Note: This page contains sample records for the topic coster-kronig transitions from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Coster-Kronig transition probability f23 in gold atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the Coster-Kronig transition probability f23 in gold atoms (nuclear charge Z=79 ) using the L x-ray versus K x-ray coincidence method. K vacancies were created using synchrotron radiation and the cascade decays were measured using germanium x-ray detectors. We find f23=0.112±0.004 which is somewhat lower than the recent coincidence measurement of Santra which yielded f23=0.119±0.003 . Our result is smaller than the values calculated by McGuire (f23=0.132) and Puri (f23=0.129) but agrees with our own single-configuration Pauli-Fock calculation, which gives f23=0.114 , as well as the global set of prior experimental data.

Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Mokler, P. H.; Stöhlker, Th.; Cheng, S.; Kochur, A. G.; Petrov, I. D.

2006-12-01

2

Investigation of low-Z Coster-Kronig transitions by means of Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental intensity ratios of Auger transitions for Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn as well as the relative L sub 2 and L sub 3 level widths of Cu and Zn, derived from their photoelectron spectra, are presented. Evidence is presented that a great deal of vacancy reorganization took place following photoionization and prior to Auger emission. These reorganizations are assumed to be due to Coster-Kronig transitions f sub 23. These results are compared with theoretical calculations and agree with predicted discontinuity at Z = 30 where f sub 23 transitions become energetically impossible.

Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

1972-01-01

3

Coster-Kronig transitions in hollow atoms created during highly charged ion-surface interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution KLL Auger spectra emerging from collisions of H-like and metastable He-like, C, N, and O on a B-doped Si(100) surface. In combination with the high resolution electron spectroscopy, Hartree-Fock calculations allow us to successfully identify KLL Auger electrons arising from specific states that form a part of the autoionization cascade as the multiply excited projectiles deexcite. We find strong evidence for Coster-Kronig transitions taking place in the hollow atoms which give rise to missing peaks in the Auger spectra.

Limburg, J.; Das, J.; Schippers, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Morgenstern, R.

1994-08-01

4

L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig spectra from relativistic theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intensities of L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions in heavy atoms have been calculated relativistically. A detailed comparison is made with measured Auger spectra of Pt and U. The pertinent transition energies were computed from relativistic wave functions with inclusion of the Breit interaction, self-energy, a vacuum-polarization correction, and complete atomic relaxation. Multiplet splitting is found to distribute Auger electrons from certain transitions among several lines. The analysis leads to reassignment of a number of lines in the measured spectra. Lines originally identified as L2-L3Ni in the U spectrum are shown to arise from M4,5 Auger transitions instead.

Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

1979-01-01

5

Auger and Coster-Kronig radial matrix elements for atomic numbers 6 le Z le 92  

SciTech Connect

Coulomb radial matrix elements for Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions to K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2}-, and L{sub 3}-shell vacancies in singly ionized atoms have been calculated with relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions. Results are tabulated for atomic numbers Z = 6-87 for the K shell and Z = 12-92 for the L subshells. These matrix elements can be used to calculate approximate Auger rates in multiply ionized atoms; the matrix elements are expected to be very useful for the computation of Auger rates in molecules and can be applied in computations of valence-band Auger lineshapes in solids.

Chen, Mau Hsiung (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA)); Larkins, F.P. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)); Crasemann, B. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (USA))

1990-05-01

6

Theoretical L-shell Coster-Kronig energies 11 or equal to z or equal to 103  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relativistic relaxed-orbital calculations of L-shell Coster-Kronig transition energies have been performed for all possible transitions in atoms with atomic numbers. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first-order approximation to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. Each transition energy was computed as the difference between results of separate self-consistent-field calculations for the initial, singly ionized state and the final two-hole state. The following quantities are listed: total transition energy, 'electric' (Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater) contribution, magnetic and retardation contributions, and contributions due to vacuum polarization and self energy.

Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

1976-01-01

7

Evidence for N 2N 3N 45 super coster kronig processes in metallic Nb, Mo, Ru and Rh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4p photoelectron spectra of metallic Nb, Mo, Ru and Rh have been recorded. By use of a deconvolution procedure it is shown that the 4p 1/2 spin-orbit component has a linewidth which significantly exceeds that of the 4p 3/2 component. This suggests that N 2N 3N 45 super Coster Kronig processes give a considerable contribution to the decay rata of the 4p 1/2 hole state.

Nyholm, Ralf; M»rtensson, Nils

1980-09-01

8

Measurement of the O2O3O4 and O3O4O5 super Coster–Kronig rates in tungsten via asymmetric diffraction spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tungsten L? transitions between 11 and 12 keV and K? transitions from 57 to 60 keV were produced by a laboratory electron-bombarded x-ray source and simultaneously recorded with high resolution by using multiple diffraction planes of the same quartz crystal operating in Cauchois transmission geometry. The W K? transitions were dispersed by the (5?0?2) planes, which were perpendicular to the crystal entrance surface, and by the (6?0?2), (7?0?2), and (8?0?4) planes which were rotated with respect to the (5?0?2) planes by angles up to 4.80°. The W L? transitions were dispersed by the (2?0?1) planes rotated from the (5?0?2) planes by 4.01°. The spectra from the five planes were simultaneously recorded on image plate detectors, and spectra were also recorded by scanning solid-state electronic detectors with narrow slits across the spectral lines. The metrology of the L and K shell spectra diffracted from multiple quartz planes enabled the detailed analysis of the detector spatial resolution and accurate measurement of the instrumental broadening produced by the various quartz diffraction planes. The W L? spectra had the highest instrumental resolving power, 1800, permitting for the first time the resolution of the blended L?4? (L1O2) and L?4 (L1O3) transitions. After subtracting the instrumental and detector contributions to the line widths, the remainder was assigned to the natural line widths. The measured widths of the O2 and O3 levels were 2.9 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively, and based on atomic code calculations these widths are attributed to the O2O3O4 and O3O4O5 super Coster–Kronig processes. This work demonstrates the ability to simultaneously record high resolution (<1 eV) L and K spectra to determine the line shapes of the heavy elements (e.g. W through Am) by using multiple planes of a single quartz crystal and to accurately measure the non-radiative super Coster–Kronig rates which are closely related to the energy level structure of the outer shells of the heavy elements.

Seely, John; Glover, Jack L.; Hudson, Lawrence; Ralchenko, Yuri; Pereira, Nino; Feldman, Uri

2014-06-01

9

L{sub 1}-L{sub 3} Coster-Kronig yield for elements with 70{<=}Z{<=}81  

SciTech Connect

The L{sub 1}-L{sub 3} Coster-Kronig (CK) yield f{sub 13} for the {sub 70}Yb, {sub 71}Lu, {sub 74}W, {sub 75}Re, {sub 79}Au, {sub 80}Hg, and {sub 81}Tl elements was deduced using measured intensities of the L{alpha} x rays emitted following decay of the L{sub i}-subshell (i=1,2,3) vacancies produced in widely different proportions by the 59.54 keV {gamma} rays (B{sub L{sub 1}}transition.

Sharma, Manju; Singh, Prem; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Puri, Sanjiv [Department of Physics, SLIET, Longowal 148 106 (India)

2004-03-01

10

Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

1978-01-01

11

Coster-Kronig electrons from the autoionizing Rydberg states of 2 MeV u-1 Si5+ ions excited through a thin C-foil target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several peaks have been observed, in the electron energy range up to 20 eV, due to Coster-Kronig electrons from the autoionizing Rydberg states emitted from 2 MeV u-1 Si5+ ions excited through a carbon foil. To obtain a better understanding of these low-energy electron spectra and their production mechanisms, we synthesize the expected electron spectrum which is compared with the observed electron spectrum. Two theoretical methods, namely the perturbation theory of Z-expansion (MZ code) and the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method (Cowan code), are used to calculate the necessary Auger electron energies and emission rates. It has been found that the 1s22pnl-1s22s 2S and 1s22s2pnl-1s22s2 1S decays give the most significant contributions to the observed electron spectrum from threshold up to the 20 eV region. The synthetic electron spectra have also been found to reproduce the observed electron spectra quite nicely when the charge distributions of the projectile Si ions after thin carbon foils are taken into account.

Sataka, M.; Imai, M.; Kawatsura, K.; Komaki, K.; Tawara, H.; Vasilyev, A.; Safronova, U. I.

2002-01-01

12

Theoretical Auger transition energies for atoms and ions through the relativistic and correlated local-density method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical calculations of several Auger, Coster-Kronig, and super-Coster-Kronig transitions of noble gases (such as Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) and of transition-metal atoms and their ions are presented using the recently developed relativistic and correlated local-density method [M. Vijayakumar, N. Vaidehi, and M. S. Gopinathan, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6834 (1989)]. The importance of relativistic and correlation effects on these transition energies is discussed. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as with those obtained by semiempirical and ab initio methods. Predictions are also made of various Auger transition energies for processes like K-LL and L-MM transitions for some ions.

Vijayakumar, M.; Gopinathan, M. S.

1991-09-01

13

Radiationless transitions to atomic M 1,2,3 shells - Results of relativistic theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiationless transitions filling vacancies in atomic M1, M2, and M3 subshells have been calculated relativistically with Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions for ten elements with atomic numbers 67-95. Results are compared with those of nonrelativistic calculations and experiment. Relativistic effects are found to be significant. Limitations of an independent-particle model for the calculation of Coster-Kronig rates are noted.

Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.

1983-01-01

14

X-ray transitions in highly charged neonlike ions  

SciTech Connect

Wavelength measurements of n=3 to n=2 transitions in neonlike Xe/sup 44 +/, La/sup 47 +/, Nd/sup 50 +/, and Eu/sup 53 +/ have been made using a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus tokamak. The measurements cover the wavelength regions 2.00 to 3.00 (angstrom) and include the electric dipole, and the electric and magnetic quadrupole transitions. The measured wavelengths are compared to energy levels obtained from a multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock calculation. Systematic differences between the experimental and theoretical values are found, which vary smoothly with atomic number. The magnitude of the differences depends on the particular type of transition and ranges from -2.8 eV to +2.2 eV. Inclusion of electron correlation corrections due to ground state correlations and (super) Coster-Kronig type fluctuations in the theoretical energies is shown to reduce the differences for some but not all types of transitions.

Beiersdorfer, P.; von Gjoeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hinnov, E.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Felt, J.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.; Stevens, J.; Suckewer, S.; Timberlake, J.; Wouters, A.; Chen, M.H.; Scofield, J.H.; Dietrich, D.D.; Gerassimenko, M.; Silver, E.; Walling, R.S.; Hagelstein, P.L.

1987-11-01

15

Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x-ray and Auger line widths, (e) x-ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster-Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and

M. O. Krause

1979-01-01

16

Use of two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy in the decomposition of an inner-shell excitation spectrum broadened by super-Coster-Kronig decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ge 3p core excitation spectrum of the n-butylgermane molecule only reveals two peaks, whereas the rest of the fine structure is obscured due to the large lifetime broadenings of core-excited states. A two-dimensional presentation of resonant photoemission spectra allows us to observe some other resonances. The interpretation of experimental results is supported by ab initio calculations conducted at the four-component relativistic level of theory with full account made for spin-orbit interactions already in the zeroth-order Hamiltonian.

Kivimäki, A.; Norman, P.; Coreno, M.; de Simone, M.; Grazioli, C.; Totani, R.; Ressel, B.; Ottosson, H.; Puglia, C.

2013-12-01

17

Measurement of Ll, L. cap alpha. , L. beta. , and L. gamma. x-ray-production cross sections in some high-Z elements by 60 keV photons  

SciTech Connect

Ll, L..cap alpha.., L..beta.., and L..gamma.. x-ray-production cross sections have been measured in elements Ta, W, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U for 60-keV photons. The measured values have been interpreted in terms of photoelectric cross sections, fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, and radiative decay rates. A fairly good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated values.

Shatendra, K.; Allawadhi, K.L.; Sood, B.S.

1985-05-01

18

Measurement of Ll, L. cap alpha. , L. beta. , and L. gamma. x-ray production cross sections in some high-Z elements by 18-, 26-, 33-, and 44-keV photons  

SciTech Connect

The cross sections for the production of Ll, L..cap alpha.., L..beta.., and L..gamma.. x rays in the elements Ta, W, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U by photons of energies 17.781, 25.770, 32.890, and 43.949 keV have been measured, using a standard double-reflection experimental setup. The measured values have been interpreted in terms of the photoionization cross sections, fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, and radiative decay rates. A fairly good agreement is found between the experiment and calculations.

Singh, N.; Mittal, R.; Singh, B.; Allawadhi, K.L.; Sood, B.S.

1986-10-01

19

Vacancy rearrangement processes in multiply ionized atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that in order to interpret the x-ray satellite structure of Pd L?1,2(L3M4,5) transitions excited by fast O ions, which was measured using a high-resolution von Hamos crystal spectrometer, the vacancy rearrangement processes, taking place prior to the x-ray emission, have to be taken into account. The measured spectra were compared with the predictions of the multi-con.guration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations using the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields which were modiffed due to a reduced number of electrons available for relaxation processes and the effect of closing the Coster-Kronig transitions. We demonstrate that the vacancy rearrangement processes can be described in terms of the rearrangement factor, which can be calculated by solving the system of rate equations modelling the flow of vacancies in the multiply ionized atom. By using this factor, the ionization probability at the moment of collision can be extracted from the measured intensity distribution of x-ray satellites. The present results support the independent electron picture of multiple ionization and indicate the importance of use of Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave functions to calculate the ionization probabilities.

Czarnota, M.; Pajek, M.; Banas, D.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Maillard, Y.-P.; Mauron, O.; Raboud, P. A.; Berset, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Slabkowska, K.; Polasik, M.; Chmielewska, D.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Sujkowski, Z.

2007-03-01

20

Transits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transits of the planets Mercury and especially Venus have been exciting events in the development of astronomy over the past few hundred years. Just two years ago the first transiting extra-solar planet, HD 209458b, was discovered, and subsequent studies during transit have contributed fundamental new knowledge. From the photometric light curve during transit one obtains a basic confirmation that the

Ronald L. Gilliland

2005-01-01

21

Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

22

L X-ray fluorescence cross sections of some rare earth elements ( Z = 62, 64, 66, 68 and 70) at 17.8, 22.6 and 25.8 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L X-ray fluorescence cross sections of the elements with Z = 62, 64, 66, 68 and 70 have been measured at 17.8, 22.6 and 25.8 keV using an X-ray tube and secondary exciters of Mo, Ag and Sn. The measured cross sections have been compared with the theoretical predictions and with the data of others. Theoretical values calculated using photoionisation cross sections from Scofield [Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, UCRL-51326, 1973], fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities from Puri et al. [X-ray Spectrom. 22 (1993) 358] and radiative widths from Campbell and Wang [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 43 (1989) 281] show good agreement with our data. Except two sets of data on L? cross sections, all the data of other groups agree well with those of ours.

Mandal, A. C.; Santra, S.; Mitra, D.; Sarkar, M.; Bhattacharya, D.

2005-06-01

23

On the absence of resonance in the valence band photoemission at L2 resonance edge and the delayed onset of the normal Auger-decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No clear resonance is present in the resonant valence band photoemission spectrum of a Mn6 (S = 4) single molecule magnet grafted on Au (1 1 1) for photon energy at the L2 resonance edge. This is due to the L2-hole's dominant decay by the L2-L3V Coster-Kronig (CK) decay. The excess energy of the photon at which the Mn resonant Raman scattering regime transits to the normal Mn Auger-decay regime in MnO depends on the Mn Auger-decay channels. This is because of the localization and delocalization of two holes in the Auger final states. The Mn resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy spectra of MnO are analyzed.

Ohno, Masahide

2012-06-01

24

PIXEF: the Livermore PIXE spectrum analysis package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXEF (for PIXE-fit) is a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data analysis program designed for analyzing medium to heavy element matrices while retaining the capability to treat lower atomic number targets. Using nonlinear least squares fitting techniques, algorithms have been developed or modified for both fitting the characteristic X-ray peaks and representing the associated bremsstrahlung and ?-ray background. Self-absorption and secondary fluorescence are explicitly determined for K-shell and L-subshell X-rays. Data bases have been created or improved, where necessary, from reliable current literature values or by direct measurement for element mass attenuation coefficients, photoionization and proton ionization cross sections, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and relative line intensities. The utility of the program is demonstrated with PIXE spectra obtained at Livermore.

Antolak, A. J.; Bench, G. S.

1994-05-01

25

Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Fisica for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub Li}) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (f{sub ij}) for elements with 55 {<=} Z {<=} 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.

Martinez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

2013-07-03

26

Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom  

SciTech Connect

The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2,3}-, M{sub 1}-, M{sub 2,3}- and M{sub 4,5} subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} and Xe{sup 10+} ions, and the charged X{sup 8+} ions are the highest. The main product from the L{sub 1}- shell ionization is found to be Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} ions, while the charged Xe{sup 8+} ions predominate at L{sub 2,3} hole states. The charged Xe{sup 6+}, Xe{sup 7+} and Xe{sup 8+} ions mainly yield from 3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 1/2,3/2} ionization, while Xe in 3d{sub 3/2,5/2} hole states mainly turns into Xe{sup 4+} and Xe{sup 5+} ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Kadad, Ibrahim M. [Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

2010-01-05

27

Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, 46 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 50  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectra involving N1, N2, and N3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics with regard to widths and structure were found in the Ag and Cd M4-N4,5N4,5 and M5-N4,5N4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory however predicts wider N2 than N3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N2 and N3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N2 and N3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation, to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

Hsiungchen, M.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

1975-01-01

28

Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, Z between 46 and 50  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectra involving N sub 1, N sub 2, and N sub 3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free-atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics are found, with regard to widths and structure, in the Ag and Cd M sub 4-N sub 4,5 N sub 4,5 and M sub 5-N sub 4,5 N sub 4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N sub 1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory, however, predicts wider N sub 2 than N sub 3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N sub 2 and N sub 3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N sub 2 and N sub 3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4 p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

1976-01-01

29

Electron-correlation-induced interchange of lifetime broadenings of 5s{sup -1} multiplet states in atomic Cs  

SciTech Connect

The lifetime broadenings of the most intense 5s photolines of Cs were studied. The aim of this study was to understand the origin of the remarkable differences in the lifetime widths of different 5s{sup -1} multiplet states. The 5s photoelectron spectra of the 6s{yields}6p{sub 1/2,3/2} laser-excited states are presented in the binding energy region of 30-34 eV showing the main 5s photolines of the ground state and laser-excited states as well as the 5s5p{sup 6}6p shakeup satellites. The lifetime widths of the states were determined. The Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out to predict the 5s photoelectron spectrum. The lifetime broadenings of the 5s photolines were found to be due to the transition rates of the subsequent Coster-Kronig transitions to the 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 5} states. It was found that a straightforward single-configuration explanation cannot be given for the lifetime differences. Instead, electron correlation plays an essential role and the lifetime broadenings were found to be predicted well only when configuration interaction between the 5s{sup -1} and 5p{sup -2}5d configurations is taking into account.

Partanen, L.; Holappa, M.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Schulz, J. [Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science at DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2009-10-15

30

A new fundamental parameter based calibration procedure for micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental parameter based quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement data requires an accurate knowledge of the spectrometer parameters, including the spectral distribution of the excitation radiation. In case of micro-XRF where a polycapillary optic is utilized in the excitation channel this distribution is changed due to the transmission properties of the lens. A new calibration procedure, based on fluorescence data of thin standard samples, was developed to determine the excitation spectrum, i.e., the product of the X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the used X-ray optic of a micro-XRF setup. The calibration result was validated by the quantitative analyses of certified multi-element reference standards and shows uncertainties in the order of 2% for main components, 10% for minor elements and 25% for trace elements. The influence of secondary order effects like Coster-Kronig transitions and cascade effects is analyzed and the accuracy of fundamental parameters in common databases is discussed.

Wolff, Timo; Malzer, Wolfgang; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Hahn, Oliver; Kanngießer, Birgit

2011-02-01

31

Double L3M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron-induced L3M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L3M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (IL?M:IL?) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L1-L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kav?i?, M.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Žitnik, M.

2011-02-01

32

Chemical effects on the L i( i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray relative intensities for some compounds of Hg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity ratios, IL k/ IL ?(exp) ( k= l, ?, ?4,6, ?1,2,3,15, ?5,7, ?1,5, ?2,3,6,8, ?4, ?, ?), have been measured for some compounds of 80Hg, namely, HgI 2, Hg(C 2H 3O 2) 2 and a pure 80Hg target (liquid form) at 22.6 keV incident photon energy in order to investigate the influence of chemical effects on these ratios for a heavy transition element. The measurements have been performed using the EDXRF spectrometer involving a disk type radioactive source of Cd 109 and a Peltier cooled Si-PIN X-ray detector arranged in the 90° reflection geometry. The measured intensity ratios have been compared with the theoretical IL k/ IL ? (Thr.) values ( Kumar et al., 2010) and those calculated using the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields tabulated by Campbell (2003, 2009) and Krause (1979) in order to check the reliability of these available values. The measured ratios, IL ?5,7 / IL ? (Exp.), were found to be influenced by the chemical effects.

Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

2011-11-01

33

The origin of the resistance change in GeSbTe films  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (a-GST) films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirmed the existence of the Ge-Ge homopolar bonds in the films. Raman spectra also indicated that the Ge tetrahedral coordination in the a-GST film disappeared after an annealing treatment above 220 deg. C. Resonantly excited Ge L{sub 2,3} x-ray emission spectra (which probe occupied Ge 3d4s-electronic states) show that the phase change from the amorphous to crystalline state is accompanied by a reduction in the Ge I(L{sub 2})/I(L{sub 3}) intensity ratio due to a L{sub 2}L{sub 3}N Coster-Kronig transition, indicating that the number of carriers is increased in the Ge 4sp valence state. These findings constitute direct evidence for the contribution of the Ge electronic states to the resistivity change.

Jang, Moon Hyung [Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Institute, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jong; Park, Sung Jin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mann-Ho [Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Institute, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kurmaev, E. Z.; Finkelstein, L. D. [Ural Division, Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 620441 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chang, Gap Soo [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

2010-10-11

34

Transition Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

Statfeld, Jenna L.

2011-01-01

35

Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization In Ne, Ar And Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.

Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Al-Zanki, Jasem M.; El-Essawy, Ashraf H. [Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

2010-01-05

36

Transition Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four exemplary programs that effectively plan and coordinate transitions between early intervention programs and preschool/elementary programs are described. They include Project BEST (Building Effective School Transitions), Projects STEPS (Sequenced Transition to Education in the Public School), Project TEEM (Transitioning into the Elementary…

Fowler, Susan A.

1988-01-01

37

Transit Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this space science activity, learners explore transits and the conditions when a transit may be seen. Learners use models to investigate how a planet's size and distance from its star affects the behavior of transits. Learners also use mathematics to interpret graphs of brightness vs. time to deduce information about planet-star systems. This lesson includes educator instructions, photocopy masters for Transit Light Curves, Option Math for Transit Tracks, Keplerâs 3rd Law graphs, cube root tables, an account of Jeremiah Horrocks' 1639 observation of the transit of Venus, and an answer key for the Transit Tracks Light Curves.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

38

Resonant valence-band satellites and polar fluctuations in nickel and its compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon energy dependences of the valence-band photoemission spectra of the Mott insulator NiO, the Pauli paramagnetic metal NiTe, the diamagnetic metal NiSb, and the semiconductor Cu2O have been measured in the vicinity of the transition-metal 3p threshold. Resonant satellites similar to those of Ni and Cu metal were found in all of these compounds. The resonance behaviors of the satellites and the main 3d emissions are also similar to those of the metals. From these data it is concluded that (1) the satellites and the resonance behaviors are in the first approximation of an atomic origin, (2) the Fano line shapes in the constant initial-state spectra of Ni and its compounds arise from the super-Coster-Kronig interaction between a discrete state 3p53dn+1 and continuum states 3p63dn-1?l following the 3p-->3d photoabsorption, (3) initial-state configuration mixing contributes significantly to the Ni "6-eV" satellite, and (4) the Ni metal main 3d band resonates strongly due to a 3d84s final state. Different interpretations of the Ni "6-eV" satellite are critically assessed in the light of these findings, and it is argued that these conclusions imply an appreciable amount of polar fluctuation to the 3d84s2 configuration in the Ni metal many-body ground state. The importance of Hund's-rule coupling for the ferromagnetism of Ni is also discussed in view of different interpretations of the Ni satellite.

Oh, S.-J.; Allen, J. W.; Lindau, I.; Mikkelsen, J. C., Jr.

1982-11-01

39

Transitional Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

2008-01-01

40

Newborn transition.  

PubMed

The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a complex adaptation. Although, in a sense, the entire time in utero is in preparation for this transition, there are many specific anatomic and physiologic changes that take place in the weeks and days leading up to labor that facilitate a healthy transition. Some, including increasing pulmonary vasculature and blood flow, are part of an ongoing process of maturation. Others, such as a reversal in the lung from secreting fluid to absorbing fluid and the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, are associated with the hormonal milieu that occurs when spontaneous labor is impending. Interventions such as elective cesarean birth or induction of labor may interfere with this preparation for birth. Postnatal interventions such as immediate clamping of the umbilical cord and oropharyngeal suction may also compromise the normal process of newborn transition. This article reviews the physiology of the fetal to newborn transition and explores interventions that may facilitate or hinder the optimal process. PMID:24103003

Graves, Barbara W; Haley, Mary Mumford

2013-01-01

41

Venus Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Venus Transit and how it helped astronomers determine the scale of the solar system. Learners will use measurement, ratios, and graphing to construct a model of the solar system and determine the relationship of each planet to the Sun. They will explore the scales needed to represent the size of the planets and the distances to the Sun. This activity corresponds to the NASA CONNECT video, titled Venus Transit, and has supplemental questions to support the video viewing.

42

Transition control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified view of the different control methods available or contemplated to delay or advance transition is presented. Emphasis is placed on two-dimensional incompressible flows, although more complex situations are also briefly covered. The governing equations are developed first, the routes to transition are mapped, and elements of the linear stability theory are outlined. The four basic stability modifiers - wall motion, suction, shaping, and wall heat transfer - are discussed, along with wave cancellation. The benefits as well as drawbacks of each approach are considered.

Gad-El-hak, Mohamed

1990-01-01

43

Single, double, and triple Auger decay of the Xe 4p core-hole states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger decay of Xe{sup +} states arising from 4p ionization has been studied with a very efficient multielectron coincidence method. Coster-Kronig decay from Xe{sup +} 4p⁻¹ and the subsequent decay into Xe{sup 3+} states with three valence holes are identified. Formation of Xe{sup 4+} is also observed as quadruple coincidences between a 4p photoelectron and three Auger electrons. The relative

Y. Hikosaka; T. Kaneyasu; E. Shigemasa; P. Lablanquie; F. Penent; J. H. D. Eland; T. Aoto; K. Ito

2007-01-01

44

Single, double, and triple Auger decay of the Xe 4p core-hole states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger decay of Xe+ states arising from 4p ionization has been studied with a very efficient multielectron coincidence method. Coster-Kronig decay from Xe+ 4p-1 and the subsequent decay into Xe3+ states with three valence holes are identified. Formation of Xe4+ is also observed as quadruple coincidences between a 4p photoelectron and three Auger electrons. The relative probabilities of individual multi-ionization

Y. Hikosaka; P. Lablanquie; F. Penent; T. Kaneyasu; E. Shigemasa; J. H. D. Eland; T. Aoto; K. Ito

2007-01-01

45

Multiple photoionization from 3 p excitation of Kr and 4 p excitation of Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoionization cross sections for multiply charged ions produced by 3p excitation of Kr and 4p excitation of Xe have been obtained by means of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and synchrotron radiation. It is found that the main formation of doubly to quadruply charged ions in both Kr and Xe is caused from the each initialp-hole state through a Coster-Kronig

T. Hayaishi; Y. Morioka; T. Akahori; M. Watanabe; A. Yagishita; M. Nakamura

1986-01-01

46

Intracellular potassium: 40K as a primordial gene irradiator.  

PubMed Central

We have been interested in the possibility that the low energy electrons (Auger and Coster-Kronig) emitted after the electron capture decay of 40K may have highly localized radiochemical effects on the genetic material--effects dependent upon the intracellular locus of potassium. We report here that these effects are such that the likelihood of mutagenesis by their impact on DNA is substantial. This suggests that intracellular 40K has played a significant role as a mutagenic agent in evolution.

Moore, F D; Sastry, K S

1982-01-01

47

Eliminating Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

2010-01-01

48

Transit Distortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The properties and morphology of the transit light curve have now been established, provided assumptions A0–A10 are in effect.\\u000a In Sect. 3.3.7, I discussed the consequences of breaking each of the assumptions and how frequent and significant the invalidation\\u000a of each assumption was. In that section, it was concluded that three assumptions, in particular, were likely to be frequently\\u000a broken

David M. Kipping

49

L{beta}1 and L{beta}2 Satellites in the X-ray Emission Spectra  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray satellites L{beta}{sub 1}{sup I}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup II}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup III}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup IV}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup I}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (b)}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup II} and L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (c)} observed in the L-emission spectra in elements with Z = 26 to 92, have been calculated. The energies of various transitions have been calculated by available Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) data using the semi-empirical Auger transition energies in the doubly ionized atoms and their relative intensities have been estimated by considering cross - sections of singly ionized 2x-1 (x {identical_to} s, p) states and then of subsequent Coster-Kronig and shake off processes. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in the L emission spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The one to one correspondence between the peaks in calculated spectra and the satellites in measured spectra has been established on the basis of the agreement between the separations in the peak energies and those in the measured satellite energies. Group of transitions under the transition schemes L2Mx-MxM4,5 and L3Mx-MxN4,5 (x {identical_to} 1-5), which give rise to these satellites have been identified. It is observed that the satellite L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (b)} in all these spectra can be assigned to the superposition of 3F4-3G5 and 3F4-3D3 transitions and that this must be most intense one out of all these satellites, contributing in order of decreasing intensity. Each of the remaining satellites is found to have different origin in different elements. The possible contributions of the suitable transitions to all these lines have also been discussed.

Poonia, Surendra [Division of Natural Resources and Environment, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur - 342 003, Rajasthan (India)

2005-10-26

50

Stem Transitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one-year project is being led by the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education under cooperative agreement with the League for Innovation in the Community College, the project is building on the work of the College and Career Transitions Initiative begun by the League in 2003. At the heart of the project are the six Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) career clusters that have provided the context for instructional materials that demonstrate the convergence of academic and technical content at the community college level. CORD staff, in conjunction with 38 faculty conferees from community colleges across the country, have developed 63 integrated curriculum projects for use in math, science, and technical courses in the six STEM-related clusters health science; information technology; manufacturing; transportation; science, technology, engineering and mathematics; and agriculture. The classroom-ready projects are intended to aid in student mastery of essential mathematics and science concepts while motivating students to pursue STEM-related careers.

2009-11-27

51

ETD - Exoplanet Transit Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of Exoplanet Transit Database (ETD), an internet portal, which offers all necessary informations for exoplanet transit observation. Scheduling, list of previously obtained data and on-line algorithm for photometric data processing, which determines the mid-transit time, duration and depth of a transit The Exoplanet Transit Database can be found at http://var.astro.cz/etd.

Brát, L.; Poddaný, S.; Pejcha, O.; Zejda, M.

2010-12-01

52

Mass Transit: Bus Rapid Transit Shows Promise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bus Rapid Transit as a comprehensive transportation option is exemplified in Curitiba, Brazil. Curitiba's Bus Rapid Transit system is an extensive commuter bus system that includes exclusive busways and a number of other features designed to increase spee...

2001-01-01

53

Transit Bus Maintenance Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 8 papers in the report deal with the following areas: some recent developments in summary; research needs in transit bus maintenance; transit bus maintenance in New York State; issues and analysis; management of transit bus prerun inspections; applica...

S. J. Andrle J. F. Zimmerman J. Duffy J. F. Foerster S. Puente

1986-01-01

54

Transitions: A Personal Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

Wood, Ann Stace

1995-01-01

55

Conformational transition behavior around glass transition temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conformational transition behavior around the glass transition temperature has been studied by means of molecular dynamics through a model system, atactic polypropylene in bulk. Various criteria of the conformational transition were examined. A domain at barrier site is defined as the transition state of the conformers and the other conformational states are labeled in code. The transition is accepted when the code is changed. Variation of the width of the domain at barrier distinguishes the deep jumps of the torsion rotations from the shallow jumps that do not reach the well bottom within +/-20° from the minimum. The behavior of the deep jumps obeys the rate equation of the transition-state theory, being independent of Tg. The shallow jumps were found significant in the characterization of the motion of polymer chains through Tg. This study thus proves that the changes of properties of polymers resulting from the glass transition are predominately mastered by the shallow jumps.

Liang, Taining; Yang, Yong; Guo, Dawei; Yang, Xiaozhen

2000-01-01

56

Timed Transition Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We incorporate time into an interleaving model of concurrency. In timed transition systems, the qualitative fairness requirements of traditional transition system are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upperbound timing constraints on transitions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of applicability for the abstract model of timed transition systems. We demonstrate that the model can

Thomas A. Henzinger; Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1991-01-01

57

MassTransitMag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MassTransit website is dedicated to "Better Transit Through Better Management", and their offerings include industry news, email newsletters, video profiles, and opinion pieces about the world of mass transit. The site is mostly dedicated to providing information about mass transit systems in the United States, though visitors will note that there is some coverage of international transit systems as well. The "Current Issue" section includes full-text version of most of the articles found in the print issue, along with an archive dating back to 2005. For more up-to-the minute coverage of transit affairs, the "Daily News" area digests ongoing legislation, transit improvements, and long-range plan updates from a variety of sources. The "MassTransit Interactive" area allows users to read and comment on editor's comments on the news affecting the transit world, including issues such as federal funding mechanisms, light-rail initiatives, and union contracts.

58

Gas turbine combustor transition  

DOEpatents

A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

1999-01-01

59

Transit bus maintenance management  

SciTech Connect

The 8 papers in the report deal with the following areas: some recent developments in summary; research needs in transit-bus maintenance; transit-bus maintenance in New York State; issues and analysis; management of transit-bus prerun inspections; application of a transit-maintenance management-evaluation procedure; analysis of bus transit's maintenance efficiency using section 15 data; climatic effects on bus durability; exploring the multiple factor concept for bus maintenance using simulation; effectiveness of improved repair scheduling in the performance of bus-transit maintenance.

Andrle, S.J.; Zimmerman, J.F.; Duffy, J.; Foerster, J.F.; Puente, S.

1986-01-01

60

Gas turbine combustor transition  

DOEpatents

A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

1999-05-25

61

Transition Probability Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A few remarks are first made on invariant probability measures of a transition probability operator. The notion of irreducibility is introduced for a transition operator acting on the continuous functions on a compact space and implications of this assump...

M. Rosenblatt

1965-01-01

62

Transitional strategic defense architectures  

SciTech Connect

Transitional deployments permit the rational evolution of increasing capability in each defensive layer. Boost-phase and midcourse transitions are discussed; a key feature is the need for balance between deployment and development. 31 refs., 1 fig.

Canavan, G.H.

1989-03-01

63

Transitional Strategic Defense Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transitional deployments permit the rational evolution of increasing capability in each defensive layer. Boost-phase and midcourse transitions are discussed; a key feature is the need for balance between deployment and development. 31 refs., 1 fig. (ERA c...

G. H. Canavan

1989-01-01

64

Cosmological phase transitions  

SciTech Connect

If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

65

Transition in Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

1985-01-01

66

Transition: Terms and Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides explanations and case examples of some terms and concepts related to transition of students with disabilities under 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Explanations and examples focus on the concepts of "statement of transition service needs" and "statement of needed transition services". The…

O'Leary, Ed

67

Transitions: Closing the Gaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even Start is a family literacy and support program for families with young children. This paper focuses on the impact and potential of transitions for children and adults as Even Start helps them move across settings. Such transitions occur daily, such as from home to day care to work, or occur over time, such as a transition to formal schooling.…

Logue, Mary Ellin

68

Transition. Feature Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue of a quarterly bulletin on community integration addresses the topic of transition services for preparing youth with disabilities for adult community living. It contains articles with the following titles and authors: "Transition: The Next Five Years" (David R. Johnson and others); "Transition Policy in the 1990s: Promoting…

Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

1992-01-01

69

Transitivity of Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

2011-01-01

70

Transit pricing and performance  

SciTech Connect

The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass transit; a decade of experience; transit route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and transit operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential transit pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-transit coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.

Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.

1986-01-01

71

Quantum phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of both theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These transitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a non-thermal control parameter, can influence the behaviour of electronic systems over a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of competing ground state phases. The cuprate superconductors which can be tuned from a Mott insulating to a d-wave superconducting phase by carrier doping are a paradigmatic example. This review introduces important concepts of phase transitions and discusses the interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near criticality. The main part of the article is devoted to bulk quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Several classes of transitions will be briefly reviewed, pointing out, e.g., conceptual differences between ordering transitions in metallic and insulating systems. An interesting separate class of transitions is boundary phase transitions where only degrees of freedom of a subsystem become critical; this will be illustrated in a few examples. The article is aimed at bridging the gap between high-level theoretical presentations and research papers specialized in certain classes of materials. It will give an overview on a variety of different quantum transitions, critically discuss open theoretical questions, and frequently make contact with recent experiments in condensed matter physics.

Vojta, Matthias

2003-12-01

72

Transitive and Pseudo-Transitive Inferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that A is longer than B, and that B is longer than C, even 5-year-old children can infer that A is longer than C. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules of inference invoke simple axioms ("meaning postulates") to capture such transitive inferences. An alternative theory proposes instead that reasoners construct mental models of the…

Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

2008-01-01

73

Asian demographic transitions: Transitions to what?  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia are located along the continuum divided roughly into the mature, intermediate and earlier stages of the demographic transition, but they are moving, seemingly inexorably, towards the mature end. Even South Asia has large areas of below-replacement fertility, mostly in India, and Pakistan finally appears to be moving rapidly toward lower fertility levels. Projections

Gavin W. Jones

74

Quantum Phase Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum Phase Transitions details the fundamental changes that can occur in the macroscopic nature of matter at zero temperature due to small variations in a given external parameter. The author develops the theory of quantum phase transitions in the simplest possible class of nondisordered, interacting systems--the quantum Ising and rotor models. He pays particular attention to their non-zero temperature dynamic

Subir Sachdev; Matthew P. A. Fisher

2001-01-01

75

Atomic Dipole Transitions Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation explores the transitions between quantum states in a hydrogen atom. The time-dependent wavefunction is displayed. An electric field resonant with the transition between states is applied and the changes in the wavefunction with time are tracked in a dipole approximation. Initial and final states can be selected by the user.

Falstad, Paul

2004-05-17

76

Simulation of conformational transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conformational transitions are essential for the functioning of many proteins, and understanding this dynamical behavior is a central goal in molecular biology. Computer simulations are playing an important role towards this aim by providing insights into how the conformational changes are induced, propagated and used. Popular methods for the simulation of conformational transitions will be reviewed, with a focus on

Arjan van der Vaart

2006-01-01

77

[Youth in Transition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on assisting adolescents with serious emotional handicaps to make transitions from youth serving systems into society. A framework for developing transition-oriented programs is prevented that incorporates into the specific service goals of the current environment the skills required to function in the projected environment.…

McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

1987-01-01

78

Modeling the transition region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the transition region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the transition region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better transition-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the transition region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the transitional flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the transition region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for transitional flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.

Singer, Bart A.

1994-01-01

79

Good Transitions = Great Starts!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

2012-01-01

80

Seamless Transition for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…

Test, David W.

2008-01-01

81

Transit Rider - 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with an analysis of present bus operations in the Twin Cities area because of a need for immediate action to improve the existing bus transit system and stem the secular decline in transit riding. The report describes the procedures devel...

1968-01-01

82

Researching Student Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sketches a research agenda for the further study of community college student transitions. Specific techniques are depicted as are potential data sources that can be used to pursue that agenda. The role of student tracking systems in transition research is discussed as well as the applicability of national surveys to the study of…

Voorhees, Richard A.; Smith, Gregory P.; Luan, Jing

2006-01-01

83

3p photoionization and subsequent Auger decay of atomic gallium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3p photoionization and subsequent Coster-Kronig type of Auger decay of initially neutral atomic gallium were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The binding energies and relative intensities of the 3p photoelectron spectrum together with a satellite structure are given. The M2, 3MM and M2, 3MN Auger electron spectrum leading to doubly ionized final states is presented. The synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron and Auger electron spectra were interpreted using multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations providing spectral identification for the main observed features.

Anin, D.; Huttula, S.-M.; Huttula, M.

2013-09-01

84

Single, double, and triple Auger decay of the Xe 4p core-hole states  

SciTech Connect

Auger decay of Xe{sup +} states arising from 4p ionization has been studied with a very efficient multielectron coincidence method. Coster-Kronig decay from Xe{sup +} 4p{sup -1} and the subsequent decay into Xe{sup 3+} states with three valence holes are identified. Formation of Xe{sup 4+} is also observed as quadruple coincidences between a 4p photoelectron and three Auger electrons. The relative probabilities of individual multi-ionization processes are determined from the coincidence yields.

Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F. [LCP-MR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 and CNRS (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Eland, J. H. D. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Aoto, T.; Ito, K. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2007-09-15

85

75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments AGENCY: Commodity Credit...CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to...

2010-12-10

86

Embolus in transit.  

PubMed

Since the advent of echocardiography, embolus in transit, historically found during surgical exploration or on postmortem examination, has been found with increasing frequency on antemortem examination. There is an inherent high mortality rate with this condition and awareness of the association between deep venous thrombosis and embolus in transit is paramount. On echocardiography the embolus is typically seen as a pleomorphic mass moving in a tumbling fashion. The most frequent symptoms are dyspnea and near syncopal episodes. The most common signs are diastolic "tumor plop" and a systolic ejection murmur heard on auscultation. Despite the success of some medical interventions, surgery should be strongly considered in patients with embolus in transit. PMID:1473309

Thompson, R; Slack, J D; Taliercio, C P; Waller, B

1992-12-01

87

Transit Timing Variations  

NASA Video Gallery

The animation shows the difference between planet transit timing of single and multiple planet system. In tightly packed planetary systems, the gravitational pull of the planets among themselves ca...

88

Transitions in Phenolic Polymer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenolic polymer has been polymerized under conditions which lead to a crack free solid casting and its compressibility, electrical resistivity and specific heat have been determined. A secondary transition was found by compressibility measurements at a...

R. W. Warfield

1974-01-01

89

Transitional Care Planning (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... be practical problems such as finding an appropriate rehabilitation center, obtaining special equipment, or paying for needed care. There may be mental health problems such as depression or anxiety . Transitional care ...

90

Transit of Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Transit of Venus is similar to a solar eclipse, where -- from the perspective on Earth -- Venus passes in front of the Sun. This event does not happen very often. In fact, no one alive today has experienced this phenomenon, which will take place on June 8 and will be visible for most of Europe, Asia, and Africa.First, the Armagh Planetarium created a great, expansive informational site all about the Transit of Venus (1). Users can find basic facts, observing information, histories of past transits, and much more. Next, the European Southern Observatory presents the VT-2004 project's aim to gain knowledge and encourage public interest in the event (2). Users can observe Venus's progression towards the transit with the daily images from April 17, 2004 to present news updates. Educators can discover transit-related activities and educational materials. The third site, created by NASA, discusses the details of the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum and San Francisco's Exploratorium's live webcast of the Transit (3). The site supplies enjoyable, educational materials for students, educators, museums, scientists, and amateur astronomers. The next site, also created by NASA, provides an introduction to the Venus Transits that will take place June 2004 and 2012 (4). Visitors can find helpful figures and text about the geographic visibility of the events. The site offers an observer's handbook as well as a discussion about the predictions of the event. Next, Professor Backhaus presents a project where schools, amateur astronomers, and universities will collaborate to gather transit data and learn about observing (5). Users can discover the six parts of the project as well as learn how to participate in the worldwide endeavor. The sixth site also discusses a Venus Transit project (6). Endorsed by the Astronomical Association of Zurich, this project's goals are to process data collected by amateur astronomers by different observation methods, to act as a data exchange center, and to determine the astronomical unit. Next, the Exploratorium furnishes general information about the Transit, its history, how viewers observe it, what it looks like, and why it is an important event (7). Users can find out about the live webcast that will begin on June 7, 2004 from Athens, Greece. Educators can find student activities developed to integrate discussions into the classroom. Lastly, Willie Koorts, an employee at the South African Astronomical Observatory, recounts the observations of scientists in Africa of the last transit of Venus (8). The site contains many historical photographs along with informational diagrams and figures.

91

Transition-Edge Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) have emerged as powerful, energy-resolving detectors of single photons from the near infrared through gamma rays and sensitive detectors of photon fluxes out to millimeter wavelengths. The TES is a thermal sensor that measures an energy deposition by the increase of resistance of a superconducting film biased within the superconducting-to-normal transition. Small arrays

K. D. Irwin; G. C. Hilton

92

Quantum phase transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of\\u000aboth theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These\\u000atransitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a\\u000anon-thermal control parameter, can influence the behavior of electronic systems\\u000aover a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a\\u000aresult of competing ground state

Thomas Vojta

2003-01-01

93

Segmental colonic transit time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean segmental transit time of radiopaque markers through the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid areas of adults and\\u000a children has been calculated from their distribution on consecutive plain films of the abdomen. Overall mean transit does\\u000a not differ significantly in the large bowel between adults and children. However, there are regional differences within the\\u000a colon in relation to age.

Pierre Arhan; Ghislain Devroede; Bertrand Jehannin; Michel Lanza; Claude Faverdin; Catherine Dornic; Bernard Persoz; Léon Tétreault; Bernard Perey; Denys Pellerin

1981-01-01

94

Russlands gescheiterte föderale Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Im Gegensatz zu Belgien bestand in Russland, als die zentrifugale Dynamik zum Problem wurde, keine Demokratie. Wie in Spanien\\u000a nach Franco war in Russland nach dem Ende des kommunistischen Systems eine demokratische Transition grundsätzlich in den Bereich des\\u000a Möglichen gekommen. Anders als in Spanien verlief dieser Prozess jedoch nicht erfolgreich. Daher ist weniger von einer Transition\\u000a als vielmehr von einer

Claudia Wasmeier

95

The Transitioning Germ Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Germline constancy is a must for species continuity, but the life of the germ cell itself is full of change. The trek to and from the germ line includes numerous transitions and decisions deftly choreographed for the gametes' unique ability in nature to develop into a complex animal and pass on genetic information. This special section highlights the transitioning germ line and otherwise expands on intriguing aspects of these cells of heredity.

Beverly Purnell (AAAS;); John Travis (AAAS;)

2007-04-20

96

Slow transit constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The diagnosis of slow transit functional constipation is based upon diagnostic testing of patients with idiopathic constipation\\u000a who responded poorly to conservative measures such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives [1••]. These tests\\u000a include barium enema or colonoscopy, colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and expulsion of a water-filled\\u000a balloon [2•]. Plain abdominal films can identify megacolon,

Arnold Wald

2002-01-01

97

Metal-insulator transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and orbital fluctuations, mass renormalization effects, incoherence of charge dynamics, and phase transitions under control of key parameters such as band filling, bandwidth, and dimensionality. These parameters are experimentally varied by doping, pressure, chemical composition, and magnetic fields. Much of the observed behavior can be described by the current theory. Open questions and future problems are also extracted from comparison between experimental results and theoretical achievements.

Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

1998-10-01

98

Demographics of transition objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occurred in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates and disc masses Mdisc compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that the transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the versus Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses approximately four times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a tighter relationship between disc masses and stellar accretion rates, with a slope between the two quantities that is close to the value of unity expected in simple theories of disc accretion.

Najita, Joan R.; Strom, Stephen E.; Muzerolle, James

2007-06-01

99

Perspective: The glass transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide here a brief perspective on the glass transition field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or ``stylised facts,'' of the glass transition problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass transition and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass transition have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass transition, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook.

Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P.

2013-03-01

100

?/s and phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a calculation of ?/s for the meson gas (zero baryon number), with the viscosity computed within unitarized next-to-leading-order chiral perturbation theory, and confirm the observation that ?/s decreases towards the possible phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma/liquid. The value is somewhat higher than previously estimated in leading-order ?PT. We also examine the case of atomic Argon gas to check the discontinuity of ?/s across a first-order phase transition. Our results suggest employing this dimensionless number, sometimes called KSS number (in analogy with other ratios in fluid mechanics such as Reynolds number or Prandtl number) to pin down the phase transition and critical end point to a crossover in strongly interacting nuclear matter between the hadron gas and quark and gluon plasma/liquid.

Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.

2009-01-01

101

Venus Transit 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just several weeks, Venus, the Earth's sister planet, will pass in front of the sun, affording astronomers and the general public the ability to take part in a extremely rare event. While persons in Europe, Africa, and Asia will have the best vantage point for this occurrence, those interested in the Venus transit will want to take a detailed look at this lovely website in order to find out more about the event. Launched by the European Southern Observatory and the European Association for Astronomy Education (in cooperation with three other organizations), the site contains ample information about the latest news from the project, detailed background material about this astronomical event, the network of institutions involved with the project, and information on how individuals may participate in the Venus Transit 2004 project. One of the most helpful areas contains animations of the Venus transit from different perspectives.

102

Transitional lumbosacral osseous complex  

SciTech Connect

The weight of the head and trunk is transferred to the lower extremities through that segment of the spine articulating either directly or indirectly with the ilii. When a lumbosacral transitional vertebra is present the position of the weight-bearing platform usually changes. A bony entity is formed delineated superiorly by the top of the transitional vertebra and inferiorly by the lower level of the sacroiliac joints. This segment is designated as the transitional lumbosacral osseous complex. Measurements of its length in the three phylogenetic categories in man, including measurements of the articulating portion of the sacrum in the human mode, showed a range of 68 mm to 157 mm and variations from 2.0 to 3.7 in vertebral lengths.

Wigh, R.E.

1982-05-01

103

Quantum interface unbinding transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider interfacial phenomena accompanying bulk quantum phase transitions in the presence of surface fields. On general grounds we argue that the surface contribution to the system free energy involves a line of singularities characteristic of an interfacial phase transition, occurring below the bulk transition temperature Tc down to T=0. This implies the occurrence of an interfacial quantum critical regime extending into finite temperatures and located within the portion of the phase diagram where the bulk is ordered. Even in situations where the bulk order sets in discontinuously at T=0, the system's behavior at the boundary may be controlled by a divergent length scale if the tricritical temperature is sufficiently low. Relying on an effective interfacial model we compute the surface phase diagram in bulk spatial dimensionality d?2 and extract the values of the exponents describing the interfacial singularities in d?3.

Jakubczyk, P.

2012-08-01

104

Nonmaximality and phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed analysis of an infinite class of mean-field, Ginzburg-Landau models of continuous phase transitions which violate the twenty-year old Ascher-Michel maximality conjecture is presented. In all previous counterexamples to the conjecture, fluctuations were found to drive the transitions discontinuous, thus restoring the validity of the conjecture. Our renormalization-group ?-expansion calculations for this infinite class of models uncover the first counterexamples also to the restored conjecture. In contrast to the mean-field behavior, direction of the order parameter near the transition is determined by a stable fixed point and depends only on thermodynamic variables perpendicular to the critical surface, showing a characteristic power-law singularity. Analogous models for the Higgs problem are not known.

Jari?, Marko V.; Mukamel, David

1990-06-01

105

Electroweak phase transitions  

SciTech Connect

An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

Anderson, G.W.

1991-09-16

106

Electroweak phase transitions  

SciTech Connect

An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

Anderson, G.W.

1991-09-16

107

China's urban transition.  

PubMed

This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration. However, the longer migrants remain in cities the more likely Skeldon's models of early European transitions apply to China's urban transition. PMID:12178548

Pannell, C

1995-01-01

108

1D Quantum Transitions Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation explores the transitions between quantum states in a number of 1D systems. The time-dependent wavefunction is displayed. An electric field resonant with the transition between states is applied and the changes in the wavefunction with time are tracked. The dipole transition probability is displayed for different initial to final state transitions, and the user may select the transition they wish to observe.

Falstad, Paul

2004-05-17

109

Network Observability Transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modeling, monitoring, and control of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the comprehensive determination of the state of the system from limited measurements. Using power grids as example networks, we show that this problem leads to a new type of percolation transition, here termed a network observability transition, which we solve analytically for the configuration model. We also demonstrate a dual role of the network’s community structure, which both facilitates optimal measurement placement and renders the networks substantially more sensitive to “observability attacks.” Aside from their immediate implications for the development of smart grids, these results provide insights into decentralized biological, social, and technological networks.

Yang, Yang; Wang, Jianhui; Motter, Adilson E.

2012-12-01

110

Cosmological big bounce transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the big bounce transition of the quantum FRW model in the setting of the nonstandard loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Elementary observables are used to quantize compound observables. The spectrum of the energy density operator is bounded and continuous. The spectrum of the volume operator is bounded from below and discrete. It has equally distant levels defining a quantum of the volume. The discreteness may imply a foamy structure of spacetime at semiclassical level which may be detected in astro-cosmo observations. The nonstandard LQC method has a free parameter that should be fixed in some way to specify the big bounce transition.

Piechocki, W?odzimierz

2012-06-01

111

Transit of Mercury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It isn't every day that one gets to view a transit of Mercury. In fact, it's an event that only occurs approximately twelve times a century. For those of you who missed this event on November 8th, the researchers and scientists at the Exploratorium in San Francisco have created this program that contains the complete event and offer it to visitors to this lovely website. The transit was recorded from Kitt Peak in Arizona, and visitors to the site can watch a brief introduction to the program, and then watch various images from the webcast, complete with audio commentary at the beginning of each hour of coverage.

2006-01-01

112

Transition Planning Inventory (TPI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Transition Planning Inventory, a formal assessment and planning tool for use with students with disabilities in individualized educational planning. It assesses skills in employment, daily living, leisure activities, community activities, community participation, health, self-determination, communication, and…

Kohler, Paula D.

1999-01-01

113

Transitions in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers ideas towards a solution of some of the problems that arise due to the extension of higher education to an ever wider range of students: especially student drop?out. It suggests that, as far as is practical, the design and delivery of higher education should be based upon the major changes or transitions which the students undergo. After

Trevor Hussey; Patrick Smith

2010-01-01

114

String Mediated Phase Transitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is e...

E. Copeland D. Haws R. Rivers S. Holbraad

1988-01-01

115

Stability of rating transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of ratings changes plays a crucial role in many credit risk models. As is well-known, these distributions vary across time and different issuer types. Ignoring such dependencies may lead to inaccurate assessments of credit risk. In this paper, we quantify the dependence of rating transition probabilities on the industry and domicile of the obligor, and on the stage

Pamela Nickell; William Perraudin; Simone Varotto

2000-01-01

116

Transit Fare Prepayment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fare prepayment encompasses all methods of paying for transit rides other than by cash, namely, tickets, tokens, punch cards, passes, and permits. The purpose of this study is the examination of the overall ridership and revenue impacts of ongoing and com...

W. R. Hershey D. J. Forkenbrock M. J. Berla B. A. Miller M. E. Dewey

1976-01-01

117

Transition at hypersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

Morkovin, Mark V.

1987-01-01

118

String mediated phase transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

1988-01-01

119

Transitioning DARPA Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study was to address how and how well DARPA has transitioned products to the Military Services. The report also addresses how that mission has been affected by the nature of the Agency and its output, and by the environments in which it o...

D. L. Larriva J. J. Richardson S. L. Tennyson

2001-01-01

120

Transitions to School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing consensus among early childhood professionals about the importance of early childhood transition services (activities designed to ensure continuity for young children across different environments, including homes, child care settings, preschools, and schools). Providing such services requires collaboration and linkages among…

Stief, Elizabeth

121

Gravity assisted mass transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fixed guideway transit with established station stops, the propulsion energy can be reduced by grading the guideway downward on leaving the station (using gravity to assist in the acceleration) and grading upward on arrival at the next station (again using gravity, but this time to assist in the braking). A computerized conceptual cost model has been developed incorporating parameters

A. Z. Kovacs; G. B. Shaw; R. F. Weiss; J. K. Jr Nelson

1975-01-01

122

Interpersonal Strategies in Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to examine the transition in interpersonal strategies and relationship that occurs as an Army officer moves from the environment of operational troop command to that of the project management office and provide comment on the n...

J. K. Cooksey

1976-01-01

123

POVERTY IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines poverty in transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkan and former Soviet Union. The outcome of this research emphasized that unemployment, inflation and state d esertion generally increased people's vulnerability to poverty, with l arge regional fluctuations. Poverty is associated with insufficient food and cl othing, poor housing, limited access to utilities, poorer health and

Dirk J Bezemer

2006-01-01

124

Tips for Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) states that transition planning should begin at the earliest age appropriate and no later than age 16. IDEA requires schools to make collaborative efforts to provide students access to an array of postschool activities including integrated employment, postsecondary…

Kellems, Ryan O.; Morningstar, Mary E.

2010-01-01

125

Completing the Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing declines in fertility in many countries, the population of the world is experiencing a period of rapid expansion, and its size is expected to reach 10 billion by the end of the demographic transition. Three causes of this growth are identified and quantified: 1) fertility above the replacement level of two surviving children per woman, 2) continuing declines

John Bongaarts; Rodolfo A. Bulatao

1999-01-01

126

Immigration and Adult Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

2010-01-01

127

Families in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

1987-01-01

128

N-? weak transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-?(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

2011-11-01

129

Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

Mathews, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

130

Transit of Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

Doyle, Laurance R.

1998-01-01

131

Water's second glass transition  

PubMed Central

The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water’s calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This “double Tg scenario” is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate–dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20–25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known (“superstrong”), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid.

Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Nelson, Helge; Bohmer, Roland

2013-01-01

132

Transit Project Planning Guidance: Estimation of Transit Supply Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses techniques applicable to the estimation of transit vehicle fleet requirements, vehicle-hours, vehicle-miles, and other transit supply parameters. These parameters are used for estimating operating and maintenance costs as well as cer...

M. Jacobs R. E. Skinner A. C. Lemer

1984-01-01

133

Transit Fare Prepayment: A Guide for Transit Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transit fare prepayment programs grew rapidly during the past decade with most companies today offering riders several prepayment options. The growth has not been without its costs. The manual provides transit managers with the information and tools neces...

P. D. Mayworm A. M. Lago

1983-01-01

134

Residual limitations of theoretical atomic-electron binding energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic calculations of atomic-electron binding energies have been refined by using the relativistic LS-average scheme to treat open outer shells, by including self-energy corrections for shells up to 3p as well as 4s, and accounting for energy shifts caused by interaction with Coster-Kronig continua. The contributions of ground-state correlation were estimated from the pair energy calculated through nonrelativistic many-body theory. The need for a relativistic theory of correlations is noted. As in our previous work, the calculations include relaxation, the effect of finite nuclear size, Breit interaction, and quantum-electrodynamic (QED) corrections. Results are compared with binding energies measured on free atoms and with solid-phase measurements on metals that have been corrected for solid-state shifts; these shifts were calculated under the assumption of complete screening with the core-ionized site treated as a neutralized metallic impurity atom in the original metallic host. Discrepancies between experimental energies and relativistic independent-particle calculations including relaxation, QED, and finite-nuclear-size corrections are traced to correlation corrections, uncertainties in the self-energy, and neglect of the effect of (super-)Coster-Kronig fluctuations.

Hsiung Chen, Mau; Crasemann, Bernd; Mårtensson, Nils; Johansson, Börje

1985-02-01

135

High speed transition prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this work period was to develop, maintain and exercise state-of-the-art methods for transition prediction in supersonic flow fields. Basic state and stability codes, acquired during the last work period, were exercised and applied to calculate the properties of various flowfields. The development of a code for the prediction of transition location using a currently novel method (the PSE or Parabolized Stability Equation method), initiated during the last work period and continued during the present work period, was cancelled at mid-year for budgetary reasons. Other activities during this period included the presentation of a paper at the APS meeting in Tallahassee, Florida entitled 'Stability of Two-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers', as well as the initiation of a paper co-authored with H. Reed of the Arizona State University entitled 'Stability of Boundary Layers'.

Gasperas, Gediminis

1993-01-01

136

?-? Isostructural Transition in Cerium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present zero-temperature first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and we compute its pressure-volume phase diagram within a theoretical framework able to describe simultaneously both the ? and the ? phases. A surprising result revealed by our study is the presence of a clear signature of the transition at zero temperature and that this signature can be observed if and only if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Our calculations indicate that the transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram of this material has a low-T critical point at negative pressures, placed very close to zero temperature. This suggests that cerium is very close to being “quantum critical,” in agreement with recent experiments.

Lanatà, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Schmalian, Jörg; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

2013-11-01

137

Performance indicators for transit management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transit performance can be evaluated through quantitative indicators. As the provision of efficient and effective transit service are appropriate goals to be encouraged by federal and state governments, these goals are used to develop performance indicators.

Gordon J. Fielding; Roy E. Glauthier; Charles A. Lave

1978-01-01

138

Presidential Transition. Challenges and Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Transition Act is to promote the orderly transfer of executive power during presidential transitions. Of course, no one expected the extraordinary events that have unfolded over the last several weeks. No matter how the presidential ele...

D. M. Walker

2000-01-01

139

Bibliography on Atomic Transition Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A revised and updated bibliography on atomic transition probabilities is presented. The papers are arranged according to elements and stages of ionization, and the method employed and class of transitions are indicated behind each reference. Only articles...

B. M. Glennon W. L. Wiese

1966-01-01

140

Transit Marketing Management Market Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report offers a broad overview of consumer research as it applies to the specific problems of transit marketers. It is designed to provide transit marketers with a better understanding of consumer research, its functions and limitations so that resear...

J. Caruso

1988-01-01

141

Evaluating Transit Service to Minorities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a computerized evaluation methodology for analyzing the fair distribution of transit services. It may be used to analyze the fairness of transit services provided to the elderly, to women, or to any desired interest group. The report ...

R. J. Popper, M. D. Connelly

1975-01-01

142

2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise. It provides a roadmap for achieving DoD's bus...

G. England

2008-01-01

143

Model of contact transitioning with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcing transition of metal-to-metal contacts is a key technical challenge in the development of railgun launchers. Theoretical understanding of the process remains poor and controversial. Several authors have explained transitioning by a velocity skin effect driven \\

John P. Barber; Yuri A. Dreizin

1995-01-01

144

High speed transition prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this work period was to develop, acquire and apply state-of-the-art tools for the prediction of transition at high speeds at NASA Ames. Although various stability codes as well as basic state codes were acquired, the development of a new Parabolized Stability Equation (PSE) code was minimal. The time that was initially allocated for development was used on other tasks, in particular for the Leading Edge Suction problem, in acquiring proficiency in various graphics tools, and in applying these tools to evaluate various Navier-Stokes and Euler solutions. The second objective of this work period was to attend the Transition and Turbulence Workshop at NASA Langley in July and August, 1991. A report on the Workshop follows. From July 8, 1991 to August 2, 1991, the author participated in the Transition and Turbulence Workshop at NASA Langley. For purposes of interest here, analysis can be said to consist of solving simplified governing equations by various analytical methods, such as asymptotic methods, or by use of very meager computer resources. From the composition of the various groups at the Workshop, it can be seen that analytical methods are generally more popular in Great Britain than they are in the U.S., possibly due to historical factors and the lack of computer resources. Experimenters at the Workshop were mostly concerned with subsonic flows, and a number of demonstrations were provided, among which were a hot-wire experiment to probe the boundary layer on a rotating disc, a hot-wire rake to map a free shear layer behind a cylinder, and the use of heating strips on a flat plate to control instability waves and consequent transition. A highpoint of the demonstrations was the opportunity to observe the rather noisy 'quiet' supersonic pilot tunnel in operation.

Gasperas, Gediminis

1992-01-01

145

Transition Region Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

146

Stimulated coherent transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

Hung-chi Lihn

1996-03-01

147

Transition Mathematics Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Transitions Math Project (TMP) aims to transition students in high school math to college-level math, without having to take remedial level math courses once they get to college. According to their site, "Twenty-two percent of college freshman need a remedial course in mathematics. In 2- year colleges the problem is even more acute." Visitors will learn in the "History" section of the "About TMP" link that since 2004, TMP has instituted three ways to help students improve their transition. First, they make clear expectations of teachers on what they must teach to prepare students for college-level math. Second, they inform parents and students what will be expected in college-level math, and finally, they establish networks between college and high school teachers to share teaching successes, techniques, and best practices. Visitors will find that the "Curriculum and Instructional Materials" section is a useful repository of curriculum and instructional resources created by TMP teams for use by all teachers. The site also provides professional development materials, TMP Resource Center, and links to their newsletter, math education news, and TMP's social media presence.

2011-12-20

148

NASA metric transition plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

149

Transition mixing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

Reynolds, R.; White, C.

1986-01-01

150

Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress  

SciTech Connect

The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

2009-09-23

151

The transition to agricultural sustainability  

PubMed Central

The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints.

Ruttan, Vernon W.

1999-01-01

152

Transition to Kindergarten. NCEDL Spotlights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting recent research findings indicating that commonly used transition practices may not be well-suited to the needs of children and families, this report summarizes educational policy issues related to the transition to kindergarten and presents recommendations for policy changes. The report notes that the transition to kindergarten and the…

National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.

153

Transition "Movement" into the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers usually do not give as much thought to transitions as they do to other facets of the early childhood curriculum. As a result, transitions often lead to chaos and wasted time. But this doesn't have to be the case. If teachers "plan" transitions, as they do other daily components of the curriculum, they can avoid chaos and ensure that…

Pica, Rae

2010-01-01

154

Forecasting bus transit operating costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with forecasting the cost of operating bus transit systems in U.S. cities. The primary objective is to develop a practical forecasting model for use by transit planners, i.e., a tool that will provide quantitative estimates (forecasts) of operating costs for any proposed bus transit system. The final product is a composite of several models, each of which

1975-01-01

155

Tax Systems in Transition Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of taxation in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. The governments of transitional economies have been implementingsimultaneous reforms of legal, political, and economic institutions, reforms which are dependent upon the ability of the emerging tax systems to efficiently enforce the tax system. As the transitional process continues, we

Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Robert McNab

1997-01-01

156

Slow Transit Constipation.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of slow transit functional constipation is based upon diagnostic testing of patients with idiopathic constipation who responded poorly to conservative measures such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives. These tests include barium enema or colonoscopy, colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and expulsion of a water-filled balloon. Plain abdominal films can identify megacolon, which can be further characterized by barium or gastrografin studies. Colonic transit of radio-opaque markers identifies patients with slow transit with stasis of markers in the proximal colon. However, anorectal function should be characterized to exclude outlet dysfunction, which may coexist with colonic inertia. Because slow colonic transit is defined by studies during which patients consume a high-fiber diet, fiber supplements are generally not effective, nor are osmotic laxatives that consist of unabsorbed sugars. Stimulant laxatives are considered first-line therapy, although studies often show a diminished colonic motor response to such agents. There is no evidence to suggest that chronic use of such laxatives is harmful if they are used two to three times per week. Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes may be useful in a minority of patients, often combined with misoprostol. I prefer to start with misoprostol 200 mg every other morning and increase to tolerance or efficacy. I see no advantage in prescribing misoprostol on a TID or QID basis or even daily because it increases cramping unnecessarily. This drug is not acceptable in young women who wish to become pregnant. An alternative may be colchicine, which is reported to be effective when given as 0.6 mg TID. Long-term efficacy has not been studied. Finally, biofeedback is a risk-free approach that has been reported as effective in approximately 60% of patients with slow transit constipation in the absence of outlet dysfunction. Although difficult to understand conceptually, it is worth attempting and certainly so in patients with associated pelvic floor dyssynergia. Subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is often effective in those patients with colonic inertia, normal anorectal function, and lack of evidence of generalized intestinal dysmotility. However, morbidity is significant both early and late in the disease process and must be balanced against current disability. Ileostomy is preferred in the presence of anorectal dysfunction or with associated impairment of continence mechanisms. Similar considerations apply to the patient with disabling functional megacolon. An alternative approach is ileostomy with disconnection of the colon, which is more acceptable to some patients who may hope for future reconnection if recovery occurs. An additional alternative approach for patients with colonic inertia or megacolon who are not good surgical risks is tube cecostomy (or in children, use of the appendix as a conduit to the cecum). This permits either decompression (in megacolon) or antegrade enemas (in colonic inertia). Our surgeons are not enthusiastic about this approach, and I have little experience with it. In general, the use of partial resections of the colon should be discouraged, because marker studies do not define pathophysiology in patients with slow transit constipation. PMID:12095475

Wald, Arnold

2002-08-01

157

Google Transit Data Tool for Small Transit Agencies. Transit IDEA Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the process, results, and work effort carried out in creating a tool to benefit small transit agencies, their current riders and potential new riders. This project included development of a tool to have transit information (routes, s...

B. Williams P. Sherrod

2011-01-01

158

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

ScienceCinema

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

None

2010-01-08

159

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

SciTech Connect

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

None

2009-01-01

160

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

SciTech Connect

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

2009-08-21

161

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

ScienceCinema

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

162

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

ScienceCinema

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

163

Transition Metal Switchable Mirror  

ScienceCinema

The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

None

2013-05-29

164

Electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei  

SciTech Connect

The object of this review is to survey observations of electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei and to point out contributions of these observations to an understanding of the effective two-body hyperon-nucleon forces in the nucleus. The discussion concentrates on lambda-hyperon nucleon potentials. Future plans for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy using Ge diode detectors is discussed, especially regarding the window of utility of such devices. Expected improvements in beam facilities are also reviewed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (DWL)

Chrien, R.E.

1986-01-01

165

A Decade of Transition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNICEF last month issued the Monee Report 8, A Decade of Transition, which focuses on the effects of the last decade's changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltics on the region's children. The report finds that, while the economies of most of these states are growing and teen birth rates and maternal mortality have dropped, child poverty remains wide-spread and the gap between the rich and poor is growing. Users can download the report by chapter in .pdf format in either English or Russian. Press release and additional information about UNICEF's involvement in the region are also available.

2001-01-01

166

22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

2010-04-01

167

Plasma inverse transition acceleration  

SciTech Connect

It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

Xie, Ming

2001-06-18

168

Transitions in viscous withdrawal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process analogous to flow-focusing occurs in extended and stably stratified layers of immiscible, viscous liquids. In viscous withdrawal, an axisymmetric converging flow is imposed in the upper layer. When the upper layer flow is weak, the interface forms a hump. No liquid from the lower layer is entrained. When the upper layer flow is strong, liquid from the lower layer is entrained and the interface becomes a spout. Here I summarize recent results on the fundamental mechanisms controlling these regimes. For selective withdrawal, a clear picture has emerged, with good agreement between theory, simulation and experiment. The regime ends when the viscous stress exerted by the upper layer flow overcomes surface tension, creating a saddle-node bifurcation in the hump solution. Less is understood about viscous entrainment. A long-wavelength model including only local information is degenerate, possessing many solutions for the same withdrawal condition. Including information about the global geometry removes this degeneracy but also makes the surprising prediction that global geometry can change the nature of the transition. First-order, weakly first-order or continuous transitions are all possible. How these results relate to the variety of experimental phenomena, such as stable, micron-sized spouts, intricate patterns of hysteresis and multiple stable spout states under the same condition, is at present unclear. (Includes material from joint works with Blanchette, Cohen, Kleine Berkenbusch, and Schmidt.)

Zhang, Wendy W.

2008-11-01

169

Spin transition induced by crystal - liquid crystal transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt(II) compounds [Co(C10C8C2-terpy)2](BF4)2 (1) and [Co(C12C10C2-terpy)2](BF4)2 (2) (CxCyCz-terpy = 4'-5'''-Alkyl-1'''-alkoxy-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) with branched alkyl chains, based on a terpyridine frame, were synthesized. The cobalt(II) compounds 1 and 2 exhibit the spin transition between low-spin and high-spin with thermal hysteresis loop at the liquid crystal transition temperature (T1/2? = 275 K and T1/2? = 250 K for 1 and T1/2? = 307 K and T1/2? = 296 K for 2), and the spin transition is induced by crystal - liquid crystal transition. The bifunctional materials show synchronizing both spin transition and liquid crystal transition.

Hayami, Shinya; Yamamoto, Yuuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Katsuya

2010-01-01

170

Quantum phase transitions in electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero-temperature or quantum phase transitions in itinerant electronic systems both with and without quenched disordered are discussed. Phase transitions considered include, the ferromagnetic transition, the antiferromagnetic transition, the superconductor-metal transition, and various metal-insulator transitions. Emphasis is placed on how to determine the universal properties that characterize these quantum phase transitions. For the first three of the phase transitions listed above,

T. R. Kirkpatrick; D. Belitz

1997-01-01

171

Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting  

PubMed Central

We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were associated with higher levels of maternal stress and harsh parenting; recent transitions had stronger associations than distal transitions. Maternal education significantly moderates these associations, with less educated mothers responding more negatively to instability in terms of maternal stress, and more educated mothers responding more negatively in terms of literacy activities.

Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2011-01-01

172

California transit energy demand model  

SciTech Connect

The California Transit Energy Demand Model is a computer program for forecasting transit activity and energy consumption by urban bus and rail transit systems, intercity bus and rail, school buses, and other buses operating in California. The California Transit Model is driven by projections of population, employment, income, auto fuel economy, and auto fuel costs. It is also sensitive to changes in transit fares, service policies, and other changes in the cost of automobile travel. The structure of the model, forecasting equations, and the data used to establish parameters for these equations are described. This report also presents base-case projections of transit activity and energy consumption through 2004, as well as the data and forecasting assumptions upon which these projections are based.

Austin, K.

1983-09-01

173

?????(?,?') transition form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surprising results by the BABAR Collaboration on the ?? transition form factor require new thoughts about the high-Q2 dependence of the form factors with virtual photons. We make use of the anomaly sum rule [J. Horejsi and O. Teryaev, Z. Phys. C 65, 691 (1995).ZPCFD20170-973910.1007/BF01578676] which relates the hadron spectral density to the axial anomaly [S. Adler, Phys. Rev. 177, 2426 (1969); J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw, Nuovo Cimento A 60, 47 (1969).]. We study the quark-hadron duality relation for this sum rule and find out that the increase of the rescaled form factor Q2F??(Q2)˜log?(Q2) suggested by the BABAR data requires the presence of a 1/s-correction term in the relation between the one-loop spectral density and the hadron-continuum spectral density.

Melikhov, Dmitri; Stech, Berthold

2012-03-01

174

NASA CONNECT: Venus Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this program, students learn about the importance of using scale models to represent the size and distance of objects in the Solar System and beyond. They are introduced to the astronomical unit (AU), the baseline distance from the Earth to the Sun, which astronomers use to determine the relative distances from Earth to other planets, stars, asteroids, and objects in space. They also discover facts about the Venus Transit, a celestial and historical event, which helped astronomers determine the scale of the Solar System. Students use measurement, ratios, and graphing to construct a model of the solar system and determine the relationship of each planet to the Sun. They will explore the scales needed to represent the size of the planets and the distances to the Sun.

2004-01-01

175

Light Rail Transit Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Light rail has been an effective form of transportation for many years, and it is quite common in the US and throughout Europe. The Web site of the Light Rail Transit Association (LRTA) has extensive news, historical background, and information about light rail systems. A good overview of light rail is given that outlines its advantages over other transportation methods. One of the best features of the site is its world systems list, which is frequently updated with new light rail projects across the globe. There are also photo galleries of several light rail cars in operation in different countries. Only members can access the LRTA magazines, but the rest of the site's resources are available to anyone.

1998-01-01

176

STEM Colorado: Planetary Transits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates how astronomers measure the properties of extra-solar planets by detecting planetary transits and eclipses. The applet shows a planet in orbit around a star. A graph plots the total brightness of the star as the planet orbits around it. The user can control the star's radius, the star's temperature, the planet's radius, the orbital radius and the albedo. The user can also see how the spectrum of the illuminated side of the planet, due to both the reflected starlight and the emitted planetary radiation, dependes on wavelength, albedo, and the parameters of the system. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.

Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew

2008-08-30

177

Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

178

Electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an analytic treatment of the one-Higgs-doublet, electroweak phase transition which demonstrates that the phase transition is first order. The phase transition occurs by the nucleation of thin-walled bubbles and completes as a temperature where the order parameter {l angle}Ï{r angle}{sub {ital T}} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous

Greg Anderson; Lawrence Hall

1992-01-01

179

Quantum phase transition in space  

SciTech Connect

A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

Damski, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

180

Texas Transition Model: School to Work Transition Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a model for a transition plan for special needs learners in grades K-l2. The model is divided into four stages of transition: (1) the awareness stage, K-6, in which students are introduced to occupations and develop a knowledge base; (2) the exploration stage, 7-10, in which students identify a career goal, investigate…

Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

181

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2008-10-01

182

Presidential Transition Teams: Fostering a Collaborative Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether hiring a sitting president or one beginning a first presidency, the board of trustees should be keenly interested in ensuring that the new president's first months in office flow as smoothly as possible. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the idea of using a transition team to assist the new president. Using a transition…

Artman, Richard B.; Franz, Mark

2009-01-01

183

Transitions to Least Restrictive Environments: A Guide to Transition. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to the transition of special education students to less restrictive environments or from school to work stresses the importance of planning and communication during the entire process, from initial plans through implementation and follow-up. Section 1 consists of a "Transition Process Checklist" to aid in the organization and follow…

Beninghof, Anne M.

184

Valuing Transit Service Quality Improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the value transit travelers place on qualitative factors, such as comfort and convenience, and practical ways to incorporate these factors into transport planning and project evaluation. Conventional evaluation practices gener- ally assign the same time value regardless of travel conditions, and so undervalue comfort and convenience impacts. More comprehensive analysis of transit service quality tends to expand

Todd Litman

185

Confinement regime transitions in ASDEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors give an overview of the different confinement regimes observed on ASDEX and compare the changes during the transition phases with qualitative tendencies suggested by theoretical models. The transitions discussed are those between purely Ohmic heating and additional heating in the L-regime between the L- and the H-regime and between discharges with flat and peaked electron density profiles.

K. Lackner; O. Gruber; F. Wagner; G. Becker; M. Bessenrodt-Weberpals; B. Bomba; H.-S. Bosch; H. Bruhns; R. Buchse; A. Carlson; G. Dodel; A. Eberhagen; H.-U. Fahrbach; G. Fussmann; O. Gehre; J. Gernhardt; L. Giannone; S. von Goeler; K. Grassie; G. Haas; H. Herrmann; J. Hofmann; E. Holzhauer; K. Hubner; G. Janeschitz; A. Kallenbach; F. Karger; M. Kaufmann; O. Kluber; M. Kornherr; K. Krieger; J. Kucinski; R. Lang; G. Lisitano; H. M. Mayer; K. McCormick; D. Meisel; V. Mertens; E. R. Muller; H. D. Murmann; J. Neuhauser; H. Niedermeyer; R. Nolte; J. M. Noterdaeme; W. Poschenrieder; L. B. Ran; D. E. Roberts; H. Rohr; J. Roth; A. Rudyj; F. Ryter; W. Sandmann; F. Schneider; U. Schneider; W. Schneider; G. Siller; E. Speth; F. X. Soldner; A. Stabler; K. H. Steuer; U. Stroth; J. Szigeti; E. Taglauer; N. Tsois; H. Verbeek; O. Vollmer; R. Wunderlich; H. Wurz; H. R. Yang; H. Zohm

1989-01-01

186

HD209458b Transit Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We search for the spectral signature of H2O, CH4, and CO on the extrasolar planet HD 209458b using transit spectroscopy. The planet will modulate the stellar spectrum during transit. The extinction altitude of tangent rays of a given wavelength depends on the abundance and distribution of molecular species that absorb at that wavelength. The depth of the occultation at a

J. Harrington; L. D. Deming; K. Matthews; L. J. Richardson; P. Rojo; D. Steyert; G. Wiedemann; D. Zeehandelaar

2002-01-01

187

Transition Programs: Bridging the Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document shares the collective wisdom and experience of professionals who have successfully guided the transition of hundreds of youths and adults from New York's correctional institutions back into the community. The first section begins with an overview of the New York State Education Department's transition program model to move…

Peavey, Kay

188

The transitional lumbosacral osseous complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight of the head and trunk is transferred to the lower extremities through that segment of the spine articulating either directly or indirectly with the ilii. When a lumbosacral transitional vertebra is present the position of the weight-bearing platform usually changes. A bony entity is formed delineated superiorly by the top of the transitional vertebra and inferiorly by the

Russell E. Wigh

1982-01-01

189

ESTIMATION OF AGE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING DYNAMOD II AGE TRANSITION MATRICES. A SEPARATE MATRIX FOR EACH SEX-RACE GROUP IS DEVELOPED. THESE MATRICES WILL BE USED AS AN AID IN ESTIMATING THE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES IN THE LARGER DYNAMOD II MATRIX RELATING AGE TO OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES. THREE STEPS WERE USED IN THE PROCEDURE--(1)…

ZINTER, JUDITH R.

190

Transition From School to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers address issues in the transition from school to work for mentally retarded and developmentally disabled young adults. The first presents a three-stage vocational transition model emphasizing functional curricula, integrated services, community-based instruction, involvement of parents and adult services representatives, and a diversity…

Wehman, Paul, Ed.; Hill, Janet W., Ed.

191

Phase transitions in ionic gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that under certain conditions the polymer network of acrylamide gels immersed in acetone—water mixtures undergoes a discrete transition in equilibrium volume with changes in acetone concentration or temperature. In the present work, the physical and chemical basis of this phase transition is identified. The magnitude of the collapse can increase substantially when a small percentage of

Toyoichi Tanaka; Shao-Tang Sun; Izumi Nishio; Gerald Swislow; Arati Shah

1980-01-01

192

Phase Transitions in Ionic Gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer network of a gel, under certain conditions, undergoes a discrete transition in equilibrium volume with changes in solvent composition or temperature. This Letter demonstrates that ionization of the gel network plays an essential role in the phase transition. The volume collapse is also observed when the pH within the gel is varied.

Toyoichi Tanaka; David Fillmore; Shao-Tang Sun; Izumi Nishio; Gerald Swislow; Arati Shah

1980-01-01

193

Exploration of Transit's Sustainability Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing interest in climate change and greater anticipation of energy cost increases, being sustainable has implications for the financial efficiency of transit agencies and on the image and appeal that transit has to offercurrent and prospective customers. Being more resource efficient can help the agency financially, increase its ridership and public support, and increase its contribution to broader national

Steven Polzin; Steven Reich; Janet Davis

2011-01-01

194

Forecasting Bus Transit Operating Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study deals with forecasting the cost of operating bus transit systems in U.S. cities. The primary objective is to develop a practical forecasting model for use by transit planners, i.e., a tool that will provide quantitative estimates (forecasts) of ...

H. G. Wilson

1975-01-01

195

Transition Planning for Foster Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

2006-01-01

196

Interband Transitions and Maser Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using interband transitions to achieve maser action is considered. The criterion for maser action is presented in a way which allows the most direct use of optical absorption data. The absorption constant for interband transitions, which is negative corresponding to induced emission when a population exists, is related to the normal absorption constant for direct, indirect, and

W. P. Dumke

1962-01-01

197

Transitional Services for Troubled Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 11 articles in this monograph, selected from more than 100 presentations made at the National Conference on Transitional Services for Troubled Youth, examine the history, current status, best practices, and future needs of troubled youth who are returning from residential to community settings. The papers are the following: "Transitional…

Wolford, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

198

Brunton Pocket Transit, 1960s  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

First patented in 1894, the pocket transit is a relatively simple instrument which provides horizontal and vertical readings; it has adjustable sights and also can function as a plumb bob. The pocket transit is commonly used in geologic mapping, surveying and claim staking. Although the basic design...

2009-07-20

199

Evaluating public transit health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigates ways that public transportation affects human health, and ways to incorporate these impacts into transport policy and planning decisions. this research indicated that public transit improvements and more transit oriented development can provide large but often overlooked health benefits. People who live or work in communities with high quality public transportation tend to drive significantly less and

Todd Litman

2010-01-01

200

Menstruation and the Menopause Transition  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This paper characterizes changes in menstrual bleeding during perimenopause, including bleeding changes that represent markers of the menopausal transition. Recent results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic cohort study of midlife women, as well as data from other cohort studies of women in the midlife are reviewed. Emerging data describing subpopulation differences in the transition experience is highlighted . Early transition, defined as a persistent difference in consecutive menstrual cycle length of seven or more days, begins on average 6-8 years before the FMP. Late transition, defined by an episode of 60 or more days of amenorrhea, begins on average two years before the FMP. When treating women in the midlife, clinicians should pay careful attention to medical factors, including both conditions and treatments, that may increase menstrual blood loss or alter menstrual cycle characteristics sufficiently to obscure the onset of the menopausal transition or the FMP.

Harlow, Sioban D.; Paramsothy, Pangaja

2011-01-01

201

The vortex explosion transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type-II superconductors an applied magnetic field B, between the lower and upper critical values, produces a mixed state containing Abrikosov vortices. These vortices contain a quantum of magnetic flux h/2e and consist of a core with depressed order parameter and a pattern of perpetually circulating supercurrents. When B is applied parallel to a thin film, the circulating supercurrents get squeezed by the film surfaces causing the vortex core to become unstable and explode all the way across the film when the thickness d is below the critical value of dc = 4.4? here ? is the superconducting coherence length. For temperatures above the explosion condition dc(T) > d, the applied B cannot induce single parallel vortices, however perpendicular vortices can be generated spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from non-dissipative to dissipative behavior at the explosion condition and find that the dynamics of the spontaneous perpendicular vortices can be tuned by the pairbreaking effect of the applied parallel field.

Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Gurevich, A.

2013-02-01

202

?*?*??c transition form factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ?*?*??c transition form factor, F?c??(Q12,Q22), with the local-duality (LD) version of QCD sum rules. We analyze the extraction of this quantity from two different correlators, ?PVV? and ?AVV?, with P, A, and V being the pseudoscalar, axial-vector, and vector currents, respectively. The QCD factorization theorem for F?c??(Q12,Q22) allows us to fix the effective continuum thresholds for the ?PVV? and ?AVV? correlators at large values of Q2=Q22 and some fixed value of ??Q12/Q22. We give arguments that, in the region Q2?10-15GeV2, the effective threshold should be close to its asymptotic value such that the LD sum rule provides reliable predictions for F?c??(Q12,Q22). We show that, for the experimentally relevant kinematics of one real and one virtual photon, the result of the LD sum rule for F?c?(Q2)?F?c??(0,Q2) may be well approximated by the simple monopole formula F?c?(Q2)=2ec2NcfP(MV2+Q2)-1, where fP is the ?c decay constant, ec2 is the c-quark charge, and the parameter MV lies in the mass range of the lowest c¯c vector states.

Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri

2012-07-01

203

Sampling diffusive transition paths.  

PubMed

The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696

Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian

2007-04-14

204

Selenophene transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

White, C.J.

1994-07-27

205

Unstable supercritical discontinuous percolation transitions.  

PubMed

The location and nature of the percolation transition in random networks is a subject of intense interest. Recently, a series of graph evolution processes have been introduced that lead to discontinuous percolation transitions where the addition of a single edge causes the size of the largest component to exhibit a significant macroscopic jump in the thermodynamic limit. These processes can have additional exotic behaviors, such as displaying a "Devil's staircase" of discrete jumps in the supercritical regime. Here we investigate whether the location of the largest jump coincides with the percolation threshold for a range of processes, such as Erd?s-Rényipercolation, percolation via edge competition and via growth by overtaking. We find that the largest jump asymptotically occurs at the percolation transition for Erd?s-Rényiand other processes exhibiting global continuity, including models exhibiting an "explosive" transition. However, for percolation processes exhibiting genuine discontinuities, the behavior is substantially richer. In percolation models where the order parameter exhibits a staircase, the largest discontinuity generically does not coincide with the percolation transition. For the generalized Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, it depends on the model parameter. Distinct parameter regimes well in the supercritical regime feature unstable discontinuous transitions-a novel and unexpected phenomenon in percolation. We thus demonstrate that seemingly and genuinely discontinuous percolation transitions can involve a rich behavior in supercriticality, a regime that has been largely ignored in percolation. PMID:24229160

Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xueqi; Zheng, Zhiming; Chung, Ning Ning; D'Souza, Raissa M; Nagler, Jan

2013-10-01

206

The Visibility of Earth Transits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet around a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming, of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of candidate target stars, their properties, and simulations of the photometric Earth transit signal detectability at each target is presented.

Castellano, Tim; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

207

The Visibility of Earth Transits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent photometric detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet across a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of solar-like stars that satisfy the geometric condition for Earth transit visibility are presented.

Castellano, Timothy P.; Doyle, Laurance; McIntosh, Dawn; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

208

WMATA's (Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's) Rapid Rail Transit System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

WMATA's rapid rail transit system consists of 97.7 miles serving the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George's Counties in Maryland, and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, and the cities of Alexandria, Falls Church and Fairfax in Virginia. Environ...

1973-01-01

209

Printed circuit transmission line transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of printed circuit transmission lines were investigated experimentally: microstrip; stripline; and grounded coplanar waveguide. Formulas for characteristic impedance were verified by measurements of lines on low-dielectric-constant substrates. Several designs of transitions from coaxial cable to microstripline were tested. The best of these was a uniform microstripline with a flare at the connector end. A transition from coax into coplanar waveguide, and one from stripline into microstrip, had high reflection coefficients. Transitions from coax to stripline, and from coplanar waveguide to microstrip, had low reflection coefficients.

Kozak, F. E.; McGrath, D. T.

1985-12-01

210

Transition circumnstellar disks in Lupus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Spitzer selected YSOs, we present a study of transition disks located in Lupus. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their defining characteristic: an inner opacity hole and an optically thick outer disk. These processes are: planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, tidal truncation in close binaries. We have carried out Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging, submillimeter photometry, and echelle spectroscopy in order to observationally characterize our transition disk sample. With the analyzed data we can distinguish the four scenarios and identify candidate transition disk systems that are currently forming planets. Such objects are excellent targets to be followed-up with Herschel and ALMA.

Romero, G. A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Cieza, L. A.; Rebassa-Manssergas, A.; Williams, J. P.; Merin, B.; Smith-Castelli, A.; Orellana, M.

2011-10-01

211

Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

1991-01-01

212

Demographic transition: A forcing model.  

PubMed

Transition Theory provides the theoretical underpinning for many explanations for past population changes and, more importantly, for many population projections. Our paper proves, through the use of symbolic logic, that Transition Theory does not contain principles strong enough to support population projections. Such projections, consequently, must be based upon their author's intuition rather than a reasoned application of Transition Theory. We follow our proofs with a brief discussion of various ways in which the Theory may be modified. Our emphasis is upon and only upon the logical characters of these modifications. PMID:21274810

Loschky, D J; Wilcox, W C

1974-05-01

213

The 2012 Transit of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 5-6, 2012, much of the world will experience an event that will not occur again for another 105 years - a transit of Venus. During the 18th and 19th centuries, astronomers made arduous trips to remote corners of Earth to make Venus transit observations in an attempt to calculate the Earth-Sun distance. Today a transit of Venus is simply a rare spectacle. But it is important to take care when viewing it, because observing the Sun is dangerous if proper filters for eye protection are not used.

Deans, P.

2012-08-01

214

Care Transitions: 'Time to Come Home.'  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medical care, in many instances, requires a series of transitions across the care spectrum. Care coordination across such transitions is fraught with difficulty particularly with patients from rural areas. These transitions pose challenges that may interf...

I. Moscovice J. M. Klingner S. Prasad

2011-01-01

215

42 CFR 136a.31 - Transition period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.31 Transition period. (a) The transition period for full implementation of...grace period; and (3) A health care continuity period determined by...

2010-10-01

216

42 CFR 136a.31 - Transition period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.31 Transition period. (a) The transition period for full implementation of...grace period; and (3) A health care continuity period determined by...

2009-10-01

217

42 CFR 412.533 - Transition payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.533 Transition payments. (a) Duration of transition periods. Except for a long-term care hospital that...paid under the transition period methodology. A long-term care hospital...

2010-10-01

218

42 CFR 412.533 - Transition payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.533 Transition payments. (a) Duration of transition periods. Except for a long-term care hospital that...paid under the transition period methodology. A long-term care hospital...

2009-10-01

219

India's population in transition.  

PubMed

This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

Visaria, L; Visaria, P

1995-10-01

220

Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the capture of beneficial symbionts via the evolution of strict vertical transmission within host lineages, and the evolutionary breakdown of bacterial mutualism. Each of these transitions has occurred many times in the history of bacterial–eukaryote symbiosis. We investigate these evolutionary events across the bacterial domain and also among a focal set of well studied bacterial mutualist lineages. Subsequently, we generate a framework for examining evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis and test hypotheses about the selective, ecological, and genomic forces that shape these events.

Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.

2011-01-01

221

Atomic Inner-Shell Transitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research described in this Final Report includes theoretical studies of the deexcitation of multiply ionized atoms, extensive computations of binding and transition energies including relaxation, relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects, and ex...

B. Crasemann

1977-01-01

222

HD 80606 transits (Colon+, 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 80606 and its nearby companion (HD 80607) are both bright G5 dwarves of a similar magnitude (V~9) and colour. On three nights, we measured the flux of both HD 80606 (target) and HD 80607 (reference) simultaneously. We cycled through a set of four wavelengths throughout the observations. On the night of 2010 January 13-14, the planet was in transit for the duration of our observations, and we measure an `in-transit' flux ratio of HD 80606 to HD 80607 for each wavelength. We repeated the observations on 2010 January 15 and 2010 April 4, when the planet was not transiting HD 80606, allowing us to measure the "out-of-transit" (OOT) flux ratio of HD 80606 to HD 80607 for each wavelength. (7 data files).

Colon, K. D.; Ford, E. B.; Redfield, S.; Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Mahadevan, S.

2012-07-01

223

Inflation-Responsive Transit Financing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This introductory report describes a number of techniques local governments have used to cover costs associated with transit. It catalogues several conventional financing techniques, as well as some that are new or innovative. It includes examples of wher...

1982-01-01

224

Moved by a Rapid Transit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

Bueter, C.

2013-04-01

225

Transition Probabilities of Gd I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth transition probabilities are needed within the astrophysics community to determine rare earth abundances in stellar photospheres. The current work is part an on-going study of rare earth element neutrals. Transition probabilities are determined by combining radiative lifetimes measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atom beam with branching fractions measured from high resolution Fourier transform spectra. Neutral

Katherine Bilty; J. E. Lawler; E. A. Den Hartog

2011-01-01

226

Hurricane Canadian Style: Extratropical Transition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast is based on a presentation delivered by Jim Abraham of MSC at the Winter Weather Course in February 2001. The presentation discusses how, under the right synoptic conditions, hurricanes and tropical storms undergo a transition process to extratropical cyclones as they move into northern latitudes. During the transition process these "hybrid" systems can bring damaging weather conditions to Eastern Canada and the Northeastern States. It uses several case examples to demonstrate the process.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

227

Personalized Demand Responsive Transit Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aging population in the US, low-density urban sprawl and the accessibility needs of certain groups (particularly disabled and aged) increasingly point to more flexible demand-responsive transit systems in the future. This paper describes the important aspects of a consumer-oriented Personalized Demand Responsive Transit (PDRT) service. The system will provide services to the traveling public for journeys to work and

Y. B. Yim; Asad J. Khattak

2000-01-01

228

COMPETITIVE CONTRACTING OF TRANSIT SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In the United States, transit operating costs per vehicle mile increased 418 percent from 1970 to 1990?twice the rate of inflation and two-and-a-half times the cost of similar service in the private bus industry. Two-thirds of transit costs are paid by federal, state, and, predominantly, local subsidies. The majority of the public funding has supported low and declining

Jean Love; Wendell Cox

1993-01-01

229

Universal Keplerian state transition matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.

Shepperd, S. W.

1985-02-01

230

Universal Keplerian state transition matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.

Shepperd, S. W.

1985-01-01

231

Phase Transitions in Brownian Pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stochastic particle transport between two reservoirs along a channel, where the particles are pumped against a bias by a traveling wave potential. It is shown that phase transitions of period-averaged densities or currents occur inside the channel when exclusion interactions between the particles are taken into account. These transitions reflect those known for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. We argue that their occurrence is a generic feature of Brownian motors operating in open systems.

Dierl, Marcel; Dieterich, Wolfgang; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

2014-04-01

232

Boundary layer transition studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

233

Transition boiling heat transfer and the film transition regime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Berenson (1960) flat-plate transition-boiling experiment has been recreated with a reduced thermal resistance in the heater, and an improved access to those portions of the transition boiling regime that have a steep negative slope. Tests have been made in Freon-113, acetone, benzene, and n-pentane boiling on horizontal flat copper heaters that have been mirror-polished, 'roughened', or teflon-coated. The resulting data reproduce and clarify certain features observed by Berenson: the modest surface finish dependence of boiling burnout, and the influence of surface chemistry on both the minimum heat flux and the mode of transition boiling, for example. A rational scheme of correlation yields a prediction of the heat flux in what Witte and Lienhard (1982) previously identified as the 'film-transition boiling' region. It is also shown how to calculate the heat flux at the boundary between the pure-film, and the film-transition, boiling regimes, as a function of the advancing contact angle.

Ramilison, J. M.; Lienhard, J. H.

1987-01-01

234

Transition boiling heat transfer and the film transition regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berenson (1960) flat-plate transition-boiling experiment has been recreated with a reduced thermal resistance in the heater, and an improved access to those portions of the transition boiling regime that have a steep negative slope. Tests have been made in Freon-113, acetone, benzene, and n-pentane boiling on horizontal flat copper heaters that have been mirror-polished, 'roughened', or teflon-coated. The resulting data reproduce and clarify certain features observed by Berenson: the modest surface finish dependence of boiling burnout, and the influence of surface chemistry on both the minimum heat flux and the mode of transition boiling, for example. A rational scheme of correlation yields a prediction of the heat flux in what Witte and Lienhard (1982) previously identified as the 'film-transition boiling' region. It is also shown how to calculate the heat flux at the boundary between the pure-film, and the film-transition, boiling regimes, as a function of the advancing contact angle.

Ramilison, J. M.; Lienhard, J. H.

1987-08-01

235

Electronic transitions and multiferroicity in transition metal oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four systems have been studied for the localized-itinerant electronic transition in transition-metal oxides: (i) In CaV1- xTixO3, substitution of Ti(IV) introduces Anderson-localized states below a mobility edge mu c that increases with x, crossing epsilon F in the range 0.2 < x= 0.1. (ii) The properties of LaTiO3+delta reveal that a hole-poor, strongly correlated electronic phase coexists with a hole-rich,

Haidong Zhou

2006-01-01

236

Structural signature of jamming transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In thermal amorphous systems, the first peak of the pair correlation function g(r) reaches the maximum height g1^ max at a crossover volume fraction ?v when the volume fraction ? is varied. In the T=0 limit, ?v approaches ?c, the critical volume fraction of the T=0 jamming transition, accompanied by a diverging g1^max . The occurrence of g1^max at T>0 thus reminisces the T=0 jamming transition. By measuring typical quantities such as the pressure, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and characteristic frequency of the boson peak, which all show power law scalings with ?-?c in marginally jammed solids at T=0, we observe that ?=?v separates the thermal amorphous systems into two regimes with distinct material properties: these quantities show similar power law scalings with ?-?c to marginally jammed solids when ?>?v, which break down when ?transition at T>0. Because the scalings are manipulated by ?c, the T=0 jamming transition should be the only critical point that controls the jamming transition and properties of jammed solids at T>0.

Xu, Ning

2010-03-01

237

Phase transition in dimer liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phase transition in a system composed of dimers interacting with each other via a nearest-neighbor (NN) exchange J and competing interactions taken from a truncated dipolar coupling. Each dimer occupies a link between two nearest sites of a simple cubic lattice. We suppose that dimers are self-avoiding and can have only three orientations, which coincide with the x, y or z direction. The interaction J is attractive if the two dimers are parallel to each other at the NN distance, zero otherwise. The truncated dipolar interaction is characterized by two parameters: its amplitude D and the cutoff distance rc. Using the steepest descent method, we determine the ground-state (GS) configuration as functions of D and rc. We then use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the nature of the low-temperature phase and to determine characteristics of the phase transition from the ordered phase to the disordered phase at high temperatures at a given dimer concentration. We show that as the temperature increases, dimers remain in the compact state and the transition from the low-T compact phase to the disordered phase where dimers occupy the whole space is of second order when D is small, but becomes of first order for large enough D, for both polarized and nonpolarized dimers. This transition has a resemblance to the unfolding polymer transition. The effect of rc is discussed.

Hoang, Danh-Tai; Diep, H. T.

2014-01-01

238

Transit Monitoring of Known Exoplanets with TERMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transiting planet discoveries have yielded a plethora of information regarding the internal structure and atmospheres of extra-solar planets. These discoveries have been restricted to the low-periastron distance regime due to the bias inherent in the geometric transit probability. Monitoring known radial velocity planets at predicted transit times is a proven method of detecting transits, and presents an avenue through which

Stephen R. Kane; D. Ciardi; D. Fischer; D. Gelino; G. Henry; A. Howard; E. Jensen; G. Laughlin; S. Mahadevan; G. Pilyavsky; K. von Braun; J. Wright

2011-01-01

239

Refining Exoplanet Ephemerides and Transit Observing Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transiting planet discoveries have yielded a plethora of information regarding the internal structure and atmospheres of extrasolar planets. These discoveries have been restricted to the low-periastron distance regime due to the bias inherent in the geometric transit probability. Monitoring known radial velocity planets at predicted transit times is a proven method of detecting transits, and presents an avenue through which

Stephen R. Kane; Suvrath Mahadevan; Kaspar von Braun; Gregory Laughlin; David R. Ciardi

2009-01-01

240

BUS RAPID TRANSIT: SYNTHESIS OF CASE STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus rapid transit systems have grown in popularity in recent years. Spurred by federal initiatives, the spiraling cost of rail transit, and market realities, a growing number of cities have installed or are planning bus rapid transit (BRT). There is a synthesis of current experience, drawing on ongoing research conducted in a project for the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP).

Herbert S Levinson; Samuel Zimmerman; Jennifer Clinger; James Gast

2003-01-01

241

Evaluating New Start Transit Program Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ongoing debate over the relative advantages of rail and bus transit investments. Rail critics assert that cities which expand their bus transit systems exhibit better performance than those that expand rail systems. This study examines those claims. It compares public transport performance in U.S. urban areas that expanded rail transit with urban areas that expanded bus transit from

Lyndon Henry; Todd A. Litman

242

TERMS Photometry of Known Transiting Exoplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide

Diana Dragomir; Stephen R. Kane; Genady Pilyavsky; Suvrath Mahadevan; David R. Ciardi; J. Zachary Gazak; Dawn M. Gelino; Alan Payne; Markus Rabus; Solange V. Ramirez; Kaspar von Braun; Jason T. Wright; Pamela Wyatt

2011-01-01

243

Cellular transitions and tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) describe complex changes in progenitor lineage, cell morphology, and gene expression. Stimulated by environmental cues, these cellular transitions are essential for elements of embryonic development and can be pathologically dysregulated in disease states. EMT occurs in biological processes such as gastrulation, cardiogenesis, and fibrosis. EndMT is involved in development and tissue fibrosis, but recent studies have implicated this process in musculoskeletal biology and pathology. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine typically rely on endogenous progenitors or progenitors expanded ex vivo to repair damaged or impaired tissues or organs. The processes of EMT and EndMT may aid in elucidating new methods for reducing fibrosis and identifying novel plastic progenitor populations for tissue repair. This review will discuss the potential for EMT and EndMT to impact on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23550730

Schindeler, Aaron; Kolind, Mille; Little, David G

2013-04-01

244

Cellular Transitions and Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Abstract Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) describe complex changes in progenitor lineage, cell morphology, and gene expression. Stimulated by environmental cues, these cellular transitions are essential for elements of embryonic development and can be pathologically dysregulated in disease states. EMT occurs in biological processes such as gastrulation, cardiogenesis, and fibrosis. EndMT is involved in development and tissue fibrosis, but recent studies have implicated this process in musculoskeletal biology and pathology. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine typically rely on endogenous progenitors or progenitors expanded ex vivo to repair damaged or impaired tissues or organs. The processes of EMT and EndMT may aid in elucidating new methods for reducing fibrosis and identifying novel plastic progenitor populations for tissue repair. This review will discuss the potential for EMT and EndMT to impact on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Kolind, Mille; Little, David G.

2013-01-01

245

Glass Transition Thermodynamics and Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable kinetic slowdown experienced by liquids as they are cooled toward their glass transition is not accompanied by any obvious structural change. Understanding the origin of this behavior is a major scientific challenge. At present, this area of condensed matter theory is characterized by an abundance of divergent viewpoints that attempt to describe well-defined physical phenomena. We review representative theoretical views on the unusual kinetics of liquid supercooling, which fall into two broad competing categories: thermodynamic and kinetic. In the former, an apparent “ideal,” thermodynamic, glass transition caused by rapid loss of entropy in the supercooled liquid underlies kinetic slowdown; in the latter, purely kinetic constraints are responsible for loss of ergodicity. The possible existence of an ideal thermodynamic glass transition is discussed and placed in its proper statistical mechanical context.

Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

2013-04-01

246

Layering transition in confined silicon.  

PubMed

The structure of quasi-2D liquid silicon confined to slit nanopores has been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An obvious structural change from a low-density low-coordinated liquid to a high-density highly coordinated liquid has been found in the confined silicon with the increase of the slit size. This kind of structural transition results from layering in the confined silicon, which disappears with the increase of temperature. In the process of layering transition, the coordination distribution of quasi-2D liquid undergoes an evolutionary process from the initial non-uniform distribution to the final uniform distribution. In addition, our results also indicate that the increase of pressure will also induce a layering transition in the confined silicon. PMID:24609530

He, Yezeng; Li, Xiongying; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yanyan; Bian, Xiufang

2014-04-21

247

Cosmological phase transitions and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We review various aspects of field theory at finite temperature related to the theory of phase transitions. In particular, the real and imaginary time formalisms are discussed, showing their equivalence in simple examples. Bubble nucleation by thermal tunneling, and the subsequent development of the phase transition is described in some detail. Some attention is also devoted to the breakdown of the perturbative expansion and the infrared problem in the finite temperature field theory. Finally the application to baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is done in the Standard Model and in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In all cases we have translated the condition of not washing out any previously generated baryon asymmetry by upper bounds on the Higgs mass.

Quiros, Mariano [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

1998-10-05

248

Cubic s-arc transitive Cayley graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a characterization of connected cubic s-transitive Cayley graphs. It is shown that, for s?3, every connected cubic s-transitive Cayley graph is a normal cover of one of 13 graphs: three 3-transitive graphs, four 4-transitive graphs and six 5-transitive graphs. Moreover, the argument in this paper also gives another proof for a well-known result which says that all

Jing Jian Li; Zai Ping Lu

2009-01-01

249

Magnetic dipole transitions in the hydrogen molecule  

SciTech Connect

In homonuclear molecules, such as H{sub 2}, the electric dipole transitions are strongly forbidden, and the transitions between rovibrational states are of the electric quadrupole type. We show, however, that magnetic dipole transitions also take place, although they are significantly weaker. We evaluate the probabilities of such transitions between several of the lowest rotational states and compare them with those of the corresponding electric quadrupole transitions.

Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Komasa, Jacek [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland)

2011-03-15

250

Context Aware Transit Navigator, Transit IDEA Project No. 65.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to create a real-time, context-aware transit navigation system. The system integrates the route-planning and real-time tracking functionality provided by current systems into a single, real-time and context-aware applicat...

J. Eriksson

2013-01-01

251

Transition probabilities and static moments in transitional nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic transition probabilities and static moments of excited nuclear states are known to be good probes of nuclear structure. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the large amount of existing experimental data for these observables is expected to provide valuable information about the respective isotopes. It is the purpose of this talk to show that a combined analysis of static magnetic moments of 2/sub 1//sup +/ states and B(E2) transition probabilities for even-even nuclei can be used to obtain effective numbers of valence nucleons. This kind of information is of particular interest in cases where subshell closures are found. For example, it is well known that for the transitional nuclei in the A = 150 region the Z = 64 subshell is active when the number of neutrons N < 90, but disappears for N greater than or equal to 90. A similar situation exists in the A = 100 region, where the Z = 38 subshell is active for N less than or equal to 58. In the following sections we present the method by which effective numbers of valence protons and neutrons can be deduced from B(E2) and g-factor data, and show applications of this method to the A = 150 and A = 100 transitional regions. Part of these results were recently published.

Wolf, A.; Casten, R.F.

1988-01-01

252

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three newer diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and featu...

K. Chandler L. Eudy

2010-01-01

253

Entropic Commensurate-Incommensurate Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium properties of a minimal tiling model are investigated. The model has extensive ground state entropy, with each ground state having a quasiperiodic sequence of rows. It is found that the transition from the ground state to the high temperature disordered phase proceeds through a sequence of periodic arrangements of rows, in analogy with the commensurate-incommensurate transition. We show that the effective free energy of the model resembles the Frenkel-Kontorova Hamiltonian, but with temperature playing the role of the strength of the substrate potential, and with the competing lengths not explicitly present in the basic interactions.

Nikola, Nikolai; Hexner, Daniel; Levine, Dov

2013-03-01

254

Thailand's Work and Health Transition  

PubMed Central

Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health.

Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

2011-01-01

255

Phase transition during uniaxial compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the possibility of a first-order isostructural phase transition during the uniaxial compression of single crystals of Sm(1-x)Gd(x)S solid solutions (x = 0.15). The compression of the samples was carried out along the longest dimension corresponding to the 100 crystallographic direction. A change in the color of samples from black to golden yellow and a discontinuity in electrical conductivity were observed. When the pressure was removed the inverse transition did not occur.

Kaminskii, V. V.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Stepanov, N. N.; Smirnov, I. A.

1983-05-01

256

The Lévy spin glass transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the phase transition in the Lévy spin glass. A regularized model where the coupling constants smaller than some cutoff ? are neglected can be studied by the cavity method for diluted spin glasses. We show how to handle the ??0 limit and determine the de Almeida-Thouless transition temperature in the presence of an external field. Contrary to previous findings, in zero external field we do not find any stable replica-symmetric spin glass phase: the spin glass phase is always a replica-symmetry-broken phase.

Janzen, K.; Engel, A.; Mézard, M.

2010-03-01

257

QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The title of the workshop, 'The QCD Phase Transitions' in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discuss...

E. Shuryak T. Schaefer

1999-01-01

258

Phase transitions in potassium nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the heat of transition of the phase change II ? I at 129° on heating KNO3 is dependent on the thermal history of the sample, since it involves two steps, viz., II? III and III? I at 2° interval. During cooling, the latter step is fast and truly reversible, though with a temperature hysteresis. The former

V. V. DESI-IPAVa; M. D. Karkhanavala; U. R. K. Rao

1974-01-01

259

Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

2012-01-01

260

Parent Involvement in Transition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of 85 parents of children with handicaps (ages 14-25) assesses the involvement of parents in the transition process of the young person from home to work or independent living, the kind of involvement they desire, and responsibilities they would be willing to assume in order to be involved. Findings show that although more than…

McNair, Jeff; Rusch, Frank R.

261

Structural transitions of encapsidated polyelectrolytes.  

PubMed

Conformations and structural transitions of polyelectrolytes strictly confined onto a spherical 2D surface have been investigated by scaling descriptions based on physical arguments concerning polyelectrolyte adsorption onto planar surface and liquid crystals as well as by Monte Carlo simulations using a bead-spring model with short-range and electrostatic repulsions. In case of the electrostatic screened regime, a disordered-ordered (spiral) transition at increasing persistence length of the chain was found. It was predicted that the transition occurred when the persistence length is comparable with the mean spacing between adjacent strands of the ordered chain. The presence of a non-screened electrostatic repulsion led to a more complex behavior with i) a re-entrant order-disorder transition and ii) a tennis ball texture as an additional smectic/nematic structure. The various competing structures given by the theory were recovered by the Monte Carlo simulations, which also indicated that the tennis ball texture was favored over the spiral structure by the long-range interactions for semi-flexible chains. PMID:18385931

Angelescu, D G; Linse, P; Nguyen, T T; Bruinsma, R F

2008-03-01

262

Stress relief of transition zones  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

1984-01-01

263

Imaging of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common finding in the general population. Their clinical significance is controversial with no consensus as to their relationship to low back pain or disc prolapse. However, on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they may be difficult to positively identify on sagittal sequences and can lead to confusion with respect to numbering of lumbar discs and

R. J. Hughes; A. Saifuddin

2004-01-01

264

Marketing Urban Mass Transit-1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-one transit systems are examined in this study. Eighteen of the 41 polled now have formal department of marketing and the vast majority of marketing officers are considered members of the top management team. In terms of marketing activity, the deci...

R. A. Mundy

1974-01-01

265

Rapid Transit to Sentence Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a sample selection of exercises from the text "Rapid Transit to Sentence Writing," which is based on the idea that learning to write a sentence is a process which involves understanding the relationship of the parts of the sentence to the whole sentence. The book received the 1989 Innovative Teaching Honors Award from the…

Panuska, Janet A.

266

Miami Bound: Issues in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Pursuit Center at Miami University, Ohio, has provided an outdoor orientation experience for incoming first-year students since 1995. The experience provides an environment that is effective in easing the transition into higher education settings. Student trip coordinators, student facilitators, faculty, and professional staff use…

Parks, Russell E.

267

Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

Nehls, Kimberly

2012-01-01

268

Zipf's law and phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the link between the Zipf law and statistical distributions for the Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters in Ising as well as Potts models. From these results, it is seen that Zipf's law can be a criterion of a phase transition, but it does not determine its order. We present the corresponding histograms for fixed domain configurations.

Lukierska-Walasek, K.; Topolski, K.

2014-04-01

269

American Higher Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

270

Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

2013-01-01

271

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOEpatents

A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

1994-01-01

272

Structure of competitive transit networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the network shapes and operating characteristics that allow a transit system to deliver an accessibility level competitive with that of the automobile. To provide exhaustive results for service regions of different sizes and demographics, the paper idealizes these regions as squares with uniform demand, and their possible networks as a broad and realistic family that combines the

Carlos F. Daganzo

2010-01-01

273

Assessing efficiency of transit service  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades, the market share of bus passengers has declined, while many transit services have expanded. Furthermore, wage rates and other costs of labor such as benefits have been increasing, and regulations relating to the environment and Americans with disabilities have been enacted. This has fueled a systemic decline in productivity of agencies providing bus service. With

Yuko J. Nakanishi; John R. Norsworthy

2000-01-01

274

Sacramento Transit Fare Prepayment Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration focused on the sale and distribution of monthly transit passes through employers. This evaluation report covers the period from the organizational phase in October 1977, through the two-year distribution phase in June 1978, to the end of...

D. Daetz M. Holoszyc

1981-01-01

275

Jacksonville Transit Fare Prepayment Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of the demonstration was to evaluate the impact upon sales of monthly transit passes that are promoted and sold through employers. The intent of the program was to place as few demands as possible on the employers who are enrolled ...

1982-01-01

276

Nuclear effects in atomic transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This

Adriana Palffy

2010-01-01

277

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOEpatents

A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

1994-04-26

278

Sustainability Transitions as new perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

Rotmans, J.

2012-04-01

279

Leadership Transitions: Keys for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A leadership transition poses dangers and challenges for both leaders and followers. While each party naturally focuses on the organization's success, time needs to be spent on how the new relationships will develop and mature into effective working relationships. This article discusses the following four areas of interaction between leaders and…

Goodyear, Marilu; Golden, Cynthia

2008-01-01

280

1999 Transit Customer Satisfaction Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this memorandum is provide an overview of the results and analysis of the data collected in the 1999 Florida Transit Properties Customer Satisfaction Index project, as well as to briefly review the data sources and the weighting methodologi...

B. Thompson F. Cleland J. Ausman

2000-01-01

281

Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first signficant application we present a detailed treatment of

Nicola Cufaro Petroni; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

1999-01-01

282

Online minimization of transition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Weare,given a transition system implicitly through a compact ,representation and wish to perform simultaneously reachability analysis and minimization,without constructing first the whole system graph. Wepresent an algorithm for this problem that applies to general systems, provided we have appropriate primitive operations for manipulating ,blocks of states and we can ,determine termination; the number ,of operations needed to construct the

D. Lee; M. Yannakakis

1992-01-01

283

Alternative Assessment for Transitional Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher-developed alternative assessment of reading comprehension was specifically designed for transitional English language learners. Use of the measure with 89 fifth-graders in their first year of English language instruction showed that the students could successfully engage with English texts and provided teachers with useful information to…

Beaumont, Carol; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Trumbull, Elise

2002-01-01

284

Gifted Students' Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from school to university presents novel demands for all students. Although this educational milestone has been addressed by scholars, particularly those interested in the study of higher education, there is a dearth of literature regarding gifted students' experience of their handling demands of first-year university. In the…

Mendaglio, Sal

2013-01-01

285

Chinese Public Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1949, China has struggled to provide adequate public education for its masses. But since 1985, education in China has been in transition. In this article, the author discusses the improvements that have occurred since 1985, including more technology, up-to-date textbooks, and new teaching techniques, as well as the many challenges still…

Krajewski, Robert J.

2006-01-01

286

Transition Personnel Preparation Projects, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a catalog of approximately 50 projects concerned with the transition from school to work of students with disabilities and sponsored by the Division of Personnel Preparation (DPP) of the Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services for the fiscal year 1992. The introduction notes that these…

Baker, Betty

287

Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

Creighton, Peggy Milam

2008-01-01

288

Waveguide-to-Microstrip Transitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the design of a K-band waveguide-to-microstrip transition. This design features a unique tapered coaxial transmission line between the microstrip and the waveguide, resulting in minimum insertion loss and high return loss. From 19.3 to 26.5 GHz...

R. G. Beaudette L. J. Kushner

1989-01-01

289

Dynamics of the LTD Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminar flame to turbulent flame to detonation transition in a chemically reactive medium is a highly transient, complex, and dynamic process in which there are continuous qualitative and quantitative changes in the state of the gas. The transition begins with an initially small flame or spark that evolves into a turbulent flame, producing compression and shock waves. The shocks, in turn, may couple with the flame to form unsteady, propagating shock-flame complexes that may transition to a detonation. The complete process is illustrated here with videos made from numerical solutions of the multidimensional, unsteady, chemically reacting, Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion focuses on selected features of the flow, including: formation of a turbulent flame and the nature of the turbulence, shock-wave transitions from single to double Mach reflection, creation of hot spots as the origins of detonations, and comparisons between simulations and experimental data. (This work is done in collaboration with Vadim N. Gamezo, Takanobu Ogawa, David A. Kessler, and Alexei Poludnenko, and is sponsored by ONR, NIOSH, NASA, and NEDO.)

Oran, Elaine S.

2008-11-01

290

N-{Delta} weak transition  

SciTech Connect

A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

Graczyk, Krzysztof M. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204, Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-11-23

291

Boolean Satisfiability with Transitivity Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variant of the Boolean satisfiability problem w here a subset of the propositional variables appearing in formula sat encode a sym- metric, transitive, binary relation over elements. Each of these relational vari- ables, , for , expresses whether or not the relation holds between elements and . The task is to either find a satisfying assignment to

Randal E. Bryant; Miroslav N. Velev

2000-01-01

292

Boolean satisfiability with transitivity constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variant of the Boolean satisfiability problem where a subset ϵ of the propositional variables appearing in formula Fsat encode a symmetric, transitive, binary relation over N elements. Each of these relational variables, ei,j, for 1 ? i j ? N, expresses whether or not the relation holds between elements i and j. The task is to either

Randal E. Bryant; Miroslav N. Velev

2002-01-01

293

Online Transit Trip Planner for Small Agencies Using Google Transit: Final Deployment Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Google Transit is a public transportation trip planner that enables travelers to obtain information regarding available transit services between a given origin and given destination. While transit agencies can publish their service information onto Google...

F. Dion G. Lin K. Singa M. Kumar

2011-01-01

294

Composition of transiting and transiting-only super-Earths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively recent detections of the first three transiting super-Earths mark the beginning of a subfield within exoplanets that is both fruitful and challenging. The first step into characterizing these objects is to infer their composition given the degenerate character of the problem. The calculations show that Kepler-10b has a composition between an Earth-like and a Mercury-like (enriched in iron)

Diana Valencia

2011-01-01

295

Transit Customer Satisfaction Index for Florida Transit Properties. Results and Analysis of Florida Transit Properties. Customer Satisfaction Index Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) contracted with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to develop a Transit Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) for fixed-route transit properties in the state. This index was intended to provide ...

D. Hinebaugh F. Cleland J. R. Rey

1997-01-01

296

Composition of transiting and transiting-only super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively recent detections of the first three transiting super-Earths mark the beginning of a subfield within exoplanets that is both fruitful and challenging. The first step into characterizing these objects is to infer their composition given the degenerate character of the problem. The calculations show that Kepler-10b has a composition between an Earth-like and a Mercury-like (enriched in iron) composition. In contrast, GJ 1214b is too large to be solid, and has to have a volatile envelope. Lastly, while three of the four reported mass estimates of CoRoT-7b allow for a rocky composition, one forbids it and can only be reconciled with significant amounts of water vapor. In addition to these three transiting low-mass planets, there are now more than one thousand Kepler planets with only measured radius. Even without a mass measurement (``transiting-only'') it is still possible to place constraints on the amount of volatile content of the highly-irradiated planets, as their envelopes, if present, are flared. Using Kepler-9d as an example, we estimate its water vapor, or hydrogen and helium content to be less than 50% or 0.1% by mass respectively.

Valencia, Diana

2011-11-01

297

Transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

298

The transition regions of Capella  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self-consistent only when the fluxes from each emitting component are considered separately. In particular, the transition region abundance distributions appear to be different on the two stars, and the spin-forbidden lines were not detected in the B component. The emission measures for component H (the G1 star) are consistent with a constant electron pressure (or hydrostatic equilibrium) transition region with P(sub e) = 10(exp 15 + 0.1)/cu cm K and possibly solar 'coronal' abundances.

Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

1995-01-01

299

Electronic Transitions of Yttrium Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic transition spectrum of yttrium monoxide (YO) in the spectral region between 284nm and 307nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The YO molecule was produced by reacting laser-ablated yttrium atoms with O_{2} seeded in argon. Twenty transition bands were observed in that region and a few bands were selected for further study using optical-optical double resonance (OODR) spectroscopy. The excited C^{2} ? state has been reached via the intermediate B^{2} ?^{+} state from the ground X^{2} ?^{+} state. The excited sub-states observed so far have ? = 0.5 and 1.5. A least squares fit of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the newly observed excited states.

Ng, Y. W.; Wang, Na; Clark, Andrew B.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

2013-06-01

300

A Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the thousands of planet candidates discovered by Kepler only a few have been detected in binary star systems. To date, seven transiting circumbinary planets have been confirmed, with several more candidates planets under investigation. Of the confirmed cases, the planets orbit short-period eclipsing binaries that have periods between one and seven weeks. The eclipsing binary nature of the stars allows their masses and radii to be accurately determined. Perturbations of the binary can be detected by eclipsing timing variations, sometimes allowing the mass of the planet to be measured. In this talk, we present the most recent Kepler transiting circumbinary planet. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF via grant AST-1109928, and from NASA via Kepler PSP grant NNX12AS23G and OSS grant NNX12AI76G.

Welsh, William F.; Orosz, J. A.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Haghighipour, N.; Short, D. R.; Kepler Team

2014-01-01

301

Wetting transitions within membrane compartments.  

PubMed

A biomimetic membrane in contact with several aqueous phases is theoretically studied using a combination of Helfrich curvature elasticity theory for fluid membranes and self-consistent field theory for polymers in solutions. Two phases that are thermodynamically formed by phase separation of aqueous solutions, as well as stable and metastable shapes of fluid vesicles, have been observed. The wetting transitions from complete to partial wetting and to complete dewetting are identified within a membrane compartment. The dependences of wetting transitions on material parameters, such as the intrinsic contact angles ?in, the interaction strengths between the polymers ??? and between the membrane and the polymer ?p, and impermeability of the membrane to the enclosed polymers ?p, are investigated. For a given ???, impermeability ?p and affinity to the membrane ?p, ?in is found to be a constant and independent of the reduced volume of vesicles and the volume fraction of two phases. PMID:24946020

Guo, Kunkun; Xiao, Wenjia; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

2014-08-01

302

Spurious conformational transitions in proteins?  

PubMed Central

Temperature-dependent dynamic processes in biological macromolecules can produce sharp and reversible transitions in spectroscopic properties that might be misinterpreted as evidence for thermally induced conformational changes. This provides a rational explanation for the paradoxical case of D-amino acid oxidase [D-amino-acid:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.3.3], for which a sharp fluorescence transition at 14 degrees C, not observed by sensitive calorimetry [Sturtevant, J. M. & Mateo, P. L. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 2584-2587], could be due to a dynamic quenching process of large activation energy, rather than a change in conformational state of the protein. Similar interpretations may be valid in other systems studied by experimental techniques that depend, directly or indirectly, on molecular relaxation processes.

Cooper, A

1981-01-01

303

Quantum transition-edge detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small perturbations to systems near critical points of quantum phase transitions can induce drastic changes in the system properties. Here I show that this sensitivity can be exploited for weak-signal detection applications. This is done by relating a widely studied signature of quantum chaos and quantum phase transitions known as the Loschmidt echo to the minimum error probability for a quantum detector and noting that the echo, and therefore the error, can be significantly reduced near a critical point. Three examples, namely, the quantum Ising model, the optical parametric oscillator model, and the Dicke model, are presented to illustrate the concept. For the latter two examples, the detectable perturbation can exhibit a Heisenberg scaling with respect to the number of detectors, even though the detectors are not entangled and no special quantum state preparation is specified.

Tsang, Mankei

2013-08-01

304

M-shell X-ray production cross-sections for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 at incident photon energies E{sub M{sub 1}}  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray production cross-sections for the Mk (k = {xi}, {delta}, {alpha}, {beta}, {zeta}, {gamma}, m{sub 1} and m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated for all the elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 at incident photon energies ranging E{sub M{sub 1}}Coster-Kronig yields, and the K-shell/L{sub j} (j = 1-3) subshell to the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell vacancy transfer probabilities, based on the independent particle models.

Chauhan, Yogeshwar; Kumar, Anil [University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab (India); Puri, Sanjiv [University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab (India)], E-mail: sanjivpurichd@yahoo.com

2009-07-15

305

Aspects of the electroweak phase transition  

SciTech Connect

The electroweak phase transition is reviewed in light of some recent developments. Emphasis is on the issue whether the transition is first or second order and its possible role in the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe.

Huet, P.

1992-11-01

306

Metropolitan Evansville Transit System: Management Performance Audit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the management performance audit of the Metropolitan Evansville Transit System (METS), and it evaluates the transit system in the context of its goals and objectives and its resources and constraints. The scope of this performance evaluati...

S. A. Dodge D. R. Leffers

1979-01-01

307

Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a grant fro...

2010-01-01

308

On the Phase Transition in Solid Hydrogen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phase transition in solid hydrogen is examined with a simple Ising-type model used for the intermolecular interactions. A statistical treatment based on Bethe's method is used. For pure ortho-hydrogen, no abrupt transition between the orientationally ...

J. C. Raich R. D. Etters

1968-01-01

309

Honolulu Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reference document was prepared for the Office of Research, Demonstration and Innovation of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This case study evaluation of the Honolulu bus rapid transit project is intended to support FTAs ongoing research on...

L. Cham M. Chang J. Chung G. Darido C. Geilfuss D. Henry E. Kim W. Romano D. Schneck

2006-01-01

310

Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions.

YANOCHKO, R.M.

2000-04-24

311

Multicomponent phase transitions of diacylphosphatidylethanolamine dispersions.  

PubMed Central

The phase transition properties of aqueous suspensions of a series of nonhydrated (not heated above room temperature) and hydrated 1,2 diacylphosphatidylethanolamines (PE's) have been examined by high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry at scan rates of 0.02-1.0 K min-1. At all scan rates nonhydrated PE's show a single asymmetric transition curve of excess heat capacity as a function of temperature. Multilamellar dispersions of hydrated PE's, however, exhibit transitions with fine structure, which can be fitted as the sum of three two-state component transitions, at scan rates of 0.02-0.1 K min-1, but give only a single asymmetric transition at 1.0 K min-1. At all scan rates the transition(s) of hydrated samples occur at lower temperatures than those of nonhydrated samples. One of the component transitions of hydrated PE's may be analogous to the pretransition that occurs in 1,2 diacylphosphatidylcholines.

Chowdhry, B Z; Lipka, G; Dalziel, A W; Sturtevant, J M

1984-01-01

312

Socioeconomic Benefits of Transit in Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to identify and measure the benefits of transit to other economic sectors in Wisconsin. This study specifically focuses upon the benefits of public transit service to the healthcare, work, education, and retail, rec...

2003-01-01

313

Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions  

MedlinePLUS

... the seniors to develop discharge plans and coordinate care in the transition from hospital to home. In the year after their discharge, those who received this transitional care had fewer hospital readmissions, hospital days, and deaths, ...

314

Resolution requirements for numerical simulations of transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resolution requirements for direct numerical simulations of transition to turbulence are investigated. A reliable resolution criterion is determined from the results of several detailed simulations of channel and boundary-layer transition.

Zang, Thomas A.; Krist, Steven E.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1989-01-01

315

Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides strategies to significantly increase transit's share of total advertising expenditures. It describes advertising decision makers' perceptions about transit advertising products (current and future products) and includes a strategic re...

J. Alpers

2009-01-01

316

Alternative View of Cosmological Phase Transitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of cosmological phase transitions, which differs from the one based on the effective potential approach is presented. In this scheme, the phase transition is driven by the spontaneous generation of domain walls (solitons), and below the crit...

G. C. Marques I. Ventura

1982-01-01

317

Handbook: Integrating Market Research into Transit Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook focuses on the status of market research as practiced in transit agencies and identifies major market issues confronting them. The handbook also evaluates market research strategies appropriate for transit and provides guidance to integrate ...

R. Elmore-Yalch

1998-01-01

318

Economic Evaluation of Transit Bus Design Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research in this report investigates the perceptions of ITS standards for the public transit industry. The public transit industry has a rather colorful past in standardization, and this experience is reviewed with an eye toward lessons that might be ...

M. Hickman R. Jeong

2001-01-01

319

Transition edge sensor array development  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIST is fabricating multi-pixel arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter detectors for use in microanalysis and X-ray astrophysics. We have developed both room temperature digital feedback electronics and a successful SQUID multiplexing technology that will be applied to form a practical, expandable system. We are also exploring surface micromachining techniques to enable the fabrication of large-scale, close-packed arrays of

S. Deiker; J. Chervenak; G. C. Hilton; K. D. Irwin; John M. Martinis; S. Nam; D. A. Wollman

2001-01-01

320

STEM Colorado: Simplified Planetary Transits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates how astronomers measure the properties of extra-solar planets by detecting planetary transits and eclipses. The applet shows a planet in orbit around a star. A graph plots the total brightness of the star as the planet orbits around it. The user can control the star's radius, the star's temperature, the planet's radius, the orbital radius and the albedo. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.

Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew

2008-10-22

321

Transition Distribution Amplitudes for ??? collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the exclusive production of ?? and ?? in hard ??? scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. The sizable cross sections for ?? and ?? production may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories (Belle and BABAR).

Lansberg, J. P.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

2008-11-01

322

Non-equilibrium phase transitions  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

1998-12-31

323

The transition to strong convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition to strong tropical deep convection as seen in satellite precipitation estimates has recently been shown (Peters and Neelin, 2006, Nature Phys.) to exhibit a number of properties of a continuous phase transition and associated critical phenomena. This list includes a power law pick-up of precipitation above a critical value of column water vapor, a variance maximum near this critical point, and non-trivial scaling with spatial averaging. Besides the intellectual interest of putting atmospheric moist convective phenomena into correspondence with critical phenomena in other fields, we argue here for some practical implications. For instance, the dependence of ensemble average precipitation on water vapor for different temperatures (or regions) can be made to approximately collapse by appropriate rescaling using the critical values. These critical values can be used to map out the transition as a function water vapor and temperature, thus providing empirical constraints for convective parameterizations. The fraction of time that the system spends below, near or above critical has implications for how we think about convective quasi-equilibrium closures in these parameterizations, including extensions to stochastic convective parameterizations.

Neelin, J. D.; Peters, O.; Hales, K.; Nesbitt, S. W.

2006-12-01

324

Paradigms for the Glass Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several paradigms of the glass transition are commonly used to either characterize the behavior of glass-forming materials or as ``targets'' for theoretical outcomes. The purpose of the work and discussion was motivated by a view that some of the paradigms currently used to frame the glass transition event, while potentially useful, may also have limitations that we often do not fully consider. Discussion focuses on isochoric glass formation paths, thermodynamic and dynamic fragilities and how dynamic fragility in many systems (especially polymers, metals, ionic liquids and hydrogen bonding systems) seems to vary primarily with the glass transition temperature, Tg, itself. This leads to the conclusion that such systems have an apparent activation energy that varies as the square of the glass temperature and consequently a fragility index m that varies linearly in Tg. The work concludes with a presentation of evidence that the apparent super Arrhenius divergence of viscosity or relaxation time as temperature decreases towards the Tg is precarious, suggesting that the common expectations of a diverging relaxation time or viscosity as the glass temperature is approached are not met.

McKenna, Gregory

2009-03-01

325

Trust Transitivity in Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers.

Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

2011-01-01

326

Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions  

SciTech Connect

The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, Zagreb (Croatia); Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece); Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2007-08-31

327

Transition scale to a homogeneous universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze observed and simulated galaxy and cluster samples to find the transition scale to homogeneity in the real space, r(t), and in the Fourier space, lambda(t). The correlation transition scale is determined by the minimum of the second derivative of the correlation function, the spectral scale by the transition from a negative to a positive spectral index. Available data

Jaan Einasto; Mirt Gramann

1993-01-01

328

Transitional Relatedness and Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined various aspects of transitional relatedness among individuals diagnosed as borderline or antisocial personality disorder. This study was a follow–up to an earlier report (Cooper, 1983) using the Rorschach Transitional Object Scale, which found only marginal support for Modell’s clinical hypothesis that the borderline personality disorder involves a developmental arrest at the stage of the transitional object. The

Steven H. Cooper; J. Christopher Perry; Lizbeth Hoke; Nancy Richman

1985-01-01

329

A Latent Transition Model with Logistic Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian…

Chung, Hwan; Walls, Theodore A.; Park, Yousung

2007-01-01

330

The protein-solvent glass transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein dynamical transition and its connection with the liquid-glass transition (GT) of hydration water and aqueous solvents are reviewed. The protein solvation shell exhibits a regular glass transition, characterized by steps in the specific heat and the thermal expansion coefficient at the calorimetric glass temperature TG?170 K. It implies that the time scale of the structural ?-relaxation has reached the

Wolfgang Doster

2010-01-01

331

Institutional Aspects of Bus Rapid Transit Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the findings of its investigation of institutional aspects of bus rapid transit (BRT) through both a macroscopic examination, a survey of members of the U.S. Bus Rapid Transit Consortium and several Canadian transit properties, and a more focused site-specific examination of three California BRT systems. The macroscopic examination resulted from a literature review, project team brainstorming meetings,

Mark A. Miller; Stephen M. Buckley

2001-01-01

332

Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

2013-01-01

333

No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One tends to remember…

Nicolucci, Sandra

2010-01-01

334

Children's Agency during Transition to Formal Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's transition to school is a key issue in early years of education. Research in this field points to the counterintuitive possibility that the transition to school may actually lead to a reduction rather than a facilitation of children's agency. The paper presents findings of a longitudinal comparative ethnography on children's transition…

Huf, Christina

2013-01-01

335

FOREIGN POLICY MISMANAGEMENT DURING AMERICAN PRESIDENTIAL TRANSITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite vast literature on American foreign policy and presidential decision-making, little attention has been given to the problems associated with presidential transitions. The American presidential transition period is accompanied by three limitations that threaten the effectiveness of presidential authority. First, presidential authority is unclear in the ambiguity of the transition period. Second, new administrations struggle to incorporate overlapping initiatives and

Linda Schulte

2010-01-01

336

Managing Change and Transition, Creating a Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning in childhood and on into adulthood, people experience many transitions and changes in their lives. Some people cope with change better than others and make transitions easily; some people may experience a longer transition in order to integrate change. Most people have a fear of change due to uncertainty. Once a person releases that…

Liu, Karen

2008-01-01

337

Temporal Proof Methodologies for Timed Transition Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verificationframework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-time properties of reactivesystems. The abstract notion of timed transition systems generalizes traditional transition systemsconservatively: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitativelower-bound and upper-bound timing constraints on transitions. This framework can model realtimesystems that...

Thomas A. Henzinger; Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1994-01-01

338

The Transition Experiences of Successful Chinese Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focused on the transition experiences of 20 successful Chinese immigrants, in particular their transition stories and how they accounted for their success (what facilitated and hindered their transition). An enhanced critical incident method was used for data analysis. Four major success categories emerged: having a positive attitude…

Amundson, Norman E.; Yeung, Thomas; Sun, Iris; Chan, Keith; Cheng, Johnny

2011-01-01

339

The Declarative Language STR (State Transition Rule)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The declarative language STR (State Transition Rule) is proposed to describe service specifications and programs. Given that telecommunication service specifications can be represented in the form of a state transition diagram, STR describes conditions for state transitions in the form of a production rule. STR specifications, description examples, categories of feature interactions, examples of feature interactions, interaction detection method, and

T. Yoneda; T. Ohta

340

42 CFR 460.52 - Transitional care during termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Termination § 460.52 Transitional care during termination. ...writing about termination and transition procedures. (2) Assist...and Medicaid benefits. (3) Transition participants' care to other providers....

2009-10-01

341

42 CFR 460.52 - Transitional care during termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Termination § 460.52 Transitional care during termination. ...writing about termination and transition procedures. (2) Assist...and Medicaid benefits. (3) Transition participants' care to other providers....

2010-10-01

342

Dynamics of a Quantum Phase Transition  

SciTech Connect

We present two approaches to the dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in the quantum Ising model. One follows the standard treatment of thermodynamic second order phase transitions but applies it to the quantum phase transitions. The other approach is quantum, and uses Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in avoided level crossings. We show that predictions of the two approaches of how the density of defects scales with the quench rate are compatible, and discuss the ensuing insights into the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.

Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theory Division, LANL, MS-B213, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorner, Uwe [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zoller, Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2005-09-02

343

Work and quantum phase transitions: Quantum latency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models.

Mascarenhas, E.; Bragança, H.; Dorner, R.; França Santos, M.; Vedral, V.; Modi, K.; Goold, J.

2014-06-01

344

Disentangling dynamical phase transitions from equilibrium phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical phase transitions (DPTs) occur after quenching some global parameters in quantum systems, and are signalled by the nonanalytical time evolution of the dynamical free energy, which is calculated from the Loschmidt overlap between the initial and time evolved states. In a recent Letter [M. Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.135704], it was suggested that DPTs are closely related to equilibrium phase transitions (EPTs) for the transverse field Ising model. By studying a minimal model, the XY chain in a transverse magnetic field, we show analytically that this connection does not hold generally. We present examples where DPT occurs without crossing any equilibrium critical lines by the quench, and a nontrivial example with no DPT but crossing a critical line by the quench. Although the nonanalyticities of the dynamical free energy on the real time axis do not indicate the presence or absence of an EPT, the structure of Fisher lines for complex times reveals a qualitative difference.

Vajna, Szabolcs; Dóra, Balázs

2014-04-01

345

TERMS PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN TRANSITING EXOPLANETS  

SciTech Connect

The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zachary Gazak, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rabus, Markus, E-mail: diana@phas.ubc.ca [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2011-10-15

346

Imaging of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae.  

PubMed

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common finding in the general population. Their clinical significance is controversial with no consensus as to their relationship to low back pain or disc prolapse. However, on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they may be difficult to positively identify on sagittal sequences and can lead to confusion with respect to numbering of lumbar discs and vertebrae, with the consequent risk of surgical intervention at an inappropriate level. The imaging findings of LSTV on plain radiography and MRI are reviewed and their clinical significance discussed. PMID:15488846

Hughes, R J; Saifuddin, A

2004-11-01

347

Generalized Hawking Page phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of radiant spherical black holes being in stable thermal equilibrium with their radiation bath is reconsidered. Using a simple equilibrium statistical mechanical analysis incorporating Gaussian thermal fluctuations in a canonical ensemble of isolated horizons, the heat capacity is shown to diverge at a critical value of the classical mass of the isolated horizon, given (in Planckian units) by the microcanonical entropy calculated using loop quantum gravity. The analysis reproduces the Hawking Page phase transition discerned for anti-de Sitter black holes and generalizes it in the sense that nowhere is any classical metric made use of.

Majumdar, Parthasarathi

2007-04-01

348

Shim for sealing transition pieces  

DOEpatents

According to one aspect of the invention, a shim for sealing two adjacent turbine transition pieces is disclosed. The shim includes a circumferential member that includes a first lateral flange and a second lateral flange. Further, the first and second lateral flanges each comprise a tab configured to mate to a first surface plane and the first and second lateral flanges are configured to mate to a second surface plane, wherein the first and second surface planes are substantially parallel. In addition, the shim includes a first flange extending substantially perpendicular from the circumferential member.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Demiroglu, Mehmet (Troy, NY); Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-07-24

349

Low floor mass transit vehicle  

DOEpatents

A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

Emmons, J. Bruce (Beverly Hills, MI); Blessing, Leonard J. (Rochester, MI)

2004-02-03

350

Introduction to All-Hazards Preparedness for Transit Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prepared by the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Office of Safety and Security, An Introduction to All-Hazards Preparedness for Transit Agencies is part of FTAs technical assistant to transit agencies. All-hazards preparedness for transit agencies is...

2010-01-01

351

Synfuels and the energy transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various synfuel options and their impact on the electric utility industry are discussed. The energy transition for the U.S.A. is seen as moving from natural fluid fuels to solid fuels and renewable energy resources. The key to this transition is electrification, which can encompass both nuclear and renewable resources, centralized and dispersed technologies. It is shown that the fraction of total energy converted to electricity has risen steadily for the past 30 years, reaching 33% last year. The abundance and cost of production of the various fossil energy resources, including natural gas, heavy oil, oil shale, and coal are considered. EPRI analyses indicate that an integrated-combined-cycle power plant could be competitive with conventional coal plant technology. These plants would use only half the water of current coal-fired plants, would meet tighter sulfur emission standards, and would produce a vitreous ash that is less leachable than the ash from today's coal plants. Solvent-refined coal processes, currently being developed in the U.S.A. are a second approach to converting coal to liquid fuels. It is pointed out, however, that synfuels will complement, not replace, other sources of energy in the continued electrification of the U.S.A.

Balzhiser, R. E.

1981-08-01

352

Class Transitions in Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index ? (FE ? E-?) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from ? ˜ 0.5 to ˜ 1.5. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transitions. In this context, we use mostly the results of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) which observed GRS 1915+105 more regularly.

Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

2005-06-01

353

Depinning transition in layered superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration depth measurements in Bi_2.15Sr_1.85CaCu_2O_8+x (BSCCO) and Pr_1.85Ce_0.15CuO_4-x (PCCO) in fields up to 0.6 T and temperatures down to 0.9 K are reported. Below a depinning temperature T_dp ? 20 K (BSCCO) and T_dp ? 7 K (PCCO) the Campbell contribution to the penetration depth becomes hysteretic, depending upon nonequilibrirum (Bean) supercurrents in the system. For T > T_dp ( H ), the hysteresis vanishes, the Bean profile becomes flat and the Campbell length increases rapidly with temperature. Precisely the same behavior occurs in both materials. T_dp ( H ) is nearly vertical in the H-T plane and extrapolates to T/Tc ? 0.2 (BSCCO) and T/Tc ? 0.3 (PCCO) in zero field. We discuss the relationship of this transition to the variety of other phenomena that also converge near 15-20 K in BSCCO, including 2D vortex lattice melting, layer de-coupling, the glass transition, a proposed 0D to 1D pinning crossover, and possible changes in the superconducting order parameter. Supported by the Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity, NSF DMR 91-20000.

Giannetta, R. W.; Prozorov, R.; Tamegai, T.; Fournier, P.; Greene, R. L.; Guptasarma, P.; Hinks, D. G.

2000-03-01

354

Elaborating transition interface sampling methods  

SciTech Connect

We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

Erp, Titus S. van [Laboratoire de Physique/Centre Europeen de Calcul Atomique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)]. E-mail: tsvanerp@cecam.fr; Bolhuis, Peter G. [Van't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

2005-05-01

355

Transition energies of atomic lawrencium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition energies of the superheavy element lawrencium, including the ionization potential, excitation energies and electron affinities, are calculated by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method. A large basis set (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i) is used, as well as an extensive P space (6s5p4d2f1g). The outer 43 electrons are correlated. Accuracy is monitored by applying the same approach to lutetium, the lighter homologue of Lr, and comparing with experimentally known energies. QED corrections are included. The main goal is to predict excitation energies, in anticipation of planned spectroscopy of Lr. The ground state of Lr is 7s^27p ^2P1/2, unlike the 5d6s2 ^2D3/2 of Lu. Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20 000 30 000 cm-1, are 7p? 8s at 20 100 cm-1 and 7p? 7d at 28 100 cm-1. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm -1, and the error limits for Lr are put at 700 cm-1. The two electron affinities measured recently for Lu are reproduced within 55 cm-1, and a third bound state of Lu- is predicted.

Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kaldor, U.

2007-10-01

356

Simulation of quantum phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate simulation of phase transitions in quantum systems has become possible with the development of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms for quantum systems. The first such algorithm, the loop algorithm [H.G. Evertz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 875 (1993)], turned out to be as efficient as its classical counterpart, the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, but suffered from an exponential slow down in an external magnetic field. This problems was solved by the worm algorithm [N.V. Prokof'ev et al., Phys. Lett. A 238, 253 (1998)], which was recently combined with the stochastic series expansion (SSE) algorithm [A.W. Sandvik, Phys. Rev. B 59, R14157 (1999)]. I will review applications of these new algorithms to quantum magnets and bosonic systems and show that they allow high precision simulations of large quantum systems. Examples will include the low-temperature asymptotic scaling behavior of two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets, the critical behavior at quantum phase transitions in these systems, and quantitatve modeling of antiferromagnetic materials. In bosonic systems I will address some long standing problems, such as the existence of supersolids, and the melting of stripe phases. These examples show that today we can simulate quantum statistical systems with the same accuracy as classical systems, which enables the investigation of new universal behavior that has never been observed in classical systems.

Troyer, Matthias

2001-06-01

357

Nutrition transition and food sustainability.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

Belahsen, Rekia

2014-08-01

358

Chiral transition with magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses—taken as functions of the order parameter—can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants, and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic field and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, Luis Alberto; Mizher, Ana Júlia; Rojas, Juan Cristóbal; Villavicencio, Cristián

2014-06-01

359

Stellar Transits in Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 106 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ~10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

2013-01-01

360

STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

SciTech Connect

Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10{sup 6} solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or {approx}10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

Beky, Bence [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kocsis, Bence, E-mail: bbeky@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bkocsis@cfa.harvard.edu

2013-01-01

361

Transitions in endocrinology: treatment of Turner's syndrome during transition.  

PubMed

Transition in health care for young patients with Turner's syndrome (TS) should be perceived as a staged but uninterrupted process starting in adolescence and moving into adulthood. As a condition associated with high risk of short stature, cardiovascular diseases, ovarian failure, hearing loss and hypothyroidism, TS requires the attention of a multidisciplinary team. In this review paper, we systematically searched the relevant literature from the last decade to discuss the array of problems faced by TS patients and to outline their optimal management during the time of transfer to adult service. The literature search identified 233 potentially relevant articles of which 114 were analysed. The analysis confirmed that all medical problems present during childhood should also be followed in adult life. Additionally, screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and osteoporosis is needed. After discharge from the paediatric clinic, there is still a long way to go. PMID:24225028

Gawlik, Aneta; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

2014-02-01

362

Bus rapid transit identity: An overview of current branding practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal tax code allows employers to provide tax-free transit benefits to employees. Although transit benefits programs are commonly promoted as having advantages for transit agencies, such as increasing transit ridership and transit agency revenues, their effects and effectiveness are not well understood and need to be better assessed. This research is designed to help transit agencies, policy-makers, and organizations

Daniel Baldwin Hess; Alex Bitterman

2008-01-01

363

More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions  

SciTech Connect

We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.

Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2010-08-15

364

Phase transitions in lattices of magnetic dipoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal magnetic-dipole lattices containing three to six rows are investigated. Conditions of the excitation of phase transitions that change the orientation configuration of the system are revealed on the basis of a numerical analysis. The changes in the magnetic moment of the system and in the energy of dipole-dipole interaction upon the emergence of phase transitions are found. Both symmetric phase transitions propagating identically on the two sides of the lattice away from the excitation region and asymmetric phase transitions such in which the configurations of the system to the left and to the right of the excitation region are different are considered. Conditions under which there occur unidirectional phase transitions in which either the left-or the right-hand front of the phase transition propagates along the lattice are found.

Shutyi, A. M.

2014-03-01

365

Mixing and Transition Control Studied  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable progress in understanding nonlinear phenomena in both unbounded and wallbounded shear flow transition has been made through the use of a combination of high- Reynolds-number asymptotic and numerical methods. The objective of this continuing work is to fully understand the nonlinear dynamics so that ultimately (1) an effective means of mixing and transition control can be developed and (2) the source terms in the aeroacoustic noise problem can be modeled more accurately. Two important aspects of the work are that (1) the disturbances evolve from strictly linear instability waves on weakly nonparallel mean flows so that the proper upstream conditions are applied in the nonlinear or wave-interaction streamwise region and (2) the asymptotic formulations lead to parabolic problems so that the question of proper out-flow boundary conditions--still a research issue for direct numerical simulations of convectively unstable shear flows--does not arise. Composite expansion techniques are used to obtain solutions that account for both mean-flow-evolution and nonlinear effects. A previously derived theory for the amplitude evolution of a two-dimensional instability wave in an incompressible mixing layer (which is in quantitative agreement with available experimental data for the first nonlinear saturation stage for a plane-jet shear layer, a circular-jet shear layer, and a mixing layer behind a splitter plate) have been extended to include a wave-interaction stage with a three-dimensional subharmonic. The ultimate wave interaction effects can either give rise to explosive growth or an equilibrium solution, both of which are intimately associated with the nonlinear self-interaction of the three dimensional component. The extended theory is being evaluated numerically. In contrast to the mixing-layer situation, earlier comparisons of theoretical predictions based on asymptotic methods and experiments in wall-bounded shear-flow transition have been somewhat lacking in one aspect or another. The current work strongly suggests that the main weakness is the underlying asymptotic representation of the linear "part" of the problem and not the explicit modeling of the nonlinear/wave-interaction effects. Consequently, the long-wave-length/high-Reynolds-number asymptotic limit for the Blasius boundary-layer stability problem was reexamined, and a new dispersion relationship for the instability waves that is uniformly valid for both the upper- and lower branch regions to the required order of approximation was obtained. A comparison with numerical results, obtained by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld stability problem, shows that the asymptotic formula provides surprisingly good results, even for values of the frequency parameter usually encountered in experimental investigations. This is particularly evident in the dynamically important upper-branch region, where much of the nonlinear interactions in transition experiments are believed to take place. The result is important in that it can be used to greatly improve the accuracy of weakly nonlinear critical-layer-based theories, and a consistent nonlinear theory is currently under evaluation.

1996-01-01

366

Perpetual transitions in Romanian healthcare.  

PubMed

Although Romania has a long-lasting tradition in organized medical healthcare, in the last two decades the Romanian healthcare system has been undergoing a perpetual transition with negative effects on all parties involved. The lack of long-term strategic vision, the implementation of initiatives without any impact studies, hence the constant short-term approach from the policy makers, combined with the "inherited" low allocation from GDP to the healthcare system have contributed significantly to its current evolution. Currently, most measures taken are of the "fire-fighting" type, rather than looking to the broader, long time perspective. There should be no wonder then, that predictive and preventive services do not get the proper attention and support. Patient and physicians should step in and take action in regulating a system that was originally designed for them. But until this happens, the organizations with leadership skills and vision need to take action-and this has already started. PMID:23199172

Spiru, Luiza; Tra?cu, R?zvan Ioan; Turcu, Ileana; M?rzan, Mircea

2011-12-01

367

Chicago Transit Authority: Public Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) has long had an ambitious public art program. This handy 62-page guidebook provides interested parties and tourists with a complete listing of these works. Not surprisingly, the works are arranged by elevated line and by stop. The guide starts with providing information about works on the Brown Line, which is a great place to begin. It's a real treat to start with Josh Garber's "Hope and Renewal" which is located at the Kimball stop at the end of the Brown Line in the Albany Park community. Also, baseball fans won't want to miss the artworks located close to the train stations at Wrigley Field and US Cellular Field. The guide also includes an artist index and information about the gorgeous works at CTA headquarters in the city's Near West Side neighborhood.

368

Main ring transition crossing simulations  

SciTech Connect

We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for {bar p} production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

1990-10-01

369

Synthesis of transition metal carbonitrides  

SciTech Connect

Transition metal carbonitrides (in particular, titanium carbonitride, TiC.sub.0.5 N.sub.0.5) are synthesized by a self-propagating reaction between the metal (e.g., titanium) and carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. Complete conversion to the carbonitride phase is achieved with the addition of TiN as diluent and with a nitrogen pressure .gtoreq.0.6 MPa. Thermodynamic phase-stability calculations and experimental characterizations of quenched samples provided revealed that the mechanism of formation of the carbonitride is a two-step process. The first step involves the formation of the nonstoichiometric carbide, TiC.sub.0.5, and is followed by the formation of the product by the incorporation of nitrogen in the defect-structure carbide.

Munir, Zuhair A. R. (Davis, CA); Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam (Davis, CA)

1994-01-01

370

Refining Exoplanet Ephemerides and Transit Observing Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transiting planet discoveries have yielded a plethora of information\\u000aregarding the internal structure and atmospheres of extra-solar planets. These\\u000adiscoveries have been restricted to the low-periastron distance regime due to\\u000athe bias inherent in the geometric transit probability. Monitoring known radial\\u000avelocity planets at predicted transit times is a proven method of detecting\\u000atransits, and presents an avenue through which

Stephen R. Kane; Suvrath Mahadevan; Kaspar von Braun; Gregory Laughlin; David R. Ciardi

2009-01-01

371

Fragmentation phase transition in atomic clusters IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the micro-canonical ensemble it is well possible to identify phase-transitions in small systems. The consequences for the understanding of phase transitions in general are discussed by studying three realistic examples. We present micro-canonical calculations of the fragmentation phase transition in Na-, K-, and Fe- clusters of $N=$ 200 to 3000 atoms at a constant pressure of 1 atm. The

D. H. E. Gross; M. E. Madjet

1997-01-01

372

Transition dipole moments of the lithium dimer  

SciTech Connect

In addition to knowledge of interatomic adiabatic potential energy curves of diatomic systems, it is essential to know electronic transition dipole moments. They are needed in understanding processes like photodissociation, photoassociation, cooling, and trapping. Here, we present electronic transition dipole moments calculated for 74 allowed transitions between 26 states of Li{sub 2} [P. Jasik, J.E. Sienkiewicz, Chem. Phys. 323 (2006) 563]. In the asymptotic internuclear region our results reasonably agree with previously calculated and measured results.

Jasik, Patryk, E-mail: p.jasik@mif.pg.gda.pl; Sienkiewicz, Józef E., E-mail: jes@mif.pg.gda.pl

2013-03-15

373

Novel lumped-element uniplanar transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel reduced-size lumped-element uniplanar transitions are proposed, using the planar parallel and series inductor-capacitor (LC) circuits to realize the effective open and short circuits, respectively. In this study, various compact lumped-element coplanar waveguide-to-slotline and finite-ground coplanar waveguide-to-coplanar stripline transition structures are developed and carefully examined. Specifically, the performance of proposed basic lumped-element transitions can easily be adjusted through the control

Yo-Shen Lin; Chun Hsiung Chen

2001-01-01

374

Transition dipole moments of the lithium dimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to knowledge of interatomic adiabatic potential energy curves of diatomic systems, it is essential to know electronic transition dipole moments. They are needed in understanding processes like photodissociation, photoassociation, cooling, and trapping. Here, we present electronic transition dipole moments calculated for 74 allowed transitions between 26 states of Li2 [P. Jasik, J.E. Sienkiewicz, Chem. Phys. 323 (2006) 563]. In the asymptotic internuclear region our results reasonably agree with previously calculated and measured results.

Jasik, Patryk; Sienkiewicz, Józef E.

2013-03-01

375

Fine structure and resonance transitions in C(+)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant features in the collision strengths for electron-impact excitation of the fine-structure transition 2P0 1/2 - 2P0 3/2 and the resonance transition 2P0 - 2D in C(+) are discussed based on improved calculations. The former transition gives rise to a well-known (2,3) line in the infrared spectra of many astrophysical sources.

Blum, Robert D.; Pradhan, Anil K.

1991-01-01

376

Electrodynamic transition in solid armature railguns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important research problem for solid armature railguns is understanding the sudden transition from low-voltage sliding electrical contact between the rails and armature to high-voltage contact involving a plasma arc. Although an armature can fail in many ways and thereby “transition,” two distinct transition mechanisms currently limit the performance of solid armature electromagnetic (EM) launchers. One mechanism, broadly termed “wear-induced

F. Stefani; S. Levinson; S. Satapathy; J. Parker

2001-01-01

377

A Latent Transition Model With Logistic Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition\\u000a rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach\\u000a for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian approach via Markov chain Monte\\u000a Carlo (MCMC) is

Hwan Chung; Theodore A. Walls

2007-01-01

378

Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions  

SciTech Connect

A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

Li, Z. P.; Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Lalazissis, G. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece); Ring, P. [Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-08-26

379

The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences  

PubMed Central

This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth

Galor, Oded

2013-01-01

380

The BAST algorithm for transit detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The pioneer space mission for photometric exoplanet searches, CoRoT, steadily monitors about 12 000 stars in each of its fields of view. Transit detection algorithms are applied to derive promising planetary candidates, which are then followed-up with ground-based observations. Aims: We present BAST (Berlin Automatic Search for Transits), a new algorithm for periodic transit detection, and test it on

S. Renner; H. Rauer; A. Erikson; P. Hedelt; P. Kabath; R. Titz; H. Voss

2008-01-01

381

Exoplanet Transit Search at Dome C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the potential impact of a photometric search for transiting exoplanets from Dome C. In the past year, four new transiting exoplanets have been found by ground-based surveys, including three detected by our follow-up of OGLE transit candidates with FLAMES\\/UVES on the VLT. Based on the experience of this survey, we have built a simulation to predict the expected

F. Pont; F. Bouchy

2005-01-01

382

Stochastic individual predicate\\/transition nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the drawbacks of generally distributed time transition stochastic Petri nets (GDTT_SPN) in evaluating the performance\\u000a of parallel systems, and propose a more general model, stochastic individual predicate\\/transition nets (SIPTN). SIPTN has\\u000a higher modeling power and could provide more realistic models compared to GDTT_SPN, because in SIPTN the sojourn time distribution\\u000a is determined not only by the transition, but

Yao Yue; Chun-ming Zhang; Hai-xin Wang; Guo-qiang Bai; Hong-yi Chen

2009-01-01

383

Transition from residency training to academia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxious and depressive reactions during transitions from psychiatry residency to career settings have been reported. The authors describe difficulties encountered in their transition from psychiatry residency to academic psychiatry within the same program. Four stages of transition are described: Termination—a time of separation and grief over losses; Adjustment—a time of ambivalence and uncertainty; Identity Formation—a time of increased productivity and

John Misiaszek; Rebecca L. Potter

1984-01-01

384

Mass Transit Living Lab: Improve the System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students go through the process of identifying possible solutions to the design problems that the existing west corridor transit system faces. Students combine what they have learned from the three previous activities to come up with possible solutions to the design problems faced by the system. This activity requires the use of the Mass Transit Living Labâa web portal to interactive train (transit) traffic data for a major metropolitan city.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

385

Picking the right transition strategy.  

PubMed

Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves. PMID:19227407

Watkins, Michael D

2009-01-01

386

No Transit Timing Variations in WASP-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or RP /R sstarf. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Schwartz, M.; Cúneo, V.; Martínez, C.; Gómez, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

2013-12-01

387

Transition manager is liaison between teams.  

PubMed

At University of Utah Health Care, a transition case manager acts as a liaison between the outpatient care team at community clinics and the inpatient care team. The transition navigator works with case managers at the hospital and the clinics to make sure both have the information they need to coordinate care for the patient. The transition navigator visits patients in the hospital and works with the unit case manager to make sure the discharge plan will work. To further smooth transitions, the patients receive a one-page sheet that summarizes their discharge instructions, follow-up appointments, and medication regimen. PMID:25065104

2014-08-01

388

Transitions between patterns in thermal convection  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental studies of the transitions between conduction, hexagons, and rolls in non-Boussinesq convection of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a cylindrical cell of radius-to-height ratio 86. Except for the transition from conduction to hexagons, transitions occur when the two states involved have nearly the same value of a generalized potential rather than at the stability limits. Conduction gives way to hexagons via the propagation of a front connecting the two states, while the transitions between hexagons and rolls are facilitated at the cell walls which appear to nucleate the minority state.

Bodenschatz, E.; de Bruyn, J.R.; Ahlers, G.; Cannell, D.S. (Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California (USA) Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1991-11-25

389

Granular collapse as a percolation transition.  

PubMed

Inelastic collapse is found in a two-dimensional system of inelastic hard disks confined between two walls which act as an energy source. As the coefficient of restitution is lowered, there is a transition between a state containing small collapsed clusters and a state dominated by a large collapsed cluster. The transition is analogous to that of a percolation transition. At the transition the number of clusters n(s) of size s scales as n(s) approximately s(-tau) with tau approximately equal to 2.7. PMID:11970654

Tobochnik, J

1999-12-01

390

Transit station energy impacts. Research report (Interim)  

SciTech Connect

Transit trips-when compared with automobile travel-not only relieve congestion, but also offer considerable energy savings per person. Transit trips also affect land use and development patterns that surround a transit station. In the report, a methodology will be developed to estimate the energy savings associated with land use changes in the station areas. Since changes in land use and development in a station area are partially dependent on the type of service offered (rail versus bus rapid, for example), a classification system will be developed for different types of transit stations, a system based on the land use and development changes that occur within the station's zone of influence.

Coleman, P.; Euritt, M.; Walton, C.M.

1992-12-01

391

Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

2010-12-01

392

Dynamics of stimulated L ? H transitions  

SciTech Connect

We report on model studies of stimulated L ? H transitions [K. Miki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 195002 (2013)]. These studies use a reduced mesoscale model. Model studies reveal that L ? H transition can be triggered by particle injection into a subcritical state (i.e., Ptransition. For low ambient heating, strong injection is predicted to trigger a transient turbulence collapse. Repetitive injection at a period less than the lifetime of the collapsed state can thus maintain the turbulence collapse and so sustain a driven H-mode-like state. The total number of particles required to induce a transition by either injection or gas puffing is estimated. Results indicate that the total number of injected particles required is much smaller than that required for a transition by gas puffing. We thus show that internal injection is more efficient than gas puffing of comparable strength. We also observe that zonal flows do not play a critical role in stimulated transitions. For spontaneous transitions, the spike of the Reynolds work of turbulence on the zonal flow precedes the spike in the mean electric field shear. In contrast, we show that the two are coincident for stimulated transitions, suggesting that there is no causal link between zonal and mean flows for stimulated transitions.

Miki, K. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Diamond, P. H.; Xiao, W. W. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Hahn, S.-H. [KSTAR Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [KSTAR Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Gürcan, Ö. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 92118 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 92118 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)] [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2013-08-15

393

Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

2011-11-01

394

The Helix Coil Transition of DNA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This transition, observed with an inexpensive ultraviolet photometer, is a potentially useful experiment for an advanced freshman class because it introduces several concepts of general physical interest. (DF)

Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce

1973-01-01

395

Liquid-glass transition in equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show in numerical simulations that a system of two coupled replicas of a binary mixture of hard spheres undergoes a phase transition in equilibrium at a density slightly smaller than the glass transition density for an unreplicated system. This result is in agreement with the theories that predict that such a transition is a precursor of the standard ideal glass transition. The critical properties are compatible with those of an Ising system. The relations of this approach to the conventional approach based on configurational entropy are briefly discussed.

Parisi, G.; Seoane, B.

2014-02-01

396

Transition probability studies in 175Au  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms of available systematics as a function of atomic number and aligned angular momentum.

Grahn, T.; Watkins, H.; Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Carroll, R. J.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hackstein, M.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Köll, Th; Krücken, R.; Labiche, M.; Leino, M.; Lumley, N.; Maierbeck, P.; Nyman, M.; Nieminen, P.; O'Donnell, D.; Ollier, J.; Pakarinen, J.; Peura, P.; Pissulla, Th; Rahkila, P.; Revill, J. P.; Rother, W.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Rigby, S. V.; Sarén, J.; Sapple, P. J.; Scheck, M.; Scholey, C.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Venhart, M.

2013-03-01

397

Millennial & Mobility: Understanding the Millennial Mindset and New Opportunities for Transit Providers. Transit Cooperative Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Millennials and Mobility: Understanding the Millennial Mindset and New Opportunities for Transit Providers is designed to help public transit providers increase ridership by better understanding Millennials lifestyle and mobility decision-making processes...

N. Sakaria N. Stehfest

2013-01-01

398

Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 46: Diversity Training Initiatives. A Synthesis of Transit Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transit agencies all over America are increasingly recognizing the importance of diversity within their workplaces and the communities they serve. Transits customers and employees tend to reflect the different lifestyles, mobility needs, cultural backgrou...

2003-01-01

399

Developing transit availability measures and an index of transit service availability. Research report  

SciTech Connect

This study involved the development of an index of transit service availability (ITSA). This index utilizes the factors which most effectively quantify the availability of public transit service (both bus and rail) in an urban area at a macroscopic planning level. The development of the index consisted of applying over 30 prospective measures of transit service availability of 228 urban area transit systems in the United States. The index utilizes three specific measures which quantify transit service coverage, frequency of transit service, and transit system capacity. The index developed in this study is designed to serve as a planning tool -- it is not intended for use in assessing transit system efficiency and/or performance.

Henk, R.H.; Hubbard, S.M.; Lomax, T.J.; Shunk, G.A.

1995-07-01

400

Looking forward to transition: perspectives on transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim This study aimed to prospectively investigate transition beliefs, knowledge and needs of pediatric patients with diabetes and their parents. Patients & methods Parallel youth and parent questionnaires evaluating the transition process were distributed over a 6-month time period. Respondents included 123 pediatric patients with diabetes (11–19 years old) and their parents. Results Few families had discussed the transition of diabetes care (?25%). Most had not established a transition plan (?90%). Youth and parents agreed that seeing the doctor alone, discussions about transition and transition itself should occur at 17–18 years of age. Conclusion Youth with diabetes and their parents are not prepared for transition to adult care. Transition discussions should begin at an earlier age. Additional research is needed to learn how and when to begin these discussions.

Raymond, Jennifer K; Duke, Danny C; Shimomaeda, Lisa; Harris, Michael A

2013-01-01

401

e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation. Volume 4: Advanced Features of Transit Websites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TCRP Report 84 is being be published as multiple volumes. Volume 4: Advanced Features of Transit Websites explores the potential of the following advanced website features for the transit industry: automated itinerary planners, real-time customer informat...

2003-01-01

402

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In early 2007, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) published a preliminary evaluation results report (April through November 2006) on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in Oaklan...

K. Chandler L. Eudy

2007-01-01

403

An Optimal Transit Path Algorithm Based on the Terminal Walking Time Judgment and Multimode Transit Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal transit path needs to be re-recognized and analyzed in the multi-mode transit system. This paper constructs the transit network data model of multi-mode and multi-property using the function of space analyzing of GIS, and establish the general impedance function considering the impact of reasonable terminal walking range, transfer time, and transit schedule for the trip path, and presents

Zhu Shunying; Yan Yongfei; Wang Hong; Li Shangbin

2010-01-01

404

Easing the Transition to School: Administrators' Descriptions of Transition to School Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the early childhood transition activities of three schools in southern Queensland, Australia, as reported by school administrators. The transition programs were analysed using the categories of the Transition to School Matrix of the New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education. Activities fell into the first four categories…

Noel, Andrea

2011-01-01

405

Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 154.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process and detailed guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhanci...

A. T. Stoddard D. Sampson J. Cahoon P. Schauer R. Hall

2012-01-01

406

Evaluation of Transit Signal Priority and Optimal Signal Timing Plans in Transit and Traffic Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transit signal priority (TSP) systems have been in place for several years. Traffic simulation models are frequently applied to evaluate the benefits of such treatments before implementation. These benefits can take several forms, including reduced travel time for transit customers, improved schedule adherence, and reduced operating costs for the transit provider. This paper reports a case study that highlighted and

Satyanarayana Muthuswamy; William R. McShane; Janice R. Daniel

2007-01-01

407

Project STEPS: Assessment of Current Transition Practices and Transition System Development Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of forms is part of Project STEPS (Sequenced Transition to Education in the Public Schools). They are intended to assist communities develop and use a formalized process for assessing the current status of transition within their community and for interagency planning related to the development of a community-wide transition team. The…

Rous, Beth

408

Transition from School to Life: A Workshop Series for Educators and Transition Service Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers six one-day workshops intended to help state, regional, and local organizations develop the knowledge and skills of educators and others providing transition services to young people with disabilities. Workshop content is based on the "Taxonomy for Transition Programming," a model of effective transition practices based on…

Kohler, Paula D.; Field, Sharon; Izzo, Margo; Johnson, John

409

[Local health systems: a transition of the organized social response].  

PubMed

This paper discusses the transition of the organized social response in health with emphasis on local health systems. After reviewing a few basic definitions (health system, local health system, health care system, institutional system of health services), the author discusses the health transition (transition of the concept health-disease, technological transition, epidemiological transition, demographic transition, health care system transition) and the importance attributed to local health systems in Mexico. PMID:1805390

Gutiérrez, G

1991-01-01

410

Modelling accretion in transitional disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars that display inner holes in the dust distribution within a few au that are accompanied by some gas accretion onto the central star. These cavities could possibly be created by the presence of one or more massive planets that opened a large gap or even cleared the whole inner region. Aims: If the gap is created by planets and gas is still present in it, then there should be a flow of gas past the planet into the inner region. It is our goal to study in detail the mass accretion rate into this planet-created gap in transitional disks and in particular the dependency on the planet's mass and the thermodynamic properties of the disk. Methods: We performed 2D hydrodynamical simulations using the grid-based FARGO code for disks with embedded planets. We added radiative cooling from the disk surfaces, radiative diffusion in the disk midplane, and stellar irradiation to the energy equation to have more realistic models. Results: The mass flow rate into the gap region depends, for given disk thermodynamics, non-monotonically on the mass of the planet. Generally, more massive planets open wider and deeper gaps which would tend to reduce the mass accretion into the inner cavity. However, for larger mass planets the outer disk becomes eccentric and the mass flow rate is enhanced over the low mass cases. As a result, for the isothermal disks the mass flow is always comparable to the expected mass flow of unperturbed disks ?d, while for more realistic radiative disks the mass flow is very small for low mass planets (?4 Mjup) and about 50% of ?d for larger planet masses. The critical planet mass that allows the disk to become eccentric is much larger for radiative disks than for purely isothermal cases. Conclusions: Massive embedded planets can reduce the mass flow across the gap considerably, to values of about an order of magnitude smaller than the standard disk accretion rate, and can be responsible for opening large cavities. The remaining mass flow into the central cavity is in good agreement with the observations.

Müller, Tobias W. A.; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-12-01

411

HD209458b Transit Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for the spectral signature of H2O, CH4, and CO on the extrasolar planet HD 209458b using transit spectroscopy. The planet will modulate the stellar spectrum during transit. The extinction altitude of tangent rays of a given wavelength depends on the abundance and distribution of molecular species that absorb at that wavelength. The depth of the occultation at a given wavelength depends on the cross-sectional area of the planet, which is determined by the extinction altitude. For deep lines of H2O, CH4, and CO, the effect is about 0.07%, due to the ~750 km scale height. Our S/N calculations show that well-calibrated, ground-based spectra, integrated over time and wavelength, can measure or place useful limits on the atmospheric abundances of H2O, CH4, and CO. Carbon forms predominantly CH4 below 1400 K and CO if hotter. Since the effective temperature is around 1400 K, detecting CH4 and/or CO would provide a tight constraint on atmospheric temperatures. Observations began in August 2001 at Palomar and we have 12 additional nights granted in 2002 at Keck, VLT, and IRTF. The expected modulation of the stellar spectrum is model-dependent: high-altitude hazes, photochemical effects, and different thermal profiles would substantially modify the effect for the same planetary elemental abundances. Since the effect is subtle compared to the noise in the data, we correlate model spectra against thousands of observed spectra and average the correlations to test whether the data support a given model. We are developing a radiative-transfer model to predict the spectrum of a given planetary model, and we are measuring H2O, CH4, and CO in the laboratory at 1300 K, with pressure-broadening by H2, to make our model spectra realistic at these elevated temperatures (crucial for detecting H2O). Analysis of the 2001 data and acquisition of 2002 data are in progress. We solicit participation by those who wish to test their planetary models.

Harrington, J.; Deming, L. D.; Matthews, K.; Richardson, L. J.; Rojo, P.; Steyert, D.; Wiedemann, G.; Zeehandelaar, D.

2002-09-01

412

Old age security in transitional economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) are undertaking their second great social experiment of the century: the transition from authoritarian central planning to a market economy. One of the many problems they face during the transition is what to do with their pension systems. Their problems are more complex than countries elsewhere at the same

Louise Fox

1994-01-01

413

Topology and Phase Transitions I. Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first paper, we demonstrate a theorem that establishes a first step toward proving a necessary topological condition for the occurrence of first or second order phase transitions: we prove that the topology of certain submanifolds of configuration space must necessarily change at the phase transition point. The theorem applies to smooth, finite-range and confining potentials V bounded below,

Roberto Franzosi; Marco Pettini; Lionel Spinelli

2005-01-01

414

QCD Phase Transition in Dgp Brane Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard picture of cosmology it is predicted that a phase transition, associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, has occurred at approximately 10? seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons. We consider the quark-hadron phase transition in a Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) brane world scenario within an effective model of QCD. We study the evolution of the physical quantities useful for the study of the early universe, namely, the energy density, temperature and the scale factor before, during and after the phase transition. Also, due to the high energy density in the early universe, we consider the quadratic energy density term that appears in the Friedmann equation. In DGP brane models such a term corresponds to the negative branch (? = -1) of the Friedmann equation when the Hubble radius is much smaller than the crossover length in 4D and 5D regimes. We show that for different values of the cosmological constant on a brane, ?, phase transition occurs and results in decreasing the effective temperature of the quark-gluon plasma and of the hadronic fluid. We then consider the quark-hadron transition in the smooth crossover regime at high and low temperatures and show that such a transition occurs along with decreasing the effective temperature of the quark-gluon plasma during the process of the phase transition.

Atazadeh, K.; Ghezelbash, A. M.; Sepangi, H. R.

2012-08-01

415

Changes and Exchanges in Marginal Youth Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While some groups of young people may negotiate successful transitions to work, others are unable or unlikely to do so. The concept of "fair exchange" is pertinent to understanding youth transitions in their formative stages through educational experiences. Patterns of disrupted education challenge the education-work nexus not only because failure…

Bottrell, Dorothy; Armstrong, Derrick

2007-01-01

416

Introduction to Public Finance and Public Transit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a comprehensive description of the elements of public finance, particularly as they relate to public transit issues. The report is intended to serve as a primer for the staff of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and staff of tra...

1993-01-01

417

Kindergarten Teachers and Classrooms: A Transition Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes demographic and structural features of kindergarten classrooms using data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Transition Practices Survey of kindergarten teachers. Explores teachers' education and experience, and their training on facilitating transitions to kindergarten. Also discusses teacher and student…

Early, Diane M.; Cox, Martha J.; Pianta, Robert C.

1999-01-01

418

Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

2012-01-01

419

HD 209458b Transit Spectroscopy Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We search for the spectral signature of H2O, CH4, and CO on the extrasolar planet HD 209458b using transit spectroscopy. The planet will modulate the stellar spectrum during transit. The extinction altitude of tangent rays of a given wavelength depends on the abundance and distribution of molecular species that absorb at that wavelength. The depth of the occultation at a

J. Harrington; D. Deming; K. Matthews; L. J. Richardson; P. Rojo; D. Steyert; G. Wiedemann; D. Zeehandelaar

2002-01-01

420

Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…

Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

421

Student Involvement in Transition Planning: Unheard Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of eight students with moderate to severe disabilities investigated the nature of their involvement in transition planning during their final year of high school. Teachers and parents made little investment in preparing students for their transition planning meetings, and none were active participants with designated roles. (Contains…

Thoma, Colleen A.; Rogan, Pat; Baker, Steven R.

2001-01-01

422

Middle Grades Transition Programs around the Globe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitions into and out of the middle grades can be challenging for many reasons. Students need to acclimate to new policies, practices, and buildings; teachers require accurate data about their new students' capacities; and families must navigate relationships with new personnel. All school transitions present different and, at times, puzzling…

Andrews, Colin; Bishop, Penny

2012-01-01

423

Method for dry etching of transition metals  

DOEpatents

A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

1998-09-29

424

Method for dry etching of transition metals  

DOEpatents

A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

425

The brittle-ductile transition in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical studies of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) of precracked single crystals of silicon are discussed. For a given strain-rate the temperature Tc at which the BDT occurs varies by up to 250 K for similar materials but different test geometries. However, for a given material and geometry the transition is always very sharp (?Tc < 5K) and the

P. B. Hirsch; S. G. Roberts

1991-01-01

426

The clinical significance of lumbosacral transitional anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are common congenital anomalies of the human spine. In LSTV, either the fifth lumbar vertebra may show assimilation to the sacrum (sacralisation), or the first sacral vertebra may show transition to a lumbar con- figuration (lumbarisation). Although the condition has an incidence of over 12% in the general popula- tion, knowledge about the exact clinical implications

Johannes L. BRON; Barend J. VAN ROYEN; Paul I. J. M. WUISMAN

2007-01-01

427

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra: clinical and forensic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of skeletal remains is one of the classic problems faced by forensic experts. Congenital and acquired malformations can prove to be an important tool for identification, provided antemortem records are available. A lumbosacral transitional vertebra is one such rare congenital anomaly that has clinical and medicolegal implications. We report a case of unilateral lumbosacral transitional vertebra, detected during

Kanchan T; Shetty M; Nagesh K R

428

Boolean Matrix Multiplication and Transitive Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arithmetic operations on matrices are applied to the problem of finding the transitive closure of a Boolean matrix. The best transitive closure algorithm known, due to Munro, is based on the matrix multiplication method of Strassen. We show that his method requires at most O(n? ¿ P(n)) bitwise operations, where ? = log27 and P(n) bounds the number of bitwise

Michael J. Fischer; Albert R. Meyer

1971-01-01

429

Presidential Transitions: Planning the Last Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presidential transitions can be difficult, but they are also unavoidable. As a member of two corporate boards, the author has observed several highly public and successful CEO transitions. To help guide outgoing presidents and campus communities away from the past and toward the future, the author offers some advice based on her own recent…

Bullock, Mary Brown

2007-01-01

430

Transitions and the Development of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationships between the development of expertise and transitions. It sets out what we know about the development of expertise, changes in the brain as expertise develops, and how transitions between different learning contexts and the challenges that they present may impact on developing expertise. It sets out a series of…

Hallam, Susan

2010-01-01

431

Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the equation of state of nuclear matter strongly suggest the existence of a liquid-gas phase transition. However, how sharp the transition will appear in finite nuclei, and what the experimental signatures will be are questions which evoke considerable debate. The current status of these issues, particularly the experimental signature ambiguities, is reviewed here.

Boal, D.H.

1984-11-15

432

Improved transition probabilities for Mn II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Accurate transition probabilities are of fundamental importance for plasma diagnostics. However the knowledge of atomic data is still unsatisfactory for many elements. Especially for Mn II experimental f-values, determined from arc and spark discharges, show big discrepancies with calculations. Therefore we started a new project for an independent measurement of transition probabilities. Fourier Transform spectroscopy has

R. Kling; U. Greismann

1999-01-01

433

Evaluation of Barry County Transit Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first phase of this study, software packages for routing and scheduling demand actuated transit systems were compared. The software package selected was then installed in the Barry County (Michigan) Transit system. This phase of this study was an e...

W. C. Taylor J. T. Lee

1993-01-01

434

Skills constraints and the low carbon transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving a successful transition to a low carbon economy, in the UK and other countries, will require sufficient people with appropriate qualifications and skills to manufacture, install, and operate the low carbon technologies and approaches. The actual numbers and types of skills required are uncertain and will depend on the speed and direction of the transition pathways, but there are

Nick Jagger; Tim Foxon; Andy Gouldson

2012-01-01

435

PPT: The Preschool Preparation and Transition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Hawaii Department of Special Education conducted the Preschool Preparation and Transition Project, a federally funded demonstration program, to support families and their children with special needs in the transition from infant programs to least restrictive preschool placements. The program addressed this goal through three…

Noonan, Mary Jo; Ratokalau, Nancy B.

1992-01-01

436

Transition to Kindergarten: Family Experiences and Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition to kindergarten is an important developmental milestone for young children, their families, and teachers. Preparing students for successful kindergarten transition has been identified as a national priority, yet the degree to which parents are involved in kindergarten preparation is rarely considered. This study investigated the…

McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Wildenger, Leah K.

2007-01-01

437

Informing Transitions in the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

2006-01-01

438

Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

Zittoun, Tania

2008-01-01

439

An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Design: Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. Results and conclusions: The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change

Hossein Ghassemi; Gail Harrison; Kazem Mohammad

2002-01-01

440

The menopausal transition: characteristics and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The menopausal transition is a complex period in a woman's life, reflecting ovarian ageing and concomitant hormonal changes, in addition to social and metabolic changes. These changes, in turn, influence the signs and symptoms common to this period. Symptoms which are influenced by the hormonal fluctuations occurring during the menopausal transition include vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness; others are breast

Nanette Santoro

2003-01-01

441

Career transitions in sport: European perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose. The concept of transitions has, during the past decade, become a well-delineated topic of study among the sport psychology community. This introductory article provides an overview of the major developments within this thematic field of research, as well as a description of interventions used with athletes in transition. Avenues for further research and developments are proposed.Methods. Literature

P. Wylleman; D. Alfermann; D. Lavallee

2004-01-01

442

Bus Semirapid Transit Mode Development and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With little investment required for operating in streets, bus services are often designed to serve many overlapping routes with frequent stops. To upgrade services and attract choice riders, major bus routes should be provided with exclusive lanes, preferential signals, and fewer but more distinct stops. The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program is aimed at upgrading bus

Vukan R. Vuchic

443

The demand performance of bus rapid transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a trip attribute approach to examine the relative passenger attractiveness of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems compared to other transit modes. It examines how passengers value trip attributes for on-street bus, BRT, and light rail and heavy rail systems in passenger behavior research. Empirical data is presented which suggests that passengers value trip attributes for BRT and

Graham Currie

2005-01-01

444

TRIP COSTS ANALYSIS OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus rapid transit (BRT) is a kind of public transportation with the characteristics of high quality as rail system and flexibility as bus operation. The development of BRT system is a cost-effective approach to improve traffic congestion and promote public transit without increasing financial burdens. In this study, we established trip cost models in the view points of social cost

Shyue-Koong Chang; Yu-Jian Guo

2005-01-01

445

Energy implications of fixed rail mass transit  

SciTech Connect

Major studies on whether mass transit actually saves energy are reviewed. A possible petroleum conservation strategy that focusses on future urban and regional development is then identified. A number of U.S. cities are considered to be prime candidates for rail transit systems for the purpose of energy conservation. 30 refs.

Pikarsky, M.

1981-01-01

446

Transition prediction using three dimensional stability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several methods of transition prediction by linear stability analysis are compared. The spectral stability analysis code SALLY is used to analyze flows over laminar flow control wings. It is shown that transition by the envelope method and a new modified wave packet method are comparable in reliability but that the envelope method is more efficient computationally.

Malik, M. R.

1980-01-01

447

Electroweak phase transition in nearly conformal technicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory used to describe minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify significant regions of

James M. Cline; Matti Järvinen; Francesco Sannino

2008-01-01

448

Venus' Transit of 1874 Observed in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus' transit across the solar disk in 1874 was observed in Romania, too. We present the Romanian (Neculai Culianu and ?efan Micle) and Austrian (Theodor von Oppolzer and Edmund Weiss) personalities who observed the transit, as well as the event as seen from Jassy.

Stavinschi, Magda

449

Measuring the Success of Warrior Transition Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 2007, the U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) established the first Warrior Transition Unit (WTU) to facilitate improvements in care for the Army's wounded, ill and injured Soldiers. Since then, 35 WTUs and nine Community Based Warrior Transition ...

S. K. Shaw

2009-01-01

450

Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane a...

D. Thurman P. Poinsatte S. Hippensteele

2008-01-01

451

Enterprise architecture: agile transition and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous articles, we made the case for having an enterprise architecture and discussed the first phases of an architecture development process. The second article concentrated on describing the baseline architecture and defining the target architecture. We complete our discussion of the methodology by focusing on transition and implementation planning. Transition planning focuses on deriving a time-phased set of

F. J. Armour; S. H. Kaisler

2001-01-01

452

Returning Home: The Oregon Transition Support Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the Oregon Transition Support Initiative, an ongoing research and implementation project that prevents recidivism by helping stakeholders help incarcerated youth return to their communities. Discusses the transition process as the working relationships that together accomplish the common goal of seeing that youth offenders learn the life…

Gilham, Cathy Ann; McArthur, Patrick

1999-01-01

453

Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

Elizabeth Brainerd

1998-01-01

454

Phase Transitions in Thin Block Copolymer Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Turnbull's experiments and theoretical insights paved the way for much of our modern understanding of phase transitions in materials. In recognition of his contributions, this lecture will concentrate on phase transitions in a material system not considered by Turnbull, thin diblock copolymer films. Well-ordered block copolymer films are attracting increasing interest as we attempt to extend photolithography to smaller

Edward J

2010-01-01

455

Pairing phase transitions in nuclear wave functions  

SciTech Connect

The exact solution of the nuclear shell model is used for studying the phase transition from superfluid to normal Fermi-liquid as a function of the pairing strength, excitation energy (or temperature), nuclear spin and the presence of other types of residual interactions. The phase transition in a finite system is seen through the change of properties of individual wave functions.

Horoi, Mihai [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Zelevinsky, Vladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States)

2007-05-15

456

Launching Students into Their Decade of Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 2007 edition of "Diplomas Count", "Education Week" reported that nationally more than one-third of the students lost from the high school pipeline fail to make the transition from the ninth to the 10th grade. This explains why, for more than two decades, schools and districts across the country have struggled to develop freshman transition…

Dedmond, Rebecca M.

2008-01-01

457

Observations on the martensitic transition in sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of neutron scattering measurements on sodium near the martensitic transition at 36K, large single crystals were subjected to transformation cycles. On three occasions the original BCC orientation completely disappeared when the partially transformed crystal went through the reverse transition, and large grains (in one case a new excellent single crystal) with different orientations appeared. Analysis of relative

R. Stedman

1976-01-01

458

Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

2008-01-01

459

A Conceptual Model for Leadership Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a model of leadership transition based on an integrative review of literature. The article establishes a compelling case for focusing on leadership transitions as an area for study and leadership development practitioner intervention. The proposed model in this study identifies important success factors…

Manderscheid, Steven V.; Ardichvili, Alexandre

2008-01-01

460

Transition and attrition: a sociological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student transition to university is a milestone for most people seeking a higher education. The range of environments from which prospective students emerge to engage in study at university is as diverse as the student population. Yet the ideal of a 'seamless' transition to higher education is conditioned by mediating social, cultural, and political factors, in addition to those of

Hossein Adibi; Dave Lawson

2005-01-01

461

Transiting Exoplanet Observations at Grinnell College  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grinnell College, a small liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa with 1600 undergraduate students, is home to the Grant O. Gale Observatory. Over the past year, we have successfully detected extrasolar planets using the transit method with our 24-inch Cassegrain reflecting telescope equipped with a CCD camera. With little light pollution and an easily accessible observatory, Grinnell College is an optimal location for transiting exoplanet observations. With the current telescope set-up and CCD camera, we have taken time series data and created image calibration and post-processing programs that detect exoplanet transits at high photometric precision. In the future, we will continue to use these observation and data reduction procedures to conduct transiting exoplanet research. Goals for our research program include performing follow-up observations of transiting exoplanet candidates to confirm their planetary nature, searching for additional exoplanets in known planetary systems using the transit timing detection method, tracking long period transiting planets, and refining properties of exoplanets and their host stars. Ground-based transiting planet science is especially important in the post-Kepler era, and our dedicated mid-sized telescope with plenty of access to dark clear nights provides an ideal resource for a variety of follow up and exoplanet detection efforts.

Sauerhaft, Julia; Slough, P.; Cale, B.; Kempton, E.

2014-01-01

462

Transition Revisited: Are We Moving Forward?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project UNITE (Unified Intercommunity Transition and Empowerment for Youth and Young Adults with Disabilities) is a federally funded transition systems change grant in Virginia which attempts to integrate services among educational systems, human service agencies, communities, families, and consumers with disabilities who are involved in…

Asselin, Susan B.

463

Structure and Agency in Transition Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the results of transition studies in the UK, Germany, USA and Canada, the virtues of analysing the structural contexts, institutional arrangements and the young peoples' action orientations are presented. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, school and the labour market have become more and more decoupled and transition routes…

Heinz, Walter R.

2009-01-01

464

Financial Management for Transit: A Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is primarily intended to serve as a primer for transit system managers who have not had any formal financial education through college classes, professional development programs, or extensive on-the-job programs. The following topics are covered: financial planning techniques for transit (beginning the financial planning process,…

Heaselden, Mark; And Others

465

The signature of a black hole transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A black hole transiting a companion star in a binary system will produce a time-varying intensity profile as observed at the Earth because of the Einstein photometric effect (gravitational lens phenomenon). If the transited star is an early-type supergiant with electron scattering as its dominant atmospheric opacity source, then variable linear polarization will also result from the destruction of the

Joseph F. Dolan

1989-01-01

466

Transit bus operation with methanol fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

American and European technology is being used to demonstrate the suitability of neat methanol as a fuel for transit buses. The project is sponsored by the California Energy Commission (CEC), and transit buses are being operated by the golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGTD). Project management and bus testing are performed by Acurex Corporation. Test data are being

M. D. Jackson; S. Unnasch; C. Sullivan

1985-01-01

467

Transit bus operation with methanol fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

American and European technology is being used to demonstrate the suitability of neat methanol as a fuel for transit buses. The project is sponsored by the California Energy Commission (CEC), and transit buses are being operated by the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGTD). Project management and bus testing are performed by Acurex Corporation. Test data are being

M. D. Jackson; S. Unnasch; C. Sullivan; R. A. Renner

1985-01-01

468

39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION...DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal...

2010-07-01

469

Kinetics of conformational transitions in chain molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is developed for the rate of conformational transitions (trans-->gauche) of bonds in chain molecules, such as alkanes and polymers. This is a multidimensional extension of Kramers' reaction rate theory. Central to the understanding of how changes in the chain's geometry affect transition rate is the determination and examination of the reaction coordinate. The reaction coordinate is a localized

Jeffrey Skolnick; Eugene Helfand

1980-01-01

470

Transition detection studies in the cryogenic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boundary-layer transition detection studies were carried out in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a supercritical airfoil, using an infrared imaging system. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of the temperature range in which commercially available IR systems can detect transition in cryogenic environment. The experiment was designed to take advantage of a combination of

Ehud Gartenberg; William G. Johnson Jr.; Charles B. Johnson; Debra L. Carraway; Robert E. Wright

1990-01-01

471

Demographic life transitions: an alternative theoretical paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event history analyses, while useful, have limited explanatory power in relation to demographic life transitions. This is because demographic behaviour has a future orientation. People marry, cohabit, have children, divorce or migrate primarily because they have expectations or hopes about how these transitions will affect their lives. Individuals weigh up alternatives about their future within their personal and cultural context.

Peter McDonald

1996-01-01

472

Transition Strategies to Ensure Active Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transition into college for students with disabilities has been written about extensively over the past decade, due in part to legislative mandates implemented at the secondary level. With significant increases in the number of these students in the college population, a focus on their transition through college is imperative to improve retention…

Korbel, Donna M.; McGuire, Joan M.; Banerjee, Manju; Saunders, Sue A.

2011-01-01

473

Population momentum for gradual demographic transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population momentum is the ratio of a population's ultimate size after a demographic transition to its initial size before the transition. For an instantaneous drop to replacement fertility, Nathan Keyfitz found a simple expression M K for the momentum. However, as Keyfitz pointed out, `no one thinks that any country will drop immediately to stationary reproduction patterns'. We present results

NAN LI; SHRIPAD TULJAPURKAR

1999-01-01

474

Phase transition in continuum Potts models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish phase transitions for a class of continuum multi-type particle systems with finite range repulsive pair interaction between particles of different type. This proves an old conjecture of Lebowitz and Lieb. A phase transition still occurs when we allow a background pair interaction (between all particles) which is superstable and has sufficiently short range of repulsion. Our approach involves

H.-O. Georgii; O. Häggström

1996-01-01

475

Youth Transitions: From Offending to Desistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the…

Barry, Monica

2010-01-01

476

Electroweak phase transition in ultraminimal technicolor  

SciTech Connect

We unveil the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in new extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics achieved by the means of multiple matter representations. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory introduced to describe ultra minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify regions of parameter space, which yield a strong first-order transition. A striking feature of the model is the existence of a second phase transition associated to the electroweak-singlet sector. The interplay between these two transitions leads to an extremely rich phase diagram.

Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco [University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Ryttov, Thomas A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

2009-05-01

477

Revisiting the Flocking Transition Using Active Spins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an active Ising model in which spins both diffuse and align on lattice in one and two dimensions. The diffusion is biased so that plus or minus spins hop preferably to the left or to the right, which generates a flocking transition at low temperature and high density. We construct a coarse-grained description of the model that predicts this transition to be a first-order liquid-gas transition in the temperature-density ensemble, with a critical density sent to infinity. In this first-order phase transition, the magnetization is proportional to the liquid fraction and thus varies continuously throughout the phase diagram. Using microscopic simulations, we show that this theoretical prediction holds in 2D whereas the fluctuations alter the transition in 1D, preventing, for instance, any spontaneous symmetry breaking.

Solon, A. P.; Tailleur, J.

2013-08-01

478

Topological phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from an effective model of asymmetric nuclear matter we show that at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential ?B there exists a topological phase transition from state of non-Fermi liquid to that of Fermi liquid which is protected by winding numbers. At low ?B the transition is first-order, then extends to a second-order phase transition at larger ?B through a tri-critical point. The isospin dependences of the tri-critical point and the phase diagram in the (T, ?B)-plane are established. The distinction between this type of phase transition and the similar phenomenon caused by the Silver Blaze property (SBP) at T = 0 is confirmed for isospin varying from 0 to 1. We reveal that the topological phase transition could emerge in a large class of nuclear theories.

Phat, Tran Huu; Thu, Nguyen Van

2014-05-01

479

Atomic inner-shell transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.

1984-01-01

480

State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

Phillips, J. D.

2012-04-01

481

The Soviet Union in transition  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

Niiseki, K.

1987-01-01

482

Los Angeles Mass Transit Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning on Saturday, September 16, 2000, the drivers of the Los Angeles city buses launched a strike, stopping the 2,000 buses, subway, and rail lines that cover the 1,400 square miles of Los Angeles County, and stranding nearly half a million bus riders. The 4,300 members of the United Transportation Union (UTU) are on strike over wages and overtime. The Mass Transit Authority (MTA) of Los Angeles will face a $438 million deficit by 2010 if it does not manage to cut costs. Rather than raise fares, the MTA suggested cutting the cost of drivers's overtime pay by fifteen percent over the next three years, for a saving of $23 million. To do this, the MTA proposed that 400 drivers accept a four-day-a-week work schedule, in which they would be on duty twelve hours a day, but would only be paid for ten hours. Overtime would start only after twelve hours. The strike has already proven itself difficult for the people of Los Angeles. Traffic increased nearly five percent, and those Los Angelenos who depend on public transportation to get to work and school, have been forced to walk, carpool, or ride bikes. According to the MTA, 68 percent of MTA riders have household incomes under $15,000 a year. Talks between the UTU and the MTA were to have resumed on Tuesday morning.

483

Spin transition in Fe-bearing perovskite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's lower mantle, which is the largest part by volume of our planet, is mainly formed of Fe- and Al- bearing MgSiO3 perovskite (pv). The Fe-component exhibits a spin transition under pressure whose nature and outcome is still a matter of debate. Here we are using lattice dynamical calculations based on density functional perturbation theory to disentangle a part of its complex phase diagram and the spin behavior. To do this we investigate the dynamic stability of Pbnm FeSiO3 pv and show the existence of unstable phonon modes. We track the eigen-displacements of the phonons modes to find low-spin and intermediate spin states. On solid-state physical basis we explore a set of hypothetical structures with various spin configurations and considerably lower enthalpy than the parent orthorhombic Pbnm structure. We show that the spin evolves along a high-spin to mixed high- and intermediate spin to low-spin transition sequence. Based on numerical results from first-principles calculations, we show that the spin transitions can be observed experimentally in X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. New diffraction peaks form during the spin transition, which are explained by the associated symmetry breaking. Certain observable Raman peaks exhibit a shift at the transition; the Grueneisen parameters of certain few modes are affected by the transition. The spin transition affects the seismic anisotropy pattern of perovskite. However it does not affect the elastic moduli and the bulk seismic wave velocities are weakly affected by the spin transition. [1]. These signatures are detectable by seismic observations and they need to be taken into account in tomographic studies of the Earth's lower mantle. Finally we show that the iron spin transition develops also in compressed glasses, but over a broad pressure range. More interestingly this transition can pass by an intermediate spin state configuration. [1] Caracas, Mainprice, and Thomas (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L13309.

Caracas, R.

2012-04-01

484

The geriatric floating interdisciplinary transition team.  

PubMed

Older adults often receive suboptimal care during hospitalizations and transitions to postacute settings. Inpatient geriatric services have been shown to increase care quality but have not improved patient outcomes consistently. Acute Care for the Elderly units improve patient outcomes but are resource intensive. Transitional care has been shown to reduce hospital readmissions and healthcare costs. This article describes the Geriatric Floating Interdisciplinary Transition Team (Geri-FITT), a model that combines the strengths of inpatient geriatric evaluation and comanagement and transitional care models by creating an inpatient comanagement service that also delivers transitional care. The Geri-FITT model is designed to improve the hospital care of older adults and their transitions to postacute settings. In Geri-FITT, a geriatrician-geriatric nurse practitioner team assesses patients, comanages geriatric syndromes, provides staff education, encourages patient self-management, communicates with primary care providers, and follows up with patients soon after discharge. This pilot cohort study of Geri-FITT included hospitalized patients aged 70 and older on four general medicine services (two Geri-FITT, two usual care) at an academic medical center (N=717). The study assessed the effect of Geri-FITT on patients' care transition quality (Care Transitions Measure) and their satisfaction with hospital care (four questions). The results indicate that Geri-FITT is associated with slightly higher, though not statistically significantly so, quality care transitions and greater patient satisfaction with inpatient care. Geri-FITT may be a feasible approach to enhancing inpatient management and transitional care for older adults. Further study of its effect on these and other outcomes in other healthcare settings seems warranted. PMID:20370860

Arbaje, Alicia I; Maron, David D; Yu, Qilu; Wendel, V Inez; Tanner, Elizabeth; Boult, Chad; Eubank, Kathryn J; Durso, Samuel C

2010-02-01

485

Chiral phase transition in lattice QCD as a metal-insulator transition  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the lattice QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions at temperatures around the chiral phase transition. We present evidence of a metal-insulator transition in the low lying modes of the Dirac operator around the same temperature as the chiral phase transition. This strongly suggests the phenomenon of Anderson localization drives the QCD vacuum to the chirally symmetric phase in a way similar to a metal-insulator transition in a disordered conductor. We also discuss how Anderson localization affects the usual phenomenological treatment of phase transitions a la Ginzburg-Landau.

Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Osborn, James C. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O.B. 586, 34100 Trieste (Italy); Physics Department and Center for Computational Science, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2007-02-01

486

Listening to the Voices of Deaf Students: Essential Transition Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 69 students with deafness found the following factors facilitated transition from education to adult life and employment: student participation in Individualized Education Program meetings; family involvement in the transition process; transition planning in middle school; and cultural sensitivity in transition planning. Transition…

Garay, Suzette V.

2003-01-01

487

Pathway of the conformational transitions in flexible molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathways of the conformational transitions in flexible molecular systems were studied by the DDRP (Dynamically Determined Reaction Path) method implemented in TINKER molecular modelling package. Our first model systems were conformational transitions in small organic molecules (determination of rotational transitions, boat-chair transitions, etc.). The method was found to be very effective in finding such transitions and the location of

T. Körtvélyesi; L. L. Stacho?; Gy. Dömötör; B. Jójárt; M. I. Bán

2005-01-01

488

Enzymatic transition states: thermodynamics, dynamics and analogue design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry have defined the transition state structures for several members of the N-ribosyltransferase family. Transition state analogues designed to mimic their cognate transition state structures are among the most powerful enzyme inhibitors. In complexes of N-ribosyltransferases with their transition state analogues, the dynamic nature of the transition state is converted to an ordered, thermodynamic structure

Vern L. Schramm

2005-01-01

489

Aging China -- policies in transition.  

PubMed

The International Forum on Aging was held in Beijing, China, in May of 1986 under the joint sponsorship of the Gerontological Society of America and the Chinese National Committee on Aging. 24 Chinese and American participants were also joined by experts from Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Japan. Older persons in the West are by and large economically independent of their children and live in separate households. Nevertheless, both in the US and China families remain the preferred source of support for older persons. As a result of successful family planning policies, China will undergo a demographic transition in several decades that took a century in the West. This will result in the decline in the network of relatives, on which China's family support system has rested. Societal adjustments will have to be made including expanded joint ventures among government, families, neighborhoods, and collectives to provide for the old preferably in their own homes. The elderly will also participate more in economic and social development because of improved health, higher education, and declines in co-residency. For instance, an association of retired engineers in Chongqing has assisted over 6000 groups since 1980 through technical consultation for small enterprises in towns and rural areas. In 1987 only 6% of the rural population received some kind of pension, but policy makers envisage several different forms of social security schemes for the rural elderly. China's elderly population over 60 is projected to increase from 130 million in 2000 to 370 million in 2050, or from 11% to 26% of the total population. A Japanese model worth examining by China is the practice of combined occupation household, which permits rural areas to modernize while preserving the three-generation family household. The elderly continue to perform agricultural work on family property, while the younger family members take jobs in more urbanized nearby areas. PMID:12291355

Nusberg, C

1987-01-01

490

Phase transitions in phosphatidylcholine multibilayers  

PubMed Central

The 2H NMR spectrum of a multilamellar dispersion of 1-myristoyl-2-[14,14,14-2H3]myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with 1 mol% cholesterol in excess water has been recorded at temperatures between -15°C and 36°C. Motionally averaged quadrupole coupling constants ??Q? and motionally induced asymmetry parameters ? are obtained by spectral analysis. Values of these quantities indicate that, at temperatures below -4°C, any rotational motion of the molecules about their molecular long axis is slow on the NMR time scale. At temperatures immediately above the pretransition these same parameters show that a fast-rotational motion is occurring about the molecular long axis. This rotational motion is hindered in that the molecules flip about a twofold symmetry axis. Between -4°C and the pretransition, spectra appear as the superposition of two powder patterns, one corresponding to the pattern observed below -4°C and the other to the pattern above the pretransition. The relative contribution of the latter increases with temperature until the pretransition is reached. These data have been interpreted in two ways: either the sample between -4°C and the pretransition contains two populations of rapidly and slowly rotating molecules, or there is only a single population of molecules undergoing a 180° flipping motion on the time scale of the NMR measurement. The latter interpretation is more consistent with other experimental findings. At the temperature of the main transition the hydrocarbon chains melt. In the absence of cholesterol, spectra are more complex in that the line shape is reproduced by the superposition of three spectral powder patterns between -4°C and the pretransition and by the superposition of two spectral patterns above the pretransition. It is postulated that these two patterns observed above the pretransition are in direct correspondence to the two ripple structures observed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy in the absence of cholesterol.

Westerman, Philip W.; Vaz, Maria Joao; Strenk, Lawrence M.; Doane, J. William

1982-01-01

491

Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.

Parang, M.; Chao, D.

1999-01-01

492

B-S Transition in Short Oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Stretching experiments with long double-stranded DNA molecules in physiological ambient revealed a force-induced transition at a force of 65 pN. During this transition between B-DNA and highly overstretched S-DNA the DNA lengthens by a factor of 1.7 of its B-form contour length. Here, we report the occurrence of this so-called B-S transition in short duplexes consisting of 30 basepairs. We employed atomic-force-microscope-based single molecule force spectroscopy to explore the unbinding mechanism of two short duplexes containing 30 or 20 basepairs by pulling at the opposite 5? termini. For a 30-basepair-long DNA duplex the B-S transition is expected to cause a length increase of 6.3 nm and should therefore be detectable. Indeed 30% of the measured force-extension curves exhibit a region of constant force (plateau) at 65 pN, which corresponds to the B-S transition. The observed plateaus show a length between 3 and 7 nm. This plateau length distribution indicates that the dissociation of a 30-basepair duplex mainly occurs during the B-S transition. In contrast, the measured force-extension curves for a 20-basepair DNA duplex exhibited rupture forces below 65 pN and did not show any evidence of a B-S transition.

Morfill, Julia; Kuhner, Ferdinand; Blank, Kerstin; Lugmaier, Robert A.; Sedlmair, Julia; Gaub, Hermann E.

2007-01-01

493

Direct Imaging of Planet Transit Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exoplanet transit events are attractive targets for the ultrahigh-resolution capabilities afforded by optical interferometers. The intersection of two developments in astronomy enable direct imaging of exoplanet transits: first, improvements in sensitivity and precision of interferometric instrumentation; and second, identification of ever-brighter host stars. Efforts are underway for the first direct high-precision detection of closure phase signatures with the CHARA Array and Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. When successful, these measurements will enable recovery of the transit position angle on the sky, along with characterization of other system parameters, such as stellar radius, planet radius, and other parameters of the transit event. This technique can directly determine the planet's radius independent of any outside observations, and appears able to improve substantially upon other determinations of that radius; it will be possible to extract wavelength dependence of that radius determination, for connection to characterization of planetary atmospheric composition & structure. Additional directly observed parameters - also not dependent on transit photometry or spectroscopy - include impact parameter, transit ingress time, and transit velocity.

van Belle, Gerard T.; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha; Schaefer, Gail

2014-04-01

494

Quantitative measurement of feline colonic transit  

SciTech Connect

Colonic transit scintigraphy, a method for quantitatively evaluating the movement of the fecal stream in vivo, was employed to evaluate colonic transit in the cat. Scintigraphy was performed in duplicate in five cats and repeated four times in one cat. After instillation of an 111In marker into the cecum through a surgically implanted silicone cecostomy tube, colonic movement of the instillate was quantitated for 24 h using gamma scintigraphy. Antegrade and retrograde motion of radionuclide was observed. The cecum and ascending colon emptied rapidly, with a half-emptying time of 1.68 +/- 0.56 h (mean +/- SE). After 24 h, 25.1 +/- 5.2% of the activity remained in the transverse colon. The progression of the geometric center was initially rapid, followed later by a delayed phase. Geometric center reproducibility was found to be high when analyzed using simple linear regression (slope = 0.92; r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). Atropine (0.1 mg/kg im) was found to delay cecum and ascending colon emptying and delay progression of the geometric center. These results demonstrate both 1) the ability of colonic transit scintigraphy to detect changes in transit induced by pharmacological manipulation and 2) the fact that muscarinic blockade inhibits antegrade transit of the fecal stream. We conclude that feline colonic transit may be studied in a quantitative and reproducible manner with colonic transit scintigraphy.

Krevsky, B.; Somers, M.B.; Maurer, A.H.; Malmud, L.S.; Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.

1988-10-01

495

Phase transitions in the early universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I explore the theory and computation of early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions involving scalar fields. I focus primarily on the electroweak phase transition, but some of the methods I develop are applicable to any scalar-field cosmological phase transition (such as the computation of the lifetime of zero-temperature metastable vacua). I begin by examining phase transition thermodynamics with many extra coupled degrees of freedom, finding that such transitions have the potential to produce large amounts of entropy and can significantly dilute the concentration of thermal relic species (e.g., dark matter). I then detail a novel algorithm for calculating instanton solutions with multiple dynamic scalar fields, and present a computational package which implements the algorithm and computes the finite-temperature phase structure. Next, I discuss theoretical and practical problems of gauge dependence in finite-temperature effective potentials, using the Abelian Higgs and Abelian Higgs plus singlet models to show the severity of the problem. Finally, I apply the aforementioned algorithm to the electroweak phase transition in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM). My collaborators and I find viable regions of the NMSSM which contain a strongly first-order phase transition and large enough CP violation to support electroweak baryogenesis, evade electric dipole moment constraints, and provide a dark matter candidate which could produce the observed 130 GeV gamma-ray line observed in the galactic center by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

Wainwright, Carroll L.

496

Bifurcations of transition states: Morse bifurcations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transition state for a Hamiltonian system is a closed, invariant, oriented, codimension-2 submanifold of an energy level that can be spanned by two compact codimension-1 surfaces of unidirectional flux whose union, called a dividing surface, locally separates the energy level into two components and has no local recrossings. For this to happen robustly to all smooth perturbations, the transition state must be normally hyperbolic. The dividing surface then has locally minimal geometric flux through it, giving an upper bound on the rate of transport in either direction. Transition states diffeomorphic to S^{2m-3} are known to exist for energies just above any index-1 critical point of a Hamiltonian of m degrees of freedom, with dividing surfaces S^{2m-2} . The question addressed here is what qualitative changes in the transition state, and consequently the dividing surface, may occur as the energy or other parameters are varied? We find that there is a class of systems for which the transition state becomes singular and then regains normal hyperbolicity with a change in diffeomorphism class. These are Morse bifurcations. Various examples are considered. Firstly, some simple examples in which transition states connect or disconnect, and the dividing surface may become a torus or other. Then, we show how sequences of Morse bifurcations producing various interesting forms of transition state and dividing surface are present in reacting systems, by considering a hypothetical class of bimolecular reactions in gas phase.

MacKay, R. S.; Strub, D. C.

2014-05-01

497

Overview of escalator applications in rail transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difference in operating environment and in construction between escalators in transit and nontransit use, the impact of recent escalator innovations, and areas which could benefit from urban mass transportation administration sponsored research and development are determined. Several factors causing a more severe transit escalator operating environment are identified. There are no significant design differences between transit and nontransit escalators. Recent innovations that have affected performance and cost include outdoor escalators, extra flat steps at both landings, and modular escalators. Data were collected by interviews at transit agencies. Long term, unscheduled, escalator maintenance records were available for analysis from one property. A description of escalator operating principles is provided. Transit represents less than 5% of the U.S. escalator market. Transit agencies have limited leverage on escalator industry practices. A substantial impact on transit escalator cost and performance can be achieved by research identifying when and how to apply and specify several of the more recent innovations. Purchase of escalators under long term (25 year) maintenance contracts is one method that has been used to promote escalators manufactured for minimum life cycle cost.

Deshpande, G.; Rubenstein, L.

1980-01-01

498

An Institutional Approach to Understanding Energy Transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will contribute to our understanding of how energy transitions at different scales can be accomplished in developing countries and what it takes for innovation to spread in a society.

Koster, Auriane Magdalena

499

Student-Directed Transition Planning: Increasing Student Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in the Transition Planning Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in transition IEP…

Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.

2010-01-01

500

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra: clinical and forensic implications.  

PubMed

The identification of skeletal remains is one of the classic problems faced by forensic experts. Congenital and acquired malformations can prove to be an important tool for identification, provided antemortem records are available. A lumbosacral transitional vertebra is one such rare congenital anomaly that has clinical and medicolegal implications. We report a case of unilateral lumbosacral transitional vertebra, detected during medicolegal examination of skeletal remains that were recovered from a forested area in coastal Karnataka, India. The congenital anomaly of the transitional vertebra helped in the forensic identification of the deceased. PMID:19296021

Kanchan, T; Shetty, M; Nagesh, K R; Menezes, R G

2009-02-01