 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 328.301 Policy. It is...Government's reimbursement, of its contractors' liability to third persons for claims not covered by insurance in cost-reimbursement...

2011-10-01

376

Seeking value as cancer drug costs soar.  

PubMed

As significant increases in the costs of cancer drugs cause financial difficulties for many U.S. patients, some oncologists suggest that changes in pricing policies at the federal and state levels are inevitable. PMID:23928760

Bender, Eric

2013-08-01

377

TBC costing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Procedures to be used in determining the cost of producing and installing a parabolic dish collector in annual production volumes of 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, and 1,000,000 units include (1) evaluating each individual part for material cost and for the type and number of operations required to work the raw material into the finished part; (2) costing labor, burden, tooling, gaging, machinery, and equipment; (3) estimating facilities requirements for each production volume; and (4) considering suggestions for design and material alterations that could result in cost reduction.

Kaminski, H. L.

1980-05-01

378

Innovations in Child and Family Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this proposal is to seek funds to defray the typesetting costs for an edited book that I am publishing with Lexington Books. Innovations in Child and Family Policy is an edited volume of research papers that were presented at the 1st National Research Conference on Child and Family Programs and Policy in July 2008, a conference that

Emily M. Douglas

2009-01-01

379

Social and Business Objectives of Telecommunications Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech given at Session 2: World Communication: Where is Technology Leading Us? Mr. Wellenius focused on the social objectives of telecommunications policy and how these objectives fare in a privately led, increasingly competitive business environment.The social and business objectives of telecommunications policy largely coincide. Gaps, however, are likely to remain in meeting social objectives. Closing these gaps costs rather little,

Bjorn Wellenius

1997-01-01

380

American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

Barger, Robert N.

381

Transition-cost recovery and trueup mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Designing a workable and policy-responsive cost-recovery and trueup mechanism may be the key unresolved issue related to the transition costs (TCs) facing US electric utilities. This report first discusses the general issues associated with the design and implementation of such mechanisms. It then presents the results of quantitative analyses that show how seven mechanisms perform against six public-policy objectives.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1998-03-01

382

Economic aspects of addiction policy.  

PubMed

One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

Maynard, A

1986-05-01

383

Executive compensation and dividend policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the use of dividend provisions in executive compensation contracts to influence dividend policy. A sample is constructed with the largest companies in the oil and gas, defense\\/aerospace and food processing industries, where dividend-related agency costs are expected to be high. The results indicate that the existence of a dividend incentive in the compensation plan is positively associated

Lourdes Ferreira White

1996-01-01

384

Economic Instruments of Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an ecological point of view, economic instruments are to be preferred to other instruments of environmental policy, the command and control regulations in particular, for several reasons: They are more cost efficient in the short term in a static sense. While command and control regulations impose an emission ceiling or even a certain technology on each polluter, independently of

Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

1995-01-01

385

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

386

Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.  

PubMed

Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

Grabowski, H G

1982-09-01

387

Optimal learning with costly adjustent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We formulate an infinite-horizon Bayesian learning model in which the planner faces a cost from switching actions that does not approach zero as the size of the change vanishes. We recast the model as a dynamic programming problem which will always have a continuous value function and an optimal policy. We show that the planner’s beliefs will converge eventually

Mark Feldman; Michael Spagat

1995-01-01

388

Optimal learning with costly adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We formulate an infinite-horizon Bayesian learning model in which the planner faces a cost from switching actions that does not approach zero as the size of the change vanishes. We recast the model as a dynamic programming problem which will always have a continuous value function and an optimal policy. We show that the planner's beliefs will converge eventually

Mark Feldman; Michael Spagat

1995-01-01

389

Commentary on NTIS Document Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author believes it would be appropriate to review the current National Technical Information Service (NTIS) pricing policy in terms of its rationale, legality, and the possibility of mitigating or reversing the demonstrated pattern of repeated cost increases. (Author/SJ)

Richardson, Robert J.

1973-01-01

390

Population policy.  

PubMed

Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

1987-03-01

391

Cost Allocation and Opportunity Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for the widespread use of allocated fixed costs is that they can serve as a proxy for difficult-to-calculate opportunity costs. This explanation is pursued by modeling a service department as an M\\/M\\/s\\/s queueing system. Two main results are that the expected value of opportunity costs equals both the incremental productivity of capacity and the optimal transfer price. When

Bruce L. Miller; A. G. Buckman

1987-01-01

392

Taking Steps for Children: A Citizen's Guide to Child Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains suggestions for citizens to follow in exploring and addressing policies that affect children. The guide focuses on federal child policy, but the strategies described also apply to policies at the state and local levels. The first part of the guide describes sources of information on government policies relating to children.…

Thomas, N. G.; And Others

393

Establishing Access Policies for Emerging Media in Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withtheincorporationofrapidly evolvingmediaformatsin academic librarycollections, librariansface thenow-familiar challengeof providing access to the information these new formats contain. Rather than developing individual access policies for each type of media, librarians can follow pre-existing policies for an established media format, the videorecording, asa way of addressingdiscrete medialending issuesand establishing appropriate policies. This article describes a variety of academic library video access policies and

Rebecca S. Albitz

2001-01-01

394

Listening for Prescriptions: A National Consultation on Pharmaceutical Policy Issues  

PubMed Central

Objectives and Methods: Pharmaceutical policy is an increasingly costly, essential and challenging component of health system management. We sought to identify priority pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada and to translate them into research priorities using key informant interviews, stakeholder surveys and a deliberative workshop. Results: We found consensus on overarching policy goals: to provide all Canadians with equitable and sustainable access to necessary medicines. We also found widespread frustration that many key pharmaceutical policy issues in Canada — including improving prescription drug financing and pricing — have been persistent challenges owing to a lack of policy coordination. The coverage of extraordinarily costly medicines for serious conditions was identified as a rapidly emerging policy issue. Conclusion: Targeted research and knowledge translation activities can help address key policy issues and, importantly, challenges of policy coordination in Canada and thereby reduce inequity and inefficiency in policy approaches and outcomes.

Morgan, Steve; Cunningham, Colleen M.

2010-01-01

395

Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development  

SciTech Connect

State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

2009-07-01

396

Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

Deeb, William S.

1998-01-01

397

Industrial Policy and Competition Law and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This afternoon - and it's nearly evening - I would like us to try to rethink industrial policy. I think it makes no sense to speak of industrial policy and competition policy as distinct, one from the other, let alone as antagonistic policies. I would rather define industrial policy as one which frames the structural conditions necessary to ensure economic

Neelie Kroes

2006-01-01

398

Policy forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This editorial will contend that the execution of people convicted of drug trafficking and other drug-related offences is a penalty that should be abolished, as it is both ineffective as a policy measure and abhorrent in terms of human rights violation (Lines, 2007). That conclusion will be offered after due examination of contrary arguments, and with respectful acknowledgement of the

Griffith Edwards; Tom Babor; Shane Darke; Wayne Hall; John Marsden; Peter Miller; Robert West

2009-01-01

399

Policy Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the extent to which conditions for the 'representative party government' model of representation exist in the EU. It suggests that, although application of the model is obviously limited, there is some support for its relevance. Using surveys of voters and candidates for the European Parliament the paper shows that some policy positions of representatives are constrained more

Jacques Thomassen; Hermann Schmitt

1997-01-01

400

Grade Retention: A Three Part Series. Policy Briefs. Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy [and] Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention [and] Grade Retention: The Gap between Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document compiles a series of three policy briefs focused on the subject of grade retention. The first brief, "Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy," suggests educators and policymakers caution the use of grade retention as a remedy for poor student performance. As concluded by the majority of past studies, grade retention is a…

Xia, Claire; Glennie, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

401

Public policy and healthcare systems.  

PubMed

Public policy in healthcare affects physician and patient choices. In many ways it may limit choices. These choices present conflicts that are discussed here. Some issues depend on the laws enacted to enable either a single-payer system or that mixed with a private-payer system. In each case, the systems attain some cost controls through means such as gatekeepers, long wait lists, authorization processes, national fee schedules, complex coding schemes, or placing physicians on salary. National health systems are compared here. No one system has proven completely satisfactory, and each has its advantages. There are many factors that contribute to the escalating costs of care that lead to many healthcare public policies to constrain costs. Initiatives to incentivize preventive actions are a more positive step, but ones that are difficult to define in detail. PMID:24182385

Nuwer, Marc R

2013-01-01

402

US DoD Application Domain Empirical Software Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

General software cost parameters such as size, effort distribution, and productivity are necessarily imprecise due to variations by domain. To improve this situation, empirical software cost analysis using the primary US DoD cost database has been segmented by domain. This analysis supports a software cost estimation metrics manual for improvements in acquisition policies, procedures and tools. We have addressed the

Raymond Madachy; Barry Boehm; Brad Clark; Thomas Tan; Wilson Rosa

2011-01-01

403

Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.  

PubMed

We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium. PMID:17054538

Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

2006-10-01

404

Cost Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

405

Estimation of health care costs and cost recovery: the case of Rafidya Hospital in Palestine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop an estimation model for health care costs and cost recovery, and evaluate service sustainability under an uncertain environment. The Palestinian National Authority's recent focus on improving financial accountability supports the need to research health care costs in the Palestinian territories. We examine data from Rafidya Hospital from 2005-2009 and use step-down allocation to distribute overhead costs. We use an ingredient approach to estimate the costs and revenues of health services, and logarithmic estimation to prospectively estimate the demand for 2011. Our results indicate that while cost recovery is generally insufficient for long-term sustainability, some services can recover their costs in the short run. Our results provide information useful for health care policy makers in setting multiple-goal policies related to health care financing in Palestine, and provide an important initiative in the estimation of health service costs. PMID:24003761

Younis, Mustafa Z; Jabr, Samer F K; Plante, Catherine; Forgione, Dana A

2013-01-01

406

Modeling Biased Technical Change. Implications for Climate Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate-economy models aiming at quantifying the costs and effects of climate change impacts and policies have become important tools for climate policy decision-making. Although there are several important dimensions along which models differ, this paper focuses on a key component of climate change economics and policy, namely technical change. This paper tackles the issues of whether technical change is biased

Enrica De Cian; Carlo Carraro; Lea Nicita

2010-01-01

407

(Re)Politicizing inflation policy: A global political economy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the political and social outcomes of low-inflation policy as it relates to labour market policy and wages. Current policy orthodoxy assumes there are indomitable negative costs associated with inflation; as such, Central Banks are tasked with maintain price stability to ensure economic growth and global competitiveness. Critical political economists challenging these assumptions tend to focus almost exclusively

Johnna Montgomerie

408

Effectiveness of Two Water Conservation Policies: An Integrated Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture in the Texas High Plains depends entirely on the Ogallala Aquifer. Texas enacted water conservation legislation to address declining reserves in the aquifer. We developed an integrated regional water policy model that links a hydrology model with an economic optimization model to estimate policy impacts with respect to economic cost and water conservation. Testing the effectiveness of two policies,

Biswa R. Das; David B. Willis; Jeffrey W. Johnson

2010-01-01

409

A review of solar energy : markets, economics and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy developmentand deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher

Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

2011-01-01

410

Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract We review literature on several types of energy efficiency policies: ap- pliance standards, financial incentive programs, information and voluntary programs, and management of government energy use. For each, we provide a brief synopsis of the relevant programs, along with available existing estimates of energy savings, costs, and cost-effectiveness at a national level. The literature examining,these estimates points to

Kenneth Gillingham; Richard Newell; Karen Palmer

2006-01-01

411

Rural Policy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

Marshall, Ray

412

Cost Analysis of CATV Components. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A research study was conducted for the Office of Telecommunications Policy to determine the capital outlay and operating costs of community antenna television (CATV) systems. Six major tasks were undertaken: 1) the development of a body of technical information about CATV; 2) the production of a complete work breakdown structure; 3) a cost

Weinberg, Gary

413

Nuclear power: Futures, cost and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an analysis of the costs and benefits of nuclear power, its future prospects and the implications for future policy. It looks at the risks involved; the consequences both locally and elsewhere of an accident (the overall economic costs for nuclear plants of the accident at Three Mile Island are shown to have been at least equal to

N. Evans; C. Hope

1984-01-01

414

Information on DOE's costing and pricing of uranium enrichment services  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) provides domestic and foreign customers with enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear power reactor fuel. Competition from foreign enrichment suppliers and from a secondary market of surplus enriched uranium has led to a significant decline in DOE's enrichment sales. During a March 1, 1984, hearing before the subcommittee, GAO commented on a number of DOE initiatives and proposals designed to improve the uranium enrichment program's viability. This report addresses topics raised during that hearing and presents information on (1) DOE's historic pricing policy and practices associated with providing uranium enrichment services, (2) the historical annual enrichment costs and prices, (3) the accumulated profit or loss reported in the enrichment program's financial statements, (4) the implications for recovering DOE's cost of providing enrichment services at the $135 ceiling price provision contained in the new enrichment services contract, and (5) details on GAO's efforts to obtain information from DOE on the ceiling price provision.

Not Available

1984-04-25

415

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions, July 6, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Reserve (Fed) defines monetary policy as the actions it undertakes to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Since the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and growth, monetary poli...

M. Labonte

2012-01-01

416

7 CFR 1940.551 - Purpose and general policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program...administration policies. Allocation formulas ensure that program resources are available on an equal...contains clarifications of allocation policies and provides...

2012-01-01

417

7 CFR 1940.551 - Purpose and general policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program...administration policies. Allocation formulas ensure that program resources are available on an equal...contains clarifications of allocation policies and provides...

2013-01-01

418

Internet Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

419

Three air quality policy case studies: Evaluating mass balance closure and the federal reference method for PM2.5, impacts of light duty diesel vehicles for GHG emissions control, and fleet hybridization as a cost-effective carbon dioxide reduction approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines several policy issues in air quality regarding fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. First, mass balance closure for the Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring PM2.5 is examined using extensive data available from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS). Evaluating the data from PAQS for different measurement techniques provides insight as to the measurement artifacts associated with the FRM, which is the legal definition of PM2.5. This insight is in turn helpful in evaluating effective control technologies to attain PM 2.5 regulatory standards. The second policy issue evaluated is that of light duty diesel vehicles, and whether they provide the reductions in GHG emissions promised. If so, whether they produce corresponding adverse air quality impacts, and how significant these are. Finally, the current trend of purchasing hybrid vehicles for government fleet use is examined using real time data from the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Evaluating these data allows for a determination as to whether the fuel savings and GHG emission reductions achieved from the widespread use of hybrids in the fleet are worth the additional capital cost from the purchase of hybrids, and whether there are other strategies that could achieve similar reductions without incurring such capital costs.

Rees, Sarah L.

420

Five Important Lessons about the Cost of E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes strategies for containing and reducing the costs of e-learning through cost identification, appropriate instructional roles, course development, program scale, and course redesign.

Scarafiotti, Carol

2004-01-01

421

Alcohol Industry & Policy Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

Problems., Marin I.

422

How to Cut Publications Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

423

School Health Policies and Programs Study (SET: Health Education; Physical Education; Food Service; Health Services; and, Health Policies) (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product contains questionnaires, codebooks, and data (ASCII) produced from the School Health Policies and Program Study (SHPPS). SHPPS, conducted March through June of 1994, is a national survey of school policies and programs at the state, district, and ...

1995-01-01

424

Some Inconvenient Truths About Climate Change Policy: The Distributional Impacts of Transportation Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of efficiently pricing greenhouse gases, policy makers have favored measures that implicitly or explicitly subsidize low carbon fuels. We simulate a transportation-sector cap & trade program (CAT) and three policies currently in use: ethanol subsidies, a renewable fuel standard (RFS), and a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). Our simulations confirm that the alternatives to CAT are quite costly–2.5 to

Stephen P. Holland; Jonathan E. Hughes; Christopher R. Knittel; Nathan C. Parker

2011-01-01

425

Policy ideas and health policy instruments: The governance of primary care in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary Primary care is a multi-dimensional field of public intervention in health policy, with a number of important issues to deal with like cost-effectiveness, access equity and prevention. Recent Swiss health policies (cantonal and federal) have been characterised by many interventions in primary care, such as information campaigns addressing patients' consumption behaviour and various regulations addressing medical practice. This

Dietmar Braun; Julien Etienne

426

Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 2. Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk-cost-benefit analysis developed in the companion paper (J. Massmann and R. A. Freeze, this issue) is here applied to (1) an assessment of the relative worth of containment-construction activities, site-exploration activities, and monitoring activities as components of a design strategy for the owner\\/operator of a waste management facility; (2) an assessment of alternative policy options available to a regulatory

Joel Massmann; R. Allan Freeze

1987-01-01

427

NUMA Policies and Their Relation to Memory Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor memory reference traces provide a wealth of information on the behavior of parallel programs. We have used this information to explore the relationship be- tween kernel-based NUMA management policies and mul- tiprocessor memory architecture. Our trace analysis tech- niques employ an o-line, optimal cost policy as a baseline against which to compare on-line policies, and as a policy- insensitive

William J. Bolosky; Michael L. Scott; Robert P. Fitzgerald; Robert J. Fowler; Alan L. Cox

1991-01-01

428

Policy opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration

Richard McCray; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Loren W. Acton; Neta A. Bahcall; Robert C. Bless; Robert A. Brown; Geoffrey Burbidge; Bernard F. Burke; George W. Clark; France A. Cordova

1991-01-01

429

Corporate governance, competition policy and industrial policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that introducing agency considerations into a model of innovations and growth can have radical consequences as to the effects of competition policy and industrial policy on the rate of technological change. Whilst competition policy (resp. industrial policy) has a negative (resp. a positive) effect on growth in a Schumpeterian model with profit-maximising firms, these effects are shown

Ph. Aghion; M. Dewatripont; Patrick Rey

1997-01-01

430

The protein hydrolysate, Primatone RL, is a cost-effective multiple growth promoter of mammalian cell culture in serum-containing and serum-free media and displays anti-apoptosis properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tryptic meat digest Primatone RL is a low-cost medium supplement of a complex nature which serves as a source of amino acids, oligopeptides, iron salts, some lipids and other trace low molecular weight substances. Its addition to mammalian and insect cell culture media significantly improves the cell growth properties of many cell lines. In this work the growth promoting

Ernst-Jürgen Schlaeger

1996-01-01

431

Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of

Gregory F. Nemet

2006-01-01

432

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

433

Languages and Language Policy in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special member of the Journal Teangeolas is devoted to the theme of languages and language policy in Ireland. It contains the following articles: "English as a Foreign Language - Preparing for 1992" (Tom Doyle); "A Language Policy for Irish Schools" (Helen O Murchu); "Don't Disturb the Ancestors" (R. L. Davis); "Towards a National Language…

Teangeolas, 1990

1990-01-01

434

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

435

Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

436

Community College Fiscal Policies: Presidents' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores perceptions of 2-year college presidents regarding both strengths and weaknesses of fiscal policies. Questionnaires sent to a random sample of 350 presidents contained five questions pertaining to most and least effective aspects of their state's fiscal policies and desired changes in state, federal, and community funding…

Lauroesch, William; And Others

437

48 CFR 726.7101 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Policy. USAID Policy Determination (PD) 20, âGuidelines to Assure USAID Programs...on expenditure of appropriated funds. The PD contains a standard provision for inclusion...inter-agency agreements and indicates that when the PD applies to a contract, appropriate...

2011-10-01

438

48 CFR 726.7101 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Policy. USAID Policy Determination (PD) 20, âGuidelines to Assure USAID Programs...on expenditure of appropriated funds. The PD contains a standard provision for inclusion...inter-agency agreements and indicates that when the PD applies to a contract, appropriate...

2012-10-01

439

The rhetoric of American foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhetoric of American foreign policy contains commonplaces which both justify and obscure policy. An adequate critical response to such discourse requires an understanding of two prevailing argumentative forms. The arguments are examined in relation to Vietnam, but their use in a variety of interventions, incursions, and wars since then makes them more than an historical curiosity. This essay seeks

Philip Wander

1984-01-01

440

America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

Morse, Ann, Ed.

441

Laboratory cost control and financial management software.  

PubMed

Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions. PMID:9541753

Mayer, M

1998-02-01

442

Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop  

PubMed Central

Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

2012-01-01

443

Estimating the cost of a smoking employee.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: We attempted to estimate the excess annual costs that a US private employer may attribute to employing an individual who smokes tobacco as compared to a non-smoking employee. DESIGN: Reviewing and synthesising previous literature estimating certain discrete costs associated with smoking employees, we developed a cost estimation approach that approximates the total of such costs for US employers. We examined absenteeism, presenteesim, smoking breaks, healthcare costs and pension benefits for smokers. RESULTS: Our best estimate of the annual excess cost to employ a smoker is $5816. This estimate should be taken as a general indicator of the extent of excess costs, not as a predictive point value. CONCLUSIONS: Employees who smoke impose significant excess costs on private employers. The results of this study may help inform employer decisions about tobacco-related policies. PMID:23733918

Berman, Micah; Crane, Rob; Seiber, Eric; Munur, Mehmet

2013-06-01

444

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats,

Richard J. Jackson; Ray Minjares; Kyra S. Naumoff; Bina Patel Shrimali; Lisa K. Martin

2009-01-01

445

Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109- 58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy legislation. Among other things, the law contains tax incentives worth over $14 billion between 2005 and 2015. These incentives represent both pre-existing initiatives

Gilbert E. Metcalf

2006-01-01

446

Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy legislation. Among other things, the law contains tax incentives worth over $14 billion between 2005 and 2015. These incentives represent both pre-existing initiatives that

Gilbert E. Metcalf

2006-01-01

447

Federal Tax Policy towards Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy legislation. Among other things, the law contains tax incentives worth over $14 billion between 2005 and 2015. These incentives represent both pre-existing initiatives that

Gilbert E. Metcalf

2007-01-01

448

Global Policy Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Policy Forum (GPF) monitors the United Nations' global policy making. Based in New York City, the internationally represented GPF has consultative status at the UN. Their visually simple, information-rich Website is divided into the following subsections: UN Financial Crisis, Security Council, Social/ Economic Policy, NGOs, Nations and States, and UN Reform. The content includes essays from the GPF staff, issue summaries, excerpts from conference presentations, news articles, and reports from the UN and other government agencies. Other special in-depth sections on the Iraq crisis, international justice, globalization, and additional timely topics are definitely worth a look. Also, check out GPF's What's New section to keep on top of current UN issues -- for instance, this week's What's New contains critical articles and essays on middle east peace negotiation, sanctions against Iraq, and the rumblings of a possible second genocide in Rwanda, among other topics. In addition, the GPF site offers a publications list, numerous links, an electronic mailing list, a search engine, an index, and a virtual visitors center.

449

Coping with Iran: Confrontation, Containment, or Engagement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 21, 2007, the RAND Corporation held a public conference on Capitol Hill, 'Coping with Iran: Confrontation, Containment, or Engagement' featuring high-level experts and hosted by the director of the RAND International Security and Defense Policy C...

D. D. Kaye J. Dobbins S. Harting

2007-01-01

450

Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Hong Kong, (3) Malaysia, (4) China, (5) Brazil, (6) Bangladesh, (7) India, (8) Pakistan, (9) Qatar, (10) Cha...

1984-01-01

451

Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the telecommunication policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Cambodia, (2) Japan, (3) Laos, (4) China, (5) Thailand, (6) Bolivia, (7) Brazil, (8) Iran, (9) Ghana, (10) Mali, (11) Senega...

1985-01-01

452

48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads thatâ (1) Contain items in...

2010-10-01

453

48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, radio frequency identification (RFID), in the form of a passive RFID tag, is required for individual cases and palletized unit loads thatâ (1) Contain items in...

2009-10-01

454

Anti-Corruption Policies and Strategies Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Handbook is intended to explain Overseas Private Investment Corporation's (OPIC's) general anti-corruption policies and procedures, and your obligations to them. The Handbook also contains a detailed overview of the FCPA. The FCPA imposes requirement...

2006-01-01

455

Language Policy and Planning: Fundamental Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental issues in language policy and planning are discussed: language death, language survival, language change, language revival, language shift and expansion, language contact and pidginization or creolization, and literacy development. (Contains 21 references.) (LB)

Kaplan, Robert B.

1994-01-01

456

The complete proof on the optimal ordering policy under cash discount and trade credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huang ((2005), ‘Buyer's Optimal Ordering Policy and Payment Policy under Supplier Credit’, International Journal of Systems Science, 36, 801–807) investigates the buyer's optimal ordering policy and payment policy under supplier credit. His inventory model is correct and interesting. Basically, he uses an algebraic method to locate the optimal solution of the annual total relevant cost TRC(T) and ignores the role

Kun-Jen Chung

2010-01-01

457

Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Reduction in United States Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship in college administration between cost effectiveness/cost reduction and planning, management, and evaluation is explored, and approaches to cost accounting and financial ratio analysis are discussed. It is concluded that it is important to emphasize institutional mission and people rather than cost containment and productivity.…

Miller, Richard I.; Miller, Peggy M.

1991-01-01

458

Strategic Cost Reduction and Cost Revelation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic cost reduction requires cost transparency. When unilateral cost revelation is feasible, strategic cost reduction indeed arises as equilibrium. If it is not feasible, however, credible revelation has to be organized, possibly by a trade association. Then, firms face a prisoners' dilemma: in Cournot duopoly, cost revelation arises as an equilibrium, but hurts firms; in Bertrand duopoly, cost concealing is

Jim Y. Jin

2001-01-01

459

Community Colleges, Public Policy, and Latino Student Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter synthesizes the studies described in this volume and situates them within a broader policy context, concluding with implications for practitioners and researchers. (Contains 9 online resources.)

Flores, Stella M.; Horn, Catherine L.; Crisp, Gloria

2006-01-01

460

A software cost model with imperfect debugging, random life cycle and penalty cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a cost model with an imperfect debugging and random life cycle as well as a penalty cost that is used to determine the optimal release policies for a software system. The software reliability model, based on the nonhomogeneous Poisson process, allows for three different error types: critical, major and minor errors. The model also allows for the

HOANG PHAM

1996-01-01

461

Mapping public policy on genetics.  

PubMed

The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of public policies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in public policy development overall--including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote--will help determine the future of public policy on genetics. Information areas affected include discrimination by insurers and employers, confidentiality, genetic databanks, genetic testing in law enforcement, and court-ordered genetic testing in civil cases. Service issues address clinical standards, insurance benefits, allocation of resources, and screening of populations at risk. Supply issues encompass funding of research and clinical positions. Likely government actions include, among others: (1) Requiring individual consent for the disclosure of personal information, except when such consent would impose inordinate costs; (2) licensing genetic databases; (3) allowing courts to use personal information in cases where a refusal to use such information would offend the public; (4) mandating health insurers to pay for cost-effective genetic services; (5) funding pharmaceutical research to develop tailored products to prevent or treat diseases; and (6) funding training programs. PMID:12032682

Weisfeld, N E

2002-06-01

462

Can research influence policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy research comprises heterogeneous set of activities under taken by community of diverse actors. The goal of the STI policy community is to conduct researches to understand effective policies for Science, Policy and Technology and then contribute to public or private sector. In order to understand whether or not STI policy researches contribute to the

Pei-Chun Lee; Hsin-Ning Su

2011-01-01

463

Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

Walker, W. Reed

464

Cost Analysis of Correctional Standards: Institutional-Based Programs and Parole. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second of two volumes provides cost guidelines and cost estimation techniques for use by jurisdictions in assessing costs of their own ongoing or contemplated correctional program activities. (Volume I is a companion summary published as a separate document for use by criminal justice policy-makers in need of a reference to the policy issues…

Singer, Neil M.; Wright, Virginia B.

465

Telescope costs and cost reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prices of more than 60 telescopes of the most diverse types and sizes are analyzed according to telescope aperture. Actualized prices in 1995 were calculated taking inflation into account, as well as fluctuations in the DM exchange rate. We discuss the dependence of prices on factors like size, mass, optical system, number of construction parts (similarity laws), as well as on special technical requirements. The relationship between telescope aperture and costs shows interesting differences between the classical astronomical telescopes and the new, large telescope projects. The number of repeated construction parts and the number of realized instruments with the same design is of great importance. Cost reductions are best achieved in the conception and design phase of telescope development.

Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor; Rucks, Peter

1997-03-01

466

43 CFR 2920.6 - Reimbursement of costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicants shall be liable for such costs, to be divided equally among...reasonable administrative and other costs incurred by the United States...statements required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (43 U... ). The reimbursement of costs shall be in accordance...

2012-10-01

467

47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160...but is not limited to, such items as: Radio terminal equipment (TX and/or RX...filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training;...

2011-10-01

468

47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160...but is not limited to, such items as: Radio terminal equipment (TX and/or RX...filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training;...

2012-10-01

469

Do federal contractors suffer tax-related political costs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether federal contractors incur political costs in the form of higher tax payments or if they sometimes wield sufficient political power to escape these costs. Our study provides new evidence testing accounting theories regarding political costs in a policy setting increasingly important due to growing government spending and federal deficits. Consistent with Zimmerman (1983), we define tax-related political

Lillian Mills; Sarah Nutter; Casey Schwab

470

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of School Desegregation Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a useful tool for choosing between alternative desegregation plans or justifying one particular plan. Previous analyses of school desegregation effects on white enrollment, which focus only upon costs, have had limited use for policy. Traditional cost-benefit analysis poses problems because of the difficulty…

Rossell, Christine H.

471

CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

472

The costs of turnover in nursing homes  

PubMed Central

Background Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The IV estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs.

Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

2009-01-01

473

Optimal Policies for Clinical Laboratory Quality Control. Abstract and Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical and economic models are developed to help analyze and improve the overall sensitivity, specificity, and cost of laboratory sceening policies, with particular focus on the policy currently required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amend...

J. C. Benneyan

1997-01-01

474

Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool. Guidebook, User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers exam...

2011-01-01

475

Voter turnout in a multidimensional policy space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors influence the likelihood of citizens turning out to vote. In this paper we focus our attention on issue voting,\\u000a that is, on the likelihood that different policies offered by politicians affect the probability of voting. If voters consider\\u000a both the benefits and the costs of voting, rational voters will only vote when politicians offer differentiated policies.\\u000a In a

Rafael Hortala-Vallve; Berta Esteve-Volart

2011-01-01

476

Final Technical Report; Power through Policy: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind

Heather Rhoads-Weaver; Matthew Gagne; Kurt Sahl; Alice Orrell; Jennifer Banks

2012-01-01

477

New England Public Policy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in January 2005, the New England Public Policy Center at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston provides high-quality analysis of important policy and economic issues that affect the entire New England region. The materials on their site are contained within five primary sections, which include "Publications", "Conferences & Events", and "Data & Resources". On their homepage, the "What's New" section provides information about recent publications and calls for visiting scholar applications. In the "Publications" area, visitors can browse around by topic, author, and series. Additionally, the "Data & Resources" area provides access to the monthly publication "New England Economic Indicators" and interactive data sets contained in the form of tables and charts. This same section also contains links to resources within the Boston Federal Reserve, such as community development indicators.

478

Nomenclature Control Policies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Implementation Policy, C-POL-00001. Valid Values Policy, C-POL-00002. Center-wide Thesauri,Dictionaries, and Tables Policy, C-POL-00003. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

479

Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues  

ScienceCinema

Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

480

Policy Sciences and Policy Research Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consideration is given to the question whether policy research organizations, or a subset of them, have a potentially important role in contributing to the supply of policy analysts, through advanced teaching and training programs.

C. Wolf

1970-01-01

481

Total life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and alternative fueled vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total life-cycle cost (TLCC) analysis can indicate whether paying higher capital costs for advanced technology with low operating and environmental costs is advantageous over paying lower capital costs for conventional technology with higher operating and environment costs. A TLCC model that was developed to facilitate consideration of the various factors involved in both individual and societal policy decision making is

Mario W. Cardullo

1993-01-01

482

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01

483

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01

484

Managing Federal Information Technology: Conflicting Policies and Competing Philosophies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines information technology (IT) policies and the roles played by federal agencies in developing and implementing IT management policies. Illustrates how selected policy prescriptions can prove to be problematic and offers recommendations on how to improve federal IT management. Contains 62 references. (AEF)

Beachboard, John C.; McClure, Charles R.

1996-01-01

485

Migrating Metaphors: The Globalization of Flexibility in Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to locate and define flexibility as a globalizing and globalized policy metaphor. Explores flexibility within the growing debates about globalization of education policies and the metaphors deployed to frame these practices. Outlines metaphors' role in policy texts and related readings and understandings. (Contains 23 references.) (MLH)

Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine; Tait, Allan

1999-01-01

486

Cost-effectiveness of farm interventions for reducing the prevalence of VTEC O157 on UK dairy farms.  

PubMed

A randomized control trial on verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)-infected farms found evidence that: (1) keeping animals in the same group; (2) maintaining dry bedding; (3) preventing direct contact with neighbouring cattle; and (4) maintaining a closed herd, were associated with a reduced risk of infection in youngstock aged 3–18 months. This study evaluated these interventions using a cost-effectiveness framework for UK dairy farms. Keeping animals in the same group was considered to have negligible cost and was feasible for herds containing over 77 dairy cows. Assuming equal efficacy of the remaining interventions, preventing direct contact between neighbouring cattle is most cost-effective with a median annual cost of £2.76 per cow. This compares to £4.18 for maintaining dry bedding and £17.42 for maintaining a closed herd using quarantine procedures. Further model validation and exploration of other potential benefits are required before making policy decisions on VTEC control. PMID:23149259

Lyons, N A; Smith, R P; Rushton, J

2012-11-13

487

Multifunctionality, Agricultural Policy, and Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to supplying food and fiber, agriculture is a source of public goods and externalities. This article addresses two questions. First, do price and income support policies promote a multifunctional agriculture in an effective manner? Second, would policies targeted more directly at multifunctional attributes be more efficient than price and income support policies? The answer to the first question

David G. Abler

2004-01-01

488

Get Help Paying Costs  

MedlinePLUS

... Check your enrollment Find doctors, hospitals, & facilities Your Medicare Costs Get help paying costs Part A costs Part ... not be available. You are here: Home Your Medicare costs Get help paying costs Share Subcategories Get help ...

489

Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

Lekakis, Joseph N.

1990-07-01

490

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

491

Estimated costs of malingered disability.  

PubMed

The feigning of disabling illness for the purpose of disability compensation, or "malingering," is common in Social Security Disability examinations, occurring in 45.8%-59.7% of adult cases. In this study, we estimated the costs of malingering based on mental disorder data published by the Social Security Administration. At the most widely accepted base rate of malingering in medicolegal cases involving external incentive, costs were high, totaling $20.02 billion in 2011 for adult mental disorder claimants. Moreover, these figures clearly underestimate the costs of the larger problem with feigned disability in both adults and children. We urge a change in Social Security policies to allow the use of validity testing in the examination for disability claims. PMID:23800432

Chafetz, Michael; Underhill, James

2013-06-25

492

Challenges in Managing Empty Container Movements at Multiple Planning Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empty container management deals with repositioning empty containers at minimum costs while fulfilling empty container demands. Due to imbalances in trade, some areas have a surplus of empty containers, while others have a shortage. Therefore, empty containers need to be repositioned globally to make sure that sufficient empty containers are available everywhere. Besides, empty containers need to be repositioned regionally

Kris Braekers; Gerrit K. Janssens; An Caris

2011-01-01

493

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

494

Payers' Costly Battle Against Cancer  

PubMed Central

In a classic managed care struggle between cost containment and physician autonomy, health plans’ efforts to rein in the expense of biotech cancer drugs are meeting stiff resistance from oncologists. They staunchly defend their practice of buying such drugs and marking up their prices to cover service costs as a critical component of cancer care. Here’s a look at the issues on both sides.

APPLEBY, CHUCK

2005-01-01

495

Space Policy and Humanities Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

Frodeman, Robert

2005-05-01

496

Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

497

Managing the cost drivers of medical injectables.  

PubMed

In recent years, the cost increases of medical injectables--pharmaceuticals and apparatus used to treat rare and chronic diseases--have far outstripped the rises in medical costs in general. Health plans have taken notice, and many are designing and implementing new procedures for managing these treatments. The task is complex and challenging, but identifying and addressing the cost drivers and, in particular, creating specialty pharmacy networks, hold the promise of containing the spiraling cost of medical injectables. PMID:12747140

Johnson, Kjel A

2003-04-01

498

How three smart managers control steam costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced

1982-01-01

499

Government Policies and Technological Innovation. Volume III. Research and Policy Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vol. III contains 10 research and policy studies on the following subjects: Factor bias and innovations--a microeconomic approach; The consequences of public utility regulation of hospitals; Background memorandum--the regulation of atomic energy for power...

R. G. Noll

1975-01-01

500

Media policy after regulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparent truism holds that the Internet and, more broadly, interoperable digital media represent the end of media policy history. This consensus rests on an erroneous reduction of media policy to broadcasting policy. Even as this reductionism makes the rounds, a new prototype for media policy is taking shape, which here is called the ‘promotional state’. The promotional state emerges

Bram Dov Abramson

2001-01-01