Science.gov

Sample records for cost-effective municipal applications

  1. Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  2. Cost-effective applications of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    When photovoltaic (PV) cells were first developed at Bell Laboratories in the mid-1950s, their inventors envisioned widespread terrestrial use. However, PV cells were rapidly adopted for space applications, not only because of their reliability, but because they were generally the most cost- effective power sources for satellites in spite of their high cost. Concern over oil supply and price during the 1970s once again turned people`s thoughts toward the use of PV cells and other renewable energy technologies to help meet the nation`s energy demands. A partnership was developed between the federal government and private industry to drive the cost of PV technologies down to where they could compete in commercial markets. This partnership, which continues today, has been highly successful in achieving its goal. Today`s photovoltaic modules-more efficient and reliable than ever-have dropped to about 1/100th of their 1972 prices. From $500 or more per peak watt in those early days, module prices have dropped to about $5 per peak watt. Figure 1 illustrates the expansion of PV into commercial 2 effective markets as cost (and price) decreases. Once cost only in space, military, or consumer (primarily calculators and watches) applications, PV has now penetrated into both international and domestic markets. Currently cost-effective domestic uses, which are the primary subject of this paper, include applications in the residential, municipal, remote, and utility market sectors. The price of an installed PV system now ranges from $7 per watt to as high as $15 or $20 per watt, depending on factors such as the quantity purchased, size of the unit, amount of storage, and whether output is a.c. or d.c. This translates to a life-cycle energy cost of about 25 cents to 40 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh). Even at these seemingly high prices, PV technologies are gaining significant penetration into many U.S. markets.

  3. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, William Douglas

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  4. Cost-Effective Hyperspectral Transmissometers for Oceanographic Applications: Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Pérez, Marta; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Torrecilla, Elena; Piera, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of inexpensive, compact hyperspectral transmissometers broadens the research capabilities of oceanographic applications. These developments have been achieved by incorporating technologies such as micro-spectrometers as detectors as well as light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the new commercial LED-based hyperspectral transmissometer VIPER (TriOS GmbH, Rastede, Germany), which combines different LEDs to emulate the visible light spectrum, aiming at the determination of attenuation coefficients in coastal environments. For this purpose, experimental uncertainties related to the instrument stability, the effect of ambient light and derived temperature, and salinity correction factors are analyzed. Our results identify some issues related to the thermal management of the LEDs and the contamination of ambient light. Furthermore, the performance of VIPER is validated against other transmissometers through simultaneous field measurements. It is demonstrated that VIPER provides a compact and cost-effective alternative for beam attenuation measurements in coastal waters, but it requires the consideration of several optimizations. PMID:26343652

  5. Cost effective processes by using negative-tone development application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Kato, Keita; Ou, Keiyu; Shirakawa, Michihiro; Kamimura, Sou

    2015-03-01

    The high volume manufacturing with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is delaying due to its light source issue. Therefore, ArF-immersion lithography has still been the most promising technology for down scaling of device pitch. As the limitation of ArF-immersion single patterning is considered to be nearly 40nm half pitch (hp), ArF-immersion lithography has necessity to be extended by combining processes to achieve sub- 20nm hp patterning. Recently, there are many reports about the extension of ArF-immersion lithography, e.g., self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) process. These methods have been realized by the combination of lithography, deposition, and etching. On the other aspect, 1-D layout is adopted for leading devices, which contains additional cut or block litho and etch processes to form 2-D like layout. Thus, according to the progress of down scaling technologies, number of processes increases and the cost of ownership (CoO) can not be neglected. Especially, the number of lithography steps and etching steps has been expanded by the combination of processes, and it has come to occupy a large portion of total manufacturing cost. We have reported that negative tone development (NTD) system using organic solvent developer have enough resolution to achieve fine narrow trench or contact hole patterning, since negative tone imaging enables to apply bright mask for these pattern with significantly high optical image contrast compared to positive tone imaging, and it has contributed high throughput multiple patterning. On the other hand, NTD system is found to be useful not only for leading device node, but also for cost effective process. In this report, we propose the cost effective process using NTD application. In the viewpoint of cost down at exposure tool, we have developed KrF-NTD resist which is customized for organic solvent developer. Our KrF-NTD resist has resolution comparable with ArF positive tone development

  6. Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Applications Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Quinlan, D; Lumsdaine, A; Hoefler, T

    2012-04-10

    The complexity of petascale and exascale machines makes it increasingly difficult to develop applications that can take advantage of them. Future systems are expected to feature billion-way parallelism, complex heterogeneous compute nodes and poor availability of memory (Peter Kogge, 2008). This new challenge for application development is motivating a significant amount of research and development on new programming models and runtime systems designed to simplify large-scale application development. Unfortunately, DoE has significant multi-decadal investment in a large family of mission-critical scientific applications. Scaling these applications to exascale machines will require a significant investment that will dwarf the costs of hardware procurement. A key reason for the difficulty in transitioning today's applications to exascale hardware is their reliance on explicit programming techniques, such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model to enable parallelism. MPI provides a portable and high performance message-passing system that enables scalable performance on a wide variety of platforms. However, it also forces developers to lock the details of parallelization together with application logic, making it very difficult to adapt the application to significant changes in the underlying system. Further, MPI's explicit interface makes it difficult to separate the application's synchronization and communication structure, reducing the amount of support that can be provided by compiler and run-time tools. This is in contrast to the recent research on more implicit parallel programming models such as Chapel, OpenMP and OpenCL, which promise to provide significantly more flexibility at the cost of reimplementing significant portions of the application. We are developing CoMPI, a novel compiler-driven approach to enable existing MPI applications to scale to exascale systems with minimal modifications that can be made incrementally over the application

  7. CICS Region Virtualization for Cost Effective Application Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamal Waris

    2012-01-01

    Mainframe is used for hosting large commercial databases, transaction servers and applications that require a greater degree of reliability, scalability and security. Customer Information Control System (CICS) is a mainframe software framework for implementing transaction services. It is designed for rapid, high-volume online processing. In order…

  8. Assembly of a Cost-Effective Anode Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano-Ramos, Ileana; Casan~as-Montes, Barbara; García-Maldonado, María M.; Menendez, Christian L.; Mayol, Ana R.; Díaz-Vazquez, Liz M.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the synthesis of nanoscale catalysts, which offer an efficient alternative for fuel cell applications. In this laboratory experiment, the student selects a cost-effective anode for fuel cells by comparing three different working electrodes. These are commercially available palladium (Pd) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and…

  9. DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  16. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  18. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  19. Assembly of a Cost-Effective Anode Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the synthesis of nanoscale catalysts, which offer an efficient alternative for fuel cell applications. In this laboratory experiment, the student selects a cost-effective anode for fuel cells by comparing three different working electrodes. These are commercially available palladium (Pd) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and a carbon paste (CP) electrode that is prepared by the students in the laboratory. The GC and CP were modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNP) suspensions. The electrodes efficiencies were studied for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution using cyclic voltammetry techniques. The ethanol oxidation currents obtained were used to determine the current density using the geometric and surface area of each electrode. Finally, students were able to choose the best electrode and relate catalytic activity to surface area for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution by completing a critical analysis of the cyclic voltammetry results. With this activity, fundamental electrochemical concepts were reinforced. PMID:25691801

  20. A cost-effective differential mobility analyzer (cDMA) for multiple DMA column applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, F.; Fu, H.; Chen, D.-R.

    2011-05-04

    In aerosol research and applications, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) is now considered the standard tool for sizing and classifying monodisperse particles in the sub-micrometer and nanometer size ranges. However, DMA application at the pilot or industrial production scale remains infeasible because of the low mass throughput. A simple way to scale up DMA operation is to use multiple DMA columns. The manufacture and maintenance costs of existing DMAs, however, limit such a scale-up. A cost-effective DMA column (named cDMA) has thus been developed in this work to address the above issue. To reduce its manufacturing cost, the prototype was constructed using parts requiring little machining. The cDMA column was also designed for easy maintenance and easy variation of the classification length for any application-specified size range. In this study, prototypes with two particle classification lengths, 1.75 and 4.50 cm, were constructed and their performance was experimentally evaluated at sheath-to-aerosol flowrate ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 via the tandem DMA (TDMA) technique. It was concluded that both prototype cDMAs, operated at a sheath/aerosol flowrate ratio less than 15:1 and with a polydisperse aerosol flowrate of 1.0 lpm, achieved sizing resolution comparable to that offered by Nano-DMA. The longer cDMA had comparable transmission efficiency to that of Nano-DMA, and the shorter cDMA exceeded the performance of Nano-DMA. Hence, the cDMA with the shorter (1.75 cm) classification length is better suited for the characterization of macromolecular samples.

  1. Cost-effective applications of photovoltaics for electric utilities: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Cost targets for the large-scale entry of photovoltaic (PV) systems keep moving, subject to the vagaries of global oil prices and the economic health of the world. Over the last four decades since a practical PV device was announced, costs have come down by a factor of 20 or more and this downward trend is expected to continue, albeit at a slower pace. Simultaneously, conversion efficiencies have nearly tripled. There are many applications today for which PV is cost-effective. In recognition of this, utility interest in PV is increasing and this is manifested by projects such as PVUSA and Central and South West`s renewable resource development effort. While no major technical barriers for the entry of PV systems have been uncovered, several key issues such as power quality, system reliability, ramp rates, spinning reserve requirements, and misoperation of protection schemes will have to be dealt with as the penetration of this technology increases. PV is still in the evolutionary phase and is expected to grow for several decades to come. Fueled by environmental considerations, interest in PV is showing a healthy rise both in the minds of the public and in the planning realms of the electric power community. In recognition of this, the Energy Development Subcommittee of the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee organized a Panel Session on photovoltaics applications at the 1993 International Joint Power Generation Conference held in Kansas City, Missouri. Summaries of the four presentations are assembled here for the benefit of the readers of this Review.

  2. Cognitive behavior therapy via the Internet: a systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-12-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment that may increase availability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for psychiatric disorders and other clinical problems. The main objective of this study was to determine the applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ICBT. The authors conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials investigating CBT delivered via the internet for adult patient populations. Searches to identify studies investigating cost-effectiveness of ICBT were also conducted. Evidence status for each clinical application was determined using the American Psychologist Association criteria for empirically supported treatments. Of 1104 studies reviewed, 108 met criteria for inclusion, of which 103 reported on clinical efficacy and eight on cost-effectiveness. Results showed that ICBT has been tested for 25 different clinical disorders, whereas most randomized controlled trials have been aimed at depression, anxiety disorders and chronic pain. Internet-based treatments for depression, social phobia and panic disorder were classified as well-established, that is, meeting the highest level of criteria for evidence. Effect sizes were large in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, severe health anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, female sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, cannabis use and pathological gambling. For other clinical problems, effect sizes were small to moderate. Comparison to conventional CBT showed that ICBT produces equivalent effects. Cost-effectiveness data were relatively scarce but suggested that ICBT has more than 50% probability of being cost effective compared with no treatment or to conventional CBT when willingness to pay for an additional improvement is zero. Although ICBT is a promising treatment option for several disorders, it can only be regarded as a well-established treatment for depression, panic disorder and social phobia. It seems that ICBT is as

  3. Application of Bayesian Approach to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Antiviral Treatments in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Huo, Mingdong; Chao, Jianqian; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major problem for public health; timely antiviral treatment can significantly prevent the progression of liver damage from HBV by slowing down or stopping the virus from reproducing. In the study we applied Bayesian approach to cost-effectiveness analysis, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods for the relevant evidence input into the model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LVD) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Jiangsu, China, thus providing information to the public health system in the CHB therapy. Methods Eight-stage Markov model was developed, a hypothetical cohort of 35-year-old HBeAg-positive patients with CHB was entered into the model. Treatment regimens were LVD100mg daily and ETV 0.5 mg daily. The transition parameters were derived either from systematic reviews of the literature or from previous economic studies. The outcome measures were life-years, quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs), and expected costs associated with the treatments and disease progression. For the Bayesian models all the analysis was implemented by using WinBUGS version 1.4. Results Expected cost, life expectancy, QALYs decreased with age. Cost-effectiveness increased with age. Expected cost of ETV was less than LVD, while life expectancy and QALYs were higher than that of LVD, ETV strategy was more cost-effective. Costs and benefits of the Monte Carlo simulation were very close to the results of exact form among the group, but standard deviation of each group indicated there was a big difference between individual patients. Conclusions Compared with lamivudine, entecavir is the more cost-effective option. CHB patients should accept antiviral treatment as soon as possible as the lower age the more cost-effective. Monte Carlo simulation obtained costs and effectiveness distribution, indicate our Markov model is of good robustness. PMID:27574976

  4. Cost-effectiveness of alternative conservation strategies with application to the Pacific leatherback turtle.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, Heidi; Squires, Dale; Dutton, Peter H; Eguchi, Tomoharu

    2014-02-01

    Although holistic conservation addressing all sources of mortality for endangered species or stocks is the preferred conservation strategy, limited budgets require a criterion to prioritize conservation investments. We compared the cost-effectiveness of nesting site and at-sea conservation strategies for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We sought to determine which conservation strategy or mix of strategies would produce the largest increase in population growth rate per dollar. Alternative strategies included protection of nesters and their eggs at nesting beaches in Indonesia, gear changes, effort restrictions, and caps on turtle takes in the Hawaiian (U.S.A.) longline swordfish fishery, and temporal and area closures in the California (U.S.A.) drift gill net fishery. We used a population model with a biological metric to measure the effects of conservation alternatives. We normalized all effects by cost to prioritize those strategies with the greatest biological effect relative to its economic cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty in the main variables and to calculate probability distributions for cost-effectiveness measures. Nesting beach protection was the most cost-effective means of achieving increases in leatherback populations. This result creates the possibility of noncompensatory bycatch mitigation, where high-bycatch fisheries invest in protecting nesting beaches. An example of this practice is U.S. processors of longline tuna and California drift gill net fishers that tax themselves to finance low-cost nesting site protection. Under certain conditions, fisheries interventions, such as technologies that reduce leatherback bycatch without substantially decreasing target species catch, can be cost-effective. Reducing bycatch in coastal areas where bycatch is high, particularly adjacent to nesting beaches, may be cost-effective, particularly, if fisheries in the area are small and of little commercial value. PMID

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Sativex in multiple sclerosis spasticity: new data and application to Italy.

    PubMed

    Slof, John; Ruiz, Leonardo; Vila, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease that carries a high socioeconomic burden. Spasticity (rigidity and spasms) is common in MS and contributes to MS-related disability. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Sativex(®) (9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol plus cannabidiol oromucosal spray) when used as add-on therapy for management of resistant MS-related spasticity in the context of the Italian healthcare system. A previously published Markov model-based analysis for the German and Spanish context was replicated, adapting it to the Italian setting. Model parameters were updated to reflect recent findings about MS-related spasticity and use of Sativex in daily clinical practice. The base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for Sativex use in Italy over a 5-year period was estimated to be €4968 per quality-adjusted life-year gained (year of costing: 2013). Sativex remained an efficient option in the Italian healthcare context - below the commonly accepted incremental threshold of €30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained - when deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Sativex can be regarded as a cost-effective treatment option for patients with MS-related spasticity in Italy. PMID:25771713

  6. Portable and cost-effective pixel super-resolution on-chip microscope for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Waheb; Sikora, Uzair; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Luckhart, Shirley; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    We report a field-portable lensless on-chip microscope with a lateral resolution of <1 μm and a large field-of-view of ~24 mm(2). This microscope is based on digital in-line holography and a pixel super-resolution algorithm to process multiple lensfree holograms and obtain a single high-resolution hologram. In its compact and cost-effective design, we utilize 23 light emitting diodes butt-coupled to 23 multi-mode optical fibers, and a simple optical filter, with no moving parts. Weighing only ~95 grams, we demonstrate the performance of this field-portable microscope by imaging various objects including human malaria parasites in thin blood smears. PMID:22256247

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each major option for the disposal/reuse of municipal sludges poses potential risks to human health or the environment because of the microbial contaminants in sludge. Therefore, risk assessment methodology appropriate for pathogen risk evaluation for land application and distrib...

  8. EFFECT OF LAND DISPOSAL APPLICATIONS OF MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL WASTES ON CROP YIELDS AND HEAVY METAL UPTAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides the cumulative data acquired from 1969 through 1975 from field and greenhouse investigations pertaining to the effects on selected soils and plants from municipal compost and sewage sludge applications. Multiple applications of composted municipal refuse resu...

  9. Cost effective spectral sensor solutions for hand held and field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetz, Edgar; Correns, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    Optical spectroscopy is without doubt one of the most important non-contact measurement principles. It is used in a wide range of applications from bio-medical to industrial fields. One recent trend is to miniaturize spectral sensors to address new areas of application. The most common spectral sensor type is based on diffraction gratings, while other types are based on micro mechanical systems (MEMS) or filter technologies. The authors represent the opinion that there is a potentially wide spread field of applications for spectrometers, but the market limits the range of applications since they cannot keep up with targeted cost requirements for consumer products. The present article explains an alternative approach for miniature multichannel spectrometer to enhance robustness for hand held field applications at a cost efficient price point.

  10. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  11. Cost-effective manufacturing of compact TDLAS sensors for hazardous area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Laderer, Mathew C.; Smith, Clinton J.; Ehid, Ryan; Dallas, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is finding ever increasing utility for industrial process measurement and control. The technique's sensitivity and selectivity benefit continuous concentration measurements of specific gas components in complex gas mixtures which are often laden with liquids or solid particulates. Tradeoff options among optical path length, absorption linestrength, linewidth, cross-interferences, and sampling methodology enable sensor designers to optimize detection for specific applications. Emerging applications are demanding increasing numbers of distributed miniaturized sensors at diminishing costs. In these applications, the TDLAS specificity is a key attribute, and its high sensitivity enables novel sampling package designs with short optical path lengths. This paper describes a miniature hermetically-sealed backscatter TDLAS transceiver package designed for high-volume production at acceptable cost. Occupying a volume less than 1in3 and weighing less than 0.06 lb, the transceiver is a key component of TDLAS sensors intended for in-situ measurements of potentially explosive gas mixtures.

  12. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental

  13. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures phase II (SPICES II): smart materials aircraft applications evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Steven W.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    The second phase of the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES II) program sought to identify high payoff areas for both naval and aerospace military systems and to evaluate military systems and to evaluate the benefits of smart materials incorporation based on their ability to redefine the mission scenario of the candidate platforms in their respective theaters of operation. The SPICES II consortium, consisting of The Boeing Company, Electric Boat Corporation, United Technologies Research Center, and Pennsylvania State University, surveyed the state-of-the-art in smart structures and evaluated potential applications to military aircraft, marine and propulsion systems components and missions. Eleven baseline platforms comprising a wide variety of missions were chosen for evaluation. Each platform was examined in its field of operation for areas which can be improved using smart materials insertion. Over 250 smart materials applications were proposed to enhance the platforms. The applications were examined and, when possible, quantitatively analyzed for their effect on mission performance. The applications were then ranked for payoff, risk, and time frame for development and demonstration. Details of the efforts made in the SPICES II program pertaining to smart structure applications on military and transport aircraft will be presented. A brief discussion of the core technologies will be followed by presentation of the criteria used in ranking each application. Thereafter, a selection of the higher ranking proposed concepts are presented in detail.

  14. Report on Cost-Effectiveness and Energy Svaings from Application of Low-Cost Wireless Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Skorpik, James R.; Reid, Larry D.

    2004-12-02

    This report characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are already being used in building applications or that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. The discussion provides an overview of fundamental concepts of radial broadcasting systems, as well as mesh networks, and will highlight the opportunities and challenges in their integration into existing wired control networks. This report describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. It also describes the load control strategies implemented as a consequence of having the additional data provided by the wireless sensors and provides estimates of the resulting energy and cost savings. The report concludes with presentation of some general future prospects for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  15. A cost-effective fluorescence mini-microscope for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Ribas, João; Nadhman, Akhtar; Aleman, Julio; Selimović, Šeila; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Wang, Ting; Manoharan, Vijayan; Shin, Su-Ryon; Damilano, Alessia; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Takayama, Shuichi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a miniature microscope from off-the-shelf components and a webcam, with built-in fluorescence capability for biomedical applications. The mini-microscope was able to detect both biochemical parameters, such as cell/tissue viability (e.g. live/dead assay), and biophysical properties of the microenvironment such as oxygen levels in microfabricated tissues based on an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye. This mini-microscope has adjustable magnifications from 8-60×, achieves a resolution as high as <2 μm, and possesses a long working distance of 4.5 mm (at a magnification of 8×). The mini-microscope was able to chronologically monitor cell migration and analyze beating of microfluidic liver and cardiac bioreactors in real time, respectively. The mini-microscope system is cheap, and its modularity allows convenient integration with a wide variety of pre-existing platforms including, but not limited to, cell culture plates, microfluidic devices, and organs-on-a-chip systems. Therefore, we envision its widespread application in cell biology, tissue engineering, biosensing, microfluidics, and organs-on-chips, which can potentially replace conventional bench-top microscopy where long-term in situ and large-scale imaging/analysis is required. PMID:26282117

  16. A simple cost-effective manometric respirometer: design and application in wastewater biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shahidur; Islam, M. Akhtarul

    2015-09-01

    Application of respirometric tools in wastewater engineering fields is still not getting familiarity and acceptance by academy or industry in developing countries as compared to the use of conventional biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) approach. To justify the applicability of respirometry, a low-cost respirometric device suitable for monitoring biodegradation process in wastewater has been developed. This device contains six independently operating reactors placed in a temperature control unit for the bioassay of five wastewater samples simultaneously (along with one blank). Each reactor is equipped with a magnetic stirrer for the continuous agitation of the test sample. Six manometers, linked with the individual reactors, measure the pressure and volume changes in the headspace gas phase of the reactor. Working formulae have been derived to convert the `volume-change in gas phase' data to `the oxygen depletion in the whole liquid-gas system' data. The performance of the device has been tested with glucose-glutamic acid standard solution and found satisfactory. Conventional BOD test and the respirometric measurements were performed simultaneously and it is found that in addition to measuring the BOD of the sample, this device gives oxygen uptake profile for further analysis to determine the biokinetic coefficients. Additionally, in some cases, following a specific test protocol, the respirometer can indirectly estimate the carbon dioxide evolved during biodegradation process for calculating respiratory activity parameter such as respiratory quotient. It is concluded that the device can be used in the laboratories associated with the activated sludge plants and also for teaching and research purposes in developing countries.

  17. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m-2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head-1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head-1 yr-1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  18. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m−2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head−1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head−1 yr−1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots. PMID:26584639

  19. Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing ~46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2cm × 4.2cm × 5.8cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of ~24 mm2. This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  20. Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-06-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  1. Design of a lightweight, cost effective thimble-like sensor for haptic applications based on contact force sensors.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Manuel; Galiana, Ignacio; Aracil, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and calibration of a thimble that measures the forces applied by a user during manipulation of virtual and real objects. Haptic devices benefit from force measurement capabilities at their end-point. However, the heavy weight and cost of force sensors prevent their widespread incorporation in these applications. The design of a lightweight, user-adaptable, and cost-effective thimble with four contact force sensors is described in this paper. The sensors are calibrated before being placed in the thimble to provide normal and tangential forces. Normal forces are exerted directly by the fingertip and thus can be properly measured. Tangential forces are estimated by sensors strategically placed in the thimble sides. Two applications are provided in order to facilitate an evaluation of sensorized thimble performance. These applications focus on: (i) force signal edge detection, which determines task segmentation of virtual object manipulation, and (ii) the development of complex object manipulation models, wherein the mechanical features of a real object are obtained and these features are then reproduced for training by means of virtual object manipulation. PMID:22247677

  2. Finite element modelling approaches for well-ordered porous metallic materials for orthopaedic applications: cost effectiveness and geometrical considerations.

    PubMed

    Quevedo González, Fernando José; Nuño, Natalia

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical properties of well-ordered porous materials are related to their geometrical parameters at the mesoscale. Finite element (FE) analysis is a powerful tool to design well-ordered porous materials by analysing the mechanical behaviour. However, FE models are often computationally expensive. This article aims to develop a cost-effective FE model to simulate well-ordered porous metallic materials for orthopaedic applications. Solid and beam FE modelling approaches are compared, using finite size and infinite media models considering cubic unit cell geometry. The model is then applied to compare two unit cell geometries: cubic and diamond. Models having finite size provide similar results than the infinite media model approach for large sample sizes. In addition, these finite size models also capture the influence of the boundary conditions on the mechanical response for small sample sizes. The beam FE modelling approach showed little computational cost and similar results to the solid FE modelling approach. Diamond unit cell geometry appeared to be more suitable for orthopaedic applications than the cubic unit cell geometry. PMID:26260268

  3. Development of a Cost-Effective Modular Pixelated NaI(Tl) Detector for Clinical SPECT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rozler, Mike; Liang, Haoning; Chang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A new pixelated detector for high-resolution clinical SPECT applications was designed and tested. The modular detector is based on a scintillator block comprised of 2.75×2.75×10 mm3 NaI(Tl) pixels and decoded by an array of 51 mm diameter single-anode PMTs. Several configurations, utilizing two types of PMTs, were evaluated using a collimated beam source to measure positioning accuracy directly. Good pixel separation was observed, with correct pixel identification ranging from 60 to 72% averaged over the entire area of the modules, depending on the PMT type and configuration. This translates to a significant improvement in positioning accuracy compared to continuous slab detectors of the same thickness, along with effective reduction of “dead” space at the edges. The observed 10% average energy resolution compares well to continuous slab detectors. The combined performance demonstrates the suitability of pixelated detectors decoded with a relatively small number of medium-sized PMTs as a cost-effective approach for high resolution clinical SPECT applications, in particular those involving curved detector geometries. PMID:24146436

  4. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  5. The operation of cost-effective on-site process for the bio-treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Zhang, Chunyan; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-06-01

    The application of on-site waste treatment significantly reduces the need for expensive waste collection and transportation in rural areas; hence, it is considered of fundamental importance in developing countries. In this study, the effects of in-field operation of two types of mini-scale on-site solid waste treatment facilities on de-centralized communities, one using mesophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion combined with composting (TPAD, 50 kg/d) and another using decentralized composting (DC, 0.6-2 t/d), were investigated. Source-separated collection was applied to provide organic waste for combined process, in which the amount of waste showed significant seasonal variation. The highest collection amount was 0.18 kg/capital day and 0.6 kg/household day. Both sites showed good performance after operating for more than 6 months, with peak waste reduction rates of 53.5% in TPAD process and 63.2% in DC process. Additionally, the windrow temperature exceeded 55 °C for >5 days, indicating that the composting products from both facilities were safe. These results were supported by 4 days aerobic static respiration rate tests. The emissions were low enough to avoid any impact on nearby communities (distance <100 m). Partial energy could be recovered by the combined process but with complicated operation. Hence, the choice of process must be considered in case separately. PMID:24369844

  6. Global optimal vaccination in the SIR model: properties of the value function and application to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Laguzet, Laetitia; Turinici, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on optimal vaccination policies for an Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model; the impact of the disease is minimized with respect to the vaccination strategy. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem and we show that the value function is the unique viscosity solution of an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. This allows to find the best vaccination policy. At odds with existing literature, it is seen that the value function is not always smooth (sometimes only Lipschitz) and the optimal vaccination policies are not unique. Moreover we rigorously analyze the situation when vaccination can be modeled as instantaneous (with respect to the time evolution of the epidemic) and identify the global optimum solutions. Numerical applications illustrate the theoretical results. In addition the pertussis vaccination in adults is considered from two perspectives: first the maximization of DALY averted in presence of vaccine side-effects; then the impact of the herd immunity on the cost-effectiveness analysis is discussed on a concrete example. PMID:25771436

  7. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation. PMID:12493209

  8. The application of lime sorbents in municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.; Licata, A.

    1998-07-01

    Lime is the sorbent most utilized to control acid gas emissions from Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) throughout the world. Line is safe, economical, and easy to handle. In addition to acid gas controls, lime has been demonstrated to reduce mercury and dioxin emissions when used in spray dryers. Lime also has applications in controlling the leachability of heavy metals from MWC ash. Although lime is used throughout the industry, the authors see many misapplications and misunderstandings of this technology. They have seen the wrong type of silos used as well as the wrong size silos. Slaking is a major problem for some plants because they use the wrong water and lime products. This paper will discuss the selection criteria and economics for lime handling and feeding systems with design data. Definitions and the chemistry of lime will be presented to enable design engineers to better prepare systems specifications. This paper will be beneficial to plants planning to upgrade to the MACT standards.

  9. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  10. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  11. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  12. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  13. 76 FR 24472 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 8, 2011, Western...

  14. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of microvalve arrays in PDMS using laser cut molds with application to C. elegans manipulation in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, R.; Thacker, C. M.; Maricq, A. V.; Gale, B. K.

    2014-09-01

    We present a new fabrication protocol for fabricating pneumatically controlled microvalve arrays (consisting of 100 s of microvalves) in PDMS substrates. The protocol utilizes rapid and cost-effective fabrication of molds using laser cutting of adhesive vinyl tapes and replica molding of PDMS. Hence the protocol is fast, simple and avoids cleanroom use. The results show that effective doormat-style microvalves can be easily fabricated in arrays by manipulating the stiffness of the actuating membrane through varying the valve-chamber area/shape. Three frequently used valve-chamber shapes (circle, square and capsule) were tested and all showed advantages in different situations. Circular valve chambers were best for small valves, square valves were best for medium-sized valves, and the capsule valves were best for larger valves. An application of this protocol has been demonstrated in the fabrication of a microfluidic 32-well plate for high-throughput manipulation of C. elegans for biomedical research.

  15. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first. PMID

  16. Cost-Effective Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis to Typing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Geraldine; Morris, Dearbhaile; O'Hare, Colette; DeLappe, Niall; Bradshaw, Bernard; Corbett-Feeney, Geraldine; Cormican, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is frequently isolated from humans and animals. Phage typing is historically the first-line reference typing technique in Europe. It is rapid and convenient for laboratories with appropriate training and experience, and costs of consumables are low. Phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on 503 isolates of serovar Typhimurium. Twenty-nine phage types and 53 PFGE patterns were observed. Most isolates of phage types DT104, DT104b, and U310 are not distinguishable from other members of their phage type by PFGE. By contrast, PFGE of isolates of phage types DT193 and U302 shows great heterogeneity. Analysis of experience with PFGE and phage typing can facilitate the selective application of PFGE to maximize the yield of epidemiologically relevant additional information while controlling costs. PMID:16332808

  17. Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wettability Gradient Copper Surface by Screen Printing and its Application to Condensation Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Huang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Ding-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, wettability gradient pattern is applied to condensation heat transfer on a copper tube surface. For this application, the vital issue is how to fabricate gradient patterns on a curve tube surface to accelerate the droplet collection efficiently. For this purpose, novel fabrication processes are developed to form wettability gradient patterns on a curve copper tube surface by using roller screen printing surface modification techniques. The roller screen printing surface modification techniques can easily realize wettability gradient surfaces with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a copper tube surface. Experimental results show the droplet nucleation sites, movement and coalescence toward the collection areas can be effectively controlled which can assist in removing the condensation water from the surface. The effectiveness of droplet collection is appropriate for being applied to condensation heat transfer in the foreseeable future.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of behaviour change interventions: a proposed new approach and an application to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Warren C; Lewis, Gary L

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to cost analysis of family planning programmes that focuses on behaviour change of programme clients as the final 'output' rather than units of contraceptive services delivered, as does the familiar couple-years-of-protection index. It is useful to know how much it costs to deliver a unit of contraceptive services, but it would also seem useful to know how much it costs to change a prospective client's behaviour. The proposed approach rests on the familiar 'steps to behaviour change' paradigm and: (1) develops a methodology for applying a client-behaviour-change-centred cost analysis to programme activities; (2) tests the methodology and concepts by applying them retrospectively to a case study of mass media interventions in Egypt; (3) derives cost per unit of behaviour changes for these Egyptian communications campaigns to demonstrate the workability of the approach. This framework offers a new approach to impact evaluation that would seem to be applicable to other components of family planning and reproductive health programmes. PMID:14621248

  19. Selective and cost-effective protocol to separate bioactive triterpene acids from plant matrices using alkalinized ethanol: Application to leaves of Myrtaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adélia M. Belem; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Nakamura, Marcos Jun; D’Avila, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Triterpenes as betulinic (BA), oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acids (UA) have increasingly gained therapeutic relevance due to their wide scope of pharmacological activities. To fit large-scale demands, exploitable sources of these compounds have to be found and simple, cost-effective methods to extract them developed. Leaf material represents the best plant sustainable raw material. To obtain triterpene acid-rich extracts from leaves of Eugenia, Psidium and Syzygium species (Myrtaceae) by directly treating the dry plant material with alkalinized hydrated ethanol. This procedure was adapted from earlier methods to effect depolymerization of the leaf cutin. Materials and Methods: Extracts were prepared by shaking the milled dry leaves in freshly prepared 2% NaOH in 95% EtOH solution (1:4 w/v) at room temperature for 6 h. Working up the product in acidic aqueous medium led to clear precipitates in which BA, OA and UA were quantified by gas chromatography. Results: Pigment-free and low-polyphenol content extracts (1.2–2.8%) containing 6–50% of total triterpene acids were obtained for the six species assayed. UA (7–20%) predominated in most extracts, but BA preponderated in Eugenia florida (39%). Carried out in parallel, n-hexane defatted leaves led to up to 9% enhancement of total acids in the extracts. The hydroalcoholate treatment of Myrtaceae species dry leaves proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method to obtain triterpene acids, providing them be resistant to alkaline medium. These combined techniques might be applicable to other plant species and tissues. PMID:26246721

  20. 76 FR 72196 - CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 14, 2011,...

  1. 76 FR 36625 - Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20552, by fax to (202) 906-6518, or by e-mail...

  2. 76 FR 20820 - Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Application and Termination Notice for Municipal Securities Dealer Principal or Representative AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request....C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will submit...

  3. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Land Application and Distribution and Marketing of Municipal Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution a...

  4. 77 FR 73632 - American Municipal Power, Inc; Notice of Application for Temporary Variance of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American Municipal Power, Inc; Notice of Application for Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the...

  5. 78 FR 35618 - Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, Recommendations, and Terms and Conditions Take notice that the...

  6. Application of NASA-developed technology to the automatic control of municipal sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, L. L.; Herrera, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A search was made of NASA developed technology and commercial technology for process control sensors and instrumentation which would be applicable to the operation of municipal sewage treatment plants. Several notable items were found from which process control concepts were formulated that incorporated these items into systems to automatically operate municipal sewage treatment plants. A preliminary design of the most promising concept was developed into a process control scheme for an activated sludge treatment plant. This design included process control mechanisms for maintaining constant food to sludge mass (F/M) ratio, and for such unit processes as primary sedimentation, sludge wastage, and underflow control from the final clarifier.

  7. [Application of optimization management model of municipal solid waste from medium or small city of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-05-01

    According to the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste generated from medium or small city of China, the optimal management principles and programs for optimization management model suitable to them were put forward. By application of the model in case study, the optimal scenarios for the disposal of municipal solid waste from the planning system in 1999, 2005 and 2010 were calculated, which adequately validated and accounted for the advantages of optimization model by comparison of costs between optimization scenarios and former scenarios. PMID:12916219

  8. Designing to cost effectiveness - Enhancing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, James R.; Stracener, Jerrell T.

    The authors present a practical application of cost-effectiveness analysis techniques through the definition and solution of a representative design tradeoff study using cost-effectiveness as a figure of merit for quality. They also describe a decision process based on the results of tradeoff studies to provide a method of integrating the 'ilities' with design and manufacturing engineering to help accomplish integrated product development (IPD). While the approach is demonstrated in an aircraft application, the method is equally applicable in almost any product and any operational scenario, military or commercial.

  9. 77 FR 5501 - City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...

  10. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Reductions in School Expenditures: An Application of an Educational Production Function. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Barbara

    This study describes a cost-effective approach to school resource allocations. It combines the cost and production function results in order to determine where cutbacks can be made, how resources should be relocated, whether certain resources should be increased, and whether certain changes need to be of large magnitude in order to be effective.…

  12. 40Gbit/s multi-lane distribution interface converter and its application to cost-effective optical transceiver for 40G SONET/SDH signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisawa, S.; Ono, T.; Tomizawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    We create a 40Gbit/s multi-lane distribution (MLD) interface converter for STM-256 to STL-256.4 and OTU3 to OTL3.4. We successfully demonstrate a cost-effective optical transceiver for STM-256/OC-768/40G-POS by using our 40Gbit/s MLD interface converter prototype.

  13. Methods to elicit experts' beliefs over uncertain quantities: application to a cost effectiveness transition model of negative pressure wound therapy for severe pressure ulceration.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Bojke, Laura; Dumville, Jo; Iglesias, Cynthia; Cullum, Nicky; Claxton, Karl

    2011-08-30

    We can use decision models to estimate cost effectiveness, quantify uncertainty regarding the adoption decision and provide estimates of the value of further research. In many cases, the existence of only limited data with which to populate a decision model can mean that a cost-effectiveness analysis either does not proceed or may misrepresent the degree of uncertainty associated with model inputs. An example is the case of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to treat severe pressure ulceration, for which the evidence base is limited and sparse. There is, however, substantial practical experience of using this treatment and its comparators. We can capture this knowledge quantitatively to inform a cost-effectiveness model by eliciting beliefs from experts. This paper describes the design and conduct of an elicitation exercise to generate estimates of multiple uncertain model inputs and validate analytical assumptions for a decision model on the use of NPWT. In designing the exercise, the primary focus was the use of elicitation to inform decision models (multistate models), where representations of uncertain beliefs need to be probabilistically coherent. This paper demonstrates that it is feasible to collect formally elicited evidence to inform decision models. PMID:21748773

  14. Ten persistent myths and the realities of membrane bioreactor technology for municipal applications.

    PubMed

    Lesjean, B; Tazi-Pain, A; Thaure, D; Moeslang, H; Buisson, H

    2011-01-01

    Twelve years after the first full scale municipal application in Europe of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, the process is now accepted as a technology of choice for wastewater treatment, and the market is showing sustained growth. However early misconceptions about the technology are persistent and false statements are commonly encountered in articles and conferences, generating unnecessary research efforts or even fuelling either fascination or scepticism with regards to the technology, which is ultimately detrimental to the perception of the process by water professionals. We try to provide some factual and rational clarifications on ten issues which are often wrongly reported about MBR technology. PMID:21245550

  15. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  16. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  17. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~pH2) followed by basic (~pH12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40±16t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. PMID:26849337

  18. The application of dry photoresists in fabricating cost-effective tapered through-silicon vias and redistribution lines in a single step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Pradeep; Salonen, Jaakko; Pohjonen, Harri; Monnoyer, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and cost-effective technique to fabricate a partially electroplated tapered through-silicon via (TSV) and redistribution line (RDL)-like structures on the field in a single process step using dry laminated photoresists. An array of 100 µm deep positively tapered silicon vias was etched by a three-step non-Bosch plasma etching process. Insulation, diffusion barrier and seed layers were deposited by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering processes, respectively. A 15 µm thick dry MXA115 photoresist was laminated on the wafer by a roller-less vacuum lamination process. The dry resist allows a satisfactory patterning of the RDL-like structures by eliminating the chances of resist residuals falling in the etched TSVs. Direct-current (dc) electroplating was used to deposit 10 µm thick copper layers on the via sidewalls as well as on the field. Therefore, the electroplating not only partially fills the vias but also forms the RDL structures at the same time. Since both TSVs and RDLs are fabricated together in a single process step, several conventional process steps such as over-burden polishing, lithography, and metal etching were avoided. Compared to the conventional TSV fabrication processes, this dry resist lithography-based method turned out to be simple and very cost-effective in making complex TSV interconnects.

  19. Guidelines for selection and application of the most cost-effective NO sub x control technologies for gas, oil and coal fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, D.O.; Booth, R.B.; McDonald, B.L. ); Feenstra, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the new Clean Air Act, lower NO{sub x} emissions from stationary sources will be required of utilities and independent power producers that burn all fuels including gas, oil and coal. This new legislation, as well as new and more stringent NO{sub x} reduction orders imposed by state and local regulatory agencies, will require rapid evaluation, purchase, installation and start-up of a variety of control technologies. There is substantial volume of literature available discussing NO{sub x} control technologies, their control effectiveness, costs, and chemical reaction mechanisms in forming NO{sub x}. This paper, however, presents more practical aspects of developing a NO{sub x} control strategy and implementing the appropriate cost-effective control technology on a utility or industrial boiler.

  20. Application of solar AOPs and ozonation for elimination of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Rodríguez, L; Oller, I; Klamerth, N; Agüera, A; Rodríguez, E M; Malato, S

    2013-03-15

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants are not able to entirely degrade some organic pollutants that end up in the environment. Within this group of contaminants, Emerging Contaminants are mostly unregulated compounds that may be candidates for future regulation. In this work, different advanced technologies: solar heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2), solar photo-Fenton and ozonation, are studied as tertiary treatments for the remediation of micropollutants present in real municipal wastewater treatment plants effluents at pilot plant scale. Contaminants elimination was followed by Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole ion trap Mass Spectrometry analysis after a pre-concentration 100:1 by automatic solid phase extraction. 66 target micropollutants were identified and quantified. 16 of those contaminants at initial concentrations over 1000 ng L(-1), made up over 88% of the initial total effluent pollutant load. The order of micropollutants elimination efficiency under the experimental conditions evaluated was solar photo-Fenton > ozonation > solar heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2). Toxicity analyses by Vibrio fischeri and respirometric tests showed no significant changes in the effluent toxicity after the three tertiary treatments application. Solar photo-Fenton and ozonation treatments were also compared from an economical point of view. PMID:23332646

  1. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. PMID:26858372

  2. Cost effective machining and inspection of structural ceramic components for advanced high temperature application. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0151

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Haselkorn, M.

    1996-11-29

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was a mutual research and development (R and D) effort among the participants to investigate a range of advanced manufacturing technologies for two silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic materials. The general objective was to identify the most cost-effective part manufacturing processes for the ceramic materials of interest. The focus was determining the relationship between material removal rates, surface quality, and the structural characteristics of each ceramic resulting from three innovative processes. These innovated machining processes were studied using silicon nitride advanced materials. The particular (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) materials of interest were sintered GS-44 from the Norton Company, and reaction-bonded Ceraloy 147-3. The processes studied included the following activities: (1) direct laser machining; (2) rotary ultrasonic machining; and (3) diamond abrasive grinding, including both resinoid and vitreous-bonded grinding wheels. Both friable and non-friable diamond types were included within the abrasive grinding study. The task also conducted a comprehensive survey of European experience in use of ceramic materials, principally aluminum oxide. Originally, the effort of this task was to extend through a prototype manufacturing demonstration of selected engine components. During the execution of this program, however changes were made to the scope of the project, altering the goals. The Program goal became only the development of assessment of their impacts on product strength and surface condition.

  3. Teleradiotherapy Network: Applications and Feasibility for Providing Cost-Effective Comprehensive Radiotherapy Care in Low- and Middle-Income Group Countries for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Michael; Samiei, Massoud; Shah, Ragesh; Lutters, Gerd; Bodis, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Globally, new cancer cases will rise by 57% within the next two decades, with the majority in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Consequently, a steep increase of about 40% in cancer deaths is expected there, mainly because of lack of treatment facilities, especially radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is required for more than 50% of patients, but the capital cost for equipment often deters establishment of such facilities in LMICs. Presently, of the 139 LMICs, 55 do not even have a radiotherapy facility, whereas the remaining 84 have a deficit of 61.4% of their required radiotherapy units. Networking between centers could enhance the effectiveness and reach of existing radiotherapy in LMICs. A teleradiotherapy network could enable centers to share and optimally utilize their resources, both infrastructure and staffing. This could be in the form of a three-tier radiotherapy service consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary radiotherapy centers interlinked through a network. The concept has been adopted in some LMICs and could also be used as a “service provider model,” thereby reducing the investments to set up such a network. Teleradiotherapy networks could be a part of the multipronged approach to address the enormous gap in radiotherapy services in a cost-effective manner and to support better accessibility to radiotherapy facilities, especially for LMICs. PMID:25763906

  4. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. PMID:24362316

  5. Development and testing of cost-effective, 6 cm×6 cm MCP-based photodetectors for fast timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Elam, Jeffrey; Mane, Anil; May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Xia, Lei; Xie, Junqi; Zhao, Huyue

    2015-12-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors are capable of picosecond level time resolution and sub-mm level position resolution, which makes them a perfect candidate for the next generation large area photodetectors. The large-area picosecond photodetector (LAPPD) collaboration is developing new techniques for making large-area photodetectors based on new MCP fabrication and functionalization methods. A small single tube processing system (SmSTPS) was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for developing scalable, cost-effective, glass-body, 6 cm×6 cm, picosecond photodetectors based on MCPs functionalized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Recently, a number of fully processed and hermitically sealed prototypes made of MCPs with 20 μm pores have been fabricated. This is a significant milestone for the LAPPD project. These prototypes were characterized with a pulsed laser test facility. Without optimization, the prototypes have shown excellent results: the time resolution is ~57 ps for single photoelectron mode and ~15 ps for multi-photoelectron mode; the best position resolution is ≤0.8 mm for large pulses. In this paper, the tube processing system, the detector assembly, experimental setup, data analysis and the key performance will be presented.

  6. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    PubMed

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. PMID:23816311

  7. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  8. 18 CFR 131.70 - Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual charges. 131.70 Section 131.70 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  9. 18 CFR 131.70 - Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual charges. 131.70 Section 131.70 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  10. 18 CFR 131.70 - Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual charges. 131.70 Section 131.70 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  11. 18 CFR 131.70 - Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual charges. 131.70 Section 131.70 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  12. 18 CFR 131.70 - Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form 12 of application by State and municipal licensees for exemption from payment of annual charges. 131.70 Section 131.70 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  13. A methodology for developing strategic municipal solid waste management plans with an application in Greece.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    2010-11-01

    A rational approach for developing optimal municipal solid waste (MSW) management plans comprises the strategic and the detailed planning phases. The present paper focuses on the former, the objective of which is to screen management alternatives so as to select the ones that are able to fulfil all legal and other management requirements with reasonable cost. The analysis considers the transportation, treatment and final disposal of the commingled wastes that remain after the application of material recovery at the source programmes and comprises 10 elements, four of which are region-dependent and the remaining ones application-dependent. These elements and their inter-dependencies are described and the entire methodology is applied to Greece. The application considers the existing regional plans and shows that they are incompatible with the existing EU Directives, as well as overly expensive. To address this problem, a new plan is developed in accordance with the rational planning principles of the present methodology. The comparative evaluation of the above alternatives shows that the existing regional plans, in addition to being incompatible with the applicable EU Directives, require 4.3 to 4.8 times (3.7 to 4.4 billion €) higher capital investment and their annual cost is at least 2.1 to 2.3 times (590 to 735 million € year(-1)) higher in comparison with the new national plan. PMID:20855354

  14. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  15. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    PubMed

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. PMID:24140378

  16. Application of municipal sludge (biosolids) for agricultural purposes and groundwater nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Welby, C.W. . Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    One of the more popular means of handling sewage sludge from municipalities is its application to agricultural lands. A variety of crops are grown with the expectation that plants will utilize the nitrogen. However, a complex scenario allows some of the nitrate to move below root depth and eventually to the water table at depths of up to 30 ft. The City of Raleigh, NC injects sewage sludge ( residuals'', biosolids'') into soils derived largely from the Rolesville Granite in an area of typical rolling Piedmont topography. A 1975 background study of part of the site demonstrated differences in groundwater quality between areas farmed over a period of years and areas dominated by second-growth pine and harwood forests. Groundwater quality data collected semiannually between 1982 and 1988 show gradual buildup of nitrate in some fields; in others groundwater quality apparently remains unaffected by nitrate from the sludge. Monitoring well placement may play a role in these differences. Minimum time from the sludge application to an increase in groundwater nitrate is from 9 to 12 months. An ongoing study of a 12-acre field which lay fallow for a number of years prior to sludge application in 1990 demonstrates that some nitrate does move downward fairly rapidly, its movement being recorded in both the saprolite and groundwater. Comparison of nitrate content of groundwater from monitoring wells at a nearby dairy farm shows that normal agricultural practices may also increase the nitrate content of the shallow groundwater.

  17. Municipal solid waste compost application improves productivity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of Mesembryanthemum edule.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Falleh, Hanen; Ouni, Youssef; Oueslati, Samia; Debez, Ahmed; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2011-07-15

    Organic wastes were successfully used as soil amendment to improve agrosystems productivity. Yet, the effectiveness of this practice to enhance plant antioxidant capacities has received little attention. Here, we assess the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (at 40 t ha(-1)) on growth, polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Mesembryanthemum edule. MSW compost application significantly increased the soil contents of carbon, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. This was associated with higher nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake, which likely led to the significant improvement of the plant biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) (+93% on average) as compared to the control. In the same way, the fertilizing effect of the added organic matter significantly enhanced the antioxidant potential M. edule, assessed by radical scavenging activity, iron reducing power and β-carotene bleaching capacity. This was associated with significantly higher antioxidant contents, mainly total phenols and flavonoids. Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were slightly increased upon compost application, but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Overall, our results point out that short-term MSW compost application at 40 t ha(-1) is efficient in enhancing the productivity together with the antioxidant potentiality of M. edule without any adverse environmental impact. PMID:21605936

  18. Thresholds for the cost-effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Larson, Bruce; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kahn, James G; Rosen, Sydney

    2015-02-01

    Many countries use the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost-effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country's annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost-effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita. We argue that reliance on these thresholds reduces the value of cost-effectiveness analyses and makes such analyses too blunt to be useful for most decision-making in the field of public health. Use of these thresholds has little theoretical justification, skirts the difficult but necessary ranking of the relative values of locally-applicable interventions and omits any consideration of what is truly affordable. The WHO-CHOICE thresholds set such a low bar for cost-effectiveness that very few interventions with evidence of efficacy can be ruled out. The thresholds have little value in assessing the trade-offs that decision-makers must confront. We present alternative approaches for applying cost-effectiveness criteria to choices in the allocation of health-care resources. PMID:25883405

  19. Distributional Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asaria, Miqdad; Griffin, Susan; Cookson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis (DCEA) is a framework for incorporating health inequality concerns into the economic evaluation of health sector interventions. In this tutorial, we describe the technical details of how to conduct DCEA, using an illustrative example comparing alternative ways of implementing the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). The 2 key stages in DCEA are 1) modeling social distributions of health associated with different interventions, and 2) evaluating social distributions of health with respect to the dual objectives of improving total population health and reducing unfair health inequality. As well as describing the technical methods used, we also identify the data requirements and the social value judgments that have to be made. Finally, we demonstrate the use of sensitivity analyses to explore the impacts of alternative modeling assumptions and social value judgments. PMID:25908564

  20. Is the living filter sustainable? Assessing the land application of municipal effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminga, K.

    1995-12-01

    The spray irrigation of treated municipal effluent has been practiced for over three decades as an alternative to direct discharge techniques. Benefits include aquifer recharge, discontinuation of waterway pollution, and enhanced crop production. Numerous post implementation analyses are now available, permitting an assessment of the environmental and health impacts of land application of effluent. In general, negative effects are of a localized nature. In forested situations, spraying causes changes in moisture regime, wildlife habitat, and forest floor depth, possibly to the detriment of local ecology. Long-term changes to vegetative patterns have been observed, including the invasion of aggressive edge species and die-off of hardwood seedling stock. For both forested and field situations, the soil mantle effectively binds trace metals, so aquifer contamination through infiltration of heavy metals is negligible. However, over-application can lead to nitrification of groundwater supplies. Secondarily treated wastewater applied to the soil mantle has been determined to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms effectively, although untreated and primarily treated effluent has been associated with health impacts in developing countries. Appropriate site selection and irrigation management practices can maximize the likelihood that the living filter technique achieves sustainability and provides a viable alternative to direct discharge of community wastewater.

  1. Doing business with business: Municipal utility energy audits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This article is a review of the ways in which municipal utilities can use energy audits to identify the energy efficiency measures that are most effective for themselves and their customers. Two examples, Osage Municipal Utilities in Iowa and Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, are used to illustrate the strategies that are most cost effective.

  2. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  3. Municipal sewage sludge application on Ohio farms: estimation of cadmium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.

    1985-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the contribution of municipal sewage sludge exposure and smoking to the daily Cd intake in Ohio farm residents, based on the Cd concentrations in 24-hr fecal samples. The fecal samples were analyzed for Cd and the daily Cd intakes were calculated by correcting for absorption (4.6%) in the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal samples from cattle grazing on sludge-treated pastures were also similarly treated except that published 24-hr fecal weights and a 2% absorption correction were used. Fecal weights and the daily Cd intakes, in humans, calculated from these data were significantly lower in females than in males with a female/male ratio of 0.77/1. Daily Cd intakes calculated from these data ranged from 5.37 to 13.31 g/day for females and 8.87 to 18.52 g/day for males. No significant increase in daily Cd intake resulted from exposure of humans to sludge on the farmlands. Although daily Cd intake for smokers was 1 g/day higher than for nonsmokers, the difference was not statistically significant. Cattle grazing on sludge-treated pastures consumed significantly more (up to 3 times) Cd than cattle on control pastures. It was concluded that application of sewage sludge on farmlands at rates of 2-10 dry metric tons/ha did not significantly contribute to the daily Cd intake in humans; cattle on such farms, however, significantly increased their Cd consumption.

  4. Estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens calculated from their concentrations in raw municipal wastewater and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Lu, Gui-Ning; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Natural estrogens are important endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), which may pose adverse effects on our environment. To avoid time-consuming sample preparation and chemical analysis, estimation of their concentrations in municipal wastewater based on their human urine/feces excretion rates has been generally adopted. However, the data of excretion rates available are very limited and show significant difference among countries. In the context of increasing reporting on the concentrations of natural estrogens in municipal wastewater around the world, this study presented a simple method to estimate their human excretion rates based on the concentrations of natural estrogens in raw sewage. The estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens among ten countries were obtained, which totally covered over 33 million population. Among these, Brazilians had the largest excretion rates with estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) as 236.9 and 60 μg/day/P, respectively, while Iran had the lowest value of 2 μg/day/P for E1 and 0.5 μg/day/P for E2. The average estimated human excretion rates of E1, E2, and estriol (E3) are 17.3, 6.4, and 39.7 μg/day/P, respectively. When the estimated human excretion rates obtained were applied for prediction, the predicted results showed better accuracies than those based on human urinary/feces excretion rates. The method in this study is simple, cost-effective and time-saving, which may be widely applied. PMID:25801372

  5. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools (or at least the perception of their prevalence), more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense U.S. social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti-graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems (`big picture`) approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more to the general `order maintenance` of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  6. A time- and cost-effective strategy to sequence mammalian Y Chromosomes: an application to the de novo assembly of gorilla Y

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Rangavittal, Samarth; Cechova, Monika; Sanchez, Rebeca Campos; Fescemyer, Howard W.; Harris, Robert; Ye, Danling; O'Brien, Patricia C.M.; Chikhi, Rayan; Ryder, Oliver A.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Medvedev, Paul; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian Y Chromosome sequence, critical for studying male fertility and dispersal, is enriched in repeats and palindromes, and thus, is the most difficult component of the genome to assemble. Previously, expensive and labor-intensive BAC-based techniques were used to sequence the Y for a handful of mammalian species. Here, we present a much faster and more affordable strategy for sequencing and assembling mammalian Y Chromosomes of sufficient quality for most comparative genomics analyses and for conservation genetics applications. The strategy combines flow sorting, short- and long-read genome and transcriptome sequencing, and droplet digital PCR with novel and existing computational methods. It can be used to reconstruct sex chromosomes in a heterogametic sex of any species. We applied our strategy to produce a draft of the gorilla Y sequence. The resulting assembly allowed us to refine gene content, evaluate copy number of ampliconic gene families, locate species-specific palindromes, examine the repetitive element content, and produce sequence alignments with human and chimpanzee Y Chromosomes. Our results inform the evolution of the hominine (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) Y Chromosomes. Surprisingly, we found the gorilla Y Chromosome to be similar to the human Y Chromosome, but not to the chimpanzee Y Chromosome. Moreover, we have utilized the assembled gorilla Y Chromosome sequence to design genetic markers for studying the male-specific dispersal of this endangered species. PMID:26934921

  7. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mary W.

    1997-01-01

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools, more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense US social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti- graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more tot he general 'order maintenance' of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  8. A time- and cost-effective strategy to sequence mammalian Y Chromosomes: an application to the de novo assembly of gorilla Y.

    PubMed

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Rangavittal, Samarth; Cechova, Monika; Campos Sanchez, Rebeca; Fescemyer, Howard W; Harris, Robert; Ye, Danling; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Chikhi, Rayan; Ryder, Oliver A; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Medvedev, Paul; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian Y Chromosome sequence, critical for studying male fertility and dispersal, is enriched in repeats and palindromes, and thus, is the most difficult component of the genome to assemble. Previously, expensive and labor-intensive BAC-based techniques were used to sequence the Y for a handful of mammalian species. Here, we present a much faster and more affordable strategy for sequencing and assembling mammalian Y Chromosomes of sufficient quality for most comparative genomics analyses and for conservation genetics applications. The strategy combines flow sorting, short- and long-read genome and transcriptome sequencing, and droplet digital PCR with novel and existing computational methods. It can be used to reconstruct sex chromosomes in a heterogametic sex of any species. We applied our strategy to produce a draft of the gorilla Y sequence. The resulting assembly allowed us to refine gene content, evaluate copy number of ampliconic gene families, locate species-specific palindromes, examine the repetitive element content, and produce sequence alignments with human and chimpanzee Y Chromosomes. Our results inform the evolution of the hominine (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) Y Chromosomes. Surprisingly, we found the gorilla Y Chromosome to be similar to the human Y Chromosome, but not to the chimpanzee Y Chromosome. Moreover, we have utilized the assembled gorilla Y Chromosome sequence to design genetic markers for studying the male-specific dispersal of this endangered species. PMID:26934921

  9. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Wen, Yangping; Guo, Chaoqun; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin; He, Haohua; Yang, Jun

    2013-12-17

    A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd(2+)) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd(2+) in the concentration range of 5 nM-0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd(2+) enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd(2+) determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd(2+) will be a good candidate for application in agriculture and environment. PMID:24296147

  10. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    Background An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. Methods/design A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011) will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data. Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre–post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services. Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. Conclusions The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the

  11. Pre-analytical and analytical validations and clinical applications of a miniaturized, simple and cost-effective solid phase extraction combined with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of catecholamines and metanephrines in spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    It remains a challenge to simultaneously quantify catecholamines and metanephrines in a simple, sensitive and cost-effective manner due to pre-analytical and analytical constraints. Herein, we describe such a method consisting of a miniaturized sample preparation and selective LC-MS/MS detection by the use of second morning spot urine samples. Ten microliters of second morning urine sample were subjected to solid phase extraction on an Oasis HLB microplate upon complexation with phenylboronic acid. The analytes were well-resolved on a Luna PFP column followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. Full validation and suitability of spot urine sampling and biological variation were investigated. The extraction recovery and matrix effect are 74.1-97.3% and 84.1-119.0%, respectively. The linearity range is 2.5-500, 0.5-500, 2.5-1250, 2.5-1250 and 0.5-1250ng/mL for norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, normetanephrine and metanephrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions are ≤9.4% for spiked quality control samples, and the respective recoveries are 97.2-112.5% and 95.9-104.0%. The Deming regression slope is 0.90-1.08, and the mean Bland-Altman percentage difference is from -3.29 to 11.85 between a published and proposed method (n=50). A correlation observed for the spot and 24h urine collections is significant (n=20, p<0.0001, r: 0.84-0.95, slope: 0.61-0.98). No statistical differences are found in day-to-day biological variability (n=20). Reference intervals are established for an apparently healthy population (n=88). The developed method, being practical, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective, is expected to set a new stage for routine testing, basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27474304

  12. Applicability of one-stage partial nitritation and anammox in MBBR for anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Vojtech; Widiayuningrum, P; Chovancova, L; Jenicek, P; Bartacek, J

    2016-07-01

    Energy consumption of municipal wastewater treatment plants can be reduced by the anaerobic pre-treatment of the main wastewater stream. After this pre-treatment, nitrogen can potentially be removed by partial nitritation and anammox (PN/A). Currently, the application of PN/A is limited to nitrogen-rich streams (>500 mg L(-1)) and temperatures 25-35 °C. But, anaerobically pretreated municipal wastewater is characterized by much lower nitrogen concentrations (20-100 mg L(-1)) and lower temperatures (10-25 °C). We operated PN/A under similar conditions: total ammonium nitrogen concentration 50 mg L(-1) and lab temperature (22 °C). PN/A was operated for 342 days in a 4 L moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). At 0.4 mg O2 L(-1), nitrogen removal rate 33 g N m(-3) day(-1) and 80 % total nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved. The capacity of the reactor was limited by low AOB activity. We observed significant anammox activity (40 g N m(-3) day(-1)) even at 12 °C, improving the applicability of PN/A for municipal wastewater treatment. PMID:27074838

  13. Cost-effectiveness research in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Kahn, James G

    2015-04-01

    Cost and value are increasingly important components of health care discussions. Despite a plethora of cost and cost-effectiveness analyses in many areas of medicine, there has been little of this type of research for neurosurgical procedures. This scarcity is vexing because this specialty represents one of the most expensive areas in medicine. This article discusses the general principles of cost-effectiveness analyses and reviews the cost- and cost-effectiveness-related research to date in neurosurgical subspecialties. The need for standardization of cost and cost-effectiveness measurement and reporting within neurosurgery is highlighted and a set of metrics for this purpose is defined. PMID:25771274

  14. A Departmental Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Thomas, Jr.

    In establishing a departmental cost-effectiveness model, the traditional cost-effectiveness model was discussed and equipped with a distant and deflation equation for both benefits and costs. Next, the economics of costing was examined and program costing procedures developed. Then, the model construct was described as it was structured around the…

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Retrospective Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; Caldwell, Nancy W.

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cost-effectiveness factors that affect the choice among alternative system designs for retrospective searching services. A cost-effectiveness model that may be used to evaluate potential systems was derived, and a statement of the general magnitude of costs that the American Psychological Association…

  16. In Search of Cost-Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raywid, Mary Anne; Shaheen, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines major cost-effectiveness proposals, describing developments that highlight concerns over making schools cost effective. The article discusses ways to blend the concerns of educational quality, equity, and costs (district consolidations, shared service and facilities arrangements, new accountability strategies, new information systems,…

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Raising Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Econometric studies suggest that student achievement may be improved if high-performing teachers are substituted for low-performing teachers. Drawing upon a recent study linking teacher performance on licensure exams with gains in student achievement, an analysis was conducted to determine the cost-effectiveness of requiring teacher applicants to…

  18. Assessing the Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Genomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Dukhovny, Dmitry; Siebert, Uwe; Green, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite dramatic drops in DNA sequencing costs, concerns are great that the integration of genomic sequencing into clinical settings will drastically increase health care expenditures. This commentary presents an overview of what is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of genomic sequencing. We discuss the cost of germline genomic sequencing, addressing factors that have facilitated the decrease in sequencing costs to date and anticipating the factors that will drive sequencing costs in the future. We then address the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic and pharmacogenomic applications of genomic sequencing, with an emphasis on the implications for secondary findings disclosure and the integration of genomic sequencing into general patient care. Throughout, we ground the discussion by describing efforts in the MedSeq Project, an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial, to understand the costs and cost-effectiveness of integrating whole genome sequencing into cardiology and primary care settings. PMID:26690481

  19. An optimal model and its application for the management of municipal solid waste from regional small cities in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan

    2004-02-01

    Based on the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) from regional small cities in China, some optimal management principles have been put forward: regional optimization, long-term optimization, and integrated treatment/disposal optimization. According to these principles, an optimal MSW management model for regional small cities is developed and provides a useful method to manage MSW from regional small cities. A case study application of the optimal model is described and shows that the optimal management scenarios in the controlling region can be gained, adequately validating and accounting for the advantages of the optimal model. PMID:14977320

  20. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality. PMID:15991686

  1. ROV's: The key is cost effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E.

    1986-10-01

    Although diver-support activities will continue to be required in terms of monitoring and assistance, low-cost, remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) will have an increasing presence in the oil industry and other fields provided there is ongoing improvement in management, preparation, and execution of work. Beyond the safety aspect, the key is cost effectiveness. It is the company's intention wherever possible, and within realistic constraints, to take the man out of the water either by direct ROV replacement of the diver or by assisting him. Shell's exploration and production operations are based in three main areas: the southern, central, and northern North Sea. These developed fields, which consist of 26 various structures (interconnected), are connected to the mainland by over 1,100 km of submarine pipeline. Maintenance and underwater engineering costs in northern operations alone exceed pounds40 million/year (about $60 million/year) where typical support is an estimated 700 ROV days/year. The utilization analysis indicates a major use in ''eyeball'' vehicles for diver monitoring, and a large percentage for pipeline survey with only a limited amount on structural work and other special applications. The ''Bondi initiative'' in the late 1970s was intended to remove the diver from the water by ROV replacement, but due to lack of development, the capability in many areas has not evolved.

  2. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  3. Long-term growth enhancement of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) from municipal wastewater application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesse, I.D.; Day, J.W., Jr.; Doyle, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    Tree ring analysis was used to document the long-term effects of municipal wastewater on the growth rate of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.]. The study site, a swamp in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana, has received municipal wastewater for the last 40 years. Growth chronologies from 1920 to 1992 were developed from cross-dated tree core samples taken from treated and control sites with similar size and age classes. Mean diameter increment (DINC) and mean basal area increment (BAI) chronologies were constructed separately for each stand. These chronologies were then summarized by tree and stand into seven nine-year intervals resulting in three pretreatment intervals from 1926 to 1952 and four treatment intervals from 1953 to 1988. Significant differences in growth response between sites showed a consistent pattern of growth enhancement in the treated site coincident with the onset of effluent discharge. The ratio of treated to control baldcypress growth rates (computed from DINC) averaged 0.74 during the pretreatment period and 1.53 during the treatment period. Over the period of study, control DINC decreased from 77 mm to 29 mm/nine-year interval, while treatment DINC increased slightly from 40 mm to 47 mm/nine-year interval. Control BAI did not increase significantly and averaged 192 cm2/nine-year interval. There was a significant increase in treatment BAI from 129 to 333 cm2/nine-year interval over the period of record. These results clearly demonstrate sustained long-term baldcypress growth enhancement throughout 40 years of municipal effluent discharge.

  4. Application of a fully-integrated groundwater-surface water flow model in municipal asset management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. K.; Unger, A.; Jones, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Access to affordable potable water is critical in the development and maintenance of urban centres. Given that water is a public good in Canada, all funds related to operation and maintenance of the drinking water and wastewater networks must come from consumers. An asset management system can be put in place by municipalities to more efficiently manage their water and wastewater distribution system to ensure proper use of these funds. The system works at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels, thus ensuring optimal scheduling of operation and maintenance activities, as well as prediction of future water demand scenarios. At the operational level, a fully integrated model is used to simulate the groundwater-surface water interaction of the Laurel Creek Watershed, of which 80% is urbanized by the City of Waterloo. Canadian municipalities typically lose 13% of their potable water through leaks in watermains and sanitary sewers, and sanitary sewers often generate substantial inflows from fractures in pipe walls. The City of Waterloo sanitary sewers carry an additional 10,000 cubic meters of water to wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, watermain and sanitary sewers present a significant impact on the groundwater-surface water interaction, as well as the affordability of the drinking water and wastewater networks as a whole. To determine areas of concern within the network, the integrated groundwater-surface water model also simulates flow through the City of Waterloo's watermain and sanitary sewer networks. The final model will be used to assess the interaction between measured losses of water from the City of Waterloo's watermain system, infiltration into the sanitary sewer system adjacent to the watermains, and the response of the groundwater system to deteriorated sanitary sewers or to pipes that have been recently renovated. This will ultimately contribute to the City of Waterloo's municipal asset management plan.

  5. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jose M.; Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  7. Application of thermal plasma to vitrify fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Yan, Jian-Hua; Chi, Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Sheng-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Several fly ash samples collected from different municipal solid waste incinerator plants were vitrified using thermal plasma furnace at 1400-1500 degrees C. After vitrification, there are obvious changes in microstructures and crystalline phases between produced slag and original ash. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results show that there is an excellent resistance against leaching of heavy metal ions. The residual fractions of heavy metals in slag presumably decrease in the following sequence: Cr>Ni>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Almost all of PCDD/Fs could be destroyed through thermal plasma treatment. And the average decomposition efficiency of the samples vitrified by thermal plasma furnace is 100% in toxic equivalent calculations, higher than that of the samples vitrified by conventional resistance furnace. PMID:20004931

  8. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application

    SciTech Connect

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

  9. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Lyne; Beck, Andrew; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D; Payne, Michael; Topp, Edward

    2009-08-01

    Municipal biosolids are a useful source of nutrients for crop production, and commonly used in agriculture. In this field study, we applied dewatered municipal biosolids at a commercial rate using broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 21 and 34 days following the application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of various pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), namely atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, caffeine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and triclocarban. There was little temporal coherence in the detection of PPCPs in runoff, various compounds being detected maximally on days 1, 3, 7 or 36. Maximum concentrations in runoff ranged from below detection limit (gemfibrozil) to 109.7 ng L(-1) (triclosan). Expressing the total mass exported as a percentage of that applied, some analytes revealed little transport potential (<1% exported; triclocarban, triclosan, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, naproxen and gemfibrozil) whereas others were readily exported (>1% exported; acetaminophen, carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, atenolol). Those compounds with little transport potential had log K(ow) values of 3.18 or greater, whereas those that were readily mobilized had K(ow) values of 2.45 or less. Maximal concentrations of all analytes were below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints available in the literature. In summary, this study has quantified the transport potential in surface runoff of PPCPs from land receiving biosolids, identified that log K(ow) may be a determinant of runoff transport potential of these analytes, and found maximal concentrations of all chemicals tested to be below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints. PMID:19464726

  10. Cost-Effective School Nurse Practitioner Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Susan D.

    1981-01-01

    A broader utilization of school nurse practitioners by school districts represents a cost-effective approach in meeting educational goals. School nurse practitioners provide extended nursing services to high risk children, assist in coordinating health services between the school and the child's parents, participate in classroom presentations on…

  11. The "Cost-Effectiveness" of Sim One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kaaren I.; Abrahamson, Stephen

    1975-01-01

    Sim One is a computer-controlled patient, a sophisticated simulator developed by the University of Southern California School of Medicine. This article summarizes fifteen cost-effectiveness studies conducted over a 2-year period. Savings with the use of Sim One were found to justify the cost within a short period. (JT)

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.

    What is known about the cost effectiveness of interactive courseware (ICW) is reviewed, and issues that remain are summarized. Effect size is used for reporting the effectiveness of ICW programs. Two ICW media are considered: computer-based instruction and interactive videodisc instruction. Effect sizes for computer-based instruction have been…

  13. Aluminium dynamics from soil to tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.): is it enhanced by municipal solid waste compost application?

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Frankowski, Marcin; Boruah, Romesh K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivation can increase the fertility status of soils and thus enhance the plant growth. The present study attempts at application of MSWC in tea (TV1 and TV23 clones) cultivation to assess the effect of different doses of MSWC on growth and translocation potential of Al on this plant as well as fate of Al in soil, through the calculation of a risk assessment code (RAC). The sequential extraction of Al in MSWC amended soils showed that the fractionation of Al in soil changed after compost application, with an overall increase of the fractions associated to with Fe-Mn oxides, organic and of the residual fraction. The accumulation of Al in different parts ofC. sinensisL., grown on MSWC amended soil effected an overall increased growth of the plant with increasing doses of MSWC. According to RAC, Al falls in medium to high risk, though no adverse effect on plant health was observed. Tea plants were found to adapt well to MSWC amended soils. However, long term field trials are necessary to completely assess the risk of Al accumulation in soils upon MSWC application. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied aiming to check for the presence of homogenous groups among different treatments. It was found that in both TV1 and TV23, treatments formed two different groups. PMID:25259883

  14. Assessment of physical vulnerability of buildings and analysis of landslide risk at the municipal scale - application to the Loures municipality, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard-Gonçalves, C.; Zêzere, J. L.; Pereira, S.; Garcia, R. A. C.

    2015-09-01

    This study offers a semi-quantitative assessment of the physical vulnerability of buildings to landslides in the Loures municipality, as well as an analysis of the landslide risk computed as the product of the vulnerability by the economic value of the buildings and by the landslide hazard. The physical vulnerability assessment, which was based on a questionnaire sent to a pool of Portuguese and European researchers, and the assessment of the subjectivity of their answers are innovative contributions of this work. The generalization of the vulnerability to the smallest statistical subsection was validated by changing the map unit and applying the vulnerability to all the buildings of a test site (approximately 800 buildings), which were inventoried during fieldwork. The economic value of the buildings of the Loures municipality was calculated using an adaptation of the Portuguese Tax Services formula. The hazard was assessed by combining the susceptibility of the slopes, the spatio-temporal probability and the frequency-magnitude relationship of the landslide. Finally, the risk was mapped for different landslide magnitudes and different spatio-temporal probabilities. The highest landslide risk was found for the landslide with a depth of 3 m in the landslide body, and a height of 1m in the landslide foot.

  15. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  16. Cost-Effective TiAl based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Sun, Fusheng; Draper, Susan L.; Froes, F. H.; Duz, V.

    2003-01-01

    Because of their inherent low ductility, TiAl-based materials are difficult to fabricate, especially thin gage titanium gamma aluminide (TiAl) sheet and foil. In this paper, an innovative powder metallurgy approach for producing cost-effective thin gage TiAl sheets (with 356 mm long and 235 mm wide, and a thickness of 0.74, 1.09, 1.55, and 2.34 mm, respectively) is presented. The microstructures and tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures of the thin gage TiAl are studied. Results show that these TiAl sheets have a relatively homogenous chemistry, uniform microstructure, and acceptable mechanical properties. This work demonstrates a cost-effective method for producing both flat products (sheet/foil) and complex chunky parts of TiAl for various advanced applications including aerospace and automotive industries.

  17. NO{sub x} control technologies applicable to municipal waste combustion

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Nebel, K.L.; Gundappa, M.; Ferry, K.R.

    1994-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are of environmental significance because of their role as a criteria pollutant, acid gas, and ozone precursor. The current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for municipal waste combustors (MWCS) limit NO{sub x} emissions to a daily average of 180 parts per million (ppM) at 7% oxygen, dry basis. By comparison, typical NO{sub x} emissions from modern mass burn waterwall (MB/WW) MWCs range from 220 to 320 ppM. To comply with the NSPS, most recently built MWCs have used a combination of combustion controls to limit NO{sub x} formation and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to convert NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen. Because of pressure to achieve even lower emission levels, questions have been raised regarding the potential for advancement in NO{sub x} control technologies. To respond to these questions, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated this assessment of three alternative NO{sub x} control technologies: natural gas injection (NGI), SNCR, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The objectives of this assessment were to (1) document the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of each technology, and (2) identify technology research and development needs.

  18. Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.

    PubMed

    Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed. PMID:20453318

  19. Is genetic ultrasound cost-effective?

    PubMed

    DeVore, Greggory R

    2003-04-01

    During the past 10 years, investigators have reported studies examining the potential of second-trimester genetic sonography to identify fetuses at risk for trisomy 21. The consensus among most investigators is that genetic sonography offers an alternative to universal amniocentesis in high-risk women and lowers the loss rate of normal fetuses subjected to amniocentesis because of risk factors associated with advanced maternal age or abnormal maternal-serum screening. Although there is now consensus that genetic sonography may be a useful screening tool, there has been a paucity of data regarding its cost-effectiveness. In this review, 3 studies are examined and cost-effectiveness of genetic sonography evaluated. The first study compared genetic sonography and universal amniocentesis and found that genetic sonography was cost-effective if the sensitivity is 75% or higher, resulted in a savings to the healthcare system of 9%, and decreased the loss rate of normal fetuses following amniocentesis by 87%. The second study examined the use of genetic sonography in women less than 35 years of age who underwent maternal-serum triple-marker serum screening. Women who were screen negative but who were classified as moderate risk for trisomy 21 (risk 1:191 to 1:1,000) were offered genetic sonography. Amniocentesis was offered only if the genetic sonogram was abnormal. The study demonstrated that the use of genetic sonography in this group of patients increased the detection rate of trisomy 21, was cost effective, and was a safe procedure. The third study examined the use of genetic sonography in women 35 years of age and older who declined amniocentesis following second-trimester genetic counseling. Genetic sonography was offered to this group of patients followed by amniocentesis if an abnormal ultrasound finding was present. The data were analyzed for various acceptance rates of amniocentesis by the patient when informed of the ultrasound findings. Examination of the data

  20. Assessment of physical vulnerability of buildings and analysis of landslide risk at the municipal scale: application to the Loures municipality, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard-Gonçalves, C.; Zêzere, J. L.; Pereira, S.; Garcia, R. A. C.

    2016-02-01

    This study offers a semi-quantitative assessment of the physical vulnerability of buildings to landslides in a Portuguese municipality (Loures), as well as the quantitative landslide risk analysis computed as the product of the landslide hazard by the vulnerability and the economic value of the buildings. The hazard was assessed by combining the spatiotemporal probability and the frequency-magnitude relationship of the landslides. The physical vulnerability assessment was based on an inquiry of a pool of European landslide experts and a sub-pool of landslide experts who know the study area, and the answers' variability was assessed with standard deviation. The average vulnerability of the basic geographic entities was compared by changing the map unit and applying the vulnerability to all the buildings of a test site, the inventory of which was listed on the field. The economic value was calculated using an adaptation of the Portuguese Tax Services approach, and the risk was computed for different landslide magnitudes and different spatiotemporal probabilities. As a rule, the vulnerability values given by the sub-pool of experts who know the study area are higher than those given by the European experts, namely for the high-magnitude landslides. The obtained vulnerabilities vary from 0.2 to 1 as a function of the structural building types and the landslide magnitude, and are maximal for 10 and 20 m landslide depths. However, the highest risk was found for the landslides that are 3 m deep, because these landslides combine a relatively high frequency in the Loures municipality with a substantial potential damage.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring free flaps.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D

    2016-06-01

    Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:27015730

  2. Ensuring cost effectiveness in the TAP process

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, A.L.

    1992-06-16

    The Training Accredition Program (TAP) at the Waste Isolation Division (WID) is discussed by the general manager. Cost effectiveness in the TAP process is made possible by saving through sharing which refers to the exchange and co-development of information and technology among Westinghouse Government owned-contractor operators and with other organizations. In 1990 a comprehensive management and supervisor training (MAST) program plan was devised and a MAST certification program of 31 self-paced written moduler was developed. This program has proven to be inexpensive to develop and implement when compared to classroom training. In addition, total quality is used as a tool to continuously improve work process. Continuous improvement requires continued evaluation of work process, such as TAP analysis and development in summary to make training at DOE facilities the most cost-effective training anywhere, we need to share, challenge conventional wisdom, and seek to continuously improve.

  3. Application of quadratic regression model for Fenton treatment of municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh Lak, Mehdi; Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Allahyar; Rabbani, Omid

    2012-10-01

    The effectiveness of Fenton process in municipal landfill leachate treatment, as a pre- or post-treatment approach, has been demonstrated. However, no general recommendations of universal validity could be made in the term of optimized conditions affecting Fenton process. At the first stage of this study, collected leachate samples from Aradkooh site, Tehran, Iran, were investigated using one-factor-at-a-time method to find out optimum coagulation pH and flocculation time values. Subsequently, the obtained results in addition to data issued previously by the authors were employed to develop a predictive model of the true response surface, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Finally, the main parameters of Fenton procedure, i.e. initial pH, [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)] molar ratio, Fe(2+) dosage, and coagulation pH were optimized taking advantage of the above-mentioned quadratic model. The derived second-order model included both significant linear and quadratic terms and seemed to be adequate in predicting responses (R(2)=0.9896 and prediction R(2)=0.6954). It was found that the interaction between initial pH and Fe(2+) dosage has a significant effect on COD removal. While, the optimal [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)] molar ratio was independent of ferrous ion dosage. The optimum conditions for the maximum COD removal of 50.76% for the parameters of initial pH, [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)] molar ratio, Fe(2+) dosage, and coagulation pH were found to be 5.8, 8.0, 22,500 mg/L, and 8.7 respectively. PMID:22717412

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency. PMID:18619695

  5. Theater SBI cost-effectiveness ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    To address M missiles spaced at intervals longer than the constillation reconstitution time t, the defense needs at the absentee ratio N{sub a} of SBIs to fill the belt plus the M SBIs needed for the intercepts; the resulting cost effectiveness scales as M/(M + N{sub a}). N{sub a} is large and CER small for small ranges and numbers of missiles. For several-hundred missile threats, CERs are greater than unity for ranges of interest.

  6. Cost effective management of space venture risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.

  7. 75 FR 24938 - City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... February 26, 2010, City of Hamilton, Ohio (Hamilton) and American Municipal Power, Inc. (AMP) filed an... approval to transfer the license for the Meldahl Project from Hamilton to Hamilton and AMP....

  8. Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Biosludge Applications and Perfluoroalkyl Acid Surface Water Contamination in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implications and Questions- Perfluorinated compounds at high concentrations in sludges, on fields, in surface water in areas receiving sludge applications-Urban and suburban sludges typically disposed of in rural locations, usually marketed as “free fertilizer” becaus...

  9. Cost-effective ceramics program in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.B.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-10-01

    The 5-year Cost-Effective Ceramics for Heat Engines program began in 1993. This effort reflects the realization that the problems with reliability of structural ceramics have been largely overcome, but the high cost of structural ceramics is limited their use in commercial applications. The technical causes of high cost were identified, and a technical plan developed. The work elements in the program include the following: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, standards development, and low-expansion ceramics.

  10. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  11. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-11-12

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies.

  12. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  13. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  14. Determining pathogen and indicator levels in class B municipal organic residuals used for land application.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Eric R; Boczek, Laura A; Ware, Michael W; McKay, Mary; Hoelle, Jill M; Schoen, Mary; Villegas, Eric N

    2015-01-01

    Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic residuals that are currently used to amend soils for food production. Treatment requirements to inactivate pathogens for production of Class A biosolids are energy intensive. One less energy intensive alternative is to treat biosolids to Class B standards, but it could result in higher pathogen loads. Quantitative microbial risk assessments models have been developed on land application of Class B biosolids but contain many uncertainties because of limited data on specific pathogen densities and the use of fecal indicator organisms as accurate surrogates of pathogen loads. To address this gap, a 12-mo study of the levels and relationships between , , and human adenovirus (HAdV) with fecal coliform, somatic, and F-RNA coliphage levels in Class B biosolids from nine wastewater treatment plants throughout the United States was conducted. Results revealed that fecal coliform, somatic, and F-RNA coliphage densities were consistent throughout the year. More important, results revealed that HAdV ( = 2.5 × 10 genome copies dry g) and ( = 4.14 × 10 cysts dry g) were in all biosolids samples regardless of treatment processes, location, or season. oocysts were also detected (38% positive; range: 0-1.9 × 10 oocysts dry g), albeit sporadically. Positive correlations among three fecal indicator organisms and HAdV, but not protozoa, were also observed. Overall, this study reveals that high concentrations of enteric pathogens (e.g., , , and HAdV) are present in biosolids throughout the United States. Microbial densities found can further assist management and policymakers in establishing more accurate risk assessment models associated with land application of Class B biosolids. PMID:25602342

  15. Distributional Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: A Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Miqdad; Griffin, Susan; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis (DCEA) is a framework for incorporating health inequality concerns into the economic evaluation of health sector interventions. In this tutorial, we describe the technical details of how to conduct DCEA, using an illustrative example comparing alternative ways of implementing the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). The 2 key stages in DCEA are 1) modeling social distributions of health associated with different interventions, and 2) evaluating social distributions of health with respect to the dual objectives of improving total population health and reducing unfair health inequality. As well as describing the technical methods used, we also identify the data requirements and the social value judgments that have to be made. Finally, we demonstrate the use of sensitivity analyses to explore the impacts of alternative modeling assumptions and social value judgments. PMID:25908564

  16. Cost-effective ultrasound PACS solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have been quite successful at the University of Florida in the areas of CT, MR, and nuclear medicine. In each case, although we have not always been able to provide the optimal level of performance, we have been able to solve a problem and the systems are used extensively. Ultrasound images are required in a number of locations and the multiformat camera print capability was no longer adequate for the growing volume in the ultrasound section. Although we were certain we could successfully implement PACS for ultrasound, new forces in health care dictate that we justify our system in terms of cost. We analyzed the feasibility of a PACS solution for ultrasound and designed a system that meets our needs and is cost effective. We evaluated the ultrasound operation in terms of image acquisition patterns and throughput requirements. An inventory of existing and PACS equipment was made to determine the feasibility of interfacing the two systems. Commercial systems were evaluated for functionality and cost and a system was designed to meet our needs. The only way to achieve our goal of installing a cost effective ultrasound PACS was to eliminate film and use the cost savings to offset the cost of new equipment and development. We designed a system that could be produced using inexpensive components and existing hardware and software to meet our needs. A commercial vendor was chosen to provide the ultrasound acquisition. The Radiology Information System interface used at the University provides the necessary data to build a DICOM header, and an existing DICOM server routes the images to the appropriate workstations, archives, and printers. Additional storage is added to an existing archive to accommodate the ultrasound images and two existing workstations are evaluated for use in ultrasound.

  17. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  18. Municipal sewage sludge application on Ohio farms: tissue metal residues and infections

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.; Lamphere, D.N.; Powers, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Transmission of infectious agents and translocation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from anaerobically digested sludge to the tissues of farm animals grazing on pastures to which sludge was applied (2-10 metric tons per hectare) were studied on eight farms. No significant health risk associated with the possible presence in sludge of Salmonella spp., or of common animal parasites including Nematodirus spp., Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Eimeria spp., Ascaris spp., and Ancylostomum spp. was noted. Caudal fold as well as cervical tuberculin testing indicated no conversions from negative to positive following exposure of cattle to sludge. Significantly higher fecal Cd concentrations were detected in samples collected from cattle soon after being placed on sludge-treated pastures compared to preexposure values in the same animals. Significant Cd and Pb accumulations were found in the kidneys of calves grazing sludge-treated pastures compared to control calves. Although older cows grazing sludge-treated pastures had significantly higher blood Pb levels, no metal accumulation was observed in other tissues. Statistically significant accumulations of Cd and Pb in the kidney of calves grazing these pastures for a relatively short period suggest that caution should be exercised to avoid prolonged grazing of cattle on pastures receiving heavy sludge applications, especially with sludges containing high concentrations of heavy metals.

  19. Investigation of the application of an enzyme-based biodegradability test method to a municipal solid waste biodrying process.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Godley, A R; Tyrrel, S F

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. These test methods were the anaerobic BMc, aerobic DR4 and the EHT, which is a method based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic content of waste materials. The input municipal solid waste (MSW) and the output solid recovered fuel (SRF) and organic fines streams were sampled over a period of nine months from a single mechanical biological treatment (MBT) facility. The EHT was applied to each stream following grinding to <10 mm and <2 mm, in order to investigate the effect of particle size on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from enzyme hydrolysis. The output organic fines were found to more biodegradable than the MSW input and SRF output samples in each of the test methods, significantly (p<0.05) for the EHT and DR4 methods, on the basis of DOC released and oxygen consumed, respectively. The variation between sample replicates for the EHT was higher where sample sizes of <2 mm were analysed compared to sizes of <10 mm, and the DOC release at each phase of the EHT was observed to be higher when using particle sizes of <2 mm. Despite this, additional sample grinding from the <10 mm to a smaller particle size of <2 mm is not sufficiently beneficial to the analysis of organic waste fractions in the EHT method. Finally, it was concluded that as similar trends were observed for each test method, this trial confirms that EHT has the potential to be deployed as a practical operational biodegradability monitoring tool. PMID:21421298

  20. Cost effective tools for soil organic carbon monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Keith; Aynekulu, Ermias

    2013-04-01

    providing for cost-effective interpretation of soil carbon and other soil quality indicators. The measurement is has high reproducibility over time, across instruments, and across laboratories compared with conventional soil tests. We describe wide-scale application of soil infrared spectroscopy in Africa in studies designed to measure soil carbon stocks and soil quality in landscapes. Future efforts should be directed towards analyzing the decisions that soil carbon measurements are supposed to support, and quantifying uncertainties in all relevant variables affecting those decisions. Only then can truly cost-effective measurement systems be designed.

  1. Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, Erin M.; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to ‘age in place’ and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. Design People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Methods Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Results Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. Implications The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn. PMID:25058505

  2. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  3. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chen, Jeng-Chung; Tsai, Shu-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA)--a production economics tool--to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world. PMID:20181468

  4. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  5. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  7. Cost-effective telecom/datacom semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nong; Chen, Dick T. R.; Hsin, Wei; Chen, Steven Bo; Xiong, Frank; Erlig, Hernan; Chen, Paul; Yeh, Xian-li; Scott, David C.; Sherer, Axel

    2007-11-01

    The recent development of semiconductor laser technologies for cost-effective telecom/datacom applications is reviewed in details in this paper. This includes the laser design, laser chip technology, laser packaging technology and other low cost lasers (chip + packaging). Some design and simulation examples in Archcom laser production are described first. A latest trend in the wafer scale testing/characterization/screening technology for low cost semiconductor laser mass production is discussed then. An advanced long wavelength high power single mode surface emitting laser with wafer scale characterization using our unique mask free focused ion beam (FIB) etching technology is also demonstrated. Detailed descriptions on our wide temperature range (-50 °C to +105 °C) G-PON distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers with high performance and low cost wafer design are included. Cost reduction innovations in laser package with our beam profile improved laser and optical feedback insensitive (OFBI) laser are also addressed.

  8. Development of a cost effective microscope heater stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugre, Joshua; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron

    Utilizing 3D printing technology, a heater stage has been developed and implemented for microscopic systems. Due to the flexibility of 3D printing,the heater stage can be easily modified to fit any sample size with only slight modifications to the heating element being required. The sample in contact with the heating element can also easily be secured in a thermal insulator, such as aluminum foil. The thermal gradient of the heater stage has been recorded to be less than 1°C and has been compared to more expensive designs, and the cost effectiveness of the system has been determined. The system has been tested with a sample of the liquid crystal 8CB in order to determine the exact temperatures of the phase transitions of the crystal to verify that the system is applicable to a wide range of experimental physics. UWF Quality Enhancement Plan Award.

  9. Cost-effective gel documentation using a web-cam.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, T; Zyzik, A; Loeschke, S; Lindsay, W; Vollmer, E

    2001-12-01

    In search for a cost effective gel documentation system applicable for different fields of molecular biology, we analyzed the capabilities of a cheap CCD-camera originally designed to capture images for transmission through the internet (web-cam) with regard to gel documentation. The camera was connected to a personal computer by universal serial bus (USB) and used for the documentation of DNA separated on agarose gels and stained by ethidium-bromide using the software provided with the camera. The web-cam provided digital images of sufficient quality for routine documentation and combined the low set-up costs of a Polaroid system with the low running costs of video capture systems, hence is ideal as a start-up system and as augmentation to existing equipment. PMID:11714515

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal control measures for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paula; Silva, Cristiana J; Torres, Delfim F M

    2014-10-01

    We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for tuberculosis that considers reinfection. The control functions represent the fraction of early latent and persistent latent individuals that are treated. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of active infected individuals, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. The optimal intervention is compared along different epidemiological scenarios, by varying the transmission coefficient. The impact of variation of the risk of reinfection, as a result of acquired immunity to a previous infection for treated individuals on the optimal controls and associated solutions, is analyzed. A cost-effectiveness analysis is done, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination. PMID:25245395

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE: Cost effective realization of nanoscaled interdigitated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gerwen, P.; Laureyn, W.; Campitelli, A.; Jacobs, P.; Detemple, P.; Baert, K.; Sansen, W.; Mertens, R.

    2000-09-01

    Nanoscaled interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) are being developed for the realization of miniaturized and highly-sensitive affinity biosensors. Until now, nanoscaled IDEs have been realized on silicon wafers using deep UV lithography or e-beam patterning. However, for many applications in the biochemical field there is a strong need for cheap and/or disposable sensor devices. Therefore, a new, cost effective fabrication method for nanoscaled IDEs, which can also be applied on cheap, micro-moulded plastic substrates, has been developed. The method is based on the directionality of a vacuum evaporation process and omits expensive lithography steps completely. The feasibility of this electrode deposition technique has been proven by realizing IDEs on silicon substrates. Future work is focused on the realization of IDEs on injection moulded plastic substrates.

  12. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  13. Cost effective analysis of recycled products for use in highway construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.D.

    1998-04-01

    Over 4.5 billion of non-hazardous wastes are generated in the United States each year. Out of these wastes over 200 million tons of post consumer waste is generated. The disposal of post consumer waste is the responsibility of municipality and society. Four waste materials glass, plastic, rubber tires and paper and paperboard were selected for the detail study. A questionnaire survey was conducted for obtaining input from all state Department of Transportation (DOT) Recyclers and solid waste management facilities in the state of Ohio. Responses received from state DOT stated that they use various recycled materials in highway construction but do not conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of recycle waste materials. The cost of disposal of post consumer waste is increasing, which requires an alternate use for these waste materials. One possible use of these post consumer waste materials is in highway construction. An economic analysis is needed for their cost-effectiveness before using these materials in highway construction. Though these recycled waste materials are expensive compared to virgin material, consideration of the savings in terms of societal cost make these materials cost-effective and attractive to use in highway construction.

  14. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; McCafferty, Julian; McKay, Chris; Sears, Derek; Soulage, Michael; Swenson, Jason; Weston, Sasha; Yang Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    exploration of multiple solar system bodies in reasonable timeframes despite budgetary constraints, with only minor adaptations. The work presented here is a summary of concepts targeting icy bodies, such as Europa and Ceres, which have been developed over the last year at NASA Ames Research Center's Mission Design Division. The platforms detailed in this work are also applicable to the cost-effective exploration of many other small icy bodies in the solar system.

  15. Cost effectiveness of pharmacogenomics: a critical and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, William B; Carlson, Josh J; Thariani, Rahber; Veenstra, David L

    2010-01-01

    The use of pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice is limited thus far. A potential barrier to the widespread implementation of pharmacogenetic testing is the lack of evidence on whether testing provides good value for money. The objective of this review was to provide a systematic and critical review of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic testing. A literature search using publically available databases was performed for articles published up to October 2009. To be included, studies had to meet the definition of being a pharmacogenomic study (defined as use of information on human genetic variation to target drug therapy) and an economic evaluation (defined as an evaluation of both costs and clinical outcomes). Articles that met these criteria were subsequently reviewed and graded using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Lastly, the evidence for biomarker validity and utility were qualitatively assessed using expert opinion. A total of 34 articles were identified using our defined criteria. The most common disease category was thromboembolic-related diseases (26%), while the most common biomarkers were thiopurine methyltransferase and cytochrome P450 2C9 (18% each). Almost all studies were published after 2004 (91%). Two types of studies were identified: cost-effectiveness studies and cost-utility studies, with roughly half of the overall studies being cost-utility studies (53%) and a majority of these published within the last 3 years. The average quality score was 77 (range 29-99). Of the biomarkers reviewed, it was estimated that most had demonstrated clinical validity, but only two had demonstrated clinical utility. Despite a recent increase in the number of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic applications, further studies examining the clinical validity and utility of these biomarkers are needed to support cost-effectiveness assessments. PMID:20936884

  16. Discounting, preferences, and paternalism in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Tinghög, Gustav

    2012-09-01

    When assessing the cost effectiveness of health care programmes, health economists typically presume that distant events should be given less weight than present events. This article examines the moral reasonableness of arguments advanced for positive discounting in cost-effectiveness analysis both from an intergenerational and an intrapersonal perspective and assesses if arguments are equally applicable to health and monetary outcomes. The article concludes that behavioral effects related to time preferences give little or no reason for why society at large should favour the present over the future when making intergenerational choices regarding health. The strongest argument for discounting stems from the combined argument of diminishing marginal utility in the presence of growth. However, this hinges on the assumption of actual growth in the relevant good. Moreover, current modern democracy may be insufficiently sensitive to the concerns of future generations. The second part of the article categorises preference failures (which justify paternalistic responses) into two distinct groups, myopic and acratic. The existence of these types of preference failures makes elicited time preferences of little normative relevance when making decisions regarding the social discount rate, even in an intrapersonal context. As with intergenerational discounting, the combined arguments of growth and diminishing marginal utility offer the strongest arguments for discounting in the intrapersonal context. However, there is no prima facie reason to assume that this argument should apply equally to health and monetary values. To be sure, selecting an approach towards discounting health is a complex matter. However, the life-or-death implications of any approach require that the discussion not be downplayed to merely a technical matter for economists to settle. PMID:21909720

  17. Cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation by alternative household wastewater management technologies.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Hawkins, Troy; Xue, Xiaobo; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Garland, Jay

    2015-03-01

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain uncertain. This paper addresses two key questions: (1) what are the total costs, nitrogen mitigation potential, and cost-effectiveness of a range of conventional and alternative municipal wastewater treatment technologies, and (2) what uncertainties influence these outcomes and how can we improve our understanding of these technologies? We estimate a household nitrogen mass balance for various household wastewater treatment systems and combine this mass balance with life cycle cost assessment to calculate the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation, which we define as nitrogen removed from the local watershed. We apply our methods to Falmouth, MA, where failing septic systems have caused heightened eutrophication in local receiving water bodies. We find that flushing and dry (composting) urine-diversion toilets paired with conventional septic systems for greywater management demonstrate the lowest life cycle cost and highest cost-effectiveness (dollars per kilogram of nitrogen removed from the watershed). Composting toilets are also attractive options in some cases, particularly best-case nitrogen mitigation. Innovative/advanced septic systems designed for high-level nitrogen removal are cost-competitive options for newly constructed homes, except at their most expensive. A centralized wastewater treatment plant is the most expensive and least cost-effective option in all cases. Using a greywater recycling system with any treatment technology increases the cost without adding any nitrogen removal benefits. Sensitivity analysis shows that these results are robust considering a range of cases and uncertainties. PMID:25575282

  18. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  19. 23 CFR 635.205 - Finding of cost effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... found cost effective for a State transportation department or county to undertake a federally financed... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of cost effectiveness. 635.205 Section 635.205 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC...

  20. 49 CFR 639.21 - Determination of cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of cost-effectiveness. 639.21 Section 639.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.21 Determination of...

  1. 23 CFR 635.205 - Finding of cost effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finding of cost effectiveness. 635.205 Section 635.205 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Force Account Construction § 635.205 Finding of cost effectiveness. (a) It may...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1015 - Cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the State must assess cost-effectiveness on a case-by-case basis. (d) Reports on family coverage. A State with a waiver under this section must include in its annual report pursuant to § 457.750, the cost... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1015 Cost-effectiveness. (a) Definition. For purposes of this...

  3. Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Retrospective Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; Caldwell, Nancy W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore cost-effectiveness factors that affect the choice among alternative systems. A cost-effectiveness model that may be used to evaluate potential systems was derived and a statement of the general magnitude of costs that the American Psychological Association (APA) can expect in implementing and operating…

  4. The Sunk Cost Effect in Pigeons and Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Anton D.; Fantino, Edmund

    2005-01-01

    The sunk cost effect is the increased tendency to persist in an endeavor once an investment of money, effort, or time has been made. To date, humans are the only animal in which this effect has been observed unambiguously. We developed a behavior-analytic model of the sunk cost effect to explore the potential for this behavior in pigeons as well…

  5. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presuming cost-effectiveness results. 436.13 Section 436.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for...

  6. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Presuming cost-effectiveness results. 436.13 Section 436.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for...

  7. Cost Effectiveness for Gifted and Talented Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Walt W.

    Presented is a systematic approach for analyzing cost effectiveness of gifted and talented educational programs in terms of categorizing funds, prorating expenditures, designing a data collection form, determining cost effectiveness, and considering multiple variable implications. All costs are reported to be subsumed under six major categories:…

  8. Cost-effectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhoea in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Robberstad, Bjarne; Strand, Tor; Black, Robert E.; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incremental costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of zinc used as adjunct therapy to standard treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, including dysentery, and to reassess the cost-effectiveness of standard case management with oral rehydration salt (ORS). METHODS: A decision tree was used to model expected clinical outcomes and expected costs under four alternative treatment strategies. The best available epidemiological, clinical and economic evidence was used in the calculations, and the United Republic of Tanzania was the reference setting. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the potential impacts of uncertainty in single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: ORS was found to be less cost-effective than previously thought. The use of zinc as adjunct therapy significantly improved the cost-effectiveness of standard management of diarrhoea for dysenteric as well as non-dysenteric illness. The results were particularly sensitive to mortality rates in non-dysenteric diarrhoea, but the alternative interventions can be defined as highly cost-effective even in pessimistic scenarios. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to recommend the inclusion of zinc into standard case management of both dysenteric and non-dysenteric acute diarrhoea.A direct transfer of our findings from the United Republic of Tanzania to other settings is not justified, but there are no indications of large geographical differences in the efficacy of zinc. It is therefore plausible that our findings are also applicable to other developing countries. PMID:15500284

  9. Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.E.; Eng, C.; Horowitz, S.F.; Gorlin, R.; Goldstein, S.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV).

  10. Lessons learned from the application of a participatory evaluation methodology to healthy municipalities, cities and communities initiatives in selected countries of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marilyn; Franceschini, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion has made significant strides in the past few decades in the Americas. Creating a healthy and supportive setting, also known as the settings approach, continues to be one of the most widely used health promotion strategies. Interest in evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies has been increasing greatly in the past few years. Participatory evaluation holds great promise for helping to generate this evidence and promote understanding of the factors that affect, positively or negatively, the advances of health promotion in the Region. During 2004-2006, a Participatory Evaluation methodology was introduced into several countries in the Americas through formal trainings conducted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in collaboration with country partners. This article summarizes the main lessons learned from the application of the participatory evaluation methodology in various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors affecting the evaluation of the initiatives were identified at multiple levels (individual, community, organizational, political, economic, etc.). Specific issues that were addressed included the political context, turnover of personnel in key institutions, concerns related to the effectiveness of participatory processes, and the existence of strong and sustained leadership at the country level. These factors are intertwined and affect each other in very complex ways, a fact that was reflected in the municipalities' experiences with participatory evaluation. Challenges included the ability to secure resources for the evaluation, the time needed to conclude the process, and working in an intersectoral manner. However, participating municipalities reported that the process of implementing a participatory evaluation and working with various stakeholders had an empowering effect: communities and stakeholders were more willing and interested in participating in health promotion initiatives in a sustained manner

  11. The sunk cost effect across species: A review of persistence in a course of action due to prior investment.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Paula; Geoffrey White, K

    2016-05-01

    The sunk cost effect is the bias or tendency to persist in a course of action due to prior investments of effort, money or time. At the time of the only review on the sunk cost effect across species (Arkes & Ayton, 1999), research with nonhuman animals had been ecological in its nature, and the findings about the effect of past investments on current choice were inconclusive. However, in the last decade a new line of experimental laboratory-based research has emerged with the promise of revolutionizing the way we approach the study of the sunk cost effect in nonhumans. In the present review we challenge Arkes and Ayton's conclusion that the sunk cost effect is exclusive to humans, and describe evidence for the sunk cost effect in nonhuman animals. By doing so, we also challenge the current explanations for the sunk cost effect in humans, as they are not applicable to nonhumans. We argue that a unified theory is called for, because different independent variables, in particular, investment amount, have the same influence on the sunk cost effect across species. Finally, we suggest possible psychological mechanisms shared across different species, contrast and depreciation, that could explain the sunk cost effect. PMID:27151560

  12. Evaluating Reliability: A Cost-Effectiveness Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    This study derives the economic costs of misclassification in nursing home patient classification systems. These costs are then used as weights to estimate the reliability of a functional assessment instrument. Results suggest that reliability must be redefined and remeasured with each substantively new application of an assessment instrument.…

  13. Mythology in the Making: Is the Open University Really Cost-Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1978-01-01

    An alternative technique, cost-effectiveness analysis, is proposed as a more appropriate way of evaluating the Open University. A rudimentary application of the technique to the cost structure of OU indicates that it could result in a substantial reduction in OU's costs. (Author/LBH)

  14. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  15. Oral serotonin receptor agonists: a review of their cost effectiveness in migraine.

    PubMed

    Lofland, Jennifer H; Nash, David B

    2005-01-01

    Migraine headache is a highly prevalent chronic, episodic condition. The direct and indirect costs of migraine headache have a tremendous economic impact in the US. Research has shown that serotonin (5HT(1B/D)) receptor agonists reduce healthcare costs, improve health-related QOL (HR-QOL), decrease migraine disability and keep patients effective in the workplace. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the cost effectiveness of oral 5HT(1B/D) receptor agonists for the treatment of migraine headache. In general, 5HT(1B/D) receptor agonists are associated with increases in direct healthcare costs; however, they are also associated with reductions in the indirect costs associated with migraine headache. Therefore, it appears that the relatively high acquisition cost of these medications is offset and, as a class, these medications appear to be cost effective and demonstrate net benefits from the societal perspective. Based on meta-analyses in which data on eletriptan were not available, it appears that within the class, almotriptan and rizatriptan are the most cost effective. In a prospective study comparing eletriptan with sumatriptan, it appears that the former may be more cost effective than the latter. Additional investigations are needed to further explore the application of the friction-cost approach and QALYs to cost-effectiveness analyses of this class of medication. PMID:15836007

  16. Cost effectiveness of screening for cardiovascular disease with measures of coronary calcium.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Leslee J; Raggi, Paolo; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality with annual costs of care exceeding 300 billion US dollars. Although screening tools are advocated for many cancers, the use of subclinical disease tests for cardiovascular disease are considered controversial. Health care payers and many governmental agencies apply cost-effectiveness analysis for the evaluation of new technology being considered for routine application in the US and Europe. Cost-effectiveness analysis by definition provides a comparative analysis of clinical and economic outcome data when evaluating new technology in relation to existing modalities. The current report provides a description of the framework upon methods applied in cost-effectiveness analysis as well as available data on the subject of cardiovascular screening, most notably using the evaluation of coronary calcium screening with electron beam tomography. The current report will also present several decision analytic models on the cost of atherosclerotic imaging including the evaluation of serial monitoring for disease progression and the development of cost-effectiveness models employing intermediate outcomes. Based on this review, there is an unfolding body of evidence that explores both the clinical and economic consequences of screening for atherosclerotic diseases. Although further evidence is required from prospectively designed randomized controlled trials, it appears that the current evidence from small series and decision analytic models supports cardiovascular screening of asymptomatic individuals and that the current results reveal enhanced cost effectiveness when compared with the routine evaluation using a Framingham risk assessment. PMID:14505290

  17. Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sanjeevi, V; Shahabudeen, P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, about US$410 billion is spent every year to manage four billion tonnes of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Transport cost alone constitutes more than 50% of the total expenditure on solid waste management (SWM) in major cities of the developed world and the collection and transport cost is about 85% in the developing world. There is a need to improve the ability of the city administrators to manage the municipal solid wastes with least cost. Since 2000, new technologies such as geographical information system (GIS) and related optimization software have been used to optimize the haul route distances. The city limits of Chennai were extended from 175 to 426 km(2) in 2011, leading to sub-optimum levels in solid waste transportation of 4840 tonnes per day. After developing a spatial database for the whole of Chennai with 200 wards, the route optimization procedures have been run for the transport of solid wastes from 13 wards (generating nodes) to one transfer station (intermediary before landfill), using ArcGIS. The optimization process reduced the distances travelled by 9.93%. The annual total cost incurred for this segment alone is Indian Rupees (INR) 226.1 million. Savings in terms of time taken for both the current and shortest paths have also been computed, considering traffic conditions. The overall savings are thus very meaningful and call for optimization of the haul routes for the entire Chennai. PMID:26467317

  18. Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2015-04-15

    In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with (14)C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. PMID:25644844

  19. Identification of cost effective energy conservation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Boggs, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to a successful program of readily implemented conservation actions for reducing building energy consumption at Kennedy Space Center, recent detailed analyses have identified further substantial savings for buildings representative of technical facilities designed when energy costs were low. The techniques employed for determination of these energy savings consisted of facility configuration analysis, power and lighting measurements, detailed computer simulations and simulation verifications. Use of these methods resulted in identification of projected energy savings as large as $330,000 a year (approximately two year break-even period) in a single building. Application of these techniques to other commercial buildings is discussed

  20. Cost effective ER data acquisition using a dynamic characterization strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Kenneth M.; Salpas, Peter A.

    2007-07-01

    The important first step in remediating contaminated sites is completing characterization. The process for characterization of natural environmental media (i.e., soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater) involves three basic steps: (1) develop a plan, (2) implement the plan by collecting information necessary to define the nature and extent of contaminants in the natural media, and (3) integrate, interpret and report the results. Because of budgetary constraints, these three steps are typically applied linearly with the expectation that by the end of one application of the process the site will be characterized with sufficient resolution to make decisions about remedial actions. Our experience over the past 13 years at a complex site in Tennessee has shown that this linear approach to characterization does not produce the desired resolution. Because characterization is typically a process of defining unknowns the inflexible nature of the linear approach makes it impractical to react as the conceptual understanding of site contaminants changes in response to the acquisition of new data. An alternative, flexible approach to characterization has been developed based on lessons learned. Over the past 3 years the flexible approach has cost-effectively produced the information needed for decision making. (authors)

  1. Cost-Effectiveness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shillcutt, Samuel D.; Walker, Damian G.; Goodman, Catherine A.; Mills, Anne J.

    2010-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is increasingly important in public health decision making, including in low- and middle-income countries. The decision makers' valuation of a unit of health gain, or ceiling ratio (λ), is important in CEA as the relative value against which acceptability is defined, although values are usually chosen arbitrarily in practice. Reference case estimates for λ are useful to promote consistency, facilitate new developments in decision analysis, compare estimates against benefit-cost ratios from other economic sectors, and explicitly inform decisions about equity in global health budgets. The aim of this article is to discuss values for λ used in practice, including derivation based on affordability expectations (such as $US150 per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY]), some multiple of gross national income or gross domestic product, and preference-elicitation methods, and explore the implications associated with each approach. The background to the debate is introduced, the theoretical bases of current values are reviewed, and examples are given of their application in practice. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for defining λ are outlined, followed by an exploration of methodological and policy implications. PMID:19888791

  2. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2002-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  3. Reliable and cost-effective serodiagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pieter W A; Ally, Mahmood M T M; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) optimises therapeutic benefit and the probability of achieving disease remission. Notwithstanding clinical acumen, early diagnosis is dependent on access to reliable serodiagnostic procedures, as well as on the discerning application and interpretation of these. In the case of RA, however, no disease-specific serodiagnostic procedure is available due to the multi-factorial and polygenic nature of this autoimmune disorder. This has resulted in the development of an array of serodiagnostic procedures based on the detection of autoantibodies reactive with various putative autoantigens. Other procedures based on measurement of elevations in the concentrations of systemic biomarkers of inflammation, most commonly acute phase reactants and cytokines/chemokines, are used as objective indices of disease activity. Following a brief overview of RA research in African populations, the current review is focused on those autoantibodies/biomarkers, specifically rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and C-reactive protein, which are currently recognised as being the most reliable and cost-effective with respect to disease prediction and diagnosis, as well as in monitoring activity and outcome. PMID:26856871

  4. Orienting Nursing Students to Cost Effective Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessner, Muriel W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes five principles for cost-effective clinical practice: efficient use of self, efficient use of equipment and supplies, delegation of work, critical path method, and organization of the environment. (SK)

  5. Acceptance and rejection: cost-effectiveness and the working nephrologist.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Philip A; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2004-11-01

    While many nephrologists have developed a sophisticated approach to appraising clinical trials, an equal comfort in critiquing cost-effectiveness literature is often lagging. Readers can wonder how new results compare to those from other cost-effectiveness trials, and whether they should accept a new intervention as cost-effective or reject it as too costly for the benefit it produces. Critical readers should first judge whether the authors have made the correct trade-off between complexity and generalizability when selecting a study perspective, and should examine the method of linkage between costs and effectiveness. The most popular method is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which has limitations that have led some authors to prefer the net monetary benefit (NMB), where confidence intervals are more easily determined and which can more readily be used in regression analyses. Interpretation of the ICER and NMB require the choice of a cost-effectiveness ceiling, representing the maximum that society would be willing to pay for an incremental health benefit, and the development of a decision rule based on this maximum. Comparing cost-effectiveness studies from different disciplines requires the use of "universal" effectiveness measures, such as the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An understanding of study perspective, the relative strengths of different cost-effectiveness measures, the methods for measuring uncertainty in these estimates, and how to select and use cost-effectiveness ceiling ratios will help the critical reader to determine if a new intervention should be accepted or rejected. PMID:15496144

  6. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost-effective

  7. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H

    2000-12-01

    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated. PMID:11100309

  8. Construction industry cost effectiveness; It does have an impact

    SciTech Connect

    Schappa, P.J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness (CICE) project. Northern States Power (NSP) decided to implement many suggestions proposed in the CICE report to improve labor productivity for their 800 MW project. With the project successfully completed in 1987 on time and within budget, this paper reviews the Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness strategies employed by Northern States Power and their impact on the project.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Pieter T; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the opportunity to prevent significant health-related and financial consequences of HZ. In this review, we summarize the available literature on cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination and discuss critical parameters for cost-effectiveness results. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify full cost-effectiveness studies published before April 2013. Fourteen cost-effectiveness studies were included, all performed in western countries. All studies evaluated cost-effectiveness among elderly above 50 years and used costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained as primary outcome. The vast majority of studies showed vaccination of 60- to 75-year-old individuals to be cost-effective, when duration of vaccine efficacy was longer than 10 years. Duration of vaccine efficacy, vaccine price, HZ incidence, HZ incidence and discount rates were influential to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). HZ vaccination may be a worthwhile intervention from a cost-effectiveness point of view. More extensive reporting on methodology and more detailed results of sensitivity analyses would be desirable to address uncertainty and to guarantee optimal comparability between studies, for example regarding model structure, discounting, vaccine characteristics and loss of quality of life due to HZ and PHN. PMID:25424815

  10. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  11. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  12. Application of continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density functions in a sensitivity analysis of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor; Hip, Ivan; Fredlund, Murray D

    2016-09-01

    The variability of untreated municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters, namely cohesion and shear friction angle, with respect to waste stability problems, is of primary concern due to the strong heterogeneity of MSW. A large number of municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters (friction angle and cohesion) were collected from published literature and analyzed. The basic statistical analysis has shown that the central tendency of both shear strength parameters fits reasonably well within the ranges of recommended values proposed by different authors. In addition, it was established that the correlation between shear friction angle and cohesion is not strong but it still remained significant. Through use of a distribution fitting method it was found that the shear friction angle could be adjusted to a normal probability density function while cohesion follows the log-normal density function. The continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density function was therefore selected as an adequate model to ascertain rational boundary values ("confidence interval") for MSW shear strength parameters. It was concluded that a curve with a 70% confidence level generates a "confidence interval" within the reasonable limits. With respect to the decomposition stage of the waste material, three different ranges of appropriate shear strength parameters were indicated. Defined parameters were then used as input parameters for an Alternative Point Estimated Method (APEM) stability analysis on a real case scenario of the Jakusevec landfill. The Jakusevec landfill is the disposal site of the capital of Croatia - Zagreb. The analysis shows that in the case of a dry landfill the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the shear friction angle of old, decomposed waste material, while in the case of a landfill with significant leachate level the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the cohesion of old, decomposed waste material. The

  13. Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Eng, C; Horowitz, S F; Gorlin, R; Goldstein, S R

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes' theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%, for example, asymptomatic people with no risk factors. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV). One advantage of this quantitative model is that it estimates a

  14. Application of real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of selected bacterial pathogens during municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shannon, K E; Lee, D-Y; Trevors, J T; Beaudette, L A

    2007-08-15

    Bacteria were detected at five stages of municipal wastewater treatment using TaqMan(R) real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Thirteen probe and primer sets were tested for diverse pathogens that may be present in wastewater, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The sensitivity of the assay was 100 fg of genomic DNA (=22 gene copies), based on a standard curve generated using A. hydrophila purified DNA. Samples from five stages of wastewater treatment were collected, including raw wastewater, primary effluents, mixed liquor, waste activated sludge and final effluents. In duplicate samples, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, C. perfringens and E. faecalis were detected throughout the wastewater process, and their numbers decreased by 3.52-3.98, 4.23-4.33, 3.15-3.39, and 3.24 orders of magnitude respectively, between the raw wastewater and final effluent stage. This qPCR method was effective for the detection of pathogens in wastewater and confirmed that the risk of exposure to pathogens in the wastewater discharge was well within the Environment Canada guidelines. PMID:17462712

  15. Synthesis of cryptocrystalline magnesite/bentonite clay composite and its application for removal of phosphate from municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Masindi, V; Gitari, W M; Pindihama, K G

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, nanocomposite of cryptocrystalline magnesite-bentonite clay was used as a novel technology for removal of phosphates from municipal effluents. Vibratory ball miller was used for fabrication of the composite. Removal of phosphate from an aqueous solution was achieved using batch experimental procedures. The parameters optimized include time, dosage, concentration and pH. An optimization experiment revealed that 30 mins of shaking time, 1 g of composite, 100 mg L(-1) of phosphate, 1: 100 S/L ratios, 250 rpm, pH 10 and room temperature are the optimum conditions for removal of phosphate. Adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm than Freundlich adsorption isotherms, thus confirming monolayer adsorption. Adsorption kinetics data fitted well to pseudo second-order kinetics than first-order kinetics, thus suggesting chemisorption. This comparative study showed better adsorption of the composite as compared to conventional methods of phosphate removal. The results suggest that the fabricated composite has the potential for remediation of phosphate-contaminated waters. PMID:26208531

  16. An inexact multi-objective dynamic model and its application in China for the management of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. Xi, B.D.; Liu, H.L.; Jiang, Y.H.; Warith, M.A.

    2008-12-15

    With the development of science and technology, solid waste management has become a serious environmental problem for most communities all over the world. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization model for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) via an uncertainty approach. In this model, the system cost of solid waste management and the environmental impact are considered as the main objectives, and some necessary constraints based on the characteristics of China are included; additionally, Pollution loss theory is applied to evaluate the environmental impact. This model is applied to the City of Fo Shan, China. Compared with the primary project of Fo Shan, which is provided by the government, the results of the optimization procedure show that the overall system cost could be reduced by $1-2.4/ton, i.e., $3.7 million/yr. The model presented in this paper was proven to be an effective response to the multi-objective solid waste management problem, and provides a new technique to optimize MSW management and operation. Why is the optimization result better? By analyzing the modelling with respect to function, constraints, and results, we conclude that the profit would be augmented due to the amount of the waste that would be treated by recycling technology, which would increase rapidly during the planning time; thus, the total system cost could be reduced accordingly.

  17. Application and evaluation of forecasting methods for municipal solid waste generation in an Eastern-European city.

    PubMed

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras; Racys, Viktoras; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting of generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries is often a challenging task due to the lack of data and selection of suitable forecasting method. This article aimed to select and evaluate several methods for MSW forecasting in a medium-scaled Eastern European city (Kaunas, Lithuania) with rapidly developing economics, with respect to affluence-related and seasonal impacts. The MSW generation was forecast with respect to the economic activity of the city (regression modelling) and using time series analysis. The modelling based on social-economic indicators (regression implemented in LCA-IWM model) showed particular sensitivity (deviation from actual data in the range from 2.2 to 20.6%) to external factors, such as the synergetic effects of affluence parameters or changes in MSW collection system. For the time series analysis, the combination of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and seasonal exponential smoothing (SES) techniques were found to be the most accurate (mean absolute percentage error equalled to 6.5). Time series analysis method was very valuable for forecasting the weekly variation of waste generation data (r (2) > 0.87), but the forecast yearly increase should be verified against the data obtained by regression modelling. The methods and findings of this study may assist the experts, decision-makers and scientists performing forecasts of MSW generation, especially in developing countries. PMID:21382880

  18. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Proton Beam Therapy for Intraocular Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, James P.; Borah, Bijan J.; Foote, Robert L.; Pulido, Jose S.; Shah, Nilay D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Proton beam therapy is a commonly accepted treatment for intraocular melanomas, but the literature is lacking in descriptions of patient preferences of clinical outcomes and economic impact. In addition, no economic evaluations have been published regarding the incremental cost-effectiveness of proton beam therapy compared with enucleation or plaque brachytherapy, typical alternative treatments. We, therefore, conducted a cost-utility analysis of these three approaches for the treatment of intraocular melanomas. Materials and Methods A Markov model was constructed. Model parameters were identified from the published literature and publicly available data sources. Cost-effectiveness of each treatment was calculated in 2011 US Dollars per quality-adjusted life-year. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated assuming enucleation as reference. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted on all model parameters. A decision threshold of $50,000/quality-adjusted life-year was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results Enucleation had the lowest costs and quality-adjusted life-years, and plaque brachytherapy had the highest costs and quality-adjusted life-years. Compared with enucleation, the base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for plaque brachytherapy and proton beam therapy were $77,500/quality-adjusted life-year and $106,100/quality-adjusted life-year, respectively. Results were highly sensitive to multiple parameters. All three treatments were considered optimal, and even dominant, depending on the values used for sensitive parameters. Conclusion Base-case analysis results suggest enucleation to be optimal. However, the optimal choice was not robust to sensitivity analyses and, depending on the assumption, both plaque brachytherapy and proton beam therapy could be considered cost-effective. Future clinical studies should focus on generating further evidence with the greatest parameter uncertainty to inform future cost-effectiveness

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  1. Screening strategies for active tuberculosis: focus on cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Claudia Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in screening for active tuberculosis (TB), also called active case-finding (ACF), as a possible means to achieve control of the global TB epidemic. ACF aims to increase the detection of TB, in order to diagnose and treat patients with TB earlier than if they had been diagnosed and treated only at the time when they sought health care because of symptoms. This will reduce or avoid secondary transmission of TB to other people, with the long-term goal of reducing the incidence of TB. Here, the history of screening for active TB, current screening practices, and the role of TB-diagnostic tools are summarized and the literature on cost-effectiveness of screening for active TB reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that community-wide ACF can be cost-effective in settings with a high incidence of TB. ACF among close TB contacts is cost-effective in settings with a low as well as a high incidence of TB. The evidence for cost-effectiveness of screening among HIV-infected persons is not as strong as for TB contacts, but the reviewed studies suggest that the intervention can be cost-effective depending on the background prevalence of TB and test volume. None of the cost-effectiveness analyses were informed by data from randomized controlled trials. As the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating different ACF strategies will become available in future, we will hopefully gain a better understanding of the role that ACF can play in achieving global TB control. PMID:27418848

  2. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well

  3. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in groundwater, subsurface drainage, soil, and wheat grain, following a high single application of municipal biosolids to a field.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Russell, P; Lapen, D R

    2012-04-01

    Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) were applied to a field at a rate of ~22 Mg dw ha(-1) in October 2008. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were monitored in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-land application, and in the grain of wheat grown on the field for a period of ~1 year following application. Over 80 PPCPs were analyzed in the source DMB. PPCPs selected for in-depth monitoring included: antibiotics (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones), bacteriocides (triclosan, triclocarban), beta-blockers (atenolol, propranolol, metaprolol), antidepressants (fluoxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine, sertraline), antifungals (miconazole), analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen) and anticonvulsants (carbamazepine). PPCPs in tile were observed twice, ~3 weeks and 2 months post-application. Of all PPCPs measured in tile drainage, only carbamazepine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, triclosan, triclocarban, venlafaxine, and citalopram were detected (5-74 ng L(-1)). PPCPs were not detected in groundwater >2 m depth below the soil surface, and concentrations above detection limits at 2 m depth were only observed once just after the first rain event post-application. In groundwater, all compounds found in tile, except carbamazepine, acetaminophen and citalopram, were detected (10-19 ng L(-1)). PPCPs were detected in DMB aggregates incorporated in soil up to 1 year post-application, with miconazole and fluoxetine having the lowest percent reductions over 1 year (~50%). For several compounds in these aggregates, concentration declines were of exponential decay form. No PPCPs were detected in the grain of wheat planted post-application on the field. No PPCPs were ever detected in water, soil or grain samples from the reference plot, where no DMB was applied. PMID:22300554

  4. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  5. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  6. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. Methods: We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond’s checklist for appraising the quality of studies. Results: The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. Conclusion: A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening. PMID:27390696

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot A; Bennett, Rod; Williams, Brian G; Granich, Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical studies and analyses have heightened interest in the use of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission. However, ART is expensive, approximately $600 per person per year, raising issues of the cost and cost-effectiveness of ambitious ART expansion. The goal of this review is to equip the reader with the conceptual tools and substantive background needed to understand and evaluate the policy and programmatic implications of cost-effectiveness assessments of ART for prevention. We provide this review in six sections. We start by introducing and explaining basic concepts of health economics as they relate to this issue, including resources, costs, health metrics (such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years), and different types of economic analysis. We then review research on the cost and cost-effectiveness of ART as treatment, and on the cost-effectiveness of traditional HIV prevention. We describe critical issues in the epidemic impact of ART, such as suppression of transmission and the role of the acute phase of infection. We then present a conceptual model for conducting and interpreting cost-effectiveness analyses of ART as prevention, and review the existing preliminary estimates in this area. We end with a discussion of future directions for programmatic demonstrations and evaluation. PMID:21999776

  8. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  9. Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes. PMID:16948687

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telehealthcare for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several feasibility studies show promising results of telehealthcare on health outcomes and health-related quality of life for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and some of these studies show that telehealthcare may even lower healthcare costs. However, the only large-scale trial we have so far - the Whole System Demonstrator Project in England - has raised doubts about these results since it conclude that telehealthcare as a supplement to usual care is not likely to be cost-effective compared with usual care alone. Methods/Design The present study is known as ‘TeleCare North’ in Denmark. It seeks to address these doubts by implementing a large-scale, pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial with nested economic evaluation. The purpose of the study is to assess the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a telehealth solution for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared to usual practice. General practitioners will be responsible for recruiting eligible participants (1,200 participants are expected) for the trial in the geographical area of the North Denmark Region. Twenty-six municipality districts in the region define the randomization clusters. The primary outcomes are changes in health-related quality of life, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio measured from baseline to follow-up at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are changes in mortality and physiological indicators (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, and weight). Discussion There has been a call for large-scale clinical trials with rigorous cost-effectiveness assessments in telehealthcare research. This study is meant to improve the international evidence base for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telehealthcare to patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by implementing a large-scale pragmatic cluster-randomized clinical trial. Trial registration Clinicaltrials

  11. Cost effective use of liquid nitrogen in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Glen E.; Lombard, David S.; Martindale, David L.; Dunn, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    A method of reliquefying from 12 to 19% of the nitrogen exhaust gas from a cryogenic wind tunnel has been developed. Technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of the system depends on performance of an innovative positive displacement expander which requires scale model testing to confirm design studies. The existing cryogenic system at the 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel has been surveyed and extensive upgrades proposed. Upgrades are generally cost effective and may be implemented immediately since they are based on established technology.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rituximab in refractory cold agglutinin disease.

    PubMed

    Panwar, U; Mathews, C; Cullis, J O

    2008-08-01

    Cold haemagglutinin disease (CHAD) is an uncommon condition frequently associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and is refractory to conventional treatments used in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Rituximab has been used in this condition with favourable and lasting responses. Cost has been a major limitation to its use in such indication. We present cost-effectiveness analysis of the use of rituximab in two patients with CHAD. Rituximab successfully controlled haemolysis in both cases of CHAD and was found to be cost-effective through reducing transfusion needs. PMID:18665831

  13. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  14. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  15. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  16. Monitoring Bacteroides spp. markers, nutrients, metals and Escherichia coli in soil and leachate after land application of three types of municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    McCall, Crystal A; Jordan, Katerina S; Habash, Marc B; Dunfield, Kari E

    2015-03-01

    A lysimeter-based field study was done to monitor the transfer of culturable Escherichia coli, general (ALLBAC), human (Hf183) and swine (PIG-BAC-1) specific 16S rRNA Bacteroides spp. markers, nutrients and metals through soils and leachate over time following land application of a CP1/Class A as well as two CP2/Class B municipal biosolids (MBs). Hf183 markers were detected up to six days following application in soils receiving dewatered and liquid MBs, but not in leachate, suggesting their use in source tracking is better suited for recent pollution events. The CP2/Class B biosolids and swine manure contributed the highest microbial load with E. coli loads (between 2.5 and 3.7 log CFU (100 mL)(-1)) being greater than North American concentration recommendations for safe recreational water. ALLBAC persisted in soils and leachate receiving all treatments and was detected prior to amendment application demonstrating its unsuitability for identifying the presence of fecal pollution. A significant increase in NO₃-N (for Lystek and dewatered MBs) and total-P (for dewatered and liquid MBs) in leachate was observed in plots receiving the CP1/Class A and CP2/Class B type MBs which exceeded North American guidelines, suggesting impact to surface water. Metal (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn and Hg) transfer was negligible in soil and leachate samples receiving all treatments. This study is one of the first to examine the fate of E. coli and Bacteroides spp. markers in situ following the land application of MBs where surface runoff does not apply. PMID:25540839

  17. Cost-effective osteopathic manipulative medicine: a literature review of cost-effectiveness analyses for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    PubMed

    Gamber, Russell; Holland, Shane; Russo, David P; Cruser, des Anges; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2005-08-01

    Despite the value that osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) may offer to healthcare consumers in a managed care, evidence-based healthcare system, very little research has been published on the cost-effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment compared with other treatment modalities. The authors searched MEDLINE and OSTMED for English-language articles published between January 1966 and June 2002 using the key terms cost-effectiveness, osteopathic medicine, workers' compensation, hospital length of stay, healthcare providers, and manipulative medicine. The authors then extended their search by reviewing the reference lists provided in the articles initially identified as relevant by these databases. The purpose, methods, findings, and conclusions of each study were evaluated for how the cost-effectiveness of OMM was analyzed. The authors conclude that the osteopathic medical profession needs to conduct and publish research that is consistent with current practices in the conventional medical literature. PMID:16166390

  18. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  19. 10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63 Section 455.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY...) This paragraph applies to calculation of the simple payback period of energy conservation measures....

  20. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Knudsen, Amy; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    There are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a tool to do this. In this paper we review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening. Published studies universally indicate that when compared with no CRC screening, all screening modalities provide additional years of life at a cost that is deemed acceptable by most industrialized nations. Many recent studies even find CRC screening to be cost-saving. However, when the alternative CRC screening strategies are compared against each other in an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, no single optimal strategy emerges across the studies. There is consensus that the new technologies of stool DNA testing, computed tomographic colonography and capsule endoscopy are not yet cost-effective compared with the established CRC screening tests. PMID:20833348

  1. 23 CFR 635.205 - Finding of cost effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Force Account Construction § 635.205 Finding of cost effectiveness. (a) It may be... highway construction project by force account when a situation exists in which the rights or resposibilities of the community at large are so affected as to require some special course of action,...

  2. Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness in HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Margo M; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-02-01

    With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the rollout of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology and then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral- or community-based interventions, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact. PMID:26830283

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  4. Research Report: Cost-Effectiveness of Curriculum Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of a revised curriculum using computer-based training (CBT) in the Dutch postal service found cost savings and satisfactory training results, implying that CBT is an effective strategy for complex work organizations training considerable numbers of employees. (SK)

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Case Management in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Shadi S.; Vaughn, Thomas; Levey, Samuel; Fuortes, Laurence; Uden-Holmen, Tanya; Hall, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study, which is part of a larger clinical trial, was to examine the cost-effectiveness of case management for individuals treated for substance abuse in a residential setting. Method: Clients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Two groups received face-to-face case management…

  6. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  7. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...

  8. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...

  9. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...

  10. 10 CFR 436.18 - Measuring cost-effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... water system, considered in determining such matters as the optimal size of a solar energy system, the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measuring cost-effectiveness. 436.18 Section 436.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology...