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Sample records for costa caribe colombiana

  1. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent. PMID:12177991

  2. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country. PMID:12178043

  3. Lessons from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP),…

  4. Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Hermann, Markus; Scharffe, Dieter; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC Since May 2005 the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container - Lufthansa, Airbus 340-600) measures ˜100 trace gases and aerosol components in the UTLS (9-12 km altitude) on 4-6 consecutive long-distance flights per month. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are measured with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Worldwide ~1.3 Tg/y of acetonitrile (CH3CN) is emitted into the atmosphere almost exclusively from biomass burning (BB) together with other VOCs (e.g. ketones, aldehydes, aromatics), CO, CO2, NOx and aerosol particles. Therefore, and due to its rather long tropospheric lifetime of ~6 months, acetonitrile constitutes a reliable BB tracer. Based on the signal of acetonitrile and CO we checked several algorithms to detect BB plumes in the IAGOS-CARIBIC data set. It turned out that the most intense BB plumes were sampled during summer over North America and during autumn over South America. The results will also be discussed with respect to biases due to flight statistics (i.e. destination, flight season, sampling of tropospheric and stratospheric air, etc.). Two flights that took place during the strong ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) event in July 2015 between Munich (MUC) and Los Angeles (LAX) will be discussed in more detail by taking into account other VOCs and aerosol particles. Here acetonitrile mixing ratios of up to ~1100 pptv were sampled over Greenland ~0.5 km above the tropopause. It is shown that the sampled air originated from Northern America / Canada where strong wildfires took place. During the flight from LAX to MUC the boundary layer air entered the upper troposphere by isentropic quasi-horizontal mixing and not by fast convective transport. The correlation of some VOCs (i.e. acetone, methanol and acetonitrile) with CO will be discussed and contrasted to findings from the literature. It is

  5. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  6. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  7. Atmospheric mercury measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Bödewadt, Jan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Weber, Stefan; Hermann, Markus; Becker, Julia; Zahn, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt

    2016-05-01

    Goal of the project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric composition (particles and gases) at cruising altitudes of passenger aircraft, i.e. at 9-12 km. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 by a modified Tekran instrument (Tekran Model 2537 A analyser, Tekran Inc., Toronto, Canada) during monthly intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.

  8. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  9. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  10. Investigating the representativeness of CARIBIC data using model simulations of the model EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Johannes; Ruhnke, Roland; Zahn, Andreas; Neumaier, Marco; Kirner, Ole

    2015-04-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container), measuring about 100 atmospheric trace gases and aerosol parameters, has run since the year 2005 in its second stage, CARIBIC 2 (Brennikmeijer et al., ACP, 2007). The data for each species are sorted into bins of month and height relative to the tropopause (using measurements of ozone, following Sprung and Zahn, JGR, 2010). We question whether these plots stand for a climatological seasonal cycle, i.e. is the data taken by CARIBIC representative? This question is tackled using model data. The model data is taken from a run of the general circulation model EMAC with a horizontal resolution of T42 (about 2.8 degrees) which includes an extensive interactive chemistry scheme. In order to compare the CARIBIC data to the model output, the latter is first interpolated linearly in time and space to the location of the aircraft. Since the pressure corresponding to different tropopause definitions is calculated by the model, a climatological seasonal cycle relative to the tropopause can be produced form the model data and compared to that using the CARIBIC data. This study goes beyond only comparing measurement and model data. In addition, different random data sets are produced from the model data, namely along random paths flown at the speed of civil aircraft and completely random data. The model data along these random paths is compared to the model data along true CARIBIC paths using descriptive statistics. In a second step, a variance analysis following Rohrer and Berresheim, Nature, 2006, which has already been applied to aircraft measurements by Kunz et al., ACP, 2008, is performed for different height bins to investigate the spread of the data. The variance analysis together with the descriptive statistics give information on the representativeness of the data along the CARIBIC paths. The second aim of this study is then to link species lifetime and variability

  11. First results from the high resolution air sampler (HIRES) installed in the CARIBIC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Koeppel, C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    In May 2010 the CARIBIC instrument container (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container; www.caribic-atmospheric.com) was upgraded to include a new high resolution air sampler, HIRES. This new sampler consists of 88 1L stainless steel sampling flasks, supplementing the existing 2 units with 14 2.5L glass flasks each, increasing the CARIBIC sampling capacity to 116 whole air samples collected using a single pumping unit having two metal bellow pumps in series. The CARIBIC project involves the monthly deployment of a fully automated instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 onboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600. Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. The first deployment of HIRES for a CARIBIC flight was in June 2010, and it has been in routine monthly operation since, making a total of 1188 HIRES air samples collected as of July 2011 (from a total of 1566 CARIBIC air samples). The ability of CARIBIC to observe the atmosphere at aircraft cruising altitudes (9-12 km) provides the opportunity to regularly measure the composition of the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS), and increased sampling resolution has provided invaluable long-term observations of GHG and NMHC gradients across the tropopause which are unique to CARIBIC. Here we provide a detailed description of the collection system itself, and give first results from the inaugural year of HIRES, which include detailed observations of pollution plumes over eastern Asia, tropical convection over continental Africa, and trace gas gradients in the tropopause at high northern latitudes.

  12. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  13. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  14. Montezuma Formation of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, W.H.; Sen Gupta, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Montezuma Formation of the Nicoya Peninsula is one of the better known Neogene stratigraphic units of the Pacific side of Costa Rica. Past workers have reported its age to be Miocene-Pliocene or Miocene-Quaternary, and its environment of deposition to be inner shelf. The planktonic foraminiferal record of the unit in the type locality, however, places it firmly in the Lower Pliocene (Globorotalia margaritae zones). Furthermore, benthic such as Bolivina interjuncta var. bicostata, Epistominella exigua, and E. pacifica indicate that the sedimentation occurred at depths no shallower than the outermost shelf. No drastic faunal turnovers are observed within the formation; a cluster analysis of various Neogene samples from the Nicoya Peninsula and other Pacific areas of Costa Rica demonstrate an overall uniformity of the Montezuma fauna. The frequency trends of certain species, particularly of Epistominella exigua, however, suggest a transgression, the assemblage in the upper part of the section definitely representing upper bathyal depths. Judging by the present elevation of Montezuma outcrops, this part of Costa Rica has been uplifted at least 300 meters in the past 5 m.y.

  15. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  17. An optical particle size spectrometer for aircraft-borne measurements in IAGOS-CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Assmann, Denise; Pfeifer, Sascha; Muller, Thomas; Conrath, Thomas; Voigtlander, Jens; Heintzenberg, Jost; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Deshler, Terry; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The particle number size distribution is an important parameter to characterize the atmospheric aerosol and its influence on the Earth's climate. Here we describe a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for measurements of the accumulation mode particle number size distribution in the tropopause region on board a passenger aircraft (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A modified KS93 particle sensor from RION Co., Ltd., together with a new airflow system and a dedicated data acquisition system, is the key component of the CARIBIC OPSS. The instrument records individual particle pulse signal curves in the particle size range 130-1110 nm diameter (for a particle refractive index of 1.47-i0.006) together with a time stamp and thus allows the post-flight choice of the time resolution and the size distribution bin width. The CARIBIC OPSS has a 50 % particle detection diameter of 152 nm and a maximum asymptotic counting efficiency of 98 %. The instrument's measurement performance shows no pressure dependency and no particle coincidence for free tropospheric conditions. The size response function of the CARIBIC OPSS was obtained by a polystyrene latex calibration in combination with model calculations. Particle number size distributions measured with the new OPSS in the lowermost stratosphere agreed within a factor of 2 in concentration with balloon-borne measurements over western North America. Since June 2010 the CARIBIC OPSS is deployed once per month in the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory.

  18. An optical particle size spectrometer for aircraft-borne measurements in IAGOS-CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Assmann, D.; Pfeifer, S.; Müller, T.; Conrath, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Heintzenberg, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Martinsson, B. G.; Deshler, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.

    2015-11-01

    The particle number size distribution is an important parameter to characterize the atmospheric aerosol and its influence on the Earth's climate. Here we describe a new Optical Particle Size Spectrometer (OPSS) for measurements of the accumulation mode particle number size distribution in the tropopause region onboard a passenger aircraft (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container)). A modified "KS93 particle sensor" from RION Co., Ltd. together with a new airflow system and a dedicated data acquisition system are the key components of the CARIBIC OPSS. The instrument records individual particle pulses in the particle size range 130-1110 nm diameter (for a particle refractive index of 1.47-i0.006 for an upper tropospheric (UT) aerosol particle) and thus allows the post-flight choice of the time resolution and the size distribution bin width. The CARIBIC OPSS has a 50 % particle detection diameter of 152 nm and a maximum asymptotic counting efficiency of 98 %. The instruments measurement performance shows no pressure dependency and no coincidence for free tropospheric conditions. The size response function of the CARIBIC OPSS was obtained by a polystyrene latex calibration in combination with model calculations. Particle number size distributions measured with the new OPSS in the lowermost stratosphere agreed within a factor of two in concentration with balloon-borne measurements over western North America. Since June 2010 the CARIBIC OPSS is deployed once per month in the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory.

  19. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  20. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr. ); Ramirez, O. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors compare the competitive position of peat for energy with coal, oil, and cogenerative systems in gasifiers and solid-fuel boilers. They also explore the possibility for peat use in industry. To identify the major factors, they analyze costs using a Los Alamos levelized cost code, and they study parametric costs, comparing peat production in constant dollars with interest rates and return on investment. They consider costs of processing plant construction, sizes and kinds of boilers, retrofitting, peat drying, and mining methods. They examine mining requirements for Moin, Changuinola, and El Cairo and review wet mining and dewatering methods. Peat can, indeed, be competitive with other energy sources, but this depends on the ratio of fuel costs to boiler costs. This ratio is nearly constant in comparison with cogeneration in a steam-only production system. For grate boilers using Costa Rican high-ash peat, and for small nonautomatic boilers now used in Costa Rica, the authors recommend combustion tests. An appendix contains a preliminary mining plan and cost estimate for the El Cairo peat deposit. 8 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. The humerus of Cryptotis colombiana and its bearing on the species? phylogenetic relationships (Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Cuartas-Calle, C.A.; Delgado-V., C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Colombian small-eared shrew, Cryptotis colombiana Woodman and Timm, was described from the Colombian Andes in 1993. Its original allocation to the Cryptotis nigrescens-group recently was questioned based on several cranial characters the species appeared to share with some members of the Cryptotis thomasi-group. We review characteristics of the C. nigrescens- and C. thomasi-groups, and we describe the humerus of C. colombiana and the humerus and manus of Cryptotis medellinia. The morphology of the humerus joins the suite of characters that supports the hypotheses that C. colombiana is not a member of the C. thomasi-group and that all remaining South American species form a cohesive, definable set that is probably monophyletic.

  3. Hydro development in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The initial foreign thrust of private power activities was quite naturally by large companies acquiring existing government-owned facilities in relatively large countries. Only recently, it seems, people have discovered that there are countries in Latin America other than Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, and that there is interest in having the private sector construct new (and often smaller) facilities, with an increasing emphasis on renewable energy. Costa Rica passed its private power law in 1991 and has clearly been the most progressive country in Central America in promoting greenfield development of private power projects. The country has not been exempt, however, from the cyclical nature of the support that governments, utilities and regulatory agencies give to private power producers. The initial enthusiasm and willingness to encourage private power producers inevitably give way to requirements and procedures which impair if not thwart the initial intentions of the private power laws.

  4. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%. PMID:8235511

  5. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  6. (Power sector efficiency analysis in Costa Rica). [Power Sector Efficiency Analysis in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-04-10

    I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, to review the state of the electric power utility with a team of specialists, including a transmission and distribution specialist, a hydroelectric engineering specialist, and a thermal power plant specialist. The purpose of the mission was to determine the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements to supply side technologies employed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, the national power company in Costa Rica, and the potential contribution of these efficiency measures to the future electric power needs of Costa Rica.

  7. Educational and Demographic Profile: Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Contra Costa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  8. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  9. Transport of NMHCs and halocarbons observed by CARIBIC: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.

    2009-04-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from onboard a long-range commercial airliner. Since December 2004, flights for the second phase of CARIBIC have been aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 traveling between Frankfurt, Germany and destinations in Asia, North America and South America. The instrument package housed in the container is fully automated and during each flight carries out a variety of real-time trace gas and aerosol measurements, and also collects 28 air samples, which are analyzed upon return to the laboratory. Routine measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gases, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and halocarbons; results of air sample analysis form the basis for the data discussed here. While the majority of CARIBIC samples represent background free tropospheric air and air representative of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, the aircraft also, less frequently, encounters air parcels influenced by more recent emissions. Here we present a case study of a round-trip flight between Frankfurt and Toronto, Canada during September 2007. During this flight, different air masses of unique origin were encountered; a number of samples were influenced by transport from the Gulf of Mexico, while others had source regions in Central and Southeast Asia. Samples from the Gulf of Mexico exhibited enhancements in C3-C6 alkanes, as well as a number of halogenated compounds with oceanic sources, such as methyl iodide and bromoform, while Asian samples had enhanced levels of combustion products (CO, acetylene, benzene) and anthropogenic halocarbons (methlyene chloride, chloroform, perchloroethylene). Additionally, a number of samples also showed stratospheric influence, and these samples were characterized by relatively depleted levels of many of the compounds

  10. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil. PMID:12282166

  11. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: the phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

    PubMed

    Dean, H K

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen species of Sipuncula belonging to 9 genera have been reported from Costa Rican waters, mostly from the Pacific coast. Three of these species are new records for Costa Rica (Phascolion strombus (Montagu 1804), Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing 1851, and Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) gracilis schnehageni (W. Fisher 1946)). One species of Echiura, Thalassema steinbecki Fisher 1946, in the order Echiuroinea, has been reported from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:15264522

  12. Recent volcano monitoring in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, R.; Brown, G.; Rymer, H.; Barritt, S.; Randal, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Costa Rican volacno Rincon de la Vieja is loosely but mysteriously translated as the "Old Lady's Corner." It consists of six volcanic centers that form a remote elongated ridge standing some 1300m above the surrounding terraine. Geologically speaking, the Guanacaste province of northern Costa Rica consists of a series of composite volcanic cones built on a shield of ignimbrites (welded and unwelded ash flows) of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (up to 2 million years old), that themselves lie on basement crust of Cretaceious-Tertiary age (up to 90 million years old). the active volcanoes are aligned on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the Middle American oceanic trench in the Pacific Ocean that is the site of subduction of hte Cocos oceanic plate underneath Central America.  

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  14. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  15. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  16. Platinum group minerals (PGM) in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit, Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquin A.; Zaccarini, Federica; Lewis, John F.; Garuti, Giorgio; Labrador, Manuel; Longo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Two Ni-laterite profiles from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic) have been investigated for their platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry and mineralogy. One profile (Loma Peguera) is characterized by PGE-enriched (up to 3.5 ppm total PGE) chromitite bodies incorporated within the saprolite, whereas the second profile is chromitite-free (Loma Caribe). Total PGE contents of both profiles slightly increase from parent rocks (36 and 30 ppb, respectively) to saprolite (˜50 ppb) and reach highest levels within the limonite zone (640 and 264 ppb, respectively). Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of saprolite and limonite reveal rather flat shapes with positive peaks of Ru and Pd. Three types of platinum group minerals (PGM) were found by using an innovative hydroseparation technique: (i) primary PGM inclusions in fresh Cr-spinel (laurite and bowieite), (ii) secondary PGM (e.g., Ru-Fe-Os-Ir compounds) from weathering of preexisting PGM (e.g., serpentinization and/or laterization), and (iii) PGM precipitated after PGE mobilization within the laterite (neoformation). Our results provide evidence that (i) PGM occurrence and PGE enrichment in the laterite profiles is independent of chromitite incorporation; (ii) PGE enrichment is residual on the profile scale; and (iii) PGE are mobile on a local scale leading to in situ growth of PGM within limonite, probably by bioreduction and/or electrochemical metal accretion.

  17. Comparison between CARIBIC Aerosol Samples Analysed by Accelerator-Based Methods and Optical Particle Counter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-08-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on a Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with the following accelerator-based methods: particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during 1 year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  18. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Andersson, S. M.; Weigelt, A.; Hermann, M.; Assmann, D.; Voigtländer, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Zahn, A.

    2014-04-01

    Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9-12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical mid troposphere (MT) were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC) is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA). Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  19. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  20. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  1. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…

  2. The new CARIBIC Airbus A340-600 based observational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Dix, B.; Filippi, D.; Ciais, P.; Ebinghaus, R.; Fischer, H.; Heintzenberg, J.; Hermann, M.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinsson, B.; Platt, U.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U.; Sprung, D.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2005-12-01

    An airfreight container equipped with automated analysers was deployed onboard of a passenger Boeing 767 ER of LTU International Airways during regular long-distance flights. From November 1997 to the decommissioning of the aircraft in May 2002, 86 flights were carried out on routes to Southern India, the Caribbean, and Southern Africa providing data on distribution of O3, CO, aerosols (nuclei > 4, 12, 18 nm) in the tropopause region from continuous measurements and of CO2, H2, CO, their isotopic composition, halocarbons, hydrocarbons, N2O, CH4, SF6, and elemental aerosol composition from analyses of samples. Based on this experience a totally new and more powerful CARIBIC system has been developed and put into operation, based on a sophisticated inlet system and a new container with a largely extended instrumentation. The inlet system is designed for sampling of small aerosol particles. In addition, it contains 3 separate probes to sample air for measurements of trace gases (heated and PFA coated), total and gaseous water (heated electropolished stainless steel). It also accommodates 3 telescopes of a mini differential optical absorption spectrometer (MAX-DOAS) and a camera for information about clouds. The current instrument package comprises analysers for total and gaseous H2O, O3, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and three condensation nuclei counters for particles larger than 4, 12, and 18 nm. A proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an optical particle counter are installed to measure selected organic compounds and the particle size distributions, respectively. Samples of aerosol, of air (glass canisters) and of VOC and OVOC (adsorption tubes) are taken as well. This allows for a broad spectrum of laboratory analyses. The new CARIBIC system onboard a new passenger Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 has been in operation since December 2004 on a regular long-distance routes from Frankfurt to Santiago de Chile or Manila. The system is planned to flight monthly for a

  3. Flux Calculation Using CARIBIC DOAS Aircraft Measurements: SO2 Emission of Norilsk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, D.; Heue, K.-P.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Platt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the nickel smelter in Norilsk (Siberia), the retrieval of trace gas fluxes using airborne remote sensing is discussed. A DOAS system onboard an Airbus 340 detected large amounts of SO2 and NO2 near Norilsk during a regular passenger flight within the CARIBIC project. The remote sensing data were combined with ECMWF wind data to estimate the SO2 output of the Norilsk industrial complex to be around 1 Mt per year, which is in agreement with independent estimates. This value is compared to results using data from satellite remote sensing (GOME, OMI). The validity of the assumptions underlying our estimate is discussed, including the adaptation of this method to other gases and sources like the NO2 emissions of large industries or cities.

  4. Deuterium content of H2 measured on air samples from the CARIBIC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    H2 is present in the atmosphere at levels of ~500 ppb; its largest sources are the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons and combustion processes. In the coming decades, H2 levels are expected to rise due to use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This may affect methane lifetimes and stratospheric ozone depletion. Unfortunately, large uncertainties still exist in the global H2budget. The different sources and sinks of H2 have very distinct isotopic signatures and fractionation coefficients, respectively. For this reason, measurements of isotopic composition are a promising tool to gain insight into H2 source and sink processes and to constrain the terms in the global budget. The CARIBIC project uses an automated instrument container on board of a commercial passenger aircraft to carry out in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols and to collect air samples. The use of a commercial airliner results in samples mostly from the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. Although the UTLS region is considered to be an interesting part of the atmosphere, relatively few measurements have been made there before. The CARIBIC samples are routinely analyzed for various gases, including four important greenhouse gases. In addition, air samples of 15 CARIBIC flights have now been analyzed for molecular hydrogen concentration (H2) and H2 deuterium content (^D-H2) in the isotope laboratory of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU). A GC-IRMS system (similar to Rhee et al. [2004]) is used to determine the concentration and deuterium content of atmospheric H2 precisely and routinely. This poster will present a selection of the first results. For some flights, samples close to the takeoff and landing region show strong contamination signatures (high H2 concentrations and low ^D-H2 values). With the exclusion of these samples, ^D values correlate negatively with methane concentration, as observed previously by Rahn et al. [2003] and R

  5. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  6. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards. PMID:21877081

  7. False lock performance of Shuttle Costas loop receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K. T.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The false (sideband) lock problem in Shuttle Costas loop receivers, in the presence of noise, is assessed. False lock margin is defined depending on symbol signal-to-noise ratio rather than in the absence of noise. Closed-form results are given for the case where the arm filters of the Costas loop are one-pole Butterworth filters as used in the Shuttle receivers. However, the approach taken is also general enough to cover filters of arbitrary characteristics. As part of the development of the false lock margin, it is shown that the false lock phenomenon of the squaring loop is identical to that of the Costas loop.

  8. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G.

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  9. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  10. Coupled AGC-Costas loops with AM/PM conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Costas loops are invariably designed in conjunction with an automatic gain control (AGC) loop for stabilizing performance. In such systems an inherent coupling between the AGC and Costas loops develops, complicating the standard phase referencing analysis. This coupling is further emphasized if the gain control amplifier introduces an AM/PM conversion, which causes power variations to enter the Costas loop as phase variations. In this paper the coupling effect between AGC and Costas loops is developed, leading to a pair of joint, interconnected dynamical tracking loops. Some degree of solution is attainable by assuming a first order AGC loop, and resorting to quasi-stationary analysis for evaluating the phase referencing generation. Results with and without AM/PM are presented, and illustrate how an improper AGC may in fact degrade the phase referencing from the expected performance.

  11. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  12. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  13. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  14. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  15. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  16. CARIBIC DOAS observations of nitrous acid and formaldehyde in a large convective cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heue, K.-P.; Riede, H.; Walter, D.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Wagner, T.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.; Zahn, A.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-09-01

    The CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory measures once per month the chemical composition at cruise altitude (10...12 km) during 4 consecutive Lufthansa flights. Here we present a case study of enhanced nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) in a thunderstorm cloud over the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe in August 2011. Nitrous acid is an important reservoir gas for OH radicals, and only few observations of HONO at cruise altitude exist. CARIBIC is designed as a long period atmospheric observation system, the actual system has been flying almost monthly since 8 yr now. During this period only very few similar events (one since 2008) were observed. Due to multiple scattering the light path inside clouds is enhanced, thereby lowering the detection limit of the DOAS instrument. Under background conditions the detection limits are 46 ppt for HONO, 387 ppt for \\chem{HCHO}, and 100 ppt for NO2 and are roughly three times lower inside the cloud. Based on radiative transfer simulations we estimate the path length to 90{ldots}100 km and the cloud top height to ≈15 km. The inferred mixing ratios of HONO, HCHO and NO2 are 37 ppt, 400 ppt and 170 ppt, respectively. Bromine monoxide (BrO) remained below the detection limit of 1 ppt. Because the uplifted air masses originated from the remote marine boundary layer and lightning was observed in the area by the World Wide Lightning Location Network several hours prior to the measurement, the NO (≈1.5 ppb) enhancement was in all likelihood caused by lightning. The main source for the observed HCHO is probably updraught from the boundary layer, because the chemical formation of formaldehyde due to methane oxidation is too weak. Besides HCHO also CH3OOH and isoprene are considered as precursors. The chemical box model CAABA is used to estimate the \\chem{NO} and HCHO source strengths, which are necessary to explain

  17. Studies of Transport of Anthropogenic Pollutants by the Civil Aircraft Surveillance Project CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Zahn, A.; Slemr, F.; Hermann, M.; Oram, D.; Martinsson, B.; van Velthoven, P.

    2002-12-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container)has been operational from 1997 to 2002 using a Boeing 767 of LTU Airways,and will restart September 2003 using an Airbus A340-600 of Lufthansa. Monthly flights were conducted to: southernmost India (23), intercepting the Asian Plume; to southern Africa (3)showing the impact of biomass burning; and to the Caribbean (12), thus probing the North American Plume. The instrumented container (1200 kg) records ozone, CO, fine aersols (3 channels), takes aerosol samples for elemental analysis and collects air samples for nmhc, halocarbon and greenhouse gas analyses. The broad spectrum of measured parameters allows fairly detailed studies of pollution plumes, and we present some examples. The co-variations between CO and ozone have been studied over different scales of length. Accurate discrimination between stratospheric air and tropospheric air is based on an improved chemical tropopause definition. Important sources of methyl chloroform are inferred and the composition of the plume intercepted over the Arabian Sea during the summer Monsoon is documented.

  18. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  19. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  20. Geochemical record of subduction initiation in the sub-arc mantle: insights from Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgite and lherzolite and minor (Opx-bearing) dunite. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for lherzolite and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for harzburgite and (Opx-) dunite. Cpx-bearing harzburgite has intermediate compositions that overlap those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in peridotite were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas LREE and LILE were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations support that protoliths of Loma Caribe peridotite mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1300-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. MREE/HREE fractionations in whole-rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. Lherzolite and Cpx-harzburgite are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protolith was likely promoted by focused flux of hydrous melts. Dunite and Opx-bearing dunite are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotite caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, likely the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti IAT and boninite from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We propose that the geochemical heterogeneity of Loma Caribe peridotite records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles paleo-island arc in the Early Cretaceous. The common presence in the Caribbean realm of oceanic mantle rocks related to subduction indicates that most peri-Caribbean ophiolitic bodies are not fragments of an oceanic

  1. CARIBIC measurements of methane and other trace gases in the easterly outflow of the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Zahn, A.

    2009-04-01

    Indian monsoon is one of the most important global meteorological phenomena in the tropics. In particular during Indian summer monsoon, deep convection occurring in Intertropical Convergence Zone located in the Indian subcontinent brings the polluted surface air to high altitude, perturbing clean free troposphere and/or the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com) conducted atmospheric chemical composition measurements at 8-11 km using an automated instrumental package. Monthly regular flights between Germany and the Maldives or Sri Lanka from November 1997 until April 2001 provides an opportunity to investigate spatial and temporal variation of a variety of atmospheric chemical composition. In summer large enhancement of CH4 was observed in the easterly jet flowing from northern Indian subcontinent between 20°N and 30°N. At the same latitudes, other trace gases (CO, O3, NHMCs, CH3Cl) also show an increase, suggesting the influence of surface air masses driven by deep convection to the chemical composition at high altitude. Seasonal variation of CH4 reveals clear enhancement in summer which is opposite to background observations in the marine boundary layer. This reflects the impact of Indian summer monsoon to the chemical composition of free troposphere. Aided by temporal and spatial variation of other trace gases measured in CARIBIC, we will discuss the source regions of this CH4 plume and estimate the amount of trace gases delivered to the flight altitudes during Indian summer monsoon.

  2. Geochemical record of subduction initiation in the sub-arc mantle: Insights from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.

    2016-05-01

    The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgites and lherzolites and minor orthopyroxene-bearing dunites and dunites. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for the lherzolites, and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for the harzburgites and dunites. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites have intermediate compositions that overlap with those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in the peridotites were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations indicate that protoliths of the Loma Caribe peridotites mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1250 °C-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. The MREE/HREE fractionations in both whole rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5%-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5%-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of slab fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protoliths was likely the result of focused flux of slab hydrous melts. The dunites and orthopyroxene-bearing dunites are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotites caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, probably the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We conclude that the geochemical heterogeneity of the Loma Caribe peridotites records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles

  3. Health assessment for RCA del Caribe, Inc. , Barceloneta, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRD090370537. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The RCA del Caribe site is listed on the National Priorities List. The 20-acre site is the former location of RCA's television screen etching mask production facility. Wastes generated were disposed of in four holding lagoons. The environmental contamination on-site consists of chromium (160 ppm), beryllium (6 ppm), selenium (9 ppm), and iron (23,100 ppm) in lagoon sediments. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ground water.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): RCA del Caribe, operable unit 1, Barceloneta, Pr., September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the RCA del Caribe Site (the `Site`), located in the Town of Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the Site does not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment and, therefore, remediation is not necessary nor appropriate. This determination is for the Site as defined by CERCLA which is the soils and sediments in the four lined lagoons and any groundwater contamination associated with releases from these lagoons.

  5. Trapping, chemistry, and export of trace gases in the South Asian summer monsoon observed during CARIBIC flights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Zahn, Andreas; Hermann, Markus; Stratmann, Greta; Ziereis, Helmut; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-03-01

    The CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft observatory performed in situ measurements at 10-12 km altitude in the South Asian summer monsoon anticyclone between June and September 2008. These measurements enable us to investigate this atmospheric region (which so far has mostly been observed from satellites) using the broad suite of trace gases and aerosol particles measured by CARIBIC. Elevated levels of a variety of atmospheric pollutants (e.g. carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen oxides, aerosol particles, and several volatile organic compounds) were recorded. The measurements provide detailed information about the chemical composition of air in different parts of the monsoon anticyclone, particularly of ozone precursors. While covering a range of 3500 km inside the monsoon anticyclone, CARIBIC observations show remarkable consistency, i.e. with distinct latitudinal patterns of trace gases during the entire monsoon period. Using the CARIBIC trace gas and aerosol particle measurements in combination with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, we investigated the characteristics of monsoon outflow and the chemical evolution of air masses during transport. The trajectory calculations indicate that these air masses originated mainly from South Asia and mainland Southeast Asia. Estimated photochemical ages of the air were found to agree well with transport times from a source region east of 90-95° E. The photochemical ages of the air in the southern part of the monsoon anticyclone were systematically younger (less than 7 days) and the air masses were mostly in an ozone-forming chemical mode. In its northern part the air masses were older (up to 13 days) and had unclear ozone formation or destruction potential. Based on analysis of forward trajectories, several receptor regions were identified. In addition to predominantly westward transport, we found evidence for

  6. Trapping, chemistry and export of trace gases in the South Asian summer monsoon observed during CARIBIC flights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-03-01

    The CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft observatory performed in situ measurements at 10-12 km altitude in the South Asian summer monsoon anticyclone between June and September 2008. These measurements enable us to investigate this atmospheric region, which so far has mostly been observed from satellites, using the broad suite of trace gases and aerosols measured by CARIBIC. Elevated levels of a range of atmospheric pollutants were recorded e.g. carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen oxides, aerosol particles and several volatile organic compounds. The measurements provide detailed information about the chemical composition of air in different parts of the monsoon anticyclone, particularly of ozone precursors. While covering a range of 3500 km inside the monsoon anticyclone, CARIBIC observations show remarkable consistency, i.e. with regular latitudinal patterns of trace gases during the entire monsoon period. Trajectory calculations indicate that these air masses originated mainly from South Asia and Mainland Southeast Asia. Using the CARIBIC trace gas and aerosol measurements in combination with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART we investigated the characteristics of monsoon outflow and the chemical evolution of air masses during transport. Estimated photochemical ages of the air were found to agree well with transport times from a source region east of 95° E. The photochemical ages of the air in the southern part of the monsoon anticyclone were consistently younger (less than 7 days) and the air masses mostly in an ozone forming chemical regime. In its northern part the air masses were older (up to 13 days) and had unclear ozone formation or destruction potential. Based on analysis of forward trajectories several receptor regions were identified. In addition to predominantly westward transport, we found evidence for efficient transport (within 10 days) to

  7. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  8. CARIBIC DOAS observations of nitrous acid and formaldehyde in a large convective cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heue, K.-P.; Riede, H.; Walter, D.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Wagner, T.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.; Zahn, A.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.

    2014-07-01

    The chemistry in large thunderstorm clouds is influenced by local lightning-NOx production and uplift of boundary layer air. Under these circumstances trace gases like nitrous acid (HONO) or formaldehyde (HCHO) are expected to be formed or to reach the tropopause region. However, up to now only few observations of HONO at this altitude have been reported. Here we report on a case study where enhancements in HONO, HCHO and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were observed by the CARIBIC flying laboratory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The event took place in a convective system over the Caribbean Sea in August 2011. Inside the cloud the light path reaches up to 100 km. Therefore the DOAS instrument on CARIBIC was very sensitive to the tracers inside the cloud. Based on the enhanced slant column densities of HONO, HCHO and NO2, average mixing ratios of 37, 468 and 210 ppt, respectively, were calculated. These data represent averages for constant mixing ratios inside the cloud. However, a large dependency on the assumed profile is found; for HONO a mixing ratio of 160 ppt is retrieved if the total amount is assumed to be situated in the uppermost 2 km of the cloud. The NO in situ instrument measured peaks up to 5 ppb NO inside the cloud; the background in the cloud was about 1.3 ppb, and hence clearly above the average outside the cloud (≈ 150 ppt). The high variability and the fact that the enhancements were observed over a pristine marine area led to the conclusion that, in all likelihood, the high NO concentrations were caused by lighting. This assumption is supported by the number of flashes that the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) counted in this area before and during the overpass. The chemical box model CAABA is used to estimate the NO and HCHO source strengths which are necessary to explain our measurements. For NO a source strength of 10 × 109 molec cm-2 s-1 km-1 is found, which

  9. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  10. NO and NOy in the upper troposphere: Nine years of CARIBIC measurements onboard a passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; Stock, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Velthoven, P. V.; Schlager, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NO and NOy) measurements were performed onboard an in-service aircraft within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A total of 330 flights were completed from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destination airports in Canada, the USA, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines. Different regions show differing NO and NOy mixing ratios. In the mid-latitudes, observed NOy and NO generally shows clear seasonal cycles in the upper troposphere with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Mean NOy mixing ratios vary between 1.36 nmol/mol in summer and 0.27 nmol/mol in winter. Mean NO mixing ratios range between 0.05 nmol/mol and 0.22 nmol/mol. Regions south of 40°N show no consistent seasonal dependence. Based on CO observations, low, median and high CO air masses were defined. According to this classification, more data was obtained in high CO air masses in the regions south of 40°N compared to the midlatitudes. This indicates that boundary layer emissions are more important in these regions. In general, NOy mixing ratios are highest when measured in high CO air masses. This dataset is one of the most comprehensive NO and NOy dataset available today for the upper troposphere and is therefore highly suitable for the validation of atmosphere-chemistry-models.

  11. Pollution patterns in the upper troposphere over Europe and Asia observed by CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Angela K.; Traud, Sebastian; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Hoor, Peter; Neumaier, Marco; Oram, David E.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Sprung, Detlev; Schloegl, Sebastian; Slemr, Franz; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Wernli, Heini; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory was deployed to make atmospheric observations on 42 flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines. This nearly 3 year flight series provides information about atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere over Europe and Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the influence of long range transport and local convection on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having characteristic differences in transport and composition; these were Europe and Western Asia (5°E-60°E), Central Asia (60°E-100°E) and Southeast Asia (100°E-125°E). The region over Europe and Western Asia was strongly influenced by air masses from North America, while the region over Southeast Asia was mostly influenced by local emissions, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recent convection from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Europe, Western Asia and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concomitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) was a persistent feature over Central Asia in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated in detail for a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, where elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from South Asia and fossil fuel related emissions from Eastern Europe.

  12. Aspects of Transport of Convected Regional Pollution from the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone based on CARIBIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; van Velthoven, P.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon is one of the most important features of the boreal summer atmosphere in the tropics, and is characterized by a persistent large-scale anticyclonic structure in the upper troposphere centered over the Indian subcontinent. Strong convection associated with the monsoon causes upper tropospheric mixing ratios to be strongly linked to surface emissions from this densely populated region, and these polluted air masses can become trapped and accumulate inside the anticyclone, where they can be chemically isolated for several days. Outflow occurs predominantly westward towards Northern Africa and the Middle East, where a summertime ozone (O3) maximum due to ozone formation in monsoon outflow has been reported, and to the Mediterranean. While most observations in the monsoon anticyclone are from satellites, the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory probed the upper troposphere (9-13 km) in the South Asian monsoon region with in situ measurements between June and September 2008. Elevated levels of a range of atmospheric pollutants were measured within the monsoon anticyclone, among them CO, NOy, aerosols and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trajectory calculations indicated that these air masses originated mainly from South Asia. These measurements yield a detailed description of the initial chemical composition of air in different parts of the monsoon anticyclone, particularly of ozone precursors. Using this information and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART we investigate the characteristics of monsoon outflow and the chemical evolution of air masses during transport. Based on analysis of air mass forward trajectories several receptor regions were identified. In addition to the dominant transport to the West, we found evidence for transport to the Pacific and North America, particularly during June and September, and also of cross

  13. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  14. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  15. Engineering of the Stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J.; Vargas, V. I.; Otarola, C.; Piedra, C.; Jimenez, W.; Esquivel, L.; Esquivel, R.; Sanchez, K.; Gonzalez, J.; Asenjo, J.; Fonseca, L.

    2015-03-01

    This Paper aims at briefly describing the challenge of the design and construction of the Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) [1]. The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma (Ro=0.238 m, =0.059 m, Ro/a>4.0, expected plasma volume ≈ 0.016 m3, 10 mm thickness 6061-T6 aluminum vacuum vessel) developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR).

  16. Regional Impact on Pollution Event in the Upper Troposphere during CARIBIC Flights between South China and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. R.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Slemr, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The research project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container, phase II) is designed to conduct regular, long-term and detailed observations of the free troposphere and UT/LS regions where passenger aircraft happen to cruise. A fully-automated measurement container (1.5 tons) was equipped onboard an Airbus 340-600 operated by Lufthansa Airlines during regular passenger flights to conduct real time trace gas and aerosol measurements and to collect aerosol and air samples on a near monthly basis. During May 2005 - March 2008, CARIBIC observations have been performed along the flight tracks of Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila. Data have been collected in the upper troposphere during a total of 81 flights over the region between South China and the Philippines. Carbon monoxide was used an indicator to identify the pollution events and to access the regional impacts of fossil fuel burning and biomass/biofuel burning on upper tropospheric air. Five regions, i.e. Northeast Asia, South China, Indochina Peninsula, India and Indonesia/Philippines, are identified as the major source regions to be related to the observed pollution events. The characteristics of the events from these regions are investigated. The contributions of different source categories are also estimated.

  17. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis. PMID:20537093

  18. First 5 Contra Costa Report on Parent Involvement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sarah; Induni, Marta; Moiduddin, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Parental Involvement in Pre-School Telephone Interview study completed by Mathematica Policy Research for the First 5 Contra Costa Children and Families Commission. Parent involvement in children's preschool programs and learning experiences is proven to be positively associated with cognitive, academic,…

  19. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  20. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  1. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  2. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  3. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO activists,…

  4. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  5. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  6. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    PubMed

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  7. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  8. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  9. Cyclical Economic Conditions and School Attendance in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Examines the importance of declining economic conditions in school attendance decision making for households with teenagers aged 12-17 in Costa Rica, using a reduced-form model. The 1981-83 economic recession coincided with a large attendance drop. Household labor market characteristics and student characteristics also significantly determine…

  10. Contra Costa Community College District Transfer Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA.

    This research report from Contra Costa Community College District (CCCCD), California, summarizes relevant findings from assessments of the performance of students receiving transfer education, and CCCCD's progress in meeting its Partnership for Excellence (PFE) goals in this area. Findings reported include the following: (1) Student Goal…

  11. The Educational System of Costa Rica. Education Around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.

    This booklet reviews Costa Rica's educational system, with emphasis on finance, philosophy, administration, and teacher education. The basic educational system consists of a preschool level of at least one year; a general basic education level of nine years (divided into three cycles of three years duration each--the first two cycles represent…

  12. Citizenship, Wealth, and Whiteness in a Costa Rican High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the democratic rhetoric taught in a Costa Rican High School and the ways in which that rhetoric clashed with school practices that revealed hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, class, and religion. This contradiction was rendered visible through student elections, the Independence Day celebration, and civic acts. Through…

  13. A new Coelomomyces pathogenic to mosquitoes in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lichtwardt, R W; Gómez, L D

    1993-12-01

    A new species of fungus belonging to the lethal genus Coelomomyces, C. neotropicus, is described and illustrated. It was found parasitizing larvae of two species of Culicidae, Culex pilosus and Aedes sp., in a lowland tropical wet forest swamp in northeast Costa Rica. PMID:7701081

  14. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging, and diploma…

  15. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration. PMID:22458214

  16. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  17. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  18. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region around the tropopause (TP) by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (m(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analysed samples consisted of air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that m(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by competing H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δ D [‰]=-0.35 · m(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD [‰]=-1.90 · m(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in m(H2), but δD is up to 15‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD lowering is correlated with m(CH4) increase. The significant correlation with m(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible m(H2) increase that accompanies the δD lowering indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high m(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples collected close to airports

  19. Observations of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Over India During the Asian Summer Monsoon Period: Results from CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from onboard a long-range commercial airliner. Since December 2004, flights for the second phase of CARIBIC have been aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 traveling between Frankfurt, Germany and destinations in Asia, North America and South America. The instrument package housed in the container (1.5 ton) is fully automated and during each monthly set of flights carries out a variety of real-time trace gas and aerosol measurements, and also collects 28 air samples, which are analyzed upon return to the laboratory. Routine measurements made from the sampling flasks include non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis, and these measurements provide the basis for the data presented here. Between April and September of 2008, the container was deployed monthly on two sequential roundtrip flights between Frankfurt and Chennai, India. To achieve greater resolution, air samples were collected only on the first of the roundtrip flights, with 14 samples collected on the flight to Chennai and 14 collected on the return. These flights provided the opportunity to study the composition of the upper troposphere in this region during the Asian summer monsoon period (typically June-September), which is characterized by anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere coupled with deep convection. Samples collected during the monsoon period exhibit elevated levels of NMHCs relative to samples collected outside of the monsoon period, with enhancements in ethyne and benzene being more substantial than enhancements in the alkanes. Enhanced mixing ratios are observed between 15N and 40N, and correspond to enhancements in other trace gases, namely methane and CO. Ethyne in particular is strongly correlated with both methane and CO in this region

  20. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  1. Budgets of O3 and CO in the upper troposphere: CARIBIC passenger aircraft results 1997-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Asman, W. A. H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Heinrich, G.; Fischer, H.; Cuijpers, J. W. M.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2002-09-01

    In situ measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted using a passenger aircraft during 47 flights (November 1997 to April 2001) between Germany and the Indian Ocean region at 10-11 km altitude, project Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC). Here, emphasis is on a better understanding of the budgets of O3 and CO in the middle and upper northern hemispheric (NH) troposphere. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of the mean values and the local variability of O3 and CO are assessed. CO is moreover applied as tracer of polluted (surface) air, that is, as a measure of O3 precursors. This enables us to assign positive or negative O3-CO correlations and their slopes α = dO3/dCO to O3 produced by photochemistry or to O3 imported from the stratosphere. In the tropics, photochemical O3 production clearly dominates all year round, with mean O3-CO slopes of 0.45-0.53 in spring/summer and 0.20-0.27 in autumn/winter. Over the Arabian Sea and the Middle East, high annual net O3 production rates in the troposphere of 17.6 × 1010 O3 molecules cm-2 s-1 are estimated. In the extratropics, the well-documented springtime O3 maximum emerged in the CARIBIC data set. Stratospheric O3 influx and photochemical O3 production contribute equally to this spring maximum. In summer, photochemical O3 formation clearly dominates, in winter, per contra, stratospheric O3 influx clearly dominates. In the extratropics, CO shows a sine seasonal variation between ˜81 ppbv in September and ˜111 ppbv in March, being delayed by ˜5 weeks compared to ground-based background monitoring stations. In the tropics, however, no significant seasonal variations of CO were observed, mainly because of occasional high CO periods such as those associated with the 1997 Indonesian forest fires or the outflow of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which pumps in summer immense amounts of pollutants emitted in South Asia (India

  2. Rights of the Child in Costa Rica: Report Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luz Angela

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Costa Rica. The report's introduction notes that in addition to ratifying the Convention, Costa Rica's…

  3. Biomass burning and fossil fuel signatures in the upper troposphere observed during a CARIBIC flight from Namibia to Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Rhee, T. S.; Slemr, F.; Oram, D. E.; Penkett, S. A.; Zahn, A.

    2002-10-01

    During a CARIBIC flight from Namibia to Germany in July 2000, air influenced by recent convective injection of biomass burning emissions was intersected in the vicinity of the ITCZ at an altitude of 10 km. The observed CO enhancement ratios for non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and methyl halides are consistent with those reported for fresh biomass burning plumes. Air masses affected by transcontinental transport of natural gas emissions, most probably from the Gulf of Mexico, were encountered over the Mediterranean Sea. These are one of the few observations of deep convection of biomass burning emissions to the upper troposphere and of long range transport of natural gas emissions reported so far. The observations demonstrate the importance of deep convection for the chemistry of the upper troposphere and the potential of commercial aircraft for atmospheric research.

  4. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  5. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, is a short-lived chlorocarbon of predominantly anthropogenic origin. Increasing industrial usage and associated emissions resulted in an increasing atmospheric burden throughout the 1900s. Atmospheric abundance peaked around 1990 and was followed by a decline in the early part of the 21st century. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2 (it is a regulated toxic air pollutant and a contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion) no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole air samples collected at altitudes of between ~10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been traversed at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~7-9 ppt in background air to ~12-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-15 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  6. Increasing concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, inferred from CARIBIC air samples collected 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Baker, A. K.; Montzka, S. A.; Humphrey, S.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, a regulated toxic air pollutant and minor contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, were reported to have peaked around 1990 and to be declining in the early part of the 21st century. Recent observations suggest this trend has reversed and that CH2Cl2 is once again increasing in the atmosphere. Despite the importance of ongoing monitoring and reporting of atmospheric CH2Cl2, no time series has been discussed in detail since 2006. The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) has analysed the halocarbon content of whole-air samples collected at altitudes of between ~ 10-12 km via a custom-built container installed on commercial passenger aircraft since 1998, providing a long-term record of CH2Cl2 observations. In this paper we present this unique CH2Cl2 time series, discussing key flight routes which have been used at various times over the past 15 years. Between 1998 and 2012 increases were seen in all northern hemispheric regions and at different altitudes, ranging from ~ 7-10 ppt in background air to ~ 13-15 ppt in regions with stronger emissions (equating to a 38-69% increase). Of particular interest is the rising importance of India as a source of atmospheric CH2Cl2: based on CARIBIC data we provide regional emission estimates for the Indian subcontinent and show that regional emissions have increased from 3-14 Gg yr-1 (1998-2000) to 16-25 Gg yr-1 (2008). Potential causes of the increasing atmospheric burden of CH2Cl2 are discussed. One possible source is the increased use of CH2Cl2 as a feedstock for the production of HFC-32, a chemical used predominantly as a replacement for ozone-depleting substances in a variety of applications including air conditioners and refrigeration.

  7. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  8. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  9. (Hydroelectric project in Costa Rican rural electric generation and transmission)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-11-28

    On November 6, 1989, I left for San Jose, Costa Rica. My visit was set to accomplish two activities. The first activity was a follow-on mission to gather additional information on a newly identified small hydroelectric project, in support of a rural electric generation and transmission cooperative performed for the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project. Data on stream flows, soils, geologic, and topographic information was gathered for Rio San Lorenzo, near Quesada. A reconnaissance level survey was performed for Rio Naranjillo, a river near San Marcos. The second part of the visit was dedicated to interaction with ICE, the electric utility, discussing plans to establish a comprehensive efficiency program in Costa Rica. I returned to Oak Ridge on November 16, 1989.

  10. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L. ); Trocki, L.K. )

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica.

  11. MEDISE: A macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.R. ); Leiva, C.L. . Direccion Sectorial de Energia)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the development and results of MEDISE, an econometric macroeconomic model for energy planning in Costa Rica. The model is a simultaneous system of 19 equations that was constructed using ENERPLAN, an energy planning tool developed by the United Nations for use in developing countries. The equations were estimated using regression analysis on a data time series of 1966 to 1984. ENERPLAN's model solution package was used to obtain forecasts of 19 economic variables from 1985 to 2005. the modeling effort was conducted jointly by Los Alamos Central American Energy and Resources Project (CAP) personnel and the Energy Sector Directorate of Costa Rica during 1986. The CAP was funded by the US Agency for International Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. PMID:27139442

  13. A preliminary survey of the epidemiology of bluetongue in Costa Rica and northern Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Lorbacher de Ruiz, H.; Donato, A. P.; Taylor, W. P.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection of livestock in scattered localities in the neotropics prompted a serologic survey of cattle in Colombia and Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 48.1% of 1435 bovine animals had BT virus antibody in the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). In Colombia 51.8% of 635 cattle were AGPT-positive for BT virus. Antibody prevalence ranged from over 50% in the lowlands to 0% in Costa Rica and 19% in Colombian cattle above 2000 m altitude. Neutralization tests indicated that Costa Rican cattle had been exposed to BT virus types 6, 12, 14 and 17. PMID:2989360

  14. Life history of Manataria maculata (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Murillo, L Ricardo; Nishida, Kenji

    2003-06-01

    The life history and early stages of the satyrine butterfly Manataria maculata are described and illustrated from Costa Rica. Eggs are laid on Lasiacis sp. (Panicoideae), a new non-bamboo host plant for the genus Manataria. The larval stage varied from 23 to 28 days, and the pupal duration was approximately 12 days when reared on Bambusa vulgaris and Guadua angustifolia in captivity at 23-24 degrees C. PMID:15162739

  15. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant. PMID:2445007

  16. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  17. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality. PMID:1805367

  18. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  19. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  20. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  1. Differences and Similarities between School Principals in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective school leadership is a global concern. This paper provides a comparison of the school principal in Costa Rica to the United States. Differences and similarities are described for principals in both nations. Major differences for principals in Costa Rica include administrative salaries, selection procedures, induction, no…

  2. The Impact of Post-Secondary Privatization: The Case of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Santos, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, the Central American country of Costa Rica experienced rapid and unprecedented private university growth as part of an international movement towards post-secondary privatization. Costa Rica stands apart from other developing countries in that all 50 of the nation's private universities are proprietary, resulting in a…

  3. Special Education and Severe Disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing Inclusion in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of special education in Costa Rica is provided. Costa Rica has promulgated four educational service models that extend special education expertise: consulting teachers, educational assistance teams, itinerant teams, and resource centers. Their educational classification system describes the level of modifications required by students.…

  4. Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

  5. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  6. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  7. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  8. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed

    Badilla, Xiomara; Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2003-06-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  9. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  10. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  11. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. PMID:19219897

  12. Favourable impact of regular swimming in young people with haemophilia: experience derived from 'Desafio del Caribe' project.

    PubMed

    Boadas, A; Osorio, M; Gibraltar, A; Rosas, M M; Berges, A; Herrera, E; Gadea, S; Gutiérrez, M Á; Salazar, F; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming is beneficial for persons with haemophilia (PWH) providing good maintenance of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system and improving many psychological characteristics. In the Desafío del Caribe Project, young PWH from Venezuela and Mexico took part in an open water competition in the Gulf of Mexico under a multidisciplinary team supervision. Eight severe haemophilia A, two moderate haemophilia A, one severe haemophilia B and two moderate haemophilia B subjects were included. Haematological, musculoskeletal and psychological evaluations were carried out before and during training for the competition. Training program included physical exercise routines and swimming practices that alternated between pools and open water. Swimmers had coverage with factor concentrates before pool and open water trainings. In physiatric evaluations, the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was used. The objective of the psychology area was to analyse self-esteem, precompetition anxiety, coping mechanisms and relaxation levels. The need of factor prophylaxis before intense trainings was confirmed. In the musculoskeletal system a decrease of elbow pain as well as an increase of muscle strength in the ankles were observed. In the psychological area significant differences between the first and second test in self-esteem levels, cognitive anxiety and group cohesion were found. PWH must be provided with orientation and encouragement to practice swimming regularly. High competition exercise must be supervised by a multidisciplinary team which must evaluate the pros and cons of the activity to make relevant recommendations. PMID:25359594

  13. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  15. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone. PMID:12322449

  16. Costas loop lock detection in the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The advanced receiver currently being developed uses a Costas digital loop to demodulate the subcarrier. Previous analyses of lock detector algorithms for Costas loops have ignored the effects of the inherent correlation between the samples of the phase-error process. Accounting for this correlation is necessary to achieve the desired lock-detection probability for a given false-alarm rate. Both analysis and simulations are used to quantify the effects of phase correlation on lock detection for the square-law and the absolute-value type detectors. Results are obtained which depict the lock-detection probability as a function of loop signal-to-noise ratio for a given false-alarm rate. The mathematical model and computer simulation show that the square-law detector experiences less degradation due to phase jitter than the absolute-value detector and that the degradation in detector signal-to-noise ratio is more pronounced for square-wave than for sine-wave signals.

  17. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel. PMID:12848237

  18. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators. PMID:12294361

  19. Smoking: attitudes of Costa Rican physicians and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jiménez, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information, using a written questionnaire, on the knowledge, smoking behaviour, and attitudes of Costa Rican physicians about smoking as a health issue. A random sample of 650 physicians was chosen from a list of active physicians; 287 of them were covered by survey between August 1993 and October 1994, and 217 (76%) responded with data for the study. While 40% of the physicians who participated were ex-smokers, 19% were current smokers; 67% of these two groups combined reported smoking in the workplace. Only 49% believed that physicians could be a nonsmoking role model; the majority (87%) had asked patients about their smoking status. The only cessation technique consistently used (90%) was counselling about the dangers of smoking. Measures such as setting a date to quit smoking and nicotine replacement were rarely recommended (< or = 2%). Nearly all the physicians (99%) considered smoking to be a major health issue. These results showed a high prevalence of smoking among Costa Rican physicians, with little recognition of the need for them to set an example as a role model. While they were knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking, they did not recommend any of the proven techniques to help their patients to quit smoking. A clear consensus for more strict tobacco regulation exists, but to date little has been done to act on this. PMID:10327710

  20. Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, J; Schifter, J; Feldblum, P J

    1998-04-01

    This study measured short-term female condom acceptability among 51 female sex workers in San José, Costa Rica. Each woman was trained in use of the female condom and was asked to use the device if clients refused to use male condoms during a 2-week study period (male condoms were also distributed). Two follow-up visits with short interviews were scheduled, including questions on general reaction to the female condom by the participants and their clients, ease and comfort of use, and preferences for male or female devices. At the first follow-up visit, 51% of the women reported they "liked the female condom very much" and 45% reported they "liked it somewhat." Similar results were reported after the second follow-up phase. Sixty-seven percent of the participants preferred the female condom over the male condom, and, according to the the women, over half of their clients liked the female condom "very much" or "somewhat." The most common problems during the first phase were difficulty to insert (61%) and discomfort (43%). However, during the second study phase a reduction in these problems (22% and 25%, respectively) and other use-related problems were noted. Although this new method is not yet available throughout Costa Rica, these results should encourage sexually transmitted diseases and HIV service organizations to make this method accessible to women. PMID:9573433

  1. Using Long-Term Observations of VOCs from the CARIBIC Observatory to Refine Understanding of Transport and Chemistry in the UT/LS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Thorenz, U. R.; Sauvage, C.; Riede, H.; Umezawa, T.; Williams, J.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous trace components of the atmosphere, arising from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. Their wide range of lifetimes and specific source signatures make VOCs useful indicators of source region, photochemical histories and transport timescales of air masses. This is particularly true of the C2-C5non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are predominantly anthropogenic in origin, have relatively well-known emission ratios, and lifetimes ranging from days to months. NMHCs are also frequently measured in an ensemble analysis, as is the case for whole air samples collected during deployments of the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container; www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Since 2005 the CARIBIC observatory operates from onboard a Lufthansa Airlines A340-600, where it is deployed monthly to make detailed observations of the atmosphere during a series of 2-6 long-distance commercial flights. The container operates at aircraft cruise altitudes of 10-12 km, placing the observations primarily in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS). There is a dearth of information about distributions of VOCs in the UT/LS, and data is generally restricted to measurements during short-term field campaigns. However, when data are available, VOC studies have proven to be well-suited to investigations in the UT/LS, where air masses are remote from sources and background air is relatively homogeneous. Here we take advantage of the over 5000 measurements of VOCs from air samples collected during nearly 10 years of CARIBIC flights in order to better understand transport and chemistry in the tropopause region. First, we use NMHC observations to identify "hot spots" for rapid transport of boundary layer air to the UT via convection or warm conveyor belts by examining the relationships of shorter-lived species to longer-lived ones and comparison to

  2. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, the gray area in the center of the image. The view is toward the northwest with the Pacific Ocean in the distance and shows a portion of the Meseta Central (Central Valley), home to about a third of Costa Rica's population.

    Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered, so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between

  3. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the UT/LS: Eight Years of Monthly Measurements by the IAGOS-CARIBIC Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Christner, E.; van Velthoven, P. J. F.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Baker, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    An extensive set of in situ water vapor (H2O) measurements obtained by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft at cruise altitude from 2005 to 2013 is presented. A description of the vertical distribution of H2O from the upper troposphere (UT) via the extra-tropical tropopause mixing layer (exTL) into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) is given. H2O was found to undergo considerable seasonal variation, with maxima in summer and remaining in phase from the UT up to about 4 km above the tropopause. The transport and dehydration pathway of air starting at the Earth's surface and ending at 10-12 km altitude is reconstructed based upon (i) potential temperature, (ii) relative humidity w.r.t. ice (RHi), and (iii) back trajectories as a function of altitude relative to the tropopause. RHi of an air mass is found to be primarily determined by its temperature change during recent vertical movement, i.e. cooling during ascent/expansion and warming during descent/compression. The data show with great clarity that H2O and RHi at 10-12 km altitude are controlled by three dominant transport/dehydration pathways: (i) the Hadley circulation, i.e. convective uplift in the tropics and pole-ward directed subsidence drying from the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) with observed RHi down to 2%, (ii) warm conveyor belts and mid-latitude convection transporting moist air into the UT with observed RHi usually above 60%, and (iii) the Brewer-Dobson shallow and deep branches with observed RHi down to 1%.

  4. A Comprehensive Data Composite of NO and NOy in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere from CARIBIC Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; Stock, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Schlager, H.

    2015-12-01

    As a key precursor for tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The NOx distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is controlled by different sources and processes, such as long-range transport, uplift of emissions from the boundary layer, lightning, and air traffic emissions. The combination of comparatively short lifetime, variety of sources, and complex chemistry entails large spatial variations in the abundance of nitrogen oxides. Insufficient knowledge of the NOx background concentrations in the UTLS implicates uncertainties in the determination of the ozone production, which depends non-linear on the background NOxmixing ratios. To evaluate model simulations, a sound observational data base of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS is required. Within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) nitrogen oxide measurements are performed regularly aboard a passenger aircraft. A total of 330 flights were conducted from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destinations in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines. We present data averages of NO and NOy for the different regions and for different seasons. At mid-latitudes, observed NOy and NO generally show clear seasonal cycles in the upper troposphere with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Mean NOy mixing ratios vary between 1.36 nmol/mol in summer and 0.27 nmol/mol in winter. Mean NO mixing ratios range between 0.05 nmol/mol and 0.22 nmol/mol. Regions in the sub-tropics and tropics show no consistent seasonal dependence of the NO and NOyabundance. These measurements represent one of the most comprehensive NO and NOy dataset presently available for the tropopause region and is a suitable basis for establishing a climatology. It can be used

  5. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  6. A transcultural nurse's adventures in Costa Rica: using Leininger's Sunrise Model for transcultural nursing discoveries.

    PubMed

    Finn, J M

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive report of a transcultural nurse's experiences as an Earthwatch volunteer working with Leatherback sea turtles in Costa Rica. While in Costa Rica the author had an opportunity to observe and experience the culture and lifeways of the people of Costa Rica. The author attempted to discover and understand aspects of the Costa Rican social structure and world view and relate these insights to Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model and the role of transcultural nurses. Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model depicted the relationships inherent in her theory and included: culture, world view, and social structure dimensions. The social structure dimensions included: technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways, political and legal, economic, and educational factors. The insights and understandings learned through application of Leininger's (1991) Sunrise Model were applied to transcultural nurses' role in meeting the care needs of clients from various cultures. PMID:8507431

  7. Personality traits change in adulthood: reply to Costa and McCrae (2006).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Walton, Kate E; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure of personality traits are needed and explain why the Revised NEO Personality Inventory is not the correct model for that purpose. The authors provide direct evidence refuting the hypothesis that personality traits change only because of biologically based intrinsic maturation. The authors present arguments supporting the contention that meta-analyses should be preferred to single longitudinal studies when drawing inferences about general patterns of personality development. Finally, the authors point out why the differences between their position and Costa and McCrae's are important. PMID:16435956

  8. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  9. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  10. Tracking performance of Costas loops with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the tracking performance of the Costas loop used in a suppressed carrier receiver with a hard limiter of the in-phase channel arm filter output. Attention is given to assessing the penalty, if indeed it is a penalty rather than an improvement, in this performance relative to a conventional Costas loop without the hard limiter and with an analog third multiplier. In particular, for the case of single-pole Butterworth (RC) arm filters and NRZ data, the squaring loss (tracking jitter penalty relative to a linear loop) is evaluated and illustrated as a function of the ratio of arm filter bandwidth to data rate and data SNR. Also considered is the tracking performance of a hard-limited modified Costas loop wherein the quadrature arm is removed. Corresponding results for the modified Costas loop without the hard limiter are given.

  11. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  12. The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, G.L., Jr.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body located beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors

  13. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Sims, Katharine R. E.; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B.

    2010-01-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty. PMID:20498058

  14. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  15. Arbutoid mycorrhizas of the genus Cortinarius from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kühdorf, K; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2016-08-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizas of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Arbutoidea, Ericaceae) from neotropical montane forests are rarely described. To date, only mycorrhizal associations with the fungal species Leccinum monticola, Leotia lubrica and Sebacina sp. are known from literature. The genus Cortinarius is one of the most species-rich ectomycorrhizal taxa with over 2000 assumed species. In this study, two sites in the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica were sampled, where Com. arbutoides is endemic and grows together with Quercus costaricensis. Using a combined method of rDNA sequence analysis and morphotyping, 33 sampled mycorrhizal systems of Cortinarius were assigned to the subgenera Dermocybe, Phlegmacium and Telamonia. Specific plant primers were used to identify the host plant. Here, we present the phylogenetic data of all found Cortinarii and describe four of the arbutoid mycorrhizal systems morphologically and anatomically. PMID:26968744

  16. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  17. Optimum performance of suppressed carrier receivers with Costas loop tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of suppressed carrier receivers with Costas loop tracking is optimized by proper choice of loop arm filter bandwidth. In particular, it is shown that for a variety of passive arm filter types, there exists, for a given data rate and data signal-to-noise ratio, an optimum filter bandwidth in the sense of minimizing the loop's squaring loss. For the linear theory case, this is equivalent to minimizing the loop's tracking jitter. When symbol synchronization is known, it is shown that by replacing the passive arm filters with active filters, i.e., integrate-and-dump circuits, one can achieve an improvement in carrier-to-noise ratio of as much as 4 to 6 dB depending on the passive arm filter type used for comparison and the value of data signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Authigenic Carbonates off Costa Rica Margin: Archives for Dewatering History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Suess, E.; Sahling, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, J.; Bock, B.

    2003-04-01

    Authigenic carbonates in a variety of types and shapes characterize mud diapirs and slump scarps, the major sites of fluid venting off Costa Rica margin. A regional distribution pattern of mineral and isotope compositions exists based on 76 samples analyzed so far: The Jaco Scarp, which represents a deep plow mark left by a subducted seamount, is characterized by nodules, fluid conduit concretions and chemoherms. The dominant mineral is (proto-)dolomite, except for chemoherms which are composed of aragonite. The dolomites have δ13C and δ18O compositions in the range of -40.5 to -28.3 ppm PDB and 8.1 to 6.5 ppm PDB, respectively, while those of chemoherm are lighter (δ13C = -46.0 to -51.0 ppm PDB and δ18O = 4.8 to 5.0 ppm PDB). On the mud diapirs off northern Costa Rica, the carbonates are mainly massive micrites which are dominated by calcite (MgCO_3 = 2--10 mol-%), their δ13C and δ18O are in the range of -27.4 to -53.0 ppm PDB and 5.4 to 6.3 ppm PDB, respectively. On the mud diapirs off southern Costa Rica, aragonite dominates the chemoherms (δ13C = -40.6 to -49.2 ppm PDB, δ18O = 4.4 to 6.4 ppm PDB) and high Mg-calcite dominates the seepage-associated crusts (δ13C = -51.9 to -52.7 ppm PDB; δ18O = 4.9 to 4.8 ppm PDB), while chimneys and fluid conduit concretions are composed of calcite with relatively low Mg content (δ13C = -32.4 to -41.5 ppm PDB; δ18O = 6.4 to 5.7 ppm PDB). The calcite precipitated inside chimneys is more depleted in 13C and has higher Mg-contents than the outer chimney walls, while the concretions are enriched in 13C and depleted in Mg-contents inside compared to outside layers. These trends indicate their sequences of growth. The gas hydrate-associated carbonates are unusually heavy isotopically (δ13C = -18.6 to -29.8 ppm PDB, δ18O = 6.0 to 6.8 ppm PDB) indicating a thermal origin of the methane-C as well as 18O enriched precipitating solutions. This agrees well with the C-isotope ratio of methane recovered from gas hydrates and Cl

  19. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  20. Seismic reflection images of the accretionary wedge of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, T.H.; Stoffa, P.L. ); McIntosh, K.; Silver, E.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The large-scale structure of modern accretionary wedges is known almost entirely from seismic reflection investigations using single or grids of two-dimensional profiles. The authors will report on the first three-dimensional seismic reflection data volume collected of a wedge. This data set covers a 9-km-wide {times} 22-km-long {times} 6-km-thick volume of the accretionary wedge just arcward of the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. The three-dimensional processing has improved the imaging ability of the multichannel data, and the data volume allows mapping of structures from a few hundred meters to kilometers in size. These data illustrate the relationships between the basement, the wedge shape, and overlying slope sedimentary deposits. Reflections from within the wedge define the gross structural features and tectonic processes active along this particular convergent margin. So far, the analysis shows that the subdued basement relief (horst and graben structures seldom have relief of more than a few hundred meters off Costa Rica) does affect the larger scale through going structural features within the wedge. The distribution of mud volcanoes and amplitude anomalies associated with the large-scale wedge structures suggests that efficient fluid migration paths may extend from the top of the downgoing slab at the shelf edge out into the lower and middle slope region at a distance of 50-100 km. Offscraping of the uppermost (about 45 m) sediment occurs within 4 km of the trench, creating a small pile of sediments near the trench lower slope. Underplating of parts of the 400-m-thick subducted sedimentary section begins at a very shallow structural level, 4-10 km arcward of the trench. Volumetrically, the most important accretionary process is underplating.

  1. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  2. The Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) species group in Costa Rica (Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Historically, the name Phyllodonta latrata (Guenée) has been applied to what is a complex of three undescribed species in Costa Rica. They are very similar in maculation, but can be differentiated by genitalic characters and barcodes. P. alajuela Sullivan, sp. n. occurs at lower altitudes in the northwestern part of Costa Rica whereas P. intermediata Sullivan, sp. n. and P. esperanza Sullivan, sp. n. are found at partially overlapping altitudes in the central mountain ranges. PMID:25061377

  3. Analysis of tracking performance of the MTDD Costas loop for UQPSK signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1981-01-01

    The tracking performance of the breadboard Costas loop for the Multimegabit Telemetry Demodulator/Detector (MTDD) System using an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keyed (UQPSK) signal is considered. The particular Costas loop is a biphase polarity type with passive arm filters. The loop contains a hard limiter in front of the third multiplier, which is a chopper-type device. The rms phase jitter predictions made have also been verified experimentally.

  4. [Sterilization determinants and their demographic effect on Colombia and Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Hollerbach, P E

    1986-01-01

    This article is based on data gathered during contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out in Costa Rica and Colombia in 1978, and in 1980 in Colombia and 1981 in Costa Rica. The groups studied consisted of women aged 14-49, and ranged in population from n=3,400 to n=4,580. Colombia Ministry of Health policy limits access to sterilization to couples over 30 with at least 3 children. Profamilia, private family planning organization, has similar though less stringent norms. The majority of sterilizations are of females. Sterilization has come under some attack by the Roman Catholic church, family planning programs continue to be viable. In Costa Rica, sterilization has not been practiced as a family planning method officially, but was performed by the national social service system as well as private providers when it was medically indicated. Since 1982, sterilization has been illegal in Costa Rica. Comparing the 2 countries, the Colombian sterilization rate rose from about 17/1000 ever married women in 1970 to 19.8 in 1980. The rate for Costa Rica rose to 21.6 in 1976, after which there was an attempt to restrict the practice. The effects of the restriction had become negligible by 1980. Women married for 19-20 years were the group with the highest % of sterilizations in both countries. Women with 6 or more live children in Costa Rica, and 4 in Colombia, women 30-39 in Colombia and 35-44 in Costa Rica, women having previously used contraceptives and women in urban areas were more likely sterilized. It is projected that a high potential demand for sterilization exists in Colombia, but the demand in Costa Rica is considerably less. The acceptor characteristics (e.g. years married, age) are quite similar for the 2 countries. Generally speaking, fertility is higher among sterilized women in both countries. PMID:12267934

  5. An estimation of the 18O / 16O ratio of UT/LMS ozone based on artefact CO in air sampled during CARIBIC flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2015-02-01

    An issue of O3-driven artefact production of O3 in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) air analysed in the CARIBIC-1 project is being discussed. By confronting the CO mixing and isotope ratios obtained from different analytical instrumentation, we (i) reject natural/artificial sampling and mixing effects as possible culprits of the problem, (ii) ascertain the chemical nature and quantify the strength of the contamination, and (iii) demonstrate successful application of the isotope mass-balance calculations for inferring the isotope composition of the contamination source. The δ18O values of the latter indicate that the oxygen is very likely being inherited from O3. The δ13C values hint at reactions of trace amounts of organics with stratospheric O3 that could have yielded the artificial CO. While the exact contamination mechanism is not known, it is clear that the issue pertains only to the earlier (first) phase of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. Finally, estimated UT/LMS ozone δ18O values are lower than those observed in the stratosphere within the same temperature range, suggesting that higher pressures (240-270 hPa) imply lower isotope fractionation controlling the local δ18O(O3) value.

  6. The Garífuna (Black Carib) people of the Atlantic coasts of Honduras: Population dynamics, structure, and phylogenetic relations inferred from genetic data, migration matrices, and isonymy.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin-Francisco; Matamoros, Mireya; Carracedo, Angel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess population dynamics, structure, and phylogenetic relations of the populations that inhabit the Caribbean coasts of Honduras: the Garífuna (or Black Carib) people, an admixture of Black Africans and Red Carib Native Amerindians. Thirteen autosomal tetranucleotide microsatellite markers of the DNA (namely short tandem repeats) were genotyped in samples from the Garifuna communities of Bajamar, in the Department of Cortés; Corozal, in the Department of Atlántida; and Iriona, in the Department of Gracias a Dios. Each subject in the study filled a questionnaire with the following information: complete name and surname of participant, and places of birth of the participant, his/her parents, and grandparents. We performed analyses that included determination of migration rates and residence patterns from information of places of birth, fixation indices from genetic data, and analysis of surnames of the sampled subjects (isonymy). Migration matrices showed a migration wave from east to west in the parents and grandparents of the subjects. A raise in migration rates and a shift in predominating residence pattern from neolocality to matrilocality from grandparents to parents were observed. Analysis of isonymy conjunctly with values for F(IS) in each community showed high endogamy in Bajamar, and recent, high immigration in Iriona. A dendrogram constructed with allele frequencies of the Garifuna and other populations from the Americas, Africa, and Europe revealed the close relationships of this ethnic group with Afro-Caribbean and African Populations. PMID:19384861

  7. Impact of acetone (photo)oxidation on HOx production in the UT/LMS based on CARIBIC passenger aircraft observations and EMAC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, M.; Ruhnke, R.; Kirner, O.; Ziereis, H.; Stratmann, G.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.

    2014-05-01

    Until a decade ago, acetone was assumed to be a dominant HOx source in the dry extra-tropical upper troposphere (ex-UT). New photodissociation quantum yields of acetone and the lack of representative data from the ex-UT challenged that assumption. Regular mass spectrometric observations onboard the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) passenger aircraft deliver the first representative distribution of acetone in the UT/LMS (UT/lowermost stratosphere). Based on diverse CARIBIC trace gas data and non-observed parameters taken from the model ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry, we quantify the HOx source in the UT/LMS from (photo)oxidation of acetone. The findings are contrasted to HOx production from ozone photolysis, overall the dominant tropospheric HOx source. It is shown that HOx production from acetone (photo)oxidation reaches up to 95% of the HOx source from ozone photolysis in autumn in the UT and on average ~61% in summer. That is, acetone is a significant source of HOx in the UT/LMS.

  8. Analysis of accurate 13C and 18O isotope measurements of CO2 in CARIBIC aircraft air samples from the tropical troposphere, and the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, S. S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Taylor, P.

    2010-03-01

    The project CARIBIC (caribic-atmospheric.com"target="_blank">http://caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to study atmospheric chemistry and transport by regularly measuring many compounds in the free troposphere (FT) and the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) by using passenger aircraft. Here CO2 concentrations and highly accurate isotope results are presented in detail together with supporting trace gas data. 509 CARIBIC-2 samples (highest precision and accuracy δ13C(CO2) and δ18O(CO2) data) from June 2007 until March 2009, together with CARIBIC-1 samples (flights between November 1999 and April 2002, 350 samples in total, 270 for NH, mostly δ13C(CO2) data) give a fairly extensive, unique data set for the NH free troposphere and the UT/LMS region. To compare data from different years a de-trending is applied. In the UT/LMS region δ13C(CO2), δ18O(CO2) and CO2 are found to correlate well with stratospheric tracers, in particular N2O. These correlations are in good agreement with current understanding of stratospheric circulation. δ18O(CO2) appears to be a useful, hitherto unused, tracer of atmospheric transport in the UT/LMS region. By filtering out the LMS data (based on N2O distribution), the isotope variations for the free and upper troposphere are obtained. These show however little latitudinal gradient, if any, and are in good agreement with the data of selected NOAA stations in NH tropics. Correlations between δ13C(CO2) and CO2 are observed both within single flight(s) covering long distances and for certain seasons. The overall variability in de-trended δ13C(CO2) and CO2 for CARIBIC-1 and CARIBIC-2 are similar and basically agree with each other, which also underscores the high quality of measurement. Based on all correlations, we discuss that CO2 distribution in the NH FT and UT (at CARIBIC flight routes) is regulated by uplift and pole-wards transport of tropical air up to approximately 50° N. The main reasons for

  9. Analysis of 13C and 18O isotope data of CO2 in CARIBIC aircraft samples as tracers of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere mixing and the global carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, S. S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Taylor, P.

    2010-09-01

    The project CARIBIC (caribic-atmospheric.com" target="_blank">http://caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to study atmospheric chemistry and transport by regularly measuring many compounds in the free troposphere and the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) by using passenger aircraft. Here we present CO2 concentrations and isotope results, and analyze the data together with supporting trace gas data. 509 CARIBIC-2 samples (highest precision and accuracy δ13C(CO2) and δ18O(CO2) data) from June 2007 until March 2009, together with CARIBIC-1 samples (flights between November 1999 and April 2002, 350 samples in total, 270 for NH, mostly δ13C(CO2) data) give a fairly extensive, unique data set for the NH free troposphere and the UT/LMS region. Total uncertainty of the data is the same as reported for the global monitoring program by NOAA-ESRL. To compare data from different years a de-trending is applied. In the UT/LMS region δ13C(CO2), δ18O(CO2) and CO2 are found to correlate well with stratospheric tracers, in particular N2O; δ18O(CO2) appears to be a useful, hitherto unused, tracer of atmospheric transport in the UT/LMS region and also inter-hemispheric mixing. By filtering out the LMS data (based on N2O distributions), the isotope variations for the free and upper troposphere are obtained. These variations have only small latitudinal gradients, if any, and are in good agreement with the data of selected NOAA stations in NH tropics. Correlations between δ13C(CO2) and CO2 are observed both within single flight(s) covering long distances and during certain seasons. The overall variability in de-trended δ13C(CO2) and CO2 for CARIBIC-1 and CARIBIC-2 are similar and are generally in agreement, which underscores agreement between high and low resolution sampling. Based on all correlations, we infer that the CO2 distribution in the NH troposphere along CARIBIC flight routes is chiefly regulated by uplift and pole-wards transport of

  10. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  11. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  12. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  13. Composition and Trends of Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS over Europe Observed by the CARIBIC Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Slemr, F.; Schuck, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 . Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG), halocarbon and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. CARIBIC flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany with routes to India, East Asia, South America, North America and Africa, and typical aircraft cruising altitudes of 10-12km allow for the monitoring of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) along these routes. Data collected during the aircraft’s departure from and return to Frankfurt provide a 4 year time series of near-monthly measurements of the composition of the UT/LS above Europe. Here we present a discussion of the composition of short-lived trace gases in the whole air samples collected above Europe during CARIBIC flights. Over 150 air samples were collected between May 2005 and July 2009, or about 4 samples per month. Of the whole air samples collected, about 45% showed influence by stratospheric air (i.e. very low values of GHG, NMHC and halocarbons, elevated O3, high potential vorticity). The remaining samples were representative of the upper troposphere; back trajectories for these samples indicate that a little over half were collected in air masses that had been in the boundary layer within the previous 8 days. The predominant source regions for these samples were the Gulf of Mexico and continental North America. Owing to their wide range of chemical lifetimes and the varying composition of emissions, short-lived trace gases transported to the UT/LS can be useful indicators of source

  14. Estimates of methane emissions from India using CH4-CO-C2H6 relationships from CARIBIC observations in monsoon convective outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P. F.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    A large fraction of methane sources are anthropogenic, and include fossil fuel use, biomass/biofuel burning, agriculture and waste treatment. Recently, much attention regarding emissions of greenhouse gases has focused on large, developing nations, as their emissions are expected to rise rapidly over the coming decades. As the second most populous country in the world, and one of the fastest growing economies, India has been of particular interest. Arguably the most important feature of meteorology in India is the Asian summer monsoon. During the monsoon period there exists persistent deep convection over Southern Asia, and the composition of convected air masses is strongly influenced by emissions from India. This ultimately results in a well-mixed air parcel containing air from India being transported to the upper troposphere. Over the course of the 2008 monsoon period the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) passenger aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights which probed this outflow. Data collected during these flights provides a unique opportunity to examine sources of atmospheric species in India. Here we use measurements of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and ethane (C2H6) from whole air samples collected during CARIBIC flights to estimate emissions of methane and to quantify those emissions related to flooding during the monsoon. Methane data from the monsoon period show enhancements inside the monsoon plume, which increase as the monsoon progresses. Using emission data for CO and ΔCH4/ΔCO derived from CARIBIC measurements, we estimate total methane emissions to be ~40 Tg yr-1. Relationships of methane to ethane, which shares the bulk of its sources with methane but lacks a biological component, are further used to estimate the fraction of “extra” emissions from biological activity related to increased monsoon rains. This additional methane is a considerable fraction of

  15. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  16. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  17. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  19. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  20. Urban structure and dengue fever in Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Fuller, Douglas O.; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Solano, Mayra E.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. Remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. In this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and QuickBird respectively) and ground-based data were analyzed for the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica for the years 2002–04. The results showed that the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was generally higher in the localities with lower incidence of dengue fever during 2002, although the correlation was statistically significant only in the dry season (r=−0.40; p=0.03). Dengue incidence was inversely correlated to built area and directly correlated with tree cover (r=0.75, p=0.01). Overall, the significant correlations between dengue incidence and urban structural variables (tree cover and building density) suggest that properties of urban structure may be associated with dengue incidence in tropical urban settings. PMID:20161131

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  2. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  3. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  4. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  5. Understanding 13C(CO2) and 18O(CO2 ) data obtained on CARIBIC aircraft air samples from the tropical troposphere, and the upper troposphere/ lowermost stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey S.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Schuck, Tanja J.; Zahn, Andreas; Taylor, Philip

    2010-05-01

    The project CARIBIC (http://caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to study atmospheric chemistry and transport by regularly measuring many compounds in the free troposphere (FT) and the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) by using passenger aircraft. CO2 isotope ratios were measured by CARIBIC-1 (November-1999 to April-2002, mostly d13C(CO2)) and CARIBIC-2 (June-2007 to March-2009, highest precision d13C(CO2) and d18O(CO2) data). (The latter effort has been possible due to the contribution of JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium.) This gives a new, unique and fairly extensive data set for the NH free troposphere and the UT/LMS region. In particular, CARIBIC-2 utilizing high-quality and high-resolution sampling gave a detailed distribution of d18O(CO2), with signals not affected by sampling and canister effects. For the first time we can demonstrate how the variability in air mass origin (recognized by using chemical tracers) is recorded by CO2 isotope signals on the inter-continental scale. There are two main mechanisms responsible: (i) UT/LMS mixing and (ii) seasonality of tropospheric CO2 as well as variable degree of mixing background air and air masses affected by CO2 sources/sinks. In the UT/LMS region both d13C(CO2), d18O(CO2) and CO2 are found to correlate well with stratospheric tracers, in particular N2O. The data for the free and upper troposphere show however little latitudinal gradient and are in good agreement with the data of selected NOAA stations in NH tropics. We discuss that CO2 distribution in the NH FT and UT (at CARIBIC flight routes) is regulated by uplift and pole-wards transport of tropical air. Next, d18O(CO2) is thought to be a new, previously not recognized tracer in the UT/LMS region as well as tracer of gross CO2 fluxes, where CO2 exchanges its oxygen with natural water pools.

  6. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  7. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  8. Variably Depleted Peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): A Possible Record of Subduction Initiation beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Butjosa, L.; Lewis, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of Cpx-bearing harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and (Opx-bearing) dunite, locally intruded by gabbroic rocks of Barremian age (~ 125 Ma). Mg# of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (90), to higher values in Cpx-harzburgite (91), harzburgite (92) and dunite (92-94). Cr# of spinel spans from 0.23 in lherzolite to 0.87 in dunite, and progressively increases from fertile to refractory lithologies. These variations overlap the mineral compositions of both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of whole rocks are variable (0.002 < LREEN < 0.11 and 0.003 < HREEN < 1.02), and the HREE contents generally reflect the fertility of the samples. Similar to mineral chemistry, these trace element abundances overlap the compositions of both highly depleted supra-subduction and more fertile abyssal peridotites. Peridotites are variably enriched in the most incompatible and fluid-mobile trace elements (Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Pb), and show negative anomalies of Nb and Ta. MREE/HREE fractionations in whole rocks and clinopyroxene support that these rocks are residues after initial fractional melting (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field and additional melting (~ 5-15%) in the spinel peridotite facies. The relative enrichment in incompatible and fluid-mobile elements (e.g., LILE and LREE) probably resulted from interaction of melting residues with ascending fluids/melts. We interpret the compositional variability of the Loma Caribe peridotite as reflecting different stages of generation of sub-oceanic mantle lithosphere during the Lower Cretaceous initiation of subduction beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-arc.

  9. Methyl chloride as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere inferred from IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Oram, D. E.; Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) obtained from air samples collected by the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (IAGOS-CARIBIC) passenger aircraft observatory for the period 2008-2012. To correct for the temporal increase of atmospheric N2O, the CARIBIC N2O data are expressed as deviations from the long-term trend at the northern hemispheric baseline station Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ΔN2O). ΔN2O undergoes a pronounced seasonal variation in the LMS with a minimum in spring. The amplitude increases going deeper in the LMS (up to potential temperature of 40 K above the thermal tropopause), as a result of the seasonally varying subsidence of air from the stratospheric overworld. Seasonal variation of CH3Cl above the tropopause is similar in phase to that of ΔN2O. Significant correlations are found between CH3Cl and ΔN2O in the LMS from winter to early summer, both being affected by mixing between stratospheric air and upper tropospheric air. This correlation, however, disappears in late summer to autumn. The slope of the CH3Cl-ΔN2O correlation observed in the LMS allows us to determine the stratospheric lifetime of CH3Cl to be 35 ± 7 years. Finally, we examine the partitioning of stratospheric air and tropical/extratropical tropospheric air in the LMS based on a mass balance approach using ΔN2O and CH3Cl. This analysis clearly indicates efficient inflow of tropical tropospheric air into the LMS in summer and demonstrates the usefulness of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air.

  10. CARIBIC Observations of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in the UT/LS: Biomass Burning in the Tropics and Anthropogenic Pollution in the Extra-Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Rhee, T. S.; Slemr, F.; Mfühle, J.; Fischer, H.; Zahn, A.; van Velthoven, P. F.

    2003-12-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) used a Boeing 767 on intercontinental flights to measure trace gases and aerosols between November 1997 and April 2002. From April 2004 onwards, a new Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 with a new inlet system and measurement container with 16 experiments will become operational. Here we discuss the results for NMHCs for a flight from the Maldives to Germany, June 2000. Twelve air samples of 350 L were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for NMHCs, halocarbons, CH4, CO, N2O, SF6, and isotopic compositions in CO and CO2. In the upper troposphere (UT) of the tropics, the concentrations of saturated NMHCs (C2 - C6) were significantly lower and less variable than in the extra-tropics, likely due to enhanced photo-oxidation in summer. A good correlation between long-lived NMHCs and CO, and their emission ratios imply that the air masses come from biomass burning regions. By contrast, the concentrations of all saturated NMHCs in the extra-tropics were greatly augmented. In particular, very high concentrations of several short-lived NMHCs, i.e., n-pentane, i-pentane, n-hexane, were observed near or even in the lowermost stratosphere (LS). Tight anti-correlations between CO and O3, the enhancement of ultra-fine particles, and the calculated backward trajectories indicate the occurrence of deep convection of highly polluted air from southern Europe into the lowermost stratosphere. The CARIBIC findings show a direct (fast) injection of polluted air to be a significant source of NMHCs observed in the lowermost stratosphere in the extra-tropics.

  11. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  12. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape. PMID:21082485

  13. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  14. US fossil fuel technologies for developing countries: Costa Rica country packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    Costa Rica presents long-term opportunities for US participation in the power generation sector. A growing industrial base, high economic growth, and an increasing living standard will continue to require more reliable electric generation. Although the country has depended upon hydropower to meet much of its energy needs, coal could become a more reliable form of energy in the near term, based on estimated indigenous resources and proximity to food quality imports. Thus, trade opportunities exist for the United States, in the electric power sector, for the US advanced fossil fuel technologies and related services. This report describes the Costa Rican energy situation; examines the financial, economic, and trade issues; and discusses project opportunities in Costa Rica. Costa Rica appears to have a positive climate for trade and investment activities, stimulated by the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Although the economy has recently slowed, the economic outlook appears healthy. Application for membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is pending. Due to an unexpectedly large growth in electricity demand, the Costa Rican utility Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is evaluating the need for construction of a coal-fired power plant in the size range of 60 to 125 MW, with an in-service data of the mid-1990s. A decision is expected by the end of 1988 concerning the required size, source of coal, and timing of this coal-fired plant. Based on conditions in Costa Rica, US advanced fossil-fuel technologies were chosen for continued study in conjunction with the identified potential project opportunities. These technologies are the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and coal-water mixtures. They could play a major role in meeting the utility expansion and/or industrial conversion opportunities summarized in Table I.1. The value of such projects could approximate US $160 million.

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)

    Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  16. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  17. Seismo-Electromagnetic Investigation of Earthquakes in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.; Thorwart, M.

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate possible seismo-electromagnetic signals of local earthquakes seismological and magnetotelluric measurements were conducted on the Nicoya-Pensinsula of Costa Rica between May 2010 and August 2011. During this time 25 local earthquakes were recorded on the magnetotelluric stations. Analysis shows that the seismological and the electromagnetic data are correlated. P- and S-waves could be identified on all components. The frequency content of the B-field is similar to that of the seismic acceleration. The frequency content of the electric field is limited to 2 to 4 Hz. The waveforms and amplitudes of the seismological and electromagnetic signals correlate partially, but envelopes show up to 1 second time shifts between maxima. We estimated the dimension of different effects to find an explanation for the observed waveform of the data. The coseismoelectric effect of the incoming seismic wave produces an electric field which is in the same order of the observed electric field. But the origin for the observed narrow frequency band as well as the occurrence of a seismo-electric S-phase remain unsolved. The change of the magnetic flux through the coil by tilt induces a voltage which is large enough to explain the signal of the magnetic components. A tilt of 10-5° produces a voltage of 5 mV. Other effects such as a lateral movement of the measurement equipment can be neglected. The most surprising observation of our survey which can not be explained by the existing seismo-electromagnetic theory is that the coda appears similarly strong for seismic and seismo-electric field records. An explanation could be seismo-electric converted waves generated at fluid bearing fractures and faults of the upper crust.

  18. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B.; Langseth, M.; Orange, D.

    1996-12-31

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m{sup 2}) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m{sup 2} throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  19. Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.; McAdoo, B. ); Langseth, M. ); Orange, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m[sup 2]) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m[sup 2] throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.

  20. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-01-01

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed. PMID:25136727

  1. A concavity property for the reciprocal of Fisher information and its consequences on Costa's EPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    We prove that the reciprocal of Fisher information of a log-concave probability density X in Rn is concave in t with respect to the addition of a Gaussian noise Zt = N(0 , tIn) . As a byproduct of this result we show that the third derivative of the entropy power of a log-concave probability density X in Rn is nonnegative in t with respect to the addition of a Gaussian noise Zt. For log-concave densities this improves the well-known Costa's concavity property of the entropy power (Costa, 1985).

  2. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  3. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination. PMID:25061379

  4. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Different Early Literacy Interventions on Low-Income Costa Rican Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolla San Francisco, Andrea; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata; Snow, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Grade retention has been the de facto policy for children with academic difficulties in many Latin American countries [Schiefelbein, E., & Wolff, L. (1992). "Repetition and inadequate achievement in Latin America's primary schools: a review of magnitudes, causes, relationships, and strategies." Washington, DC: World Bank.]. In Costa Rica, 14.9% of…

  6. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  7. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  8. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  9. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  10. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  11. Limited geographic distribution of beet pseudo-yellows virus in Costa Rican cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the detection of beet pseudo yellows crinivirus (BPYV) in field-grown cucurbits in Costa Rica. The presence of the virus was associated with severe yellowing and chlorosis, and a large population of whiteflies was observed on symptomatic plants. To determine the prevalence and...

  12. Teaching Special Education in Costa Rica: Using a Learning Strategy in an Inclusive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, special education in Costa Rica has seen profound changes from creating primarily segregated services to developing innovative service models that promote inclusion. This article describes those changes and takes a look at current challenges in this small country, including teacher shortages and adequate funding. (Contains…

  13. Sustainable Development in Costa Rica: An Approach to the Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimbs, Judith; Heffington, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Explores how the tools of geography can help meet some of the challenges inherent in sustainable development by looking at changes in land-use patterns among the Bribri Indians of Costa Rica. Includes a geography lesson on comparing regions and environmental issues. (CMK)

  14. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  15. First Report of Tomato Chlorosis Virus in Tomato in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In early 2007, severe yellowing and chlorosis symptoms were observed in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica. The symptoms resembled those of the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae) and large populations of whiteflies were observed in the fields and...

  16. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  17. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration. PMID:12298296

  18. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  19. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  20. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  1. First North American record of the Palearctic Microplax albofasciata (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaeoidea: Oxycarenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microplax albofasciata (Costa), a Palearctic (mainly Mediterranean) species of the small family Oxycarenidae, is reported from California as the first record for the New World. Adults of this little-known lygaeoid bug were found in 2012 and 2013 at the Hastings Natural History Reservation in norther...

  2. An Emerging Institution: The University for Peace in Costa Rica. Discussion Paper Series, No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A new United Nations college, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, is discussed. After providing a brief historical sketch on peace efforts since the Ancient Greeks, the objectives of the United Nations University are identified. The University for Peace is a new international university that is part of the United Nations University network, a…

  3. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM THE KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS SULFURATUS) FROM COSTA RICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectoral muscles from a captive keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from the Costa Rican were fed to a Toxoplasma gondii-free cat and the cat shed oocysts. Laboratory mice fed these oocysts developed antibodies to T. gondii in their sera and T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains. The DNA ext...

  4. Arc-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hoernle, Kaj; Abt, David L; Fischer, Karen M; Nichols, Holly; Hauff, Folkmar; Abers, Geoffrey A; van den Bogaard, Paul; Heydolph, Ken; Alvarado, Guillermo; Protti, Marino; Strauch, Wilfried

    2008-02-28

    Resolving flow geometry in the mantle wedge is central to understanding the thermal and chemical structure of subduction zones, subducting plate dehydration, and melting that leads to arc volcanism, which can threaten large populations and alter climate through gas and particle emission. Here we show that isotope geochemistry and seismic velocity anisotropy provide strong evidence for trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua. This finding contradicts classical models, which predict trench-normal flow owing to the overlying wedge mantle being dragged downwards by the subducting plate. The isotopic signature of central Costa Rican volcanic rocks is not consistent with its derivation from the mantle wedge or eroded fore-arc complexes but instead from seamounts of the Galapagos hotspot track on the subducting Cocos plate. This isotopic signature decreases continuously from central Costa Rica to northwestern Nicaragua. As the age of the isotopic signature beneath Costa Rica can be constrained and its transport distance is known, minimum northwestward flow rates can be estimated (63-190 mm yr(-1)) and are comparable to the magnitude of subducting Cocos plate motion (approximately 85 mm yr(-1)). Trench-parallel flow needs to be taken into account in models evaluating thermal and chemical structure and melt generation in subduction zones. PMID:18223639

  5. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  6. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  7. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  8. An Analysis of Retention and Attrition at MiraCosta College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald

    A study was conducted at MiraCosta College (MCC), in Del Mar, California, to investigate various aspects of retention and attrition and to make recommendations for possible program enhancements. The study sought to determine when students drop out of classes, which students drop out of school completely, and the drop out rate for various…

  9. Promoting Respect for All Forms of Life: A Model Primary School Program in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes the progress of the Costa Rican Humane Education Project after four years of work to educate children to protect the environment and to develop a genuine respect for all forms of life. Evaluation results indicate children have developed positive attitudes about animals and their environment. (MDH)

  10. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Environmental Quality Act lead agency, have prepared the Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Final EIS/EIR....

  11. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  12. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  13. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  14. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  15. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  16. The Power To Change: The Experience of the Costa Atlantica Project in Colombia (1977-1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetley, Andrew

    In 1977, the Bernard van Leer Foundation began supporting a project in Colombia that had the objective of improving the quality of early childhood care and education in a small village. The Costa Atlantica project offered an approach to development that was based on community organization, social management, participation, cooperation, popular…

  17. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  18. Newly discovered natural hosts of tomato chlorosis virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is an emerging whitefly-transmitted crinivirus. ToCV was detected in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica in 2007, causing symptoms of severe yellowing and foliar chlorosis. To identify alternative hosts that may serve as viru...

  19. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  20. Fecal and serological survey of Neospora caninum in farm dogs in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To detect oocysts of N. caninum in dog feces and to determine the excretion pattern in dogs from specialized dairy farms in Costa Rica, a total of 265 fecal samples were collected every 15 days for 7 months from February to August, 2005. Fecal samples were examined for N. caninum oocysts microscopic...

  1. Mantle source beneath Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): a geochemical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Sortino, F.; De Astis, G.; Romano, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we analysed rocks and noble gas composition of fluid inclusions (FIs) hosted in olivine crystals contained in a suite of eruptive products of the last 10ka of activity of Turrialba volcano, Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The suite of analyzed rocks display a calc-alkaline affinity, ranging in composition from basaltic-andesite to dacite. Trace element patterns indicate a typical behavior of subduction-related magmas and also the clear contribution of an OIB-like signature at source. A group of andesites displays also adakite-like geochemical features, as evidenced by their constant depletion in HFSE elements. Sr isotope (0.703593 - 0.703678) and Nd isotope ratios (0.512960 - 0.512968) suggest that Turrialba magmas belong to one of the less contaminated mantle source of Central America. The 3He/4He ratio of fluid inclusions from the most mafic eruptive products (basaltic-andesites) varies from 7.86 to 8.07 Ra, while that from andesite lavas varies from 7.03 to 7.18 Ra. In order to understand the mantle source feeding Turrialba volcano, we performed a geochemical investigation on fumarolic gases of summit craters. The He isotope composition of dry gases of Turrialba volcano is characterized by extremely high R/Ra values (7.08-7.96 Ra). The highest 3He/4He ratios were measured at both West and Central Craters (7.93-7.96 Ra and 7.78-7.88 Ra, respectively), and are the highest values of the entire Central America. Despite the observed variability, the 3He/4He ratio of fumarolic gases and FIs from Turrialba volcano is well in the range of arc related volcanism (~7-8 Ra; Hilton et al., 2002), and represents the signature of a mantle wedge in which the contamination by crustal fluids is small to negligible. In addition the occurrence of recent adakite-like magmatism suggests the presence of an abnormal heating of the subducting lithosphere under Turrialba volcano, allowing even old or cold oceanic crust to melt.

  2. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  3. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  4. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  5. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  6. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  7. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  8. Mineral and whole rock compositions of peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): insights into the evolution of the oceanic mantle in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.

    2012-04-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively

  9. New 40Ar/39Ar Ages Support The Dominant Right-Lateral Transform Motion Within The CARIB-SOAM PBZ Since Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamira, A.; Burke, K.; Copeland, P.; Foster, D.

    2006-12-01

    New 40Ar/3939Ar ages in amphiboles (84±2 to 95±2 Ma) and in white micas (86±3 to 95±2 Ma) from the Villa de Cura Blue Schist Belt (VdC) in Central Venezuela are in agreement with those ages reported by Smith et al., 1999 (96-80 Ma). We found that amphiboles and white micas reached their closure temperature at approximately the same time, suggesting a rapid cooling from 500°C to 300°C. The ages are very similar throughout the VdC, with no evident trend variations in any particular direction. We also report 40Ar/3939Ar amphibole ages from different localities along the Caribbean South America Plate Boundary Zone (CARIB-SOAM PBZ): 1) Batholithic granite in Aruba (88±9 Ma); 2) Ultramafic sliver in the northern coast of the Araya Peninsula, near San Juan de las Galdonas (145±14 Ma); 3) Dragon gneiss, in the extreme eastern tip of the Paria Peninsula (91±5 Ma); 4) Ultramafic rock from the Chacao Complex (122±17 Ma); 5) Three samples from Las Hermanas Formation, North of San Sebastian and South of VdC (134±4, 129±6 and 97±4 Ma). The igneous and high P/T metamorphic ages reported above were sampled in the thrust belts of Venezuela and are older than 70 Ma, when the Great Arc of the Caribbean struck the west coast of SOAM. The Venezuelan island of Los Testigos gave an 40Ar/3939Ar age for amphibole from a diorite of 41±2 Ma; this younger igneous age is located in the northern part of the PBZ; we interpret Los Testigos as a fragment of the southern end of the Lesser Antillean arc dragged into the PBZ as the arc slid by. All the ages are consistent with the predictions made by Burke et al., 2005, in which they proposed dominant right-lateral transform motion with limited flower structural strain-partitioning involving shortening (in thrusts) and extension (in pull-aparts) within the CARIB- SOAM PBZ and do not require a component of oblique convergence for the Caribbean-South America margin.

  10. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...