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Sample records for coster-kronig transitions

  1. Theoretical L-shell Coster-Kronig energies 11 or equal to z or equal to 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic relaxed-orbital calculations of L-shell Coster-Kronig transition energies have been performed for all possible transitions in atoms with atomic numbers. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first-order approximation to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. Each transition energy was computed as the difference between results of separate self-consistent-field calculations for the initial, singly ionized state and the final two-hole state. The following quantities are listed: total transition energy, 'electric' (Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater) contribution, magnetic and retardation contributions, and contributions due to vacuum polarization and self energy.

  2. M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Yogeshwar; Puri, Sanjiv

    2008-01-15

    A complete set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig (CK) yields has been generated by interpolation for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 from the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model based values tabulated for a limited number of elements, considering the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions in accordance with the CK transition energies evaluated in the present work. The CK transition energies have been deduced from tabulated values of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater model based neutral atom binding energies [K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18 (1976) 243] and the L{sub i} (i = 1-3) subshell CK transition energies [M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19 (1977) 97] in order to establish the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions at specific atomic numbers. A second set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence yields have also been deduced using radiative widths computed from the Dirac-Fock (DF) model based X-ray emission rates, and the total widths reevaluated to incorporate the DF model based radiative widths in place of those based on the DHS model. Further, the CK-corrected ({nu}{sub i}) and average fluorescence ({omega}{sub M}) fields, which are experimentally important, have been evaluated from the generated set of CK yields and two sets of fluorescence yields.

  3. L-subshell Coster-Kronig yields of palladium determined via synchrotron-radiation-based high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Kayser, Y.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.; Bucar, K.; Mihelic, A.; Szlachetko, J.; Slabkowska, K.

    2009-07-15

    We report on the experimental determination of the palladium L-subshell Coster-Kronig (CK) transition yields via high-resolution measurements of the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} (L{sub 3}-M{sub 4,5}) and L{beta}{sub 1} (L{sub 2}-M{sub 4}) x-ray emission lines. The L x-ray spectra were recorded by means of curved crystal spectrometers employing energy-tunable synchrotron radiation for fluorescence production. The CK yields were derived from the relative L x-ray intensity jumps at the L edges by fitting the fluorescence intensities as a function of the photon energy to the photoionization cross sections. The L x-ray intensities were corrected for solid-state effects which were estimated from the comparison of the measured and theoretical Pd L-edge x-ray-absorption spectra. Thanks to high resolution, the partial CK yield f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup M} could be extracted from the intensities of the resolved L{alpha}M satellite transitions. For f{sub 23}, f{sub 12}, and f{sub 13} CK rates, values of 0.164{+-}0.033, 0.047{+-}0.001, and 0.730{+-}0.039 were found, respectively. For the partial CK yields f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup M} and f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup N}, results of 0.406{+-}0.023 and 0.324{+-}0.032, respectively, were obtained.

  4. Dirac-Fock calculations of K -, L -, and M -shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, and Uuo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Santos, J. P.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J. P.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we calculated the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for the K shell and the L and M subshells of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, and Uuo (Z =118 ), using a Dirac-Fock model which provides a better description of the electron-electron interaction than previous approaches, and is suitable to handle superheavy elements. The results are compared with available data from other authors. In what concerns Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn K shells, the obtained results are in very good agreement with the adopted values of Krause [25] and with experiment when available. For the L subshells, our results are in line with existing ones. For the M subshells and for all shells of Uuo there are no previous experimental and theoretical results to compare to our calculations.

  5. Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

  6. Gain Calculations for Inner-Shell Lasing by Electron Collisional Ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upcraft, L. M.

    2002-11-01

    Current high power femtosecond lasers have been shown to produce electron pulses which may be appropriate for the pumping of X-Ray lasers through collisional ionisation. Non-radiative Coster-Kronig type decay processes may be fast enough to form an inverted state and allow X-ray lasing within the biologically interesting "water window". Calculations of the atomic processes in metallic Ti, Mn and Cu are presented that potentially useable gains on the M1 - L3 transition.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of 3p photoionization and subsequent Auger decay in atomic chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskinen, J.; Huttula, S.-M.; Mäkinen, A.; Patanen, M.; Huttula, M.

    2015-12-01

    3p photoionization and subsequent low kinetic energy Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig Auger decay have been studied in atomic chromium. The binding energies, line widths, and relative intensities for the transitions seen in the synchrotron radiation excited 3p photoelectron spectrum are determined. The high resolution M2,3 M4,5 M4,5 and M2,3 M4,5 N1 Auger electron spectra following the electron impact excited 3p ionization are presented and the kinetic energies, relative intensities, and identifications are given for the main lines. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained from Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approaches.

  8. M Sub-Shell Cross Sections For 75-300 keV Proton Impact On W, Pt And Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, Sam J.

    2011-06-01

    M sub-shell x-ray production cross sections from 75-300 keV proton bombardment of thick elemental targets of W, Pt, and Pb were measured and compared with ECPSSR and relativistic RPWBA-BC cross sections using different data bases of fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig factors, and x-ray transition rates. With a few exceptions, the differences between the various data base comparisons were not significant. For different sub-shells, either ECPSSR or RPWBA-BC compared better with the measurements. In all cases, agreement with theory improved as the collision energy increased.

  9. Photon induced L3 vacancy alignment at tuned photon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Himani; Kaur, Gurpreet; Tiwari, Manoj K.; Mittal, Raj

    2016-04-01

    Photon induced L3 X-ray measurements for Lα/Lℓ cross-section ratios in elements, 66 ⩽ Z ⩽ 83, at tuned photon energies on synchrotron Beamline-16 at Indus-2, India have been used to study the effect of Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions and photon energies on alignment of L3 vacancies. Certainty and reliability of the measurements were checked from comparison of measured Lα and Lℓ fluorescence cross-sections at E1 excitation with available theoretical/empirical/experimental values that required additional measurements for source, geometry and efficiency factor S0GɛLα/ℓ in the used set-up. Fall/rise trend of the ratios with energy for different Z's was found to resemble the off/on-set pattern of CK transitions as pointed out by Bambynek et al. and Campbell. Evaluated alignment parameter A2 values are very much within the limits, 0.05 Coster-Kronig corrected A2) variation with energy for Dy, W, Pt, Hg and Bi resembles our previously reported theoretical patterns that lends mutual support for both current measurements and earlier theoretical results.

  10. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary Kα, Lα or Mα line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3-5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ⩽ Z ⩽ 100.

  11. M-shell x-ray production by 0.8-4.0-MeV 4He+ ions in ten elements from hafnium to thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Kobzev, A. P.; Sandrik, R.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Ilkhamov, R. A.; Khusmurodov, S. H.; Lapicki, G.

    1990-11-01

    M-shell x-ray production cross sections are reported for 72Hf, 73Ta, 74W, 75Re, 76Os, 77Ir, 78Pt, 79Au, 83Bi, and 90Th bombarded by 4He ions of energy 0.8-4.0 MeV. The measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the semiclassical and first-order Born approximations and the calculations of the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) theory that accounts for energy-loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), and relativistic (R) effects (ECPSSR). The ECPSSR theory gives the best overall description of the measured data, although systematical discrepancies are found in the low-velocity region. Apart from deficiency of the available M-shell Coster-Kronig factors and fluorescence yields near or above Z2=74, where strong M4-M5N6,7 Coster-Kronig transitions become energetically forbidden, the increasing underestimation of the data by the ECPSSR theory with decreasing projectile velocities is genuine. In fact, we have found previously [Pajek et al., Phys. Rev. A 42, 261 (1990)] the same discrepancy for identical target elements bombarded by protons at comparably low velocities.

  12. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  13. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  14. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  15. A database for thick target PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Clayton, E.

    1987-03-01

    In order to convert peak areas from PIXE spectra into sample concentrations, a large database is needed. This database must be reliable and cover the widest possible range of targets, ions and energies. It need not be unique: several different databases may produce similar end results. Our database includes ionisation cross sections, ion stopping powers, X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig transition rates, X-ray line intensities and transition rates, together with a good knowledge of the detection efficiency. It covers both proton (PIXE) and helium ion (HIXE) bombardment from 100 keV to 10 MeV for all targets composed of elements from hydrogen to uranium for both K and L shell X-rays. We have tested it successfully on a wide variety of samples. We present this database together with polynomial fits to some of the key parameters so others may use it.

  16. Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier

    2013-07-03

    Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Fisica for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub Li}) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (f{sub ij}) for elements with 55 {<=} Z {<=} 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.

  17. Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Física for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields (ωLi) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (fij) for elements with 55 ≤ Z ≤ 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.

  18. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  19. L/M sub-shell measurements on INDUS-2 beam line BL16

    SciTech Connect

    Singla, Raj Mittal

    2015-06-24

    Beamline BL-16 on INDUS-2 at RRCAT, Indore has been employed for M sub shell measurements on Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies to determine M sub-shell X-ray emission cross-sections and for L sub-shell measurements on Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb and Bi with selective creation of electron vacancies in individual sub-shells to derive L Coster-Kronig (CK) yield values. The cross sections have been measured for the first time. The determined L sub-shell CK yields were used to explore some details of CK transitions.

  20. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Kadad, Ibrahim M.

    2010-01-05

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2,3}-, M{sub 1}-, M{sub 2,3}- and M{sub 4,5} subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} and Xe{sup 10+} ions, and the charged X{sup 8+} ions are the highest. The main product from the L{sub 1}- shell ionization is found to be Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} ions, while the charged Xe{sup 8+} ions predominate at L{sub 2,3} hole states. The charged Xe{sup 6+}, Xe{sup 7+} and Xe{sup 8+} ions mainly yield from 3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 1/2,3/2} ionization, while Xe in 3d{sub 3/2,5/2} hole states mainly turns into Xe{sup 4+} and Xe{sup 5+} ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

  1. Origin of the Lβ2 satellites in the X-ray emission spectra of the middle-Z elements from 40Zr to 52Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendurkar, Renuka; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this communication, the origin of the Lβ2 satellites Lβ2I Lβ2 (b) Lβ2II and Lβ2(c) in the L emission spectra of the middle-Z elements from 40Zr to 52Te, has been explained on the basis of multiple ionization theory. As done in earlier reports, it has been assumed that the various transitions, which may give rise to these satellites, belong to the transition scheme L3Mx-MxN4,5 (where x = 1-5). The energies and the intensities of the 41 possible transitions corresponding to this transition scheme have been calculated theoretically. The energies have been calculated using the available Hartree-Fock-Slater data on K-LM and L-MN Auger transition energies. The intensities of the various transitions have been estimated by considering cross sections for Coster-Kronig transitions as well as for M-shell shake-off process. Theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra have been computed. There are four intense peaks in the theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra which have been identified as the four satellites Lβ2I, Lβ2 (b), Lβ2II and Lβ2(c). Consequently, the satellites have been assigned those intense transitions which have been found to give rise to the corresponding four peaks in the theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra. The present work is an improvement over the earlier reports.

  2. Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, 46 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiungchen, M.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1975-01-01

    Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectra involving N1, N2, and N3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics with regard to widths and structure were found in the Ag and Cd M4-N4,5N4,5 and M5-N4,5N4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory however predicts wider N2 than N3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N2 and N3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N2 and N3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation, to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

  4. Valence-band spectra of BEDT-TTF and TTF-based magnetic charge-transfer salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Chiuzbian, S. G.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Neumann, M.; Turner, S. S.; Day, P.

    2002-06-01

    The electronic structure of BEDT-TTF bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, and TTF, tetrathiafulvalene, based ferrimagnetic insulating and paramagnetic semiconducting charge-transfer salts have been studied by x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The counterions for the salts are the d-transition-metal complex anions [Cr(NCS)4(phen)]-, [Cr(NCS)4(Me2phen)]- and [Cr(NCS)4(isoq)2]- where Me2phen=4, 7-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline, phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), and isoq=isoquinoline=C9H7N. The distribution of partial and total density of states was determined by comparing the XES spectra of the constituents (carbon and nitrogen Kα and Cr L2,3) with XPS valence-band spectra on the binding-energy scale. Splitting in the XPS N 1s and S 2p spectra was attributed to contributions from nonequivalent atoms, i.e., N in the NCS and phen based ligands, S in NCS and BEDT-TTF. Cr L-XES measured at the L2-threshold display an unusually high L2 to L3 intensity ratio, which is discussed in terms of Coster-Kronig transitions and a different excitation of L3 and L2 levels at the L2 threshold.

  5. Extreme-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of Ga+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, P.; O'sullivan, G.; Ivanov, V. K.

    1993-12-01

    Time-resolved photoabsorption spectra of gallium plasmas have been photographed in the 50-450-Å region using the dual-laser-produced-plasma technique. The absorbing plasmas were produced by focusing the output of a Q-switched ruby laser onto slab targets while the background continuum was produced by focusing the output of a Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system (where Nd:YAG denotes neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet) onto a samarium or hafnium target. At 130-ns delay between the two pulses the spectrum recorded was due almost exclusively to Ga+. We have observed transitions due to both 3d and 3p excitation. In the former case we identified 3d104s2-3d94s2nf and 3d94s2np series converging on the 2D3/2 and 2D5/2 limits of Ga2+. In the 3p case no strong transitions were observed because of line broadening by super-Coster-Kronig decay of the 3p hole. The identifications were made by comparison with the predictions of Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Fock atomic-structure codes. Many-body calculations were also performed which proved invaluable in estimating the effects of different decay processes. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  6. New attosecond spectroscopies for correlation-induced electron hole dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbukh, Vitali

    2014-05-01

    In this talk I will present two of our recent ideas for new attosecond time-resolved measurements of electron hole dynamics: 1. Single-photon laser enabled Auger decay (spLEAD) spectroscopy and 2. High-harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy of Auger-type transitions. Unlike the well-known attosecond streaking, the proposed spectroscopies do not rely on photo- or secondary electron emission and are applicable to ultrafast electronic processes involving bound-bound transitions, such as electron correlation-driven charge migration. We simulate the new attosecond spectroscopies using both model and ab initio methods. Specific applications include hole migration in glycine, atomic Auger and Coster-Kronig decays as well as quasi-exponential dynamics of molecular orbital breakdown in trans-butadiene and propanal. The author acknowledges the financial support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC, UK) through the Career Acceleration Fellowship (Award No. EP/H003657/1) and the Programme Grant on Attosecond Dynamics (Award No. EP/I032517).

  7. L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} x-ray production cross sections of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi by electron impact: Comparison of distorted-wave calculations with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Varea, Jose M.; Segui, Silvina; Dingfelder, Michael

    2011-02-15

    We study the emission of L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} characteristic x rays by the impact of electrons on Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi atoms. To this end, ionization cross sections of the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, and L{sub 3} subshells of these atoms are calculated within the distorted-wave Born approximation. The considered energy interval spans from the ionization threshold up to 50 keV. Atomic relaxation parameters (i.e., Coster-Kronig and radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and emission rates) taken from the literature are then used to evaluate x-ray production cross sections. The theoretical predictions are compared with published experimental information. Good agreement is found for Ta, W, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi. In the case of Hf and Re, the measured cross sections are lower than the theoretical estimates by around 30%. The observed discrepancies might be attributed to the methods employed to correct the raw experimental data for the excess of detected characteristic x rays caused by the finite thickness of the sample's active layer and the presence of the thick substrate.

  8. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  9. Clustering of impurity atoms in Co-doped anatase TiO2 thin films probed with soft x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, G. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Kim, D. H.; Noh, T.-W.; Moewes, A.; Callcott, T. A.

    2006-05-01

    The electronic structure of Co-doped anatase TiO2 epitaxial thin films grown at different partial oxygen pressures is investigated using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The resonantly excited Co L2,3 x-ray emission spectra of ferromagnetic Ti0.96Co0.04O2 samples for the oxygen-deficient regime show that the ratio of integral intensities for Co L2 and L3 emission lines significantly decreases with respect to nonmagnetic samples in the oxygen-rich regime. This is due to L2L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions and suggests that ferromagnetic Ti0.96Co0.04O2 samples have n-type charge carriers and Co-Co bonds between substitutional and interstitial Co atoms are present while Co-O bonds are dominant in nonmagnetic Ti0.96Co0.04O2 samples in the oxygen-rich regime. Electronic structure calculations show that the presence of free charge carriers and Co segregation play a crucial role in strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped TiO2.

  10. Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization In Ne, Ar And Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Al-Zanki, Jasem M.; El-Essawy, Ashraf H.

    2010-01-05

    Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.

  11. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  12. Two-electron transfer and ionization mechanism in 80-keV/u Ne8 + on He collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. T.; Feng, W. T.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhang, S. F.; Guo, D. L.; Gao, Y.; Qian, D. B.; Xu, S.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Hai, B.; Zhao, D. M.; Ma, X.

    2016-03-01

    Autoionization decay from doubly excited states of Ne6 +[1 s23 l n l (n =3 ,4 ,5 )] (symmetric configurations) as well as the Coster-Kronig transition from doubly excited states of Ne6 +[1 s22 p n l (n ⩾7 ) ] (asymmetric configurations) are observed in the transfer ionization reaction channel of 80 keV/u Ne8 +-He collisions. It has been predicted that the formation of symmetric configurations results from uncorrelated double-electron capture processes [Z. Chen and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 48, 1298 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevA.48.1298], and the formation of asymmetric configurations probably results from correlated double-electron capture caused by the dynamical electron-correlation effects which are attributed to small internuclear distances. However, previous experimental measurements were not able to obtain information about the dependence on internuclear distance which can be reflected in the transversal recoil-ion momentum. In this work, we measure the recoil-ion momentum in coincidence with the ejected electron velocity and find that the observed transverse recoil-ion momentum is smaller for the formation of symmetric Ne6 +[1 s23 l n l (n =3 ,4 ,5 ) ] states than the formation of asymmetric Ne6 +[1 s22 p n l (n ⩾7 ) ] states. Since large momentum transfer occurs for small internuclear distances (strong electron-electron interactions) and small momentum transfer occurs for large internuclear distances (weak electron-electron interactions), the results indicate that dynamical electron correlation is important for the formation of the asymmetric states.

  13. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  14. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  15. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  16. Dynamo Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M. K.; Yadav, R.; Chandra, M.; Paul, S.; Wahi, P.

    2010-11-23

    In this article we review the experimental and numerical results related to the dynamo transitions. Recent experiments of Von Karman Sodium (VKS) exhibit various dynamo states including constant, time-periodic, and chaotic magnetic fields. Similarly pseudospectral simulations of dynamo show constant, time-periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic magnetic field configurations. One of the windows for the magnetic Prandtl number of unity shows period doubling route to chaos. Quasiperiodic route to chaos has been reported for the Prandtl number of 0.5. The dynamo simulations also reveal coexisting multiple attractors that were obtained for different initial conditions.

  17. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  18. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  19. Suppression of Exponential Electronic Decay in a Charged Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Averbukh, Vitali; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan Michael

    2010-06-11

    Inner-shell ionization of atoms and molecules leads to the creation of highly excited ionic states that often decay by electron emission. The dynamics of the decay is usually assumed to be exponential and the process is characterized by a decay rate. Here we show that in a multiply ionized cluster created by interaction with a high-intensity free-electron laser (FEL) radiation, trapping of the emitted electron by the neighboring ions changes the character of the decay dynamics qualitatively to the extent that it can become oscillatory instead of exponential. Implications of the predicted effect on Coster-Kronig and interatomic Coulombic decay processes induced by FELs are investigated.

  20. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  1. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  2. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  3. The Managerial Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneeland, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Having identified the problem of managerial transition in a previous article (CE 510 277), the author outlines a strategy for change which includes performance appraisal, definition of the management structure, and counselling for the individual in transition. (SK)

  4. Glass transition(s) of ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Ionomers are predominantly nonpolar polymers that contain a small amount of bonded salt groups. Microphase separation of ion-rich microdomains occurs as a consequence of the thermodynamic incompatibility of the salt groups and the polymer matrix and associative interactions between salt groups. Associations of the salt groups usually increase the glass transition of the continuous matrix phase, presumably as a consequence of the inhibition of chain mobility that accompanies physical crosslinking. The central question raised in this paper is whether the dispersed ion-rich microphase exhibits a glass transition. Although no glass transition for the microphase is detected by calorimetry, a dynamic mechanical relaxation is commonly observed above the T{sub g} of the matrix phase. This transition has some of the attributes of a glass transition, but it is not clear what is the actual relaxation process that is measured. This paper discusses the effect of the ionic groups on the matrix glass transition, the origin of the high-temperature dynamic mechanical transition, and the effects of the addition of plasticizers on the T{sub g} of the matrix and the higher temperature mechanical relaxation.

  5. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

  6. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  7. Transition: Terms and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Ed

    This paper provides explanations and case examples of some terms and concepts related to transition of students with disabilities under 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Explanations and examples focus on the concepts of "statement of transition service needs" and "statement of needed transition services". The…

  8. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  9. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  10. Dynamical Transition in polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunfen; Markelz, Andrea

    2008-03-01

    Two of the possible causes for the so called dynamical transition (the rapid increase in flexibility for biomolecules at ˜ 200 K) are: thermally activated side chain diffusive motions with hydration dependent activation energies; or a glass transition in the biological water directly adjacent to the biomolecule. If the transition is strictly due to side chain activation, it should not depend on protein structure. Previously we demonstrated that the dynamical transition remains after tertiary structure was removed using THz time domain dielectric spectroscopy (0.2 -2.0 THz, 0.5-5ps). Here measurements on polyalanine as a function of chain length show that the dynamical transition does not occur for peptide length shorter than 5. However, the transition is observed for 5 mer and higher. Structural and simulation studies indicate that the 5 mer transiently occupies structured forms [1,2]. These results suggest that A) the dynamical transition is not due to thermally activated side chain motion and B) secondary structure is necessary for the dynamical transition. Secondary structure possibly induces sufficient ordering in the adjacent water to result in a fragile to strong glass transition resulting in increased protein flexibility [3]. [1] KAH Wildman et al. Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 24 (2003) 94-109. [2] Yuguang Mu,et al. Proteins 58, (2005) 45-52. [3] S.H. Chen et al. PNAS (2006) 9012--9016.

  11. Photoinduced phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Bennemann, K H

    2011-02-23

    Optically induced ultrafast electronic excitations with sufficiently long lifetimes may cause strong effects on phase transitions like structural and nonmetal→metal ones and on supercooling, supersaturation, etc. Examples are the transitions diamond→graphite, graphite→graphene, non-metal→metal, solid→liquid and vapor→liquid, solid. Photoinduced formation of graphene and water condensation of saturated or supersaturated vapor due to increased bonding amongst water molecules are of particular interest. These nonequilibrium transitions are an ultrafast response, on a few hundred fs time scale, to the fast low to large energy electronic excitations. The energy of the photons is converted into electronic energy via electronic excitations changing the cohesive energy. This changes the chemical potential controlling the phase transition. In view of the advances in laser optics photon induced transitions are expected to become an active area in nonequilibrium physics and phase transition dynamics. Conservation laws like energy or angular momentum conservation control the time during which the transitions occur. Since the photon induced effects result from weakening or strengthening of the bonding between the atoms or molecules transitions like solid/liquid, etc can be shifted in both directions. Photoinduced transitions will be discussed from a unified point of view. PMID:21411879

  12. Transition to Old Age (Transition to Retirement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Simon

    Several conceptualizations and definitions of retirement have been proposed. One of them--the three-stage transition process--can be illustrated from studies in Israel: (1) leaving the old role; (2) going through the act of formal separation; and (3) adjusting to the new situation and role. Today's higher rate of survival into later years means…

  13. Transitions in Spousal Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin

    2003-01-01

    Describes transitions over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who transitioned to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…

  14. Good Transitions = Great Starts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

  15. Children and Transition Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Daily transitions in early childhood centers and classrooms include periods when children are completing one activity, preparing to begin a new activity, and moving from place to place in a room or building. Transition activities involve teaching techniques that prepare learners to listen, relax, sit down, move between locations or activities, and…

  16. Matter in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU( N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU( N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  17. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  18. Researching Student Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.; Smith, Gregory P.; Luan, Jing

    2006-01-01

    This article sketches a research agenda for the further study of community college student transitions. Specific techniques are depicted as are potential data sources that can be used to pursue that agenda. The role of student tracking systems in transition research is discussed as well as the applicability of national surveys to the study of…

  19. Transitions and Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    If children are to benefit from a healthy, supportive early childhood experience, it is important to strengthen transitions between early childhood experiences in educational and care settings and the more formal educational system. This issue of Coordinator's Notebook focuses on strengthening linkages and transitions between home, preschool, and…

  20. Threshold Phenomena in Atomic Inner Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghong

    1995-01-01

    Two types of atomic inner-shell threshold phenomena are studied: (1) atomic inner-shell radiationless resonant Raman scattering (RRRS) as a function of excitation energy, and (2) the onset of Cu Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions due to extraatomic relaxation, as a function of cluster size. (1). The K-L_{2,3}L _{2,3} and L_{2,3 }-VV Auger spectra of P in InP were measured in the vicinity of the P K-shell ionization threshold as well as at high excess energies. The evolution of the P K-L_{2,3 }L_{2,3} ^1D Auger spectrum from the radiationless resonant Raman scattering regime into the normal Auger transition regime in InP is found to be in accordance with time-independent resonant scattering theory of inner-shell threshold phenomena. The measured RRRS intensity reveals a quasi-bound state in the bulk-sensitive P K absorption spectrum. The origins of deviations of the RRRS energy from linear dispersion are examined in terms of the finite incident-photon-energy distribution and multiple resonances. Both our measurements and semiclassical calculations show that the post-collision interaction effect is relatively small. The measured P K-L_{2,3}L_{2,3} intensities and P 1s lifetime width are found to be in good agreement with atomic calculations, revealing the predominantly atomic character of P inner-shell transitions in InP. The evolution of P L_{2,3 }-VV Auger transitions in InP is found to be sensitive to the excitation energy at the P 1s threshold; the P K-L_{2,3}L_{2,3 } Raman resonance causes changes in the L _{2,3}-VV diagram-transition line shape as well as intensity enhancement of all L _{2,3}-VV features. Applying the Cini-Sawatzky model to the line shape reveals a 0.3-eV change in the local effective Coulomb interaction U _{eff} near the resonance. The difference in the line shapes between the satellite and diagram transitions indicates a change of the local density of states in the valence band in the presence of a spectator 2p hole. The single- and double-2p

  1. A Posteriori Transit Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Given the radial velocity (RV) detection of an unseen companion, it is often of interest to estimate the probability that the companion also transits the primary star. Typically, one assumes a uniform distribution for the cosine of the inclination angle i of the companion's orbit. This yields the familiar estimate for the prior transit probability of ~Rlowast/a, given the primary radius Rlowast and orbital semimajor axis a, and assuming small companions and a circular orbit. However, the posterior transit probability depends not only on the prior probability distribution of i but also on the prior probability distribution of the companion mass Mc, given a measurement of the product of the two (the minimum mass Mc sin i) from an RV signal. In general, the posterior can be larger or smaller than the prior transit probability. We derive analytic expressions for the posterior transit probability assuming a power-law form for the distribution of true masses, dΓ/dMcvpropMcα, for integer values -3 <= α <= 3. We show that for low transit probabilities, these probabilities reduce to a constant multiplicative factor fα of the corresponding prior transit probability, where fα in general depends on α and an assumed upper limit on the true mass. The prior and posterior probabilities are equal for α = -1. The posterior transit probability is ~1.5 times larger than the prior for α = -3 and is ~4/π times larger for α = -2, but is less than the prior for α>=0, and can be arbitrarily small for α > 1. We also calculate the posterior transit probability in different mass regimes for two physically-motivated mass distributions of companions around Sun-like stars. We find that for Jupiter-mass planets, the posterior transit probability is roughly equal to the prior probability, whereas the posterior is likely higher for Super-Earths and Neptunes (10 M⊕ - 30 M⊕) and Super-Jupiters (3 MJup - 10 MJup), owing to the predicted steep rise in the mass function toward smaller

  2. Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Andrew Collier

    An extrasolar planet will transit the visible hemisphere of its host star if its orbital plane lies sufficiently close to the observer's line of sight. The resulting periodic dips in stellar flux reveal key system parameters, including the density of the host star and, if radial-velocity observations are available, the surface gravitational acceleration of the planet. In this chapter I present the essential methodology for modelling the time-dependent flux variation during a transit, and its use in determining the posterior probability distribution for the physical parameters of the system. Large-scale searches for transiting systems are an efficient way of discovering planets whose bulk densities, and hence compositions, can be accessed if their masses can also be determined. I present algorithms for detrending large ensembles of light curves, for searching for transit-like signals among them. I also discuss methods for identifying diluted stellar eclipsing binaries mimicking planetary transit signals, and validation of transit candidates too faint for radial-velocity follow-up. I review the use of time-resolved spectrophotometry and high-resolution spectroscopy during transits to identify the molecular constituents of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  3. Predictability of critical transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance. PMID:26651760

  4. Predictability of critical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  5. Holographic magnetic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2009-09-15

    We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.

  6. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  7. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  8. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. PMID:25666075

  9. The Heliosphere in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Justin

    2015-04-01

    The heliosphere consists of the connective tissue of particles, fields and photons that mediate our interaction with the Sun and with interstellar space. Exploration of the heliosphere yields clues to the nature of environments we cannot reach ourselves, illuminating the composition of the solar interior, or the acceleration of cosmic rays in the galaxy. The heliosphere is also a laboratory for us to understand the fundamental physics of magnetized plasma, from heating and instabilities to coupling with neutral gas and dust. This talk will review some of the most exciting recent results in the heliosphere with a focus on transitions: what we can learn by exploring transitions within the heliosphere, how the heliosphere is responding to the long term transition in solar activity, and how our very view of the heliosphere is in transition with upcoming missions such as Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and IMAP.

  10. Magellan in transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doody, Dave

    1993-01-01

    Aerobraking Magellan would provide the possibility of obtaining gravity field data for Venus all the way to the poles. Attempts to accomplish aerobraking, which began on May 25, 1993 in the Magellan Transition Experiment, are discussed.

  11. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  12. Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Video Gallery

    The animation shows the difference between planet transit timing of single and multiple planet system. In tightly packed planetary systems, the gravitational pull of the planets among themselves ca...

  13. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  14. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition, and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  15. Matter in transition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, wheremore » a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.« less

  16. Venus Transit 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.

    2002-09-01

    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the transit and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.

  17. RTGs on Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassoulas, John; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Transit, the US Navy's Navigation Satellite System was conceived at the Applied Physics Laboratory in 1957 by observing the Doppler shift while tracking Sputnik I. As spacecraft development proceeded there was concern about the ability of batteries to maintain the hermetic seal over a 5-year operational life requirement; therefore, alternate energy sources were investigated. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) concept was pursued and resulted in the launch of SNAP 3s, providing partial power on both Transit 4A and 4B. SNAP 9s provided full power on three Transit 5BNs. All launches occurred in the early 1960s. When the U.S. conducted the high altitude nuclear test from Johnson Island, several spacecraft were lost due to artificial enhancement of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere resulting in rapid degradation of solar cell power production. This led to the decision to have both an RTG and Solar cell/battery design for Transit power systems; hence, a new RTG design, with a separable heat source and radiative coupling to the thermoelectric elements, was flown on TRIAD. This pioneering effort provided the impetus for future RTGs on interplanetary spacecraft. This paper describes the origin and purpose of the Transit program and provides details on the five satellites in that program that were powered by the first American RTGs used in space. The rationale and some of the challenges inherent in that use are also described.

  18. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  19. Transition and laminar instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The linear stability theory was applied to the problem of boundary layer transition in incompressible flow. The theory was put into a form suitable for three-dimensional boundary layers; both the temporal and spatial theories were examined; and a generalized Gaster relation for three-dimensional boundary layers was derived. Numerical examples include the stability characteristics of Falkner-Skan boundary layers, the accuracy of the two-dimensional Gaster relation for these boundary layers, and the magnitude and direction of the group velocity for oblique waves in the Blasius boundary layer. Available experiments which bear on the validity of stability theory and its relation to transition are reviewed and the stability theory is applied to transition prediction. The amplitude method is described in which the wide band disturbance amplitude in the boundary layer is estimated from stability theory and an interaction relation for the initial amplitude density of the most unstable frequency.

  20. Electroweak Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gregory Wayne

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles, and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, _ {T}, is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially sensitive function of T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal extensions of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field. Semi-classical reasoning suggests that, when a particle receives a contribution to its mass from the vacuum expectation value of a scalar, under certain conditions, the ground state of particle number one contains a 'dimple' or shallow scalar field condensate around the particle. We argue that this is not the case. A careful analysis, taking into account quantum mechanics, shows that the semi-classical approximation is a poor one. We find that there are no energetically favored one-particle dimple solutions for perturbative couplings.

  1. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  2. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  3. [Transition in diabetology].

    PubMed

    Hauschild, M; Elowe-Gruau, E; Dwyer, A; Aquarone, M-P; Unal, S; Jornayvaz, F R; Perrenoud, L; Gastaldi, G; Castellsague, M; Dirlewanger, M; Schwitzgebel, V M

    2015-02-18

    For patients with type I diabetes, transition from pediatric to adult care is a challenge due to complex treatment requirements and the physical, psychological and social changes of adolescence. Members of the care team must recognize that while these emerging adults need to develop self-management skills, this may conflict at times with the developmentally appropriate desire for increasing autonomy. The role of nursing in coordinating a successful transition is critical for maintaining continuity of patient-centered care that responds to the specific needs of these young adults. PMID:25915986

  4. Network Observability Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Jianhui; Motter, Adilson E.

    2012-12-01

    In the modeling, monitoring, and control of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the comprehensive determination of the state of the system from limited measurements. Using power grids as example networks, we show that this problem leads to a new type of percolation transition, here termed a network observability transition, which we solve analytically for the configuration model. We also demonstrate a dual role of the network’s community structure, which both facilitates optimal measurement placement and renders the networks substantially more sensitive to “observability attacks.” Aside from their immediate implications for the development of smart grids, these results provide insights into decentralized biological, social, and technological networks.

  5. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  6. Tips for Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Morningstar, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) states that transition planning should begin at the earliest age appropriate and no later than age 16. IDEA requires schools to make collaborative efforts to provide students access to an array of postschool activities including integrated employment, postsecondary…

  7. Nursing Role Transition Preceptorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batory, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The preceptorship clinical experience in a practical nursing (PN) program at a Midwestern community college is considered crucial to the PN students' transition from novice nurse to professional nurse. However, no research has been available to determine whether the preceptorship clinical accomplishes its purpose. A case study was conducted to…

  8. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Henze, C.; Teachey, A.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E.; Marcy, G. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Chen, J.; Bryson, S. T.; Sandford, E.

    2016-04-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of (0.91+/- 0.02) {R}{{J}}, a low orbital eccentricity ({0.06}-0.04+0.10), and an equilibrium temperature of (131+/- 3) K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric coverage, we are able to uniquely and precisely measure the orbital period of this post snow-line planet (1071.2323 ± 0.0006d), paving the way for follow-up of this K = 11.8 mag target.

  9. Youth Policy in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A study team was commissioned to critically review three independent reports on youth and schooling: "Youth: Transition to Adulthood"; "The Education of Adolescents"; and "The Reform of Secondary Education." The study team examined the reports in light of the most recent available social science evidence. The three reports, presenting similar…

  10. Transition at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

  11. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  12. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  13. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  14. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  15. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  16. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  17. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  18. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  19. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Richard G

    2009-12-01

    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia. PMID:20653216

  20. Alternative fuel transit buses: The Pierce Transit Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Pierce transit program for operating mass transit buses on compressed natural gas (CNG) is described. Cost, reliability, fuel efficiency, emission of combustion products, and future trends are discussed.

  1. Transition Planning: A Team Effort. NICHCY Transition Summary, TS10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Mary Kate

    This summary on transition planning provides ideas and information on how students, families, school personnel, service providers, and others can work together to help students with a disability make a smooth transition after leaving high school. It focuses on creative transition planning and services that use all the resources that exist in…

  2. Models for transition clinics.

    PubMed

    Carrizosa, Jaime; An, Isabelle; Appleton, Richard; Camfield, Peter; Von Moers, Arpad

    2014-08-01

    Transition is a purposeful, planned process that addresses the medical, psychosocial, educational, and vocational needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions, as they advance from a pediatric and family-centered to an adult, individual focused health care provider. This article describes some of the models for transition clinics or services for epilepsy in five countries (Canada, France, Colombia, Germany, and the United Kingdom). These models include joint adult and pediatric clinics, algorithm-driven service, and a check list system in the context of pediatric care. Evaluation of these models is limited, and it is not possible to choose an optimal program. The attitude and motivation of health care providers may be the most important elements. PMID:25209087

  3. Collapse transition in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Guy; Thirumalai, D; Haran, Gilad

    2009-01-01

    The coil-globule transition, a tenet of the physics of polymers, has been identified in recent years as an important unresolved aspect of the initial stages of the folding of proteins. We describe the basics of the collapse transition, starting with homopolymers and continuing with proteins. Studies of denatured-state collapse under equilibrium are then presented. An emphasis is placed on single-molecule fluorescence experiments, which are particularly useful for measuring properties of the denatured state even under conditions of coexistence with the folded state. Attempts to understand the dynamics of collapse, both theoretically and experimentally, are then described. Only an upper limit for the rate of collapse has been obtained so far. Improvements in experimental and theoretical methodology are likely to continue to push our understanding of the importance of the denatured-state thermodynamics and dynamics for protein folding in the coming years. PMID:19081910

  4. High speed transition prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasperas, Gediminis

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this work period was to develop, maintain and exercise state-of-the-art methods for transition prediction in supersonic flow fields. Basic state and stability codes, acquired during the last work period, were exercised and applied to calculate the properties of various flowfields. The development of a code for the prediction of transition location using a currently novel method (the PSE or Parabolized Stability Equation method), initiated during the last work period and continued during the present work period, was cancelled at mid-year for budgetary reasons. Other activities during this period included the presentation of a paper at the APS meeting in Tallahassee, Florida entitled 'Stability of Two-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers', as well as the initiation of a paper co-authored with H. Reed of the Arizona State University entitled 'Stability of Boundary Layers'.

  5. Transitions: exploring the frontier.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B

    End-of-life experiences go by various terms, including near-death experiences (NDEs), death bed visions, death bed phenomena, death bed coincidences, and nearing death awareness. Death bed escorts is the term applied to the vision of deceased family members or friends who inform the dying person that they will be accompanied in the transition from life. In this article, I examine the subject of NDEs and death bed escorts, starting with the rich body of work provided by Robert and Beatrice Kastenbaum. A subject of some interest to Robert Kastenbaum, he explored this frontier in his many writings on dying, death, and bereavement. Ever the pioneer and having made the ultimate transition, he may yet be exploring new frontiers. PMID:25351590

  6. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  7. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  8. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  9. Kondo-Anderson transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.

    2012-03-01

    Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  11. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  12. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  13. Transition mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

  14. The Myths of Mass Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Catherine G.

    1982-01-01

    Criticizes eight commonly held notions about the value of mass transit systems in public transportation programs. Alternative approaches for improving the quality and quantity of urban transit systems are discussed. (AM)

  15. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  16. The transition to agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    1999-01-01

    The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints. PMID:10339524

  17. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  18. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  19. Slow Transit Constipation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Arnold

    2002-08-01

    The diagnosis of slow transit functional constipation is based upon diagnostic testing of patients with idiopathic constipation who responded poorly to conservative measures such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives. These tests include barium enema or colonoscopy, colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and expulsion of a water-filled balloon. Plain abdominal films can identify megacolon, which can be further characterized by barium or gastrografin studies. Colonic transit of radio-opaque markers identifies patients with slow transit with stasis of markers in the proximal colon. However, anorectal function should be characterized to exclude outlet dysfunction, which may coexist with colonic inertia. Because slow colonic transit is defined by studies during which patients consume a high-fiber diet, fiber supplements are generally not effective, nor are osmotic laxatives that consist of unabsorbed sugars. Stimulant laxatives are considered first-line therapy, although studies often show a diminished colonic motor response to such agents. There is no evidence to suggest that chronic use of such laxatives is harmful if they are used two to three times per week. Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes may be useful in a minority of patients, often combined with misoprostol. I prefer to start with misoprostol 200 mg every other morning and increase to tolerance or efficacy. I see no advantage in prescribing misoprostol on a TID or QID basis or even daily because it increases cramping unnecessarily. This drug is not acceptable in young women who wish to become pregnant. An alternative may be colchicine, which is reported to be effective when given as 0.6 mg TID. Long-term efficacy has not been studied. Finally, biofeedback is a risk-free approach that has been reported as effective in approximately 60% of patients with slow transit constipation in the absence of outlet dysfunction. Although difficult to understand

  20. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  1. Dimensional reduction transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.

    1984-11-01

    In this conference on phase transitions in the early Universe the author discusses the transition from more than four space-time dimensions to four effective space-time dimensions; the dimensional reduction transition. The basic assumption is that the true dimensionality of space-time is more than four, and that at present the extra dimensions are compact and too small to be observable. The origin of the observed gauge symmetries from symmetries of a compact space has been proposed as a possible approach for the unification of particle physics and gravity. The common assumption in all models with extra dimensions is that the unseen dimensions are compactified to a very small size, usually taken to be of the order of the Planck length. To probe the structure of the extra dimensions would require energies of the Planck mass E = m/sub pl/ = 1.2 x 10/sup 19/GeV, and the early Universe may be the only source of such energies. The author will assume for initial conditions that all spatial dimensions are small, and that initially the Universe had N = 3 + D spatial dimensions. When the temperature fell below T = R/sub D//sup -1/, where R/sub D/ is the physical size of the compact extra dimensions, the space-time dimensionality of the Universe underwent a reduction to effectively a 4 space-time dimensional Universe, and dynamical effects of the extra dimensions became unimportant. In this paper I will discuss three possible consequences of this cosmological dimensional reduction; entropy production (inflation), magnetic monopole production, and stable, massive particle production. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  3. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  4. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  5. Global transition in health.

    PubMed

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2007-02-01

    "Tempora mutantur et nos in illis" King Lothar I remarked by year 900 AD. What exactly changed in us over time, i.e. how patterns of the epidemiological transition in populations locally and globally might appear, was described by Omran in 1971 [1]. The effect of transition on health and diseases in populations was demonstrated by Frenkl et al in 1991 [2]. And which major public health problems following each other, and why, was underscored by LaPorte in 1995 [3]. In 2000, leaders of the world society decided to identify a range of common goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached by year 2015. Many of the MDG are directly or indirectly related with the major health problems, particularly those hitting the poorest: lack of clean drinking water, unhealthy environment, high maternal mortality due to lack of care for the pregnant, and lack of control of major communicable, often fatal diseases like child diseases, malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. It is remarkable that the specific chronic diseases of major public health relevance are in fact not mentioned in the MDG, even if these diseases increasingly are hitting populations in low- and middle-income societies, i.e. developing countries. The world community seems to prioritize the diseases that are most visible, and most often linked with poverty, namely the infectious diseases mentioned above, which together kill about 17 million people annually, often in combination with malnutrition, and the 0.6 million deaths related to birth and pregnancy. With the exception of HIV/AIDS, which also hit richer societies, these diseases of poverty have been under-prioritized regarding research as well. However, at the turn of the Millennium, the burden of "Western" non-communicable diseases was increasing fast in developing countries. And by 2025, the burden of non-communicable diseases is expected to have doubled globally, with half of the burden on developing countries. Therefore it may be rewarding to look

  6. Electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this review is to survey observations of electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei and to point out contributions of these observations to an understanding of the effective two-body hyperon-nucleon forces in the nucleus. The discussion concentrates on lambda-hyperon nucleon potentials. Future plans for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy using Ge diode detectors is discussed, especially regarding the window of utility of such devices. Expected improvements in beam facilities are also reviewed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (DWL)

  7. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  8. A translational evaluation of transitions.

    PubMed

    Jessel, Joshua; Hanley, Gregory P; Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid

    2016-06-01

    Transitions with nonhuman animals are typically framed as inescapable changes in signaled reinforcement schedules that result in a pause in responding unique to switches from rich to lean schedules. Pausing is considered to be a function of the aversive qualities of the contrasting reinforcement schedules. Transitions are typically framed in applied research as physical changes in location that evoke problem behavior maintained by the escape of an aversive event or resumption of a preferred event. We attempted to extend the basic framing of transitions to behaviors and contexts of social significance and evaluate a novel treatment for the problem of dawdling by 3 boys who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder during rich-to-lean transitions. Dawdling during physical transitions was most readily observed when transitioning to lean contexts in Experiment 1. We then shortened transition duration in Experiment 2 by programming unsignaled and probabilistic rich reinforcement in the upcoming context. PMID:26916573

  9. Plasma inverse transition acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2001-06-18

    It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

  10. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  11. Transitions in viscous withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy W.

    2008-11-01

    A process analogous to flow-focusing occurs in extended and stably stratified layers of immiscible, viscous liquids. In viscous withdrawal, an axisymmetric converging flow is imposed in the upper layer. When the upper layer flow is weak, the interface forms a hump. No liquid from the lower layer is entrained. When the upper layer flow is strong, liquid from the lower layer is entrained and the interface becomes a spout. Here I summarize recent results on the fundamental mechanisms controlling these regimes. For selective withdrawal, a clear picture has emerged, with good agreement between theory, simulation and experiment. The regime ends when the viscous stress exerted by the upper layer flow overcomes surface tension, creating a saddle-node bifurcation in the hump solution. Less is understood about viscous entrainment. A long-wavelength model including only local information is degenerate, possessing many solutions for the same withdrawal condition. Including information about the global geometry removes this degeneracy but also makes the surprising prediction that global geometry can change the nature of the transition. First-order, weakly first-order or continuous transitions are all possible. How these results relate to the variety of experimental phenomena, such as stable, micron-sized spouts, intricate patterns of hysteresis and multiple stable spout states under the same condition, is at present unclear. (Includes material from joint works with Blanchette, Cohen, Kleine Berkenbusch, and Schmidt.)

  12. 309 Building transition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  13. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were associated with higher levels of maternal stress and harsh parenting; recent transitions had stronger associations than distal transitions. Maternal education significantly moderates these associations, with less educated mothers responding more negatively to instability in terms of maternal stress, and more educated mothers responding more negatively in terms of literacy activities. PMID:21423848

  14. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  15. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  16. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  17. Maritime in transit care.

    PubMed

    Bott, G; Barnard, J; Prior, K

    2015-01-01

    Operation GRITROCK saw the first operational deployment of the Maritime In Transit Care team from the Role 2 (Enhanced) (R2(E)) Medical Treatment Facility, which is able to provide Damage Control Surgery and the limited holding of patients, situated on board RFA ARGUS. Whilst the Medical Emergency Response Team demonstrated the capability of advanced military Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) on Op HERRICK, the need to provide a similar high level of care on contingency operations was recognised. Op GRITROCK allowed for the continued exploration of a maritime capability from an established R2(E) platform whilst providing medical evacuation capability for a significant population at risk distributed over a large Joint Operation Area. Although the patient load during the operation was low, key lessons were learnt and opportunities identified to further develop the newly recognised sub-speciality of PHEC, both medically and logistically, and these will be discussed in this article. PMID:26867404

  18. Probiotics in transition.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Despite the hyperbole often linked with a popular research field, the scientific rationale for probiotics is sound. The probiotic concept is not new but is undergoing transition as knowledge of the gut microbiota in health and disease becomes translated to the clinic. Operationally, a probiotic represents a mimic of and/or supplement to the normal gut microbiota. Much confusion has arisen among consumers because of media misportrayals of probiotics as all being the same. However, with clarification of the molecular basis of host-microbe interactions, the selection criteria for probiotics and the delineation of their distinct mechanisms of action are improving. Most probiotics are from the genus Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium; this is likely to change and diversify. Similarly, the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of phagebiotics, psychobiotics, and genetically modified pharmabiotics, is poised to become a therapeutic reality. PMID:23010563

  19. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M C; Corcelli, S A

    2016-07-21

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase. PMID:27448877

  20. Aspects of Transition in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, H. P.

    2007-01-01

    This talk provides a description of several types of transition encountered in turbomachines. It is based largely on personal experience of the detection of transition in turbomachines. Examples are taken from axial compressors, axial turbines and radial turbines. The illustrations are concerned with transition in steady and unsteady boundary layers that develop under the influence of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow fields.

  1. Electronic transitions of scandium monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Ng, K. F.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of scandium monophosphide (ScP) molecule in the visible region between 480 and 575 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free jet expansion and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Nine vibrational bands belonging to two electronic transition systems, namely the [19.0]1Σ+ - X1Σ+ transition, and [19.8]3Σ+ - a3Σ+ transition, have been identified and rotationally analysed. A least squares fit of the measured lines yielded molecular constants for the singlet and the triplet electronic states. Theoretical calculation results have been used to assist the assignment of the observed electronic states.

  2. Primordial equation of state transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Aditya; Lorshbough, Dustin; Paban, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the physics of transitions from a general equation of state parameter to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We show that it is unlikely for the modes comprising the cosmic microwave background to contain imprints from a preinflationary equation of state transition and still be consistent with observations. We accomplish this by considering observational consistency bounds on the amplitude of excitations resulting from such a transition. As a result, the physics which initially led to inflation likely cannot be probed with observations of the cosmic microwave background. Furthermore, we show that it is unlikely that equation of state transitions may explain the observed low multipole power suppression anomaly.

  3. Quantum phase transition in space

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  4. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  5. Transition Assessment: Using Gap Analysis to Enhance Effective Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Alison B.; Bassett, Diane S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on transition planning for students with exceptional needs. This is in part the result of the mandates contained in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. This increased emphasis has revealed a number of shortcomings with how transition planning is done…

  6. Phase transitions in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrahsheh, Fawaz Y.

    Disorder can have a wide variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this thesis we study the effects of disorder on several classical and quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. After a brief introduction, we study the ferromagnetic phase transition in a randomly layered Heisenberg magnet using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results provide numerical evidence for the exotic infinite-randomness scenario. We study classical and quantum smeared phase transitions in substitutional alloys A1-xBx. Our results show that the disorder completely destroys the phase transition with a pronounced tail of the ordered phase developing for all compositions x < 1. In addition, we find that short-ranged disorder correlations can have a dramatic effect on the transition. Moreover, we show an experimental realization of the composition-tuned ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCa xRuO3. We investigate the effects of disorder on first-order quantum phase transitions on the example of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model. By means of a strong disorder renormalization group, we demonstrate that disorder rounds the first-order transition to a continuous one for both weak and strong coupling between the colors. Finally, we investigate the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition of one-dimensional bosons with off-diagonal disorder by means of large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Beyond a critical disorder strength, we find nonuniversal, disorder dependent critical behavior.

  7. Detection by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A periodic sequence of planetary transits provides a valid detection of an orbiting planet and provides the relative size of the planet and its orbital period. Ancillary measurements of the stellar spectrum and the variations of the star's radial velocity or position combined with stellar models allow the absolute size of the planet and its mass to be obtained. The results of this approach have already shown that the planet orbiting HD209458 has only 70% of the mass of Jupiter, but is nearly 50% larger in radius. Based on models of planetary structure, these results imply that the planet must have spent most of its lifetime so close to the star that it has not been able to cool and contract as have the giant planets in our Solar System. Thus its density is much less than Jupiter and Saturn and is actually less than that of water; i.e., about 0.4 gr/cu cm. If more sensitive measurements of the light curve of stars with closely orbiting planets can be made that provide the varying amplitude of the light reflected by the planet at various phases in its orbit, then characteristics of the planetary atmosphere can be obtained. Potentially, these data can identify major molecular species present in the atmosphere and tell us if clouds are present and yield the phase function of the aerosols. Although such detail cannot be obtained for Earth-size planets because their signal amplitudes are too small, it is possible to get data critical to the determination of the structure of extrasolar planetary systems. In particular, the size distributions and their orbital distributions can be measured by the transit photometry missions now in development. The COROT mission should be able to find large terrestrial planets in short-period orbits while the more ambitious Kepler and Eddington missions should be able to detect planets even smaller than the Earth and at orbital distances that place them in the habitable zone of their stars.

  8. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  9. ESTIMATION OF AGE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZINTER, JUDITH R.

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING DYNAMOD II AGE TRANSITION MATRICES. A SEPARATE MATRIX FOR EACH SEX-RACE GROUP IS DEVELOPED. THESE MATRICES WILL BE USED AS AN AID IN ESTIMATING THE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES IN THE LARGER DYNAMOD II MATRIX RELATING AGE TO OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES. THREE STEPS WERE USED IN THE PROCEDURE--(1)…

  10. Phase Transitions for Suspension Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iommi, Godofredo; Jordan, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the thermodynamic formalism for suspension flows defined over countable alphabets. We are mostly interested in the regularity properties of the pressure function. We establish conditions for the pressure function to be real analytic or to exhibit a phase transition. We also construct an example of a potential for which the pressure has countably many phase transitions.

  11. Transition Programs: Bridging the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay

    This document shares the collective wisdom and experience of professionals who have successfully guided the transition of hundreds of youths and adults from New York's correctional institutions back into the community. The first section begins with an overview of the New York State Education Department's transition program model to move…

  12. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers' partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first 5 years of their children's lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between…

  13. Transition Planning for Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

  14. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  15. Nonadiabatic transitions and gauge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K. ); Rice, S.A. )

    1994-04-01

    We examine the role of fictitious gauge structure in nonadiabatic transitions for transport in open paths. Local features of the gauge potential modify the nature of the intersection of the adiabatic energy surfaces and thereby affect crucially the Landau-Zener formula for a single-passage transition rate.

  16. Rural Transition Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Phebe

    Successful rural transition strategies which assist disabled rural secondary students in the transition from school to employment and community integration are described. Effective programs and specific strategies touch on such topic areas as job/career exploration, on-site job exploration, career planning, prevocational training, transition…

  17. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  18. Sampling diffusive transition paths.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian

    2007-04-14

    The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696

  19. Theory of antiferroelectric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolédano, Pierre; Guennou, Mael

    2016-07-01

    At variance with structural ferroic phase transitions which give rise to macroscopic tensors coupled to macroscopic fields, criteria defining antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transitions are still under discussion due to the absence of specific symmetry properties characterizing their existence. They are recognized by the proximity of a ferroelectric (FE) phase induced under applied electric field, with a double hysteresis loop relating the induced polarization to the electric field and a typical anomaly of the dielectric permittivity. Here, we show that there exist indeed symmetry criteria defining AFE transitions. They relate the local symmetry of the polar crystallographic sites emerging at an AFE phase transition with the macroscopic symmetry of the AFE phase. The dielectric properties of AFE transitions are deduced from a Landau theoretical model in which ferroelectric and ferrielectric phases are shown to stabilize as the result of specific symmetry-allowed couplings of the AFE order parameter with the field-induced polarization.

  20. Gel transitions in colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergenholtz, J.; Fuchs, M.

    1999-12-01

    The idealized mode-coupling theory (MCT) is applied to colloidal systems interacting via short-range attractive interactions of Yukawa form. At low temperatures, MCT predicts a slowing down of the local dynamics and ergodicity-breaking transitions. The non-ergodicity transitions share many features with the colloidal gel transition, and are proposed to be the source of gelation in colloidal systems. Previous calculations of the phase diagram are complemented with additional data for shorter ranges of the attractive interaction, showing that the path of the non-ergodicity transition line is then unimpeded by the gas-liquid critical curve at low temperatures. Particular attention is given to the critical non-ergodicity parameters; this is motivated by recent experimental measurements. An asymptotic model is developed, valid for dilute systems of spheres interacting via strong short-range attractions, and is shown to capture all aspects of the low-temperature MCT non-ergodicity transitions.

  1. Assessing transitional phenomena with the transitional object memory probe.

    PubMed

    Fowler, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Handler, L

    1998-01-01

    Winnicott's concept of transitional relatedness has captured the interest of psychoanalysts because it provides an understanding of the dialectical process occurring between inner and outer reality, and by extension, between analyst and analysand. Clinical observations related to transitional phenomena have led the authors to develop a projective early memory probe that assesses transitional phenomena. The transitional object early memory probe was tested both for its empirical validity and for its clinical utility in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Construct validity was assessed by comparing memory scores to the Rorschach Transitional Object Scale, as well as to therapist ratings of patient behaviors. Results demonstrated moderate correlations between early memory scores and Rorschach scale scores. Equally important was the finding that early memory scores were significantly correlated with therapist ratings of key behavioral patterns in therapy. A case vignette highlights the clinical application of the transitional object probe in assessing the capacity for transitional relatedness. In this case, the data gleaned from the patient's memories provided the therapist with a sharper focus on their role in the patient's growing capacity for more vital and creative contact with reality. PMID:9810109

  2. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  3. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  5. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  6. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  7. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  8. 20 CFR 627.901 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition period. 627.901 Section 627.901... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.901 Transition period. The transition period ended June 30, 1993 unless otherwise stated. The intent of the transition period is...

  9. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  10. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Doyle, Laurance; McIntosh, Dawn; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent photometric detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet across a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of solar-like stars that satisfy the geometric condition for Earth transit visibility are presented.

  11. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Tim; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet around a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming, of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of candidate target stars, their properties, and simulations of the photometric Earth transit signal detectability at each target is presented.

  12. Electronic Transitions of Yttrium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Allan S. C.; Li, Biu Wa; Chan, MAN-CHOR

    2015-06-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the visible region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 seeded in argon. Thirteen vibrational bands were analyzed and five electronic transition systems have identified, namely the [12.2] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.3] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.4] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.5] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, and [13.4] Ω = 2 - X3 Π_2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state symmetry and the bond length r_0 of the YP molecule have been determined to be a X3 Π_2 state and 2.4413 Å respectively in this work. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to help the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectrum of the YP molecule.

  13. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  14. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  15. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  16. Linear-time transitive orientation

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.M.; Spinrad, J.P.

    1997-06-01

    The transitive orientation problem is the problem of assigning a direction to each edge of a graph so that the resulting digraph is transitive. A graph is a comparability graph if such an assignment is possible. We describe an O(n + m) algorithm for the transitive orientation problem, where n and m are the number of vertices and edges of the graph; full details are given in. This gives linear time bounds for maximum clique and minimum vertex coloring on comparability graphs, recognition of two-dimensional partial orders, permutation graphs, cointerval graphs, and triangulated comparability graphs, and other combinatorial problems on comparability graphs and their complements.

  17. Holographic approach to phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Sebastian; Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2010-02-15

    We provide a description of phase transitions at finite temperature in strongly coupled field theories using holography. For this purpose, we introduce a general class of gravity duals to superconducting theories that exhibit various types of phase transitions (first or second order with both mean and non-mean field behavior) as parameters in their Lagrangian are changed. Moreover the size and strength of the conductivity coherence peak can also be controlled. Our results suggest that certain parameters in the gravitational dual control the interactions responsible for binding the condensate and the magnitude of its fluctuations close to the transition.

  18. Nonradiative transition dynamics in alexandrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The first direct picosecond time-resolved measurement of the nonradiative transition dynamics between the excited 4T2 pump band and the metastable 2E storage level of the trivalent chromium ion in alexandrite is reported. The nonradiative relaxation times of 17 ps for intra-4T2 vibrational transitions, and 27 ps for 4T2-2E electronic transition are obtained. The thermal repopulation rate of the 4T2 state from the metastable 2E level is of the order 3.5 x 10 to the 9th per s.

  19. Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion; Walker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.

  20. X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i=1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Rajnish; Shehla,; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production cross sections for the M{sub k} (k= ξ, δ, α, β, ζ, γ, m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i =1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model based photoionisation cross sections and recently reported values of the M-shell X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields. Further, the energies of the prominent (M{sub i}-S{sub j}) (S{sub j}=N{sub j}, O{sub j} and i =1-3, j =1-7) resonant Raman scattered (RRS) peaks at different incident photon energies have also been evaluated using the neutral-atom electron binding energies (E{sub sj}) based on the relaxed orbital relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model.

  1. Double ionization of atomic cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Linusson, P.; Fritzsche, S.; Eland, J. H. D.; Hedin, L.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.

    2011-02-15

    We have recorded the double photoionization spectrum of atomic Cd at four different photon energies in the range 40-200 eV. The main channel is single ionization and subsequent decay of excited Cd{sup +} states, some involving Coster-Kronig processes, whereas direct double ionization is found to be weak. The decay of the excited Cd{sup +} states shows a strong selectivity, related to the configuration of the final state. Double ionization leading to the Cd{sup 2+} ground state is investigated in some detail and is found to proceed mainly through ionization and decay of 4d correlation satellites. The most prominent autoionization peaks have been identified with the aid of quantum-mechanical calculations.

  2. Study of f electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Komesu, T; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G

    2005-11-28

    We have studied the spin-spin coupling between two f electrons of nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission using circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The two f electrons participating in the 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 4f resonance process are coupled in a singlet while the coupling is veiled in the 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 4f process due to an additional Coster-Kronig decay channel. The identical singlet coupling is observed in the 4d {yields} 4f resonance process. Based on the Ce measurements, it is argued that spin resolved resonant photoemission is a unique approach to study the correlation effects, particularly in the form of spin, in the rare-earths and the actinides.

  3. Effect of wave function on the proton induced L XRP cross sections for {sub 62}Sm and {sub 74}W

    SciTech Connect

    Shehla,; Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The L{sub k}(k= 1, α, β, γ) X-ray production cross sections have been calculated for {sub 74}W and {sub 62}Sm at different incident proton energies ranging 1-5 MeV using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fork (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac- Hartree-Slater (DHS) model and two sets the proton ionization cross sections based on the DHS model and the ECPSSR in order to assess the influence of the wave function on the XRP cross sections. The calculated cross sections have been compared with the measured cross sections reported in the recent compilation to check the reliability of the calculated values.

  4. Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.

  5. Student voluntarism in transition.

    PubMed

    Garcia, S A; Clark, C; Walfish, S

    1979-01-01

    The university student volunteer as a social change agent is in a period of transition. There is no returning to the idealism and activism of the 1960s if this and future generations of students continue to see self-preservation and individual advancement as their only viable option here in America. In view of the changing nature of today's students, the conventional definitions of volunteers, such as Shultz's (1972) altruist, average, and pseudo-volunteer, must be reconsidered. Does the acceptance of minimal pay or demand for academic credit preclude one's being a true altruist? Further, is altruism a necessary or sufficient condition of voluntarism? While we must attempt to answer these questions, the purpose here was to suggest viable first steps in reviving and enhancing student voluntarism. Some of the most salient points are: (1) Student volunteers provide critically needed services to the community, (2) Students are increasingly demanding tangible personal and educational gains for services through voluntarism, (3) Faculty support is vital to student voluntarism and they should be encouraged to actively design their classes to integrate classroom theory and practice through volunteering, and (4) The community agencies served should be active participants in the faculty, student, agency triad, and not merely passive recipients of services. The future of student voluntarism must be viewed in the larger context of changes occurring in the society-at-large, such as cynicism, mistrust of authority figures and leaders, and a move away from altruism and toward symbiosis and/or individualism. There is widespread disillusionment with "band-aid" approaches to solving enormous social problems, i.e., trying to help the few while some of society's most fundamental structures guarantee the perpetuation of poverty, crime, and general anomie. The rekindling of the ideology of cooperative altruism will take ingenuity and tireless effort. Meanwhile, if community psychology

  6. Parity nonconservation in atomic Zeeman transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Angstmann, E. J.; Dinh, T. H.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2005-11-15

    We discuss the possibility of measuring nuclear anapole moments in atomic Zeeman transitions and perform the necessary calculations. Advantages of using Zeeman transitions include variable transition frequencies and the possibility of enhancement of parity nonconservation effects.

  7. Hadron-Quark Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnoli, Rafael; Menezes, Debora P.; Providencia, Constanca

    2009-06-03

    In the present work we study the hadron-quarkphase transition with boson condensation by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram.

  8. ISS Update: Transit of Venus

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews Mario Runco, NASA astronaut, about Venus's transit across the sun on June 5, 2012. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #...

  9. Transition probabilities of Br II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  10. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  11. Bypass transition to turbulence and research Desiderata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Bypass transitions are seldom mentioned in texts or meetings on instability and transition to wall turbulence. The nature of a number of bypass transitions is illustrated by example. Until this characteristics is truly understood predicting transition on the basis of theory or statistically inadequate correlations (as they all are) entails risks that should be considered in justifying any design involving transition. A historical overview of bypass transition identified on blunt bodies is given.

  12. Universal Keplerian state transition matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepperd, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.

  13. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  14. Gauge theory of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    A new analytical approach for the description of the glass transition in a frustrated system is suggested. The theory is based on the non-equilibrium dynamics technique, and takes into account the interaction of the local order field with the massive gauge field, which describes frustration-induced plastic deformation. The glass transition is regarded as a phase transition interrupted because of the premature critical slowing-down of one of the degrees of freedom caused by the frustrations. It is shown that freezing of the system appears when the correlation length and relaxation time of the gauge field diverge. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation for the transition kinetics and the critical exponent for the nonlinear susceptibility, 2.5\\lesssim \\gamma \\leq 3 , are derived in the framework of the suggested approach. An expression for the temperature dependence of the heat capacity near to the glass transition is derived. This dependence is qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. The presented theory reproduces the characteristic form of the langphiphirangt correlation function dependence on time, and explains the boson peak appearance on this curve. In addition, the function of the glass transition temperature value with cooling rate is derived; this dependence fully conforms with known experimental data.

  15. Transitions in turbulent rotating convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaei, Hadi; Alards, Kim; Kunnen, Rudie; Toschi, Federico; Clercx, Herman; Fluid Dynamics Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to explore the flow transition from one state to the other in rotating Rayleigh-Bènard convection using Lagrangian acceleration statistics. 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) is employed in a water-filled cylindrical tank of equal height and diameter. The measurements are performed at the center and close to the top plate at a Rayleigh number Ra = 1.28e9 and Prandtl number Pr = 6.7 for different rotation rates. In parallel, direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been performed to provide detailed information on the boundary layers. We report the acceleration pdfs for different rotation rates and show how the transition from weakly to strongly rotating Rayleigh-Bènard affects the acceleration pdfs in the bulk and boundary layers. We observe that the shapes of the acceleration PDFs as well as the isotropy in the cell center are largely unaffected while crossing the transition point. However, acceleration pdfs at the top show a clear change at the transition point. Using acceleration pdfs and DNS data, we show that the transition between turbulent states is actually a boundary layer transition between Prandtl-Blasius type (typical of non-rotating convection) and Ekman type.

  16. Planetary transits and stellar variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the detection of extrasolar planets via the transit method, and more specifically addresses issues relevant to the preparation of upcoming space missions such as CoRoT, Kepler, Eddington, aiming to detect terrestrial planets. The automated detection of transits in tens of thousands of noisy light curves is a challenging task because of the brief, shallow and rare nature of the sought-after signal. I developed a Bayesian transit detection algorithm and tested it through Monte Carlo simulations. This led to a number of improvements to the algorithm, resulting in a maximum likelihood box-fitting approach that is simpler and, for detection purposes, more effective. I also developed an empirical model of the intrinsic micro-variability of the parent stars, which constitutes one of the main performance limitations for space-based transit searches, and used this model to optimise variability filters. These tools were used to identify optimal regions of the stellar parameter space to be targeted by missions such as CoRoT and Eddington, through Monte Carlo simulations and participation in the first CoRoT blind transit detection exercise. Recently, the same tools have been used to analyse ground-based data from the University of New South Wales planet search project, leading to the identification of several potential transiting planet candidates.

  17. Unstable supercritical discontinuous percolation transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xueqi; Zheng, Zhiming; Chung, Ning Ning; D'Souza, Raissa M.; Nagler, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The location and nature of the percolation transition in random networks is a subject of intense interest. Recently, a series of graph evolution processes have been introduced that lead to discontinuous percolation transitions where the addition of a single edge causes the size of the largest component to exhibit a significant macroscopic jump in the thermodynamic limit. These processes can have additional exotic behaviors, such as displaying a “Devil's staircase” of discrete jumps in the supercritical regime. Here we investigate whether the location of the largest jump coincides with the percolation threshold for a range of processes, such as Erdős-Rényipercolation, percolation via edge competition and via growth by overtaking. We find that the largest jump asymptotically occurs at the percolation transition for Erdős-Rényiand other processes exhibiting global continuity, including models exhibiting an “explosive” transition. However, for percolation processes exhibiting genuine discontinuities, the behavior is substantially richer. In percolation models where the order parameter exhibits a staircase, the largest discontinuity generically does not coincide with the percolation transition. For the generalized Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, it depends on the model parameter. Distinct parameter regimes well in the supercritical regime feature unstable discontinuous transitions—a novel and unexpected phenomenon in percolation. We thus demonstrate that seemingly and genuinely discontinuous percolation transitions can involve a rich behavior in supercriticality, a regime that has been largely ignored in percolation.

  18. Modelling the transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.

  19. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  20. Transition boiling heat transfer and the film transition regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramilison, J. M.; Lienhard, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The Berenson (1960) flat-plate transition-boiling experiment has been recreated with a reduced thermal resistance in the heater, and an improved access to those portions of the transition boiling regime that have a steep negative slope. Tests have been made in Freon-113, acetone, benzene, and n-pentane boiling on horizontal flat copper heaters that have been mirror-polished, 'roughened', or teflon-coated. The resulting data reproduce and clarify certain features observed by Berenson: the modest surface finish dependence of boiling burnout, and the influence of surface chemistry on both the minimum heat flux and the mode of transition boiling, for example. A rational scheme of correlation yields a prediction of the heat flux in what Witte and Lienhard (1982) previously identified as the 'film-transition boiling' region. It is also shown how to calculate the heat flux at the boundary between the pure-film, and the film-transition, boiling regimes, as a function of the advancing contact angle.

  1. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  2. Electronic Transitions of Scandium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Ng, Kiu Fung; Cheung, Allan S. C.

    2014-06-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of scandium monophosphide (ScP) molecule in the visible region between 480 nm and 550 nm has been recorded and analyzed using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The ScP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated scandium atoms with PH3 seeded in argon. Ten vibrational bands were recorded and they are identified to be belonging to three electronic transition systems, namely the [19.1]1 Π_1 - X1 Σ transition, [19.5]1 Σ - X1 Σ transition, and [19.8] 3 Π_i - X3 Π_i transition. ScP has been determined to have a X1 Σ ground state in our earlier work. A least squares fit of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the single and the triplet electronic states. Theoretical calculation results have been used to help the assignment of the observed electronic states.

  3. Electronic transitions of cobalt monoboride.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y W; Pang, H F; Cheung, A S-C

    2011-11-28

    Electronic transition spectrum of cobalt monoboride (CoB) in the visible region between 495 and 560 nm has been observed and analyzed using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. CoB molecule was produced by the reaction of laser-ablated cobalt atom and diborane (B(2)H(6)) seeded in argon. Fifteen vibrational bands with resolved rotational structure have been recorded, which included transitions of both Co(10)B and Co(11)B isotopic species. Our analysis showed that the observed transition bands are ΔΩ = 0 transitions with Ω" = 2 and Ω" = 3 lower states. Four transition systems have been assigned, namely, the [18.1](3)Π(2)-X(3)Δ(2), the [18.3](3)Φ(3)-X(3)Δ(3), the [18.6]3- X(3)Δ(3), and the [19.0]2-X(3)Δ(2) systems. The bond length, r(o), of the X(3)Δ(3) state of CoB is determined to be 1.705 Å. The observed rotational lines showed unresolved hyperfine structure arising from the nuclei, which conforms to the Hund's case (a(β)) coupling scheme. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the CoB spectrum. PMID:22128936

  4. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  5. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  6. 7 CFR 15a.18 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transition plans. 15a.18 Section 15a.18 Agriculture... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.18 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  7. 7 CFR 15a.18 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition plans. 15a.18 Section 15a.18 Agriculture... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.18 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  8. 36 CFR 1211.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition plans. 1211.230... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  9. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  10. 44 CFR 19.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Transition plans. 19.230... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 19.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  11. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  12. 45 CFR 2555.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transition plans. 2555.230 Section 2555.230 Public... Coverage § 2555.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 2555.225 applies... transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  13. 7 CFR 15a.18 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 15a.18 Section 15a.18 Agriculture... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.18 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  14. 32 CFR 196.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transition plans. 196.230 Section 196.230... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  15. 36 CFR 1211.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transition plans. 1211.230... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  16. 7 CFR 15a.18 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 15a.18 Section 15a.18 Agriculture... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.18 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  17. 32 CFR 196.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition plans. 196.230 Section 196.230... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  18. 29 CFR 36.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Transition plans. 36.230 Section 36.230 Labor Office of the... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 36.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  19. 32 CFR 196.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transition plans. 196.230 Section 196.230... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which... a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  20. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  1. 42 CFR 412.533 - Transition payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition payments. 412.533 Section 412.533 Public... Hospitals § 412.533 Transition payments. (a) Duration of transition periods. Except for a long-term care... reconciliation of cost reports. (c) Election not to be paid under the transition period methodology. A...

  2. 42 CFR 412.626 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 412.626 Section 412.626 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.626 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period and proportion of the blended transition rate. (1) Except for a facility that makes an election under...

  3. 42 CFR 136a.31 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 136a.31 Section 136a.31 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.31 Transition period. (a) The transition period for full implementation of the new eligibility regulations consists of three parts; (1)...

  4. Alternative approaches to fertility transition.

    PubMed

    Micheli, G A

    1995-01-01

    "Using anomalies of the Italian case as the basis, the aim of this article is to verify how the theoretical framework [of demographic transition] put forward by Lesthaeghe can be interpreted.... While the changes in mores in the Italy of the economic boom were a component of the large-scale processes of secularization, rationalization and modernization specific to the [first demographic transition], the practices, values and models of the collective imagination characterizing the second phase of Lesthaeghe's [second demographic transition] are marked by a state of mind that cannot be put down to the 'spirit of the age' during the years of large-scale modernization, but to the emancipatory and 'rational' falling away of many of the barriers to the unfolding of individual life destiny over and above that based on class, gender and age." PMID:12291784

  5. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by μ SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ρ300 K≈50000 μ Ω cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  6. Electronic transitions of iridium monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Chan, Man-Chor; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectrum of IrP in the near infrared spectral region between 720 and 820 nm has been recorded and analyzed. Six vibrational bands with resolved rotational structure for both 191IrP and 193IrP were analyzed, they have been grouped into three new electronic transitions: the [13.6] Ω = 2 - a3Π2, the [12.3]1Π1-X1Σ+, and the [12.7]1Π1-X1Σ+ transitions. Ab initio calculation results were used to aid the assignment of the observed transitions. A new triplet state has been observed for the first time. The observed electronic states of IrP are compared with those of the isovalent IrN molecule.

  7. Transition metals in superheat melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  8. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    PubMed

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  9. Transitions in individuality through symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Sylvie; Kerr, Benjamin; Morris, J Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    When a more complex, functionally integrated entity emerges from the association of simpler, initially independent entities, a major evolutionary transition has occurred. Transitions that result from the association of different species include the evolution of the eukaryotic cell and some obligate mutualisms. Recent studies are revolutionizing our understanding of how these intimate interspecific associations come to be, revealing how and to what extent each partner contributes to the relationship, and how partners mediate conflict. Here, we review work on the evolution of mutualistic symbioses in the context of transitions in individuality and highlight how a better mechanistic understanding of the ecological drivers of host-symbiont interdependencies can help elucidate the evolutionary path to symbiotic organismality. PMID:27131019

  10. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  11. Transition probabilities and static moments in transitional nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Casten, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic transition probabilities and static moments of excited nuclear states are known to be good probes of nuclear structure. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the large amount of existing experimental data for these observables is expected to provide valuable information about the respective isotopes. It is the purpose of this talk to show that a combined analysis of static magnetic moments of 2/sub 1//sup +/ states and B(E2) transition probabilities for even-even nuclei can be used to obtain effective numbers of valence nucleons. This kind of information is of particular interest in cases where subshell closures are found. For example, it is well known that for the transitional nuclei in the A = 150 region the Z = 64 subshell is active when the number of neutrons N < 90, but disappears for N greater than or equal to 90. A similar situation exists in the A = 100 region, where the Z = 38 subshell is active for N less than or equal to 58. In the following sections we present the method by which effective numbers of valence protons and neutrons can be deduced from B(E2) and g-factor data, and show applications of this method to the A = 150 and A = 100 transitional regions. Part of these results were recently published.

  12. Presidential Transition Teams: Fostering a Collaborative Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Richard B.; Franz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Whether hiring a sitting president or one beginning a first presidency, the board of trustees should be keenly interested in ensuring that the new president's first months in office flow as smoothly as possible. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the idea of using a transition team to assist the new president. Using a transition…

  13. Theoretical Studies of Atomic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Charlotte Froese Fischer

    2005-07-08

    Atomic structure calculations were performed for properties such as energy levels, binding energies, transition probabilities, lifetimes, hyperfine structure, and isotope shifts. Accurate computational procedures were devised so that properties could be predicted even when they could not be obtained from experiment, and to assist in the identification of observed data. The method used was the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method, optionally corrected for relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli approximation. Fully relativistic Dirac-Fock calculations also were performed using the GRASP code A database of energy levels, lifetimes, and transition probabilities was designed and implemented and, at present, includes many results for Be-like to Ar-like.

  14. Numerical simulation of transitional flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three-dimensional amplitudes, a two-dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three-dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  15. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  16. Epigenetic switches and network transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Masaki

    2012-02-01

    We investigate dynamics of gene networks which are regulated by both the fast binding/unbinding of transcription factors to/from DNA and the slow processes of chromatin structural change or histone modification. This heterogeneous dynamics consisting of different time scales is analyzed by the mean-field approximation and the stochastic simulation to show that the network exhibits multiple metastable states and is characterized by transitions among them. We discuss distribution and fluctuation of states of the core gene network of embryonic stem cells as an example of such heterogeneous dynamics and the simulated transitions are compared with the experimental data on the distribution of stem cell states.

  17. Colloquium: Water's controversial glass transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Böhmer, Roland; Fujara, Franz; Gainaru, Catalin; Geil, Burkhard; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Water is the most common and, judged from its numerous anomalous properties, the weirdest of all known liquids and the complexity of its pressure-temperature map is unsurpassed. A major obstacle on the way to a full understanding of water's structure and dynamics is the hard-to-explore territory within this map, colloquially named the no man's land. Many experiments suggest that just before stepping across its low-temperature border, amorphous ices undergo glass-to-liquid transitions while other interpretations emphasize the importance of underlying disordered (nano)crystalline states. Prospects for reconciling the conflicting views regarding the nature of water's glass transitions are discussed.

  18. The migration transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1996-01-01

    "Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition." PMID:12320775

  19. Dynamic Transitions of Generalized Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limei; Ong, Kiah Wah

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we study the dynamic transition for the one dimensional generalized Burgers equation with periodic boundary condition. The types of transition are dictated by the sign of an explicitly given parameter b, which is derived using the dynamic transition theory developed by Ma and Wang (Phase transition dynamics. Springer, New York, 2014). The rigorous result demonstrates clearly the types of dynamics transition in terms of length scale l, dispersive parameter δ and viscosity ν.

  20. Magnetic dipole transitions in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2011-03-15

    In homonuclear molecules, such as H{sub 2}, the electric dipole transitions are strongly forbidden, and the transitions between rovibrational states are of the electric quadrupole type. We show, however, that magnetic dipole transitions also take place, although they are significantly weaker. We evaluate the probabilities of such transitions between several of the lowest rotational states and compare them with those of the corresponding electric quadrupole transitions.

  1. New Bottomonium Spectroscopy And Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    West, Chris; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    Recent results in bottomonium spectroscopy are reviewed. Topics include the observation of {Upsilon}(nS) {yields} {eta}{Upsilon}(1S) transitions, energy scans above the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR and Belle experiments, and the recent observation of the {eta}{sub b} by the BABAR experiment.

  2. The Transition to Work Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, William G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the Transition to Work Simulator (TWS), a computerized model of the important career decisions which people make from youth through midcareer. The implications of TWS as a planning tool for human resource development at the national level are discussed. (Author/SJL)

  3. Transitive Softening in Russian Conjugation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, H. S.; Lightner, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    Transitive softening, or the shift of a dental or velar to a palato-alveolar, and the insertion of a palatalized /1/ after a labial, are examined. The older transformational cycle of Halle is set aside in favor of a morphological rule. Productive and non-productive verb classes are analyzed. (SC)

  4. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  5. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  6. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  7. Sustainability Transitions as new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

  8. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  9. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  10. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  11. Career Transitions: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    This book is designed to aid career counselors in Australia help their clients search for enhanced well-being in their occupations and to help organizations and human resource staff members dealing with employees' career development. The book is organized in four parts. Parts 1 and 2 explore the career transition journey that a typical person…

  12. Electronic transitions of yttrium monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biu Wa; Chan, Man-Chor; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2015-11-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the near infrared region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 gas seeded in argon. Eleven vibrational bands were analyzed and six electronic transitions have been identified, namely the [12.17] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.27] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.44] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.46] Ω = 3 - X3Π2 and [13.40] Ω = 2 - X3Π2 transitions and a [13.69] Ω = 3 - a1Δ2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state has been determined to be a X3Π2 state and the bond length ro and vibrational separation, ΔG1/2, were determined to be 2.4413 Å and 390.77 cm-1 respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to aid the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the electronic spectrum of the YP molecule.

  13. Leadership Transitions: Keys for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Marilu; Golden, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A leadership transition poses dangers and challenges for both leaders and followers. While each party naturally focuses on the organization's success, time needs to be spent on how the new relationships will develop and mature into effective working relationships. This article discusses the following four areas of interaction between leaders and…

  14. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  15. Postsecondary Transitions among Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aaron P.; Smith, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    A study examining postsecondary transition experiences interviewed 22 Navajos who were recent high school graduates. Prominent themes included family influence and pressures, discrepancy between high school and college learning environments, student-faculty relationships, vague educational and career plans, misconceptions about postsecondary…

  16. Multiscaling behavior in transition economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Vladimir A.

    2004-12-01

    A comparable statistical analysis for the currency exchange rates of the countries with transition economies has been made. Self-criticality has been demonstrated and studied. Non-linear effect for self-criticality indexes has been demonstrated. All effects are essentially nonlinear and differ from ones in the advanced economies.

  17. Predicting transition to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Baliki, Marwan N.; Farmer, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Most individuals who develop pain following an inciting event will return to a healthy state as the injury heals. However, a small percentage continue to suffer, that is, transition to chronic pain. Chronic pain may persist for years and is accompanied by cognitive abnormalities, as well as diminished quality of life. In animals, persistent pain is characterized by peripheral and spinal cord reorganization, and recent evidence in humans also indicates cortical reorganization. Yet, despite more than 30 years of research, there is little agreement on the neural mechanisms that mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings In a longitudinal brain-imaging study, individuals who developed an intense back pain episode were followed over a 1-year period, during which pain and brain parameters were collected repeatedly. A smaller number of healthy individuals and chronic back pain patients were also studied concomitantly, as positive and negative controls. At the time of entry into the study, strength of synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (i.e. functional connectivity) was predictive (>80% accuracy) of individuals who subsequently transition to chronicity 1 year later. Summary Properties of the brain’s emotional learning circuitry predict the transition to chronic pain. The involvement of this circuitry in pain remains mostly unexplored. Future human and animal model studies are necessary to unravel underlying mechanisms driving pain chronicity, with the potential of advancing novel therapeutics for preventing pain chronification. PMID:23823463

  18. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  19. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and…

  20. Understanding Student Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

  1. The nature of transition blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Plotkin, R. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Burnett, T. H.; Myers, A. D.

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  2. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  3. Quantifying macromolecular conformational transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Sean; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, Michael; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes that are challenging for computer simulations. A range of fast path-sampling techniques have been used to generate transitions, but it has been difficult to compare paths from (and assess the relative strengths of) different methods. We introduce a comprehensive method (pathway similarity analysis, PSA) for quantitatively characterizing and comparing macromolecular pathways. The Hausdorff and Fréchet metrics (known from computational geometry) are used to quantify the degree of similarity between polygonal curves in configuration space. A strength of PSA is its use of the full information available from the 3 N-dimensional configuration space trajectory without requiring additional specific knowledge about the system. We compare a sample of eleven different methods for the closed-to-open transitions of the apo enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) and also apply PSA to an ensemble of 400 AdK trajectories produced by dynamic importance sampling MD and the Geometrical Pathways algorithm. We discuss the method's potential to enhance our understanding of transition path sampling methods, validate them, and help guide future research toward deeper physical insights into conformational transitions.

  4. Authority Work for Transitional Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matters, Marion

    1990-01-01

    Discusses authority work and authority control for personal names and corporate bodies in transitional archive catalogs. The importance of conformance with standards so that archival materials will collocate with other types of material in integrated catalogs is also discussed, together with enhanced authority work and techniques for archival…

  5. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  6. Universities in Transition in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungwu, Wang

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of Asian universities, their position today, and what the transitions represent for the future. Describes the major debate in the past as concerning the preservation of traditional cultural values while becoming modern institutions. Argues that Asian universities need to recognize the great relevance of traditions to social…

  7. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  8. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  9. Person-Centered Transition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a person-centered planning approach for involving students with disabilities and their families in the transition planning process. Components of person-centered planning are discussed, including development of a personal profile, identification of future lifestyle preferences, action steps and responsible parties, and necessary changes…

  10. Alternative Assessment for Transitional Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Carol; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Trumbull, Elise

    2002-01-01

    A teacher-developed alternative assessment of reading comprehension was specifically designed for transitional English language learners. Use of the measure with 89 fifth-graders in their first year of English language instruction showed that the students could successfully engage with English texts and provided teachers with useful information to…

  11. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  12. Gifted Students' Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendaglio, Sal

    2013-01-01

    The transition from school to university presents novel demands for all students. Although this educational milestone has been addressed by scholars, particularly those interested in the study of higher education, there is a dearth of literature regarding gifted students' experience of their handling demands of first-year university. In the…

  13. Dynamics of the chiral transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) in heavy ion collisions at RHIC can yield fundamental information on the nature of the QCD phase transition. I review theoretical efforts to understand DCC formation and present work in progress on possible experimental ramifications.

  14. Dynamics of the chiral transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1995-07-10

    Measurements of disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) in heavy ion collisions at RHIC can yield fundamental information on the nature of the QCD phase transition. I review theoretical efforts to understand DCC formation and present work in progress on their possible experimental ramifications. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Adolescent Urology and Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Babies with the major congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract have all-embracing holistic care during childhood. They require the same level of care in adult life. This is the role of transition and adolescent urology. PMID:26153563

  16. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  17. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  18. Understanding topological phase transition in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jun; Chang, K. J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as M X2 with M =(Mo ,W ) and X =(S ,Se ,Te ) , the physical origin of their topological nature is still poorly understood. In the conventional view of topological phase transition (TPT), the nontrivial topology of electron bands in TMDs is caused by the band inversion between metal d - and chalcogen p -orbital bands where the former is pulled down below the latter. Here, we show that, in TMDs, the TPT is entirely different from the conventional speculation. In particular, M S2 and M S e2 exhibits the opposite behavior of TPT such that the chalcogen p -orbital band moves down below the metal d -orbital band. More interestingly, in M T e2 , the band inversion occurs between the metal d -orbital bands. Our findings cast doubts on the common view of TPT and provide clear guidelines for understanding the topological nature in new topological materials to be discovered.

  19. Composition of transiting and transiting-only super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Diana

    2011-11-01

    The relatively recent detections of the first three transiting super-Earths mark the beginning of a subfield within exoplanets that is both fruitful and challenging. The first step into characterizing these objects is to infer their composition given the degenerate character of the problem. The calculations show that Kepler-10b has a composition between an Earth-like and a Mercury-like (enriched in iron) composition. In contrast, GJ 1214b is too large to be solid, and has to have a volatile envelope. Lastly, while three of the four reported mass estimates of CoRoT-7b allow for a rocky composition, one forbids it and can only be reconciled with significant amounts of water vapor. In addition to these three transiting low-mass planets, there are now more than one thousand Kepler planets with only measured radius. Even without a mass measurement (``transiting-only'') it is still possible to place constraints on the amount of volatile content of the highly-irradiated planets, as their envelopes, if present, are flared. Using Kepler-9d as an example, we estimate its water vapor, or hydrogen and helium content to be less than 50% or 0.1% by mass respectively.

  20. Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

    Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  1. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  2. The transition regions of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self

  3. Holographic Roberge-Weiss transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Gert; Kumar, S. Prem; Rafferty, James

    2010-07-01

    We investigate mathcal{N} = 4 SYM coupled to fundamental flavours at nonzero imaginary quark chemical potential in the strong coupling and large N limit, using gauge/gravity duality applied to the D3-D7 system, treating flavours in the probe approximation. The interplay between {mathbb{Z}_N} symmetry and the imaginary chemical potential yields a series of first-order Roberge-Weiss transitions. An additional thermal transition separates phases where quarks are bound/ unbound into mesons. This results in a set of Roberge-Weiss endpoints: we establish that these are triple points, determine the Roberge-Weiss temperature, give the curvature of the phase boundaries and confirm that the theory is analytic in μ 2 when μ 2 ≈ 0.

  4. Electronic transitions of palladium dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yue; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, Zhihua; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2013-11-21

    The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) in the visible region between 480 and 700 nm has been observed and analyzed. The gas-phase Pd{sub 2} molecule was produced by laser ablation of palladium metal rod. Eleven vibrational bands were observed and assigned to the [17.1] {sup 3}II{sub g} - X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} transition system. The bond length (r{sub o}) and vibrational frequency (ΔG{sub 1/2}) of the ground X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} state were determined to be 2.47(4) Å and 211.4(5) cm{sup −1}, respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram was used to understand the observed ground and excited electronic states. This is the first gas-phase experimental investigation of the electronic transitions of Pd{sub 2}.

  5. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  6. Unified transition path and universal transition state for ZB to RS or WZ to RS high pressure phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Maosheng

    2005-07-01

    We show that the previously proposed transition paths for high pressure phase transitions for semiconductor from zinc blende (ZB) to rocksalt (RS) and from wurtzite (WZ) to rocksalt can be unified and can be extended to transitions from various tetrahedrally bonded polytypes to rocksalt [1]. Our first principle pseudopotential calculations with density functional and constrained relaxation methods on SiC showed that the ZB to RS transition has the lowest transition barrier. Our calculations on ZB to RS transition path for other semiconductors including II-VI, III-V and group IV semiconductors, show that the position and the geometry of the transition state, the state that correspond to the transition barrier, are universal and do not depend on the chemical components of the system [2]. We also extended the Landau phase transition model to a ZB to RS transition by using a cosine function of the atom displacement as order parameter. The model shows that the position of the transition state does not depend on the coupling between the atom displacement and the strains of the lattice, which is the key point that the transition state is independent of the chemical components. [1] M. S. Miao and Walter R. L. Lambrecht, Phys. Rev. B 68, 092103 (2003). [2] M. S. Miao and Walter R. L. Lambrecht, Phys. Rev. Lett., accepted

  7. Relative transition probabilities of cobalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, R. A.; Miller, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results of determinations of neutral-cobalt transition probabilities measured relative to Co I 4150.43 A and Co II 4145.15 A, using a gas-driven shock tube as the spectroscopic light source. Results are presented for 139 Co I lines in the range from 3940 to 6640 A and 11 Co II lines in the range from 3840 to 4730 A, which are estimated to have reliabilities ranging from 8 to 50%.

  8. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  9. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  10. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

  11. Dynamic transitions in dislocation motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Vasily; Cai, Wei; Marian, Jaime

    2003-03-01

    In a series of Molecular Dynamics simulations, we observe that, depending on stress, temperature and line length, screw dislocations in BCC iron move in three strikingly different regimes. Under low stress, the dislocations move smoothly via formation and migration of atomic-sized kinks; although widely believed, such motion mechanism has never been directly observed in full dynamic detail. Then, at a higher stress, dislocation motion suddenly becomes rough: the line becomes rugged and its motion becomes jerky producing in its wake a large amount of debris in the form of lattice vacancies and interstitial clusters. Remarkably, this bizarre behavior is not caused by any external factors, such as dislocation interaction with other crystal defects: the roughening transition is intrinsic to the dislocation itself. Under increasing stress the line raggedness and the amount of debris its motion produces continue to increase until, at some point, another dynamic transition takes place. The dislocation is now seen to cease at once its turbulent motion through the lattice and to initiate a thin plate of sheared crystal, a twin. The twin plate picks up where the dislocation just left off - it extends very fast in the same direction as dislocation motion and increases, gradually, in thickness. Notably, no more debris is produced during the twinning motion. The origin of these dynamic transitions, the underlying atomistic mechanisms of dislocation motion in all three regimes and their implication for strength of shocked materials are discussed.

  12. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431527

  13. Saturn as a Transiting Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    Previous investigations of exoplanet atmospheres have not targeted those resembling the gas giant planets in our solar system. These types of exoplanets are too cold to be directly imaged or observed in emission, and their low transit probabilities and frequencies make characterization via transmission spectroscopy a challenging endeavor. However, studies of cold giant exoplanets would be highly valuable to our understanding of planet formation and migration and could place the gas giant members of our own solar system in a greater context. Here, we use solar occultations observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard the Cassini Spacecraft to extract the 1 to 5 μm transmission spectrum of Saturn, as if it were a transiting exoplanet. We detect absorption features from several molecules despite the presence of ammonia clouds. Self-consistent exoplanet atmosphere models show good agreement with Saturn's transmission spectrum but fail to reproduce the largest feature in the spectrum. We also find that atmospheric refraction determines the minimum altitude that could be probed during mid-transit of a Saturn-twin exoplanet around a Sun-like star. These results suggest that transmission spectroscopy of cold, long-period gaseous exoplanets should be possible with current and future observatories.

  14. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  15. Glass Transitions in Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Dong; Kumar, Sanat

    2014-03-01

    For polymers are under geometric confinement, it is generally believed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with favorable interfacial interactions. Experiments and simulations have reported that Tg increases almost proportionally to the attractive polymer-surface interactions. However, recent studies have reported the contradictory finding that the Tg shift is rather modest and insensitive to the strength of interfacial attractions. In this study, we investigate the glass transition in polymer nanocomposites using molecular dynamics simulations. With attractive polymer-nanoparticle (NP) interactions, we find that Tg is increased by ~ 3% at moderate loadings and that the shift stays almost unchanged when the polymer-NP attractions are further increased by one order of magnitude. Both are in agreement with the recent experiments at comparable NP loadings. We show that this is because the strongly adsorbed polymer segments do not participate in the glass transition. In other words, strong polymer-NP attractions create immobile polymer ``coatings'' around NPs that shield them from direct contact with the mobile polymers.

  16. Rehabilitation Counseling in Transition Planning and Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; King, John

    1989-01-01

    The article addresses the role of rehabilitation counselors in special education transition programs for students with disabilities. It contends that the special training of rehabilitation counselors prepares them to coordinate existing school and community resources into effective transition programs. (DB)

  17. Nuclear physics: Elusive transition spotted in thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    The highly precise atomic clocks used in science and technology are based on electronic transitions in atoms. The discovery of a nuclear transition in thorium-229 raises hopes of making nuclear clocks a reality. See Article p.47

  18. Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-04-24

    This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions.

  19. The transit of Venus across the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaan, Arkan

    2004-05-01

    This article explains the significance of a transit of Venus and relates scientists' efforts at making precise observations of transits over the past 250 years. JG was supported by KBN grant no 2 P03A 020 24.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN PLANET TRANSIT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu

    2009-09-01

    The probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data is sensitively dependent upon the window function of the observations. We quantitatively characterize and provide visualizations of the dependence of this probability as a function of orbital period upon several observing strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, transit duration and depth, and the minimum number of sampled transits. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of observational window functions, we explicitly address noncorrelated (Gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two noise components affect transit detectability in fundamentally different manners, especially for long periods and/or small transit depths. We furthermore discuss the consequence of competing effects on transit detectability, elaborate on measures of observing strategies, and examine the projected efficiency of different transit survey scenarios with respect to certain regions of parameter space.

  1. Polarized gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina

    2015-08-01

    We estimate the degree of circular polarization for the gravitational waves generated during the electroweak and QCD phase transitions from the kinetic and magnetic helicity generated by bubble collisions during those cosmological phase transitions.

  2. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  3. Isoconversion Analysis of the Glass Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Zheng, Wei; Simon, Sindee

    2007-03-01

    At temperatures below their glass transition temperatures (Tgs), glass forming materials deviate from equilibrium density and form a glass. The kinetic nature of the glass transition process is manifested in the cooling rate dependence of the glass transition temperature and by structural relaxation below Tg. Various facets of the glass transition kinetics have been well described by phenomenological models of the glass transition, such as the TNM and KAHR model. An important yet frequently questioned assumption in these models is that the apparent activation energy, which describes the temperature dependence of the relaxation time, does not vary during the glass transition process. Some recent reports suggest that the activation energy varies significantly during the glass transition process. In this work we apply an isoconversion analysis to data in the glass transition region which was obtained on cooling from capillary dilatometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to determine whether the apparent activation energy increases as the glassy state is approached.

  4. Phase transition dynamics and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Megevand, Ariel

    2009-04-20

    During a first-order phase transition, gravitational radiation is generated either by bubble collisions or by turbulence. For phase transitions which took place at the electroweak scale and beyond, the signal is expected to be within the sensitivity range of planned interferometers such as LISA or BBO. We review the generation of gravitational waves in a first-order phase transition and discuss the dependence of the spectrum on the dynamics of the phase transition.

  5. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  6. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2007-08-31

    The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

  7. Spin reorientation transition of magnetite (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-García, Laura; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Pabón, Beatriz M.; Bliem, Roland; Parkinson, Gareth S.; Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K.; de la Figuera, Juan

    2016-04-01

    We have imaged the rearrangement of the magnetic domains on magnetite (001) when crossing the spin reorientation transition and the Verwey transition with nanometer resolution. By means of spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy we have monitored the change in the easy axes lowering the temperature through both transitions in remanence. The spin reorientation transition occurs in two steps: initial nucleation and growth of domains with a new surface magnetic orientation is followed by a smooth evolution.

  8. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.74 Transit declaration. (a) Seaway Transit...

  9. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights student transition trends across a four-year period, with K-12 data from 2001/02 - 2004/05 and post-secondary data from 2002/03-2005/06. Reported findings include: (1) There is a consistent trend in immediate entry transition rates, with slightly more than half of all high school graduates making an immediate transition into…

  10. 15 CFR 8a.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 8a.230 Section 8a... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 8a.225 applies and that is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  11. 45 CFR 86.17 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transition plans. 86.17 Section 86.17 Public... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 86.16 applies and which is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  12. 45 CFR 618.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition plans. 618.230 Section 618.230 Public... Coverage § 618.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 618.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  13. 24 CFR 3.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transition plans. 3.230 Section 3... Coverage § 3.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 3.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  14. 38 CFR 23.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transition plans. 23.230... Coverage § 23.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 23.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  15. 24 CFR 3.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transition plans. 3.230 Section 3... Coverage § 3.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 3.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  16. 24 CFR 3.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transition plans. 3.230 Section 3... Coverage § 3.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 3.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  17. 13 CFR 113.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition plans. 113.230 Section... Coverage § 113.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 113.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  18. 31 CFR 28.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition plans. 28.230 Section 28... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 28.225 applies and that is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  19. 15 CFR 8a.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 8a.230 Section 8a... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 8a.225 applies and that is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  20. 34 CFR 106.17 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transition plans. 106.17 Section 106.17 Education... Coverage § 106.17 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 106.16 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  1. 45 CFR 86.17 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition plans. 86.17 Section 86.17 Public... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 86.16 applies and which is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  2. 31 CFR 28.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transition plans. 28.230 Section 28... Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 28.225 applies and that is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 7.75 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transition plan. 7.75 Section 7.75... of Handicap § 7.75 Transition plan. If structural changes to facilities are necessary to make the program or activity accessible to handicapped persons, a recipient must prepare a transition plan....

  4. 45 CFR 618.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transition plans. 618.230 Section 618.230 Public... Coverage § 618.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 618.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  5. 40 CFR 7.75 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition plan. 7.75 Section 7.75... of Handicap § 7.75 Transition plan. If structural changes to facilities are necessary to make the program or activity accessible to handicapped persons, a recipient must prepare a transition plan....

  6. 40 CFR 7.75 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transition plan. 7.75 Section 7.75... of Handicap § 7.75 Transition plan. If structural changes to facilities are necessary to make the program or activity accessible to handicapped persons, a recipient must prepare a transition plan....

  7. 40 CFR 7.75 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition plan. 7.75 Section 7.75... of Handicap § 7.75 Transition plan. If structural changes to facilities are necessary to make the program or activity accessible to handicapped persons, a recipient must prepare a transition plan....

  8. 9 CFR 332.12 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition grants. 332.12 Section 332... CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.12 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  9. 9 CFR 381.522 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition grants. 381.522 Section 381... Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products § 381.522 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  10. 9 CFR 381.522 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition grants. 381.522 Section 381... Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products § 381.522 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  11. 9 CFR 332.12 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition grants. 332.12 Section 332... CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.12 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  12. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  13. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  14. On transit time instability in liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.

    1982-01-01

    A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.

  15. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  16. Transition Problems and Play as Transitory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap between preschool and school. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental functions, among others the development of children's…

  17. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

  18. The Transition Experiences of Successful Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.; Yeung, Thomas; Sun, Iris; Chan, Keith; Cheng, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    This article focused on the transition experiences of 20 successful Chinese immigrants, in particular their transition stories and how they accounted for their success (what facilitated and hindered their transition). An enhanced critical incident method was used for data analysis. Four major success categories emerged: having a positive attitude…

  19. Electrical Dissipation Measurement of Polymer Phase Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., R; Schuszler, A., II

    1983-01-01

    Technique measures solid/solid, glass/rubber, and liquid/liquid transition temperatures in polymers having dipole moments. Technique based on change in dipole packing that occurs with each transition and measured as change in electrical dissipation factor. Change in dipole packing occuring with each transition sensed by effect on dissipation factor.

  20. Phase Transition of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yuldashev, S. U.; Ihm, G.; Kang, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of phase transitions in diluted magnetic semiconductor, first-order, second-order and mixed-order, are found in theory. Especially the mixed type transition shows two steps transition and novel specific heat property. Specific heat properties disclose a possible meta ferromagnetic phase confirmed by the experimental qualitative result.

  1. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  2. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One tends to remember…

  3. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  4. 34 CFR 300.43 - Transition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition services. 300.43 Section 300.43 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.43 Transition services. (a) Transition services means..., acquisition of daily living skills and provision of a functional vocational evaluation. (b)...

  5. 5 CFR 362.210 - Transition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition. 362.210 Section 362.210... PROGRAM Program Administration § 362.210 Transition. OPM shall provide written guidance for the orderly transition of employees from the Presidential Management Intern Program to the Fellow program and may...

  6. Analysis of abrupt transitions in ecological systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence and causes of abrupt transitions, thresholds, or regime shifts between ecosystem states are of great concern and the likelihood of such transitions is increasing for many ecological systems. General understanding of abrupt transitions has been advanced by theory, but hindered by the l...

  7. A Latent Transition Model with Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hwan; Walls, Theodore A.; Park, Yousung

    2007-01-01

    Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian…

  8. School to Work: Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Inst. for Work and Learning.

    This publication describes the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) vision and work in school-to-work transition and related areas. School-to-work transition is defined, and components of a successful school-to-work transition system are listed. The National Institute for Work and Learning (NIWL) is currently conducting an extensive study…

  9. Magnetism and electronic phase transitions in monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenides with transition metal atoms embedded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun

    2016-08-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the energetic, electronic, and magnetic properties of substitutional 3d transition metal dopants in monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as topological insulators ( 1 T ' - MX 2 with M = (Mo, W) and X = (S, Se)). We find various favorite features in these doped systems to introduce magnetism and other desirable electronic properties: (i) The Mn embedded monoclinic TMDs are magnetic, and the doped 1 T ' - MoS 2 still maintains the semiconducting character with high concentration of Mn, while an electronic phase transition occurs in other Mn doped monoclinic TMDs with an increasing concentration of Mn. Two Mn dopants prefer the ferromagnetic coupling except for substitution of the nearest Mo atoms in 1 T ' - MoS 2 , and the strength of exchange interaction shows anisotropic behavior with dopants along one Mo zigzag chain having much stronger coupling. (ii) The substitutional V is a promising hole dopant, which causes little change to the energy dispersion around the conduction and valence band edges in most systems. In contrast, parts of the conduction band drop for the electron dopants Co and Ni due to the large structural distortion. Moreover, closing band gaps of the host materials are observed with increasing carrier concentration. (iii) Single Fe dopant has a magnetic moment, but it also dopes electrons. When two Fe dopants have a small distance, the systems turn into nonmagnetic semiconductors. (iv) The formation energies of all dopants are much lower than those in hexagonal TMDs and are all negative in certain growth conditions, suggesting possible realization of the predicted magnetism, electronic phase transitions as well as carrier doping in 1 T ' - MX 2 based topological devices.

  10. Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, E; Bragança, H; Dorner, R; França Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J

    2014-06-01

    We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. PMID:25019721

  11. Dynamics of a Quantum Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dorner, Uwe; Zoller, Peter

    2005-09-02

    We present two approaches to the dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in the quantum Ising model. One follows the standard treatment of thermodynamic second order phase transitions but applies it to the quantum phase transitions. The other approach is quantum, and uses Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in avoided level crossings. We show that predictions of the two approaches of how the density of defects scales with the quench rate are compatible, and discuss the ensuing insights into the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.

  12. Partially resolved super transition array method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian G.; Iglesias, Carlos A.; Chen, Mau H.

    2015-03-01

    The partially resolved transition array model for radiative transitions between ordinary electronic configurations is extended to the super configuration approach. The specific application incorporates intermediate coupling effects into transition arrays to describe the transition from LS to JJ coupling without the ad hoc approximations introduced in past formulations. More generally, the extended concept permits stepwise refinement of the super transition array method towards the line-by-line limit in ordinary configurations. Thus, the formalism forms a framework for a hybrid scheme to combine detailed line accounting and statistical methods.

  13. Topological phase transition in layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jun; Chang, Kee Joo

    Despite considerable interests in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MX2 with M = (Mo, W) and X = (S, Se, Te), the physical origin of their topological nature is still in its infancy. The conventional view of topological phase transition (TPT) in TMDs is that the band inversion occurs between the metal d and chalcogen p orbital bands. More precisely, the former is pulled down below the latter. Here we introduce an explicit scheme for analyzing TPT in topological materials and find that the TPT in TMDs is different from the conventional speculation. When the 1T phase undergoes a structural transformation to the 1T' phase in monolayer MX2, the band topology changes from trivial to non-trivial, leading to the TPT. We discuss the exact role of the metal d and chalcogen p orbital bands during the TPT. Our finding would provide clear guidelines for understanding the topological nature not only in TMDs but also in other topological materials yet to be explored.

  14. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  15. Diabetes in the Adolescent: Transitional Issues

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Sarah K.; Libman, Ingrid M.

    2013-01-01

    Content: Orchestrating a seamless transition from pediatric to adult care can be a daunting task in caring for youth with diabetes mellitus. This clinical review focuses on physical and psychosocial aspects affecting the care of adolescents and young adults with diabetes, evaluates how these aspects can be barriers in the process of transitioning these patients to adult diabetes care, and provides clinical approaches to optimizing the transition process in order to improve diabetes care and outcomes. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A PubMed search identified articles related to transition to adult diabetes care and physical and psychosocial assessment of adolescents with diabetes. An Internet search for transition of diabetes care identified online transition resources. The synthesis relied on the cumulative experience of the authors. We identify barriers to successful transition and provide a checklist for streamlining the process. Conclusions: Key points in the transition to adult diabetes care include: 1) starting the process at least 1 year before the anticipated transition; 2) assessing individual patients' readiness and preparedness for adult care; 3) providing guidance and education to the patient and family; 4) utilizing transition guides and resources; and 5) maintaining open lines of communication between the pediatric and adult providers. No current single approach is effective for all patients. Challenges remain in successful transition to avoid short- and long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24152689

  16. Radiative transitions in metallic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalin, A. S.

    2008-02-01

    In this article, a new theoretical approach to studying light-scattering characteristics of nanosized objects based on the solution to the Thomas-Fermi equation and quasi-classical approximation is considered. It is shown that the distribution of valence electrons in the volume of metallic clusters exhibits a specific structure of "spatial zones." With the aid of quasi-classical wave functions, expressions for the appropriate dipole moments of the transitions between the ground and excited states are obtained; the behavior of the spectrum of gold clusters depending on their sizes is studied; a comparison with existing experimental data is carried out.

  17. Cognition and the menopause transition.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M; Henderson, Victor W

    2016-07-01

    Complaints about forgetfulness, "brain fog," and difficulty concentrating are common in women transitioning through menopause. Women with these cognitive complaints often express concern about whether these problems are normal, related to menopause, or represent a symptom of Alzheimer disease or another serious cognitive disorder. In this Practice Pearl, we provide a brief summary of the scientific literature on the frequency of cognitive complaints in midlife women, the validity of complaints in relation to performance on standardized cognitive tests, and the influence of menopause on cognitive performance. We then offer recommendations for healthcare providers and women to address cognitive concerns. PMID:27272226

  18. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  19. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  20. Dynamics of the deconfinement transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ananos, G.; Krein, G.; Fraga, E. S.; Mizher, A. J.

    2007-02-27

    We estimate the dissipation coefficient {gamma} that appears in Ginzburg-Landau-Langevin equations that describe phenomenologically the deconfinement transition in QCD. This is done through the implementation of Glauber dynamics of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The coefficient {gamma} is extracted from the short-time exponential growth of the equal time correlation function of the order parameter. Although the absolute determination of {gamma} is ambiguous due to the difficulties in relating real time and Monte Carlo time, its relative temperature dependence can be obtained with much less arbitrariness.

  1. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-10-28

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation.

  2. TERMS PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela; Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T.; Zachary Gazak, J.; Rabus, Markus

    2011-10-15

    The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

  3. Transitions in expanding cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Beverly K.

    2015-04-01

    One may easily construct a sequence of vacuum spacetimes by starting with the spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, vacuum Kasner solution and adding one direction of spatial dependence (polarized Gowdy), rotations in the spatial symmetry plane (generic Gowdy), and the remaining allowed spatial rotations (Gowdy plus twists). In the time-direction of expanding spatial volume, the spatially dependent cases may be analyzed as averaged background spacetimes containing gravitational waves. The nature of the averaged background spacetime is known to change abruptly in moving from Kasner to Gowdy to Gowdy with twists. In addition, as pointed out by Ringstrom, generic Gowdy models exhibit two distinct behaviors for the averaged wave amplitude. The focus is on transitions involving the introduction of twists where the phenomenology is not well understood. Numerical simulations are used to study the details of the behavior in the transition from one case to another especially to investigate possible scaling relationships. A final topic will be the effect of the addition of matter and/or a cosmological constant to these models.

  4. Family transitions in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S; Daniels, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Using the first (1995) and third (2001-2002) waves of the Add Health survey, we examine women 's family transitions up to age 24. Only a third of all women marry, and a fifth of those marriages dissolve before age 24. Three out of eight women have afirst birth, with a substantial majority of those births outside of marriage: 66% for whites, 96% for blacks, and 72% for Mexican Americans. Cohabitation is the predominant union form; 59% of women cohabit at least once by age 24. Most cohabitations are short lived, with approximately one in five resulting in a marriage. We summarize the family and relationship experience of women up to age 24 in terms offour categories, each accounting for roughly a quarter of all women. Category 1 has the women who remain single nonparents. Category 2 has the early marriers, women whose marriage is not preceded by a first birth. Category 3 has those who become single parents. Category 4 has the women who cohabit at least once, but who do not marry or have a birth by age 24. The strictly ordered transitions of the 1950s are long gone and have been replaced by a variety of paths to adulthood. PMID:18232212

  5. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  6. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

  7. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron.

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the "rigid liquid" state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  8. Statistical theory of nonadiabatic transitions.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, A A

    2005-04-22

    Based on results of the preceding paper, and assuming fast equilibration in phase space to the temperature of the surrounding media compared to the time scale of a reaction, we formulate a statistical theory of intramolecular nonadiabatic transitions. A classical mechanics description of phase space dynamics allows for an ab initio treatment of multidimensional reaction coordinates and easy combination with any standard molecular dynamics (MD) method. The presented approach has several features that distinguishes it from existing methodologies. First, the applicability limits of the approach are well defined. Second, the nonadiabatic transitions are treated dynamically, with full account of detailed balance, including zero-point energy, quantum coherence effects, arbitrarily long memory, and change of the free energy of the bath. Compared to popular trajectory surface hopping schemes, our MD-based algorithm is more efficient computationally, and does not use artificial ad hoc constructions like a "fewest switching" algorithm, and rescaling of velocities to conserve total energy. The enhanced capabilities of the new method are demonstrated considering a model of two coupled harmonic oscillators. We show that in the rate regime and at moderate friction the approach precisely reproduces the free-energy-gap law. It also predicts a general trend of the reaction dynamics in the low friction limit, and is valid beyond the rate regime. PMID:15945676

  9. Quantum transitions between classical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter-like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)-(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.

  10. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  11. Elaborating transition interface sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erp, Titus S. van . E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

    2005-05-01

    We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

  12. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron

    PubMed Central

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the “rigid liquid” state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  13. Phase Transitions in Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi Y; Chen, Rimei; Wang, Xianju; Yang, Jinlong; Policova, Zdenka; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2016-08-23

    A self-assembled phospholipid monolayer at an air-water interface is a well-defined model system for studying surface thermodynamics, membrane biophysics, thin-film materials, and colloidal soft matter. Here we report a study of two-dimensional phase transitions in the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface using a newly developed methodology called constrained drop surfactometry (CDS). CDS is superior to the classical Langmuir balance in its capacity for rigorous temperature control and leak-proof environments, thus making it an ideal alternative to the Langmuir balance for studying lipid polymorphism. In addition, we have developed a novel Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer technique that allows the direct transfer of lipid monolayers from the droplet surface under well-controlled conditions. This LB transfer technique permits the direct visualization of phase coexistence in the DPPC monolayer. With these technological advances, we found that the two-dimensional phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer is analogous to the three-dimensional phase transition of a pure substance. This study has implications in the fundamental understanding of surface thermodynamics as well as applications such as self-assembled monolayers and pulmonary surfactant biophysics. PMID:27479299

  14. Transitions in endocrinology: treatment of Turner's syndrome during transition.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Aneta; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2014-02-01

    Transition in health care for young patients with Turner's syndrome (TS) should be perceived as a staged but uninterrupted process starting in adolescence and moving into adulthood. As a condition associated with high risk of short stature, cardiovascular diseases, ovarian failure, hearing loss and hypothyroidism, TS requires the attention of a multidisciplinary team. In this review paper, we systematically searched the relevant literature from the last decade to discuss the array of problems faced by TS patients and to outline their optimal management during the time of transfer to adult service. The literature search identified 233 potentially relevant articles of which 114 were analysed. The analysis confirmed that all medical problems present during childhood should also be followed in adult life. Additionally, screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and osteoporosis is needed. After discharge from the paediatric clinic, there is still a long way to go. PMID:24225028

  15. THE QUASIPERIODIC AUTOMATED TRANSIT SEARCH ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Joshua A.; Agol, Eric

    2013-03-10

    We present a new algorithm for detecting transiting extrasolar planets in time-series photometry. The Quasiperiodic Automated Transit Search (QATS) algorithm relaxes the usual assumption of strictly periodic transits by permitting a variable, but bounded, interval between successive transits. We show that this method is capable of detecting transiting planets with significant transit timing variations without any loss of significance-{sup s}mearing{sup -}as would be incurred with traditional algorithms; however, this is at the cost of a slightly increased stochastic background. The approximate times of transit are standard products of the QATS search. Despite the increased flexibility, we show that QATS has a run-time complexity that is comparable to traditional search codes and is comparably easy to implement. QATS is applicable to data having a nearly uninterrupted, uniform cadence and is therefore well suited to the modern class of space-based transit searches (e.g., Kepler, CoRoT). Applications of QATS include transiting planets in dynamically active multi-planet systems and transiting planets in stellar binary systems.

  16. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence E-mail: bkocsis@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10{sup 6} solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or {approx}10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  17. Stellar Transits in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 106 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ~10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  18. More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan

    2010-08-15

    We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.

  19. Complexity in Transition Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagotto, Elbio; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana

    2004-03-01

    Recent computational results in the context of models for manganites and cuprates will be briefly discussed. It is argued that correlations in quenched disorder -- needed to mimic cooperative Jahn-Teller effects -- are important to have colossal magnetoresistance in 3D. A related recently discussed metal-insulator transition induced by disorder in a one-orbital model with cooperative phonons is intuitively explained [1]. In addition, it is argued that colossal effects should be far more common than currently known, and they may appear in cuprate superconductors as well [2]. [1] J. Burgy et al., cond-mat/0308456; C. Sen, G. Alvarez, and E. Dagotto, preprint. [2] See also Adriana Moreo, invited talk, March APS 04; G. Alvarez, M. Mayr et al., preprint.

  20. Perpetual transitions in Romanian healthcare.

    PubMed

    Spiru, Luiza; Traşcu, Răzvan Ioan; Turcu, Ileana; Mărzan, Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Although Romania has a long-lasting tradition in organized medical healthcare, in the last two decades the Romanian healthcare system has been undergoing a perpetual transition with negative effects on all parties involved. The lack of long-term strategic vision, the implementation of initiatives without any impact studies, hence the constant short-term approach from the policy makers, combined with the "inherited" low allocation from GDP to the healthcare system have contributed significantly to its current evolution. Currently, most measures taken are of the "fire-fighting" type, rather than looking to the broader, long time perspective. There should be no wonder then, that predictive and preventive services do not get the proper attention and support. Patient and physicians should step in and take action in regulating a system that was originally designed for them. But until this happens, the organizations with leadership skills and vision need to take action-and this has already started. PMID:23199172

  1. Approximating metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej

    2015-12-01

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  2. Transition Strengths in 70As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Robert; Haring-Kaye, Robert; Morrow, Sylvia; Tabor, Sam; Tripathi, V.; Bender, P.; Medina, N.; Allegro, P.; Doring, J.; Jones, Kamali; Khahn, Le

    2014-09-01

    High-spin states in 70As were produced at Florida State University through the 55Mn(18O, 3 n) reaction at 50 MeV. Prompt γ- γ coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of 3 Clover and 7 single-crystal detectors. An enhanced level scheme was developed from the coincidence relations and relative intensity measurements. Spin assignments were based on directional correlation of oriented nuclei ratios. Lifetimes were determined using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Transition quadrupole moments inferred from the lifetimes will be compared with those predicted from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations, which indicate near-prolate collective structures competing with single-particle excitations in the lowest positive- and negative-parity bands.

  3. Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.

    2015-07-01

    We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation.

  4. Synthesis of transition metal carbonitrides

    DOEpatents

    Munir, Zuhair A. R.; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    1994-01-01

    Transition metal carbonitrides (in particular, titanium carbonitride, TiC.sub.0.5 N.sub.0.5) are synthesized by a self-propagating reaction between the metal (e.g., titanium) and carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. Complete conversion to the carbonitride phase is achieved with the addition of TiN as diluent and with a nitrogen pressure .gtoreq.0.6 MPa. Thermodynamic phase-stability calculations and experimental characterizations of quenched samples provided revealed that the mechanism of formation of the carbonitride is a two-step process. The first step involves the formation of the nonstoichiometric carbide, TiC.sub.0.5, and is followed by the formation of the product by the incorporation of nitrogen in the defect-structure carbide.

  5. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.

  6. Nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Carmen Jeanne

    2001-11-01

    Phase transitions occur in such diverse and important systems as ferromagnets, liquid crystals and the early Universe. The dynamics of phase transitions such as these have been studied for decades, but the analytical models still need a great deal of improvement before they can adequately describe all time stages and regions under the coexistence curve. Numerical studies can supplement these analytical theories, but they need to accurately describe the continuum equations that they are intended to solve. This thesis describes a method for removing the lattice- spacing and renormalization-mass dependence of Langevin simulations of phase mixing in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Ginzburg-Landau models with short-ranged interactions. Also, the spread in the order parameter near the critical value of the control parameter due to critical slowing down is used to more accurately determine this value of the control parameter in these simulations. In addition, a new method is proposed for quantifying the departure from equilibrium. The method explores the behavior of the rate of change of the momentum-integrated structure function, ΔStot( t), as it evolves in time. As an illustration, we examine a (1 + 1)-dimensional model of a stochastic Ginzburg-Landau model at varying cooling rates. We show that ΔStot(t) displays a peak which scales with cooling time-scale as t1/2q in the over-damped limit and t1/3q in the underdamped limit. The peak amplitude was found to scale with cooling time-scale as t6/5q in all viscosities studied.

  7. Transition Strengths in 67Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Elder, R. M.; Le, K. Q.; Morrow, S. I.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Bender, P. C.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Doring, J.

    2014-09-01

    High-spin states in 67Ga were studied using the 55Mn(18O, α2 n) reaction at 50 MeV performed at Florida State University. Prompt γ- γ coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was verified based on the measured γ- γ coincidences. Lifetimes of 13 excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Reduced electric quadrupole transition rates B(E 2) were calculated from the lifetimes and compared with the predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Plus Broken Pair Model (IBFBPM) from previous work. The evolution of shape with spin was inferred from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations. High-spin states in 67Ga were studied using the 55Mn(18O, α2 n) reaction at 50 MeV performed at Florida State University. Prompt γ- γ coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was verified based on the measured γ- γ coincidences. Lifetimes of 13 excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Reduced electric quadrupole transition rates B(E 2) were calculated from the lifetimes and compared with the predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Plus Broken Pair Model (IBFBPM) from previous work. The evolution of shape with spin was inferred from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Picking the right transition strategy.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves. PMID:19227407

  9. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Oded

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth PMID:25089157

  10. Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  11. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Galor, Oded

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth. PMID:25089157

  12. Thermal Phase Transitions in Finite Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, D.J.

    2001-10-18

    In this Proceedings, the author will describe the behavior of two different quantum-mechanical systems as a function of increasing temperature. While these systems are somewhat different, the questions addressed are very similar, namely, how does one describe transitions in phase of a finite many-body system; how does one recognize these transitions in practical calculations; and how may one obtain the order of the transition.

  13. Intensity Distribution of the Solar Transition Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research project was to use high resolution spectroscopic observations from the SUMER instrument on SOHO to study the structure of the solar transition region. Our focus in this grant was to study the structure of the transition region in a small active region, and compare it to similar observations we made of the quiet Sun. We also used SXT and EIT data to constrain the coronal and transition region emission measure distribution.

  14. Observation of transitions in lithiumlike germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behring, W. E.; Seely, J. F.; Brown, C. M.; Feldman, U.; Knauer, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Transitions of the type n = 2-2, n = 2-3 and n = 3-4 in Li-like Ge(29+) have been observed in the spectrum from a laser-produced plasma. The energy levels and ionization energy of Ge(29+) were derived from the observed wavelengths. The wavelength of the 2s 2S1/2-2p 2P3/2 transition is sufficiently accurate to determine the quantum-electrodynamic contribution to the transition energy.

  15. New O(3) transition in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Michael; Murthy, Ganpathy

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional lattice of Heisenberg spins with nearest-neighbor interactions is studied by numerical simulation under the constraint that no free topological singularities (hedgehogs) are allowed. Only nearest-neighbor pairs of oppositely charged hedgehogs are permitted in the sum over configurations. A disordering transition with exponents different from the usual Heisenberg transition is found and tentatively identified as a pure spin wave disordering transition.

  16. The Helix Coil Transition of DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    This transition, observed with an inexpensive ultraviolet photometer, is a potentially useful experiment for an advanced freshman class because it introduces several concepts of general physical interest. (DF)

  17. Kepler Stars with Multiple Transiting Planet Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit in March of 2009. Kepler is designed to conduct a statistical census of planetary system properties using transit photometry. Among the most exciting early results from Kepler are target stars found to have photometric signatures that suggest the presence of more than one transiting planet. Individual transiting planets provide information on the size and orbital period distributions of exoplanets. Multiple transiting planets provide additional information on the spacing and flatness distributions of planetary systems. Results to d ate and plans for future analysis will be presented.

  18. Unidirectional Transition Waves in Bistable Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Arrieta, Andres F.; Chong, Christopher; Kochmann, Dennis M.; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-06-01

    We present a model system for strongly nonlinear transition waves generated in a periodic lattice of bistable members connected by magnetic links. The asymmetry of the on-site energy wells created by the bistable members produces a mechanical diode that supports only unidirectional transition wave propagation with constant wave velocity. We theoretically justify the cause of the unidirectionality of the transition wave and confirm these predictions by experiments and simulations. We further identify how the wave velocity and profile are uniquely linked to the double-well energy landscape, which serves as a blueprint for transition wave control.

  19. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  20. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-01

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  1. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M.; Martínez, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  2. The L- to T-dwarf transition

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, M. S.; Cushing, M. C.; Saumon, D.

    2004-01-01

    While the precise mechanism responsible for the L to T dwarf transition remains unclear, it is clearly caused by changing cloud characteristics. Here we briefly review data relevant to understanding the nature of the transition and argue that changing atmospheric dynamics produce the transition by opening holes through the global iron and silicate cloud decks. Other possibilities, such as a sudden vertical collapse in these cloud decks are also considered. Any acceptable model of the L to T transition must ultimately connect changing cloud properties to the underlying atmospheric dynamics.

  3. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarata, Antonio; Rondinelli, James M.

    2016-05-01

    CaFeO3 is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO3. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  4. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  5. Continuous, Multielement, Hot-Film Transition Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B.; Mcpherson, J.; Harris, F.; Diamond, J.; Johnson, N.; Chapman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate measurement of location where laminar boundary layer undergoes transition to turbulent one serves many purposes in basic aero-dynamic research and developmental testing. Individual gages must be staggered to prevent formation of turbulence at gages downstream. This arrangement precludes accurate measurements of laminar/turbulent transition regions along streamline. Complete understanding of performance, stability, and control of laminar-flow airplane requires knowledge of transition locations on wing surface, empennage surfaces, fuselage, and nacelles. Visual, acoustic, and electronic methods capable of providing this transition information.

  6. A Catalog of Transit Timing Posterior Distributions for all Kepler Planet Candidate Transit Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin Tyler; Becker, Juliette C.; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-12-01

    Kepler has ushered in a new era of planetary dynamics, enabling the detection of interactions between multiple planets in transiting systems for hundreds of systems. These interactions, observed as transit timing variations (TTVs), have been used to find non-transiting companions to transiting systems and to measure masses, eccentricities, and inclinations of transiting planets. Often, physical parameters are inferred by comparing the observed light curve to the result of a photodynamical model, a time-intensive process that often ignores the effects of correlated noise in the light curve. Catalogs of transit timing observations have previously neglected non-Gaussian uncertainties in the times of transit, uncertainties in the transit shape, and short cadence data. Here, I present a catalog of not only times of transit centers, but also posterior distributions on the time of transit for every planet candidate transit event in the Kepler data, developed through importance sampling of each transit. This catalog allows one to marginalize over uncertainties in the transit shape and incorporate short cadence data, the effects of correlated noise, and non-Gaussian posteriors. Our catalog will enable dynamical studies that reflect accurately the precision of Kepler and its limitations without requiring the computational power to model the light curve completely with every integration. I will also present our open-source N-body photodynamical modeling code, which integrates planetary and stellar orbits accounting for the effects of GR, tidal effects, and Doppler beaming.

  7. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  8. Atomic Transitions in Dense Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Michael Sean

    Motivation for the study of hot, dense ( ~solid density) plasmas has historically been in connection with stellar interiors. In recent years, however, there has been a growing interest in such plasmas due to their relevance to short wavelength (EUV and x-ray) lasers, inertial confinement fusion, and optical harmonic generation. In constrast to the stellar plasmas, these laboratory plasmas are typically composed of high-z elements and are not in thermal equilibrium. Descriptions of nonthermal plasma experiments must necessarily involve the consideration of the various atomic processes and the rates at which they occur. Traditionally, the rates of collisional atomic processes are calculated by considering a binary collision picture. For example, a single electron may be taken to collisionally excite an ion. A cross section may be defined for this process and, multiplying by a flux, the rate may be obtained. In a high density plasma this binary picture clearly breaks down as the electrons no longer act independently of each other. The cross section is ill-defined in this regime and another approach is needed to obtain rates. In this thesis an approach based on computing rates without recourse to a cross section is presented. In this approach, binary collisions are replaced by stochastic density fluctuations. It is then these density fluctuations which drive transitions in the ions. Furthermore, the oscillator strengths for the transitions are computed in screened Coulomb potentials which reflect the average polarization of the plasma near the ion. Numerical computations are presented for the collisional ionization rate. The effects of screening in the plasma -ion interaction are investigated for He^+ ions in a plasma near solid density. It is shown that dynamic screening plays an important role in this process. Then, density effects in the oscillator strength are explored for both He^+ and Ar^{+17}. Approximations which introduce a nonorthogonality between the initial

  9. Easing the Transition to School: Administrators' Descriptions of Transition to School Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the early childhood transition activities of three schools in southern Queensland, Australia, as reported by school administrators. The transition programs were analysed using the categories of the Transition to School Matrix of the New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education. Activities fell into the first four categories…

  10. Making the Transition to Primary School: An Evaluation of a Transition Program for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The transition to primary school is an important time for both children and parents. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effectiveness of a Transition to Primary School Parent Program in strengthening parent knowledge and confidence to manage the transition process, increasing parent involvement in their children's…

  11. Implementing Secondary Transition Evidence-Based Practices: A Multi-State Survey of Transition Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Plotner, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have produced a call for enhanced transition service delivery that includes implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, research indicates transition service providers still lack the knowledge and skills to effectively implement EBPs to ensure youth with disabilities…

  12. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  13. 12 CFR 23.12 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition rule. 23.12 Section 23.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.12 Transition rule. (a) General rule. A CEBA Lease entered into prior to July 22, 1991, may continue to...

  14. 12 CFR 23.22 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition rule. 23.22 Section 23.22 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING Section 24(Seventh) Leases § 23.22 Transition rule. (a) Exclusion. A Section 24(Seventh) Lease entered into prior to June 12, 1979, may...

  15. 11 CFR 300.12 - Transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect between November 6 and December 31, 2002: 11 CFR 106.5(a),(b), (c), (f) and (g). ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition rules. 300.12 Section 300.12 Federal... FUNDS National Party Committees § 300.12 Transition rules. (a) Permissible uses of excess...

  16. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  17. Transition Management: The Student Teacher's Achilles Heel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dawn Vincent

    Classroom observation of four student teachers during the first, seventh, and fourteenth weeks of their teaching semester focused on their management of transition periods between lesson segments. Videotapes and stimulated recall analysis of the differences revealed that: (1) the most effective student teachers averaged fewer transitions per…

  18. Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

    The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…

  19. Factors Affecting Third Culture Kids' (TCKs) Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    (TCKs) transition becomes challenging for both the student and the school. The programs implemented, or lack thereof, are imperative to the successful transition of TCKs into their new, diverse, multicultural environment. Research has been written on the positive effects and challenges faced by TCKs' transient lifestyle. Although international…

  20. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenzli, Linda A., Ed.

    A facilitator's manual for the Summer Transition Enrichment Program at Bowling Green State University is presented. The overall objectives of the program are: (1) to facilitate the transition of entering freshmen into the academic and cultural life of the university; and (2) to assist students in their personal growth and adjustment to the…

  1. Transition Strategies for Persons with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Craig A., Ed.

    This collection of 10 papers focuses on the transition of students with learning disabilities from secondary education to employment, postsecondary education, independent living, and full social integration. The text concentrates on systemic transition problems that prevent successful communication, coordination, goal setting, and appropriate…

  2. 22 CFR 146.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transition plans. 146.230 Section 146.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 146.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 146.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  3. 10 CFR 1042.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 1042.230 Section 1042.230 Energy... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1042.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 1042.225 applies and that is composed of more than one...

  4. 22 CFR 229.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transition plans. 229.230 Section 229.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 229.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 229.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  5. 47 CFR 101.4 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... part 94 of this chapter as contained in the CFR edition revised as of October 1, 1995 and amended in... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition plan. 101.4 Section 101.4... SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.4 Transition plan. (a) All...

  6. 6 CFR 17.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 17.230 Section 17.230 Domestic... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 17.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 17.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  7. 22 CFR 146.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transition plans. 146.230 Section 146.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 146.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 146.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  8. 43 CFR 41.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition plans. 41.230 Section 41.230... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 41.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 41.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  9. 47 CFR 101.4 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... part 94 of this chapter as contained in the CFR edition revised as of October 1, 1995 and amended in... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transition plan. 101.4 Section 101.4... SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.4 Transition plan. (a) All...

  10. 22 CFR 229.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transition plans. 229.230 Section 229.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 229.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 229.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  11. 43 CFR 41.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Transition plans. 41.230 Section 41.230... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 41.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 41.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  12. 22 CFR 229.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transition plans. 229.230 Section 229.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 229.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 229.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  13. 49 CFR 25.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transition plans. 25.230 Section 25.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 25.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 25.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  14. 22 CFR 146.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transition plans. 146.230 Section 146.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 146.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 146.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  15. 6 CFR 17.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transition plans. 17.230 Section 17.230 Domestic... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 17.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 17.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  16. 40 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 5.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  17. 47 CFR 101.4 - Transition plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... part 94 of this chapter as contained in the CFR edition revised as of October 1, 1995 and amended in... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transition plan. 101.4 Section 101.4... SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.4 Transition plan. (a) All...

  18. 14 CFR 303.07 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transitional rule. 303.07 Section 303.07 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS REVIEW OF AIR CARRIER AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 303.07 Transitional rule. If a section...

  19. 14 CFR 303.07 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transitional rule. 303.07 Section 303.07 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS REVIEW OF AIR CARRIER AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 303.07 Transitional rule. If a section...

  20. 14 CFR 303.07 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transitional rule. 303.07 Section 303.07 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS REVIEW OF AIR CARRIER AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 303.07 Transitional rule. If a section...

  1. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  2. 14 CFR 303.07 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transitional rule. 303.07 Section 303.07 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS REVIEW OF AIR CARRIER AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 303.07 Transitional rule. If a section...

  3. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  4. 14 CFR 303.07 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transitional rule. 303.07 Section 303.07 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS REVIEW OF AIR CARRIER AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 303.07 Transitional rule. If a section...

  5. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  6. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  7. Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

  8. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

  9. The Community Transition Center (CTC) Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Charles C.; Costello, James

    This paper describes the Community Transition Center (CTC) model, being tested in six districts in rural Wisconsin. The model is a way of conceptualizing and organizing the employment-related needs of mainstreamed mildly handicapped youths who are exiting secondary schools. The model emphasizes the role of secondary school transition programming,…

  10. Phase transitions in the web of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.

  11. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Baca, Albert G.; Esherick, Peter; Parmeter, John E.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Shul, Randy J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  12. Changes and Exchanges in Marginal Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrell, Dorothy; Armstrong, Derrick

    2007-01-01

    While some groups of young people may negotiate successful transitions to work, others are unable or unlikely to do so. The concept of "fair exchange" is pertinent to understanding youth transitions in their formative stages through educational experiences. Patterns of disrupted education challenge the education-work nexus not only because failure…

  13. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions § 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  14. The Chancellor's Role in a Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, James R.; Dorsey, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Successful transitions involving a formal role for the former president, such as chancellor, are rare enough that the authors think theirs is an exceptional experience and is worth sharing, especially given the bulge of presidential retirements anticipated over the next decade. The authors believe that this model of transition can be successful,…

  15. 42 CFR 413.239 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-treatment payment amount for renal dialysis services (as defined in § 413.171 of this part) and home dialysis, provided during the transition as follows— (1) For services provided on and after January 1, 2011... election to be paid for renal dialysis services provided during the transition based on 100 percent of...

  16. Bullying and school transition: Context or development?

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Brittain, Heather; McDougall, Patricia; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relative impact of school transition versus development on peer victimization and bullying perpetration were examined in a natural experiment involving 698 students where half transitioned into middle school from Grade 5 to Grade 6 and the other half remained in their elementary school over the same period. Results indicated that, on average, peer victimization decreased over the transition period while bullying perpetration remained stable for the whole sample. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the effects of school transition and sex on changes in victimization and perpetration. Results indicated that the effect of transition status on changes in peer victimization was moderated by sex. Middle school transition status predicted decreases in peer victimization for girls, but not for boys, who transitioned. However, school transition status and participants' sex (and their interaction) did not predict changes in perpetration over time. Our findings indicate that changes in student involvement with peer victimization are better understood as a contextual rather than a typical developmental process, whereas bullying perpetration may be better understood as developmental. PMID:26522183

  17. Transition to Kindergarten: Family Experiences and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Wildenger, Leah K.

    2007-01-01

    The transition to kindergarten is an important developmental milestone for young children, their families, and teachers. Preparing students for successful kindergarten transition has been identified as a national priority, yet the degree to which parents are involved in kindergarten preparation is rarely considered. This study investigated the…

  18. Transition to School: Revisiting the Bridge Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huser, Carmen; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers, researchers and educators around the world have acknowledged the importance of children's transition to school, both as a significant life event and as a factor in future engagement with education. As a result, much attention has been directed towards researching transition experiences, developing policies to support positive…

  19. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  20. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  1. Transitions in the Development of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Fred A., II

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the factors that lead to success in transitions of giftedness among a middle school student cohort. As part of the Yale University (PACE Center) Transitions in the Development of Giftedness evaluation plan, qualitative data were collected via a semistructured interview protocol. A total of 63…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Transition, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogges, Ralph; Hogges, Lilia

    In this paper the Transition, Inc. program of the city of Miami is examined. This program's main concern is to help ex-offenders in their re-socialization process by offering them moral as well as financial support. It is evidenced from the goal and objectives of the Transition, Inc. program, its rehabilitative results and related literature that…

  3. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions § 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  4. Successful Transition to High School. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that 8th graders make a successful transition to 9th grade? More students fail ninth grade than any other grade level. When middle school students took part in high school transition programs with a variety of different articulation activities, fewer students were retained in ninth grade. Ideally, these transition…

  5. Disproportionality in Transition Services: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Robert M.; Daviso, Alfred, III; Queen, Rachel McMahan; Flexer, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine disproportionality in transition services for students with disabilities. The authors predicted that students' transition services and secondary programs would be driven not only by their postschool goals, but also by their gender, ethnicity, disability, and school setting. To test this hypothesis, the…

  6. The Transition to School: What's Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The Starting School Research Project in Australia collected data from children, parents, and teachers to find out what they consider important as students start school--and how transition programs can help. A set of guidelines is provided for school programs that promote effective transition. (Author/MLF)

  7. Transition: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s movement for improved transition of handicapped youth from school to work is considered in light of similar previous movements: (1) the career education movement of the 1970s and (2) the work/study movement of the 1960s. The influence of broad social issues (such as educational reform) on outcomes for the transition movement is stressed.…

  8. Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dean

    2016-03-01

    I review recent ab initio results by the Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory Collaboration showing that nature lies close to a quantum phase transition between an alpha-particle gas and nuclear liquid. I discuss the control parameter of this transition and the implications for clustering in nuclei and improving ab initio nuclear structure calculations.

  9. Middle Grades Transition Programs around the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Colin; Bishop, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Transitions into and out of the middle grades can be challenging for many reasons. Students need to acclimate to new policies, practices, and buildings; teachers require accurate data about their new students' capacities; and families must navigate relationships with new personnel. All school transitions present different and, at times, puzzling…

  10. Presidential Transitions: Planning the Last Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Mary Brown

    2007-01-01

    Presidential transitions can be difficult, but they are also unavoidable. As a member of two corporate boards, the author has observed several highly public and successful CEO transitions. To help guide outgoing presidents and campus communities away from the past and toward the future, the author offers some advice based on her own recent…

  11. 18 CFR 5.31 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transition provision. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.31 Transition provision. This part shall apply to license applications for which the deadline for filing...

  12. 18 CFR 5.31 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transition provision. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.31 Transition provision. This part shall apply to license applications for which the deadline for filing...

  13. 18 CFR 5.31 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transition provision. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.31 Transition provision. This part shall apply to license applications for which the deadline for filing...

  14. 45 CFR 164.532 - Transition provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transition provisions. 164.532 Section 164.532 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.532 Transition provisions. (a) Standard: Effect of...

  15. Voices in Transition: Lessons on Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebberwein, Christopher A.; Krieshok, Thomas S.; Ulven, Jon C.; Prosser, Ellie C.

    2004-01-01

    Occupational problems have negative consequences across life domains, yet relatively little research addresses the psychological resources necessary for the adult career transition. Considering Super's concept of career adaptability, the authors outline what they believe adults need to successfully manage the transition. Individuals in transition…

  16. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  17. Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, M. R.; Lindstrom, L.; Unruh, D.; Waintrup, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on factors that influence the sustainability of secondary transition innovations in local schools. We used a two-stage research process, which combined broad survey methods and an embedded case study design, to investigate the sustainability of a specific school-to-community transition model for youth with disabilities. We…

  18. 42 CFR 413.239 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-treatment payment amount for renal dialysis services (as defined in § 413.171 of this part) and home dialysis, provided during the transition as follows— (1) For services provided on and after January 1, 2011... election to be paid for renal dialysis services provided during the transition based on 100 percent of...

  19. 42 CFR 413.239 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-treatment payment amount for renal dialysis services (as defined in § 413.171 of this part) and home dialysis, provided during the transition as follows— (1) For services provided on and after January 1, 2011... election to be paid for renal dialysis services provided during the transition based on 100 percent of...

  20. 42 CFR 413.239 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-treatment payment amount for renal dialysis services (as defined in § 413.171 of this part) and home dialysis, provided during the transition as follows— (1) For services provided on and after January 1, 2011... election to be paid for renal dialysis services provided during the transition based on 100 percent of...

  1. 18 CFR 5.31 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition provision. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.31 Transition provision. This part shall apply to license applications for which the deadline for filing...

  2. 18 CFR 5.31 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transition provision. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.31 Transition provision. This part shall apply to license applications for which the deadline for filing...

  3. Family Perceptions of Transitions in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David L.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores three broad themes about transitions that have emerged in a naturalistic study of experiences of families with young children with disabilities. Generalizations regarding early transitions include families going through a birth crisis have difficulty understanding all the information they are provided. Not only is their role…

  4. Transition prediction using three dimensional stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods of transition prediction by linear stability analysis are compared. The spectral stability analysis code SALLY is used to analyze flows over laminar flow control wings. It is shown that transition by the envelope method and a new modified wave packet method are comparable in reliability but that the envelope method is more efficient computationally.

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  6. Financial Management for Transit: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaselden, Mark; And Others

    This handbook is primarily intended to serve as a primer for transit system managers who have not had any formal financial education through college classes, professional development programs, or extensive on-the-job programs. The following topics are covered: financial planning techniques for transit (beginning the financial planning process,…

  7. 45 CFR 149.105 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition provision. 149.105 Section 149.105 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.105 Transition provision....

  8. 45 CFR 149.105 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transition provision. 149.105 Section 149.105 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.105 Transition provision....

  9. 45 CFR 149.105 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transition provision. 149.105 Section 149.105 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.105 Transition provision....

  10. 45 CFR 149.105 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transition provision. 149.105 Section 149.105 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.105 Transition provision....

  11. Women in Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bystydzienski, Jill M., Ed.; Resnik, Estelle P., Ed.

    This series of 14 essays focuses on experiences of women who have made cross-cultural transitions. Cross-cultural transitions refer to moving across cultures, usually from one country to another or across subcultures within one society. The essays document what individual women perceived, how they felt when in the process of moving from one…

  12. Off to Kindergarten: Toolbox for Effective Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Early Childhood Work Group.

    Noting that the transition to school often sets the tone for the childs future school experiences, this toolbox identifies 33 proven practices currently used by schools districts and early childhood programs throughout Vermont to help children make a successful adjustment to school. Beginning with a list of guiding concepts on transition and…

  13. Transitions to School: Reframing Professional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Tess; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Systemic splits between pre-compulsory and compulsory early years education impact on transitions to school through discontinuities in children's experience. This paper presents data from a critical participatory action research project about transitions between pre-compulsory and compulsory early education schooling in Australia. The project…

  14. College Students in Transition: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Stephanie M., Ed.; Hinkle, Sara M., Ed.; Kranzow, Jeannine, Ed.; Pistilli, Matthew D., Ed.; Miles, LaTonya Rease, Ed.; Simmons, Jannell G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from high school to college is an important milestone, but it is only one of many steps in the journey through higher education. This volume is an annotated bibliography of the emerging literature examining the many other transitions students make beyond the first year, including the sophomore year, the transfer experience, and the…

  15. 12 CFR 614.4361 - Transition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition. 614.4361 Section 614.4361 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4361 Transition. (a) A loan (not including a commitment) made or attributed to a...

  16. 11 CFR 300.12 - Transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effect between November 6 and December 31, 2002: 11 CFR 106.5(a),(b), (c), (f) and (g). ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition rules. 300.12 Section 300.12 Federal... FUNDS National Party Committees § 300.12 Transition rules. (a) Permissible uses of excess...

  17. 45 CFR 1634.10 - Transition provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition provisions. 1634.10 Section 1634.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION COMPETITIVE BIDDING FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.10 Transition provisions. (a) When the competitive bidding...

  18. 12 CFR 207.10 - Transition provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provisions. 207.10 Section 207.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DISCLOSURE AND REPORTING OF CRA-RELATED AGREEMENTS (REGULATION G) § 207.10 Transition provisions. (a) Disclosure of...

  19. 12 CFR 23.12 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition rule. 23.12 Section 23.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.12 Transition rule. (a) General rule. A CEBA Lease entered into prior to July 22, 1991, may continue to...

  20. 45 CFR 149.105 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition provision. 149.105 Section 149.105 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.105 Transition provision....