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Sample records for coster-kronig transitions

  1. L/sub 2/-L/sub 3/ Coster-Kronig transition probability for Z = 54

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, P.B.; Braga, R.A.; Griffin, J.C.; Fink, R.W.

    1987-02-01

    The total Coster-Kronig transition probability f/sub 23/ for the L/sub 2/-L/sub 3/ atomic transition was measured utilizing resolved L-K x-ray coincidence techniques for Z = 54 with radioactive sources of 9.69 day /sup 131/Cs. The value of f/sub 23/ is 0.148 +- 0.029.

  2. Investigation of low-Z Coster-Kronig transitions by means of Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental intensity ratios of Auger transitions for Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn as well as the relative L sub 2 and L sub 3 level widths of Cu and Zn, derived from their photoelectron spectra, are presented. Evidence is presented that a great deal of vacancy reorganization took place following photoionization and prior to Auger emission. These reorganizations are assumed to be due to Coster-Kronig transitions f sub 23. These results are compared with theoretical calculations and agree with predicted discontinuity at Z = 30 where f sub 23 transitions become energetically impossible.

  3. L -shell Coster-Kronig transition probabilities in Ni, Cu, and Mo measured with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.L.; Schaphorst, S.J.; Whitfield, S.B.; Crasemann, B. ); Carr, R. )

    1991-07-01

    A recent technique, based on differential subshell ionization by tuned synchrotron radiation, has been applied to measurements of {ital L}-subshell Coster-Kronig yields of Ni, Cu, and Mo from {ital L}{sub 2} and {ital L}{sub 3} Auger spectra. Results for Ni are {ital f}{sub 23}=0.6+0.2, {ital f}{sub 12}=0.4+0.2, and {ital f}{sub 13}=0.5+0.2; for Cu, {ital f}{sub 23}=0.8+0.1, {ital f}{sub 12}=0.44+0.06, and {ital f}{sub 13}=0.3+0.2; for Mo, {ital f}{sub 23}=0.15+0.02, {ital f}{sub 12}=0.15+0.02, and {ital f}{sub 13}=0.61+0.06. Measured transition probabilities are compared with previously available information. The results are generally consistent with the body of theoretical and experimental data. For Ni and Cu, the present measurements of {ital f}{sub 23} confirm that the {ital L}{sub 2}-{ital L}{sub 3}{ital M4,5} Coster-Kronig channel is accessible in the metals, even though it is energetically cut off in free atoms. Further improvements in synchrotron-radiation sources are likely to make it possible to throw light on several critical questions by means of the present method.

  4. Coster-Kronig transition probability f{sub 23} in gold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Mokler, P. H.; Stoehlker, Th.; Cheng, S.; Kochur, A. G.; Petrov, I. D.

    2006-12-15

    We have investigated the Coster-Kronig transition probability f{sub 23} in gold atoms (nuclear charge Z=79) using the L x-ray versus K x-ray coincidence method. K vacancies were created using synchrotron radiation and the cascade decays were measured using germanium x-ray detectors. We find f{sub 23}=0.112{+-}0.004 which is somewhat lower than the recent coincidence measurement of Santra et al. which yielded f{sub 23}=0.119{+-}0.003. Our result is smaller than the values calculated by McGuire (f{sub 23}=0.132) and Puri et al. (f{sub 23}=0.129) but agrees with our own single-configuration Pauli-Fock calculation, which gives f{sub 23}=0.114, as well as the global set of prior experimental data.

  5. Effects of Coster-Kronig transitions on electron-impact excitation rates for fluorinelike ions in their ground states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.H.; Reed, K.J.; Hazi, A.U.

    1994-03-01

    The contributions of Coster-Kronig resonances to the electron-impact excitation rate coefficients have been calculated for six F-like ions with {ital Z}=26, 34, 42, 47, 54, and 63. The calculations are carried out using the relativistic distorted-wave approximation and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model. We found that resonance excitation via Coster-Kronig transitions is the dominant excitation mechanism at low temperatures for {ital Z}{le}34 and is as important as the direct excitation for heavier ions. In addition, we found that the effects of relativity can reduce the rate coefficients by more than an order of magnitude at electron temperatures {ital T}{lt}100 eV.

  6. Effect of Coster-Kronig transition on dielectronic recombination of the He-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.H.

    1988-12-15

    Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients have been calculated for He-like ions with atomic numbers Z = 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The calculations include the influence of the Coster-Kronig channels to the excited states of the recombining ion on the rate coefficients. The detailed Auger and radiative rates were calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model in intermediate coupling with configuration interaction. The total dielectronic recombination coefficients for B/sup 3+/, N/sup 5+/, and F/sup 7+/ ions have been found to reduce by 60%, 13%, and 4%, respectively, due to the inclusion of Coster-Kronig channels. For the B/sup 3+/ ion, the dielectronic recombination coefficient from the present work is smaller than the value derived from the Burgess-Merts formula by a factor of 3 at electronic temperature T = 100 eV.

  7. Probing electron correlation, charge transfer, and Coster-Kronig transitions at the 3d and 4d thresholds of Nd by resonant inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moewes, A.; Ederer, D.L.; Grush, M.M.; Callcott, T.A.

    1999-02-01

    Soft x-ray emission near the 3d-4f and 4d-4f thresholds of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is studied with monochromatic synchrotron radiation excitation. At excitation energies above the M{sub IV} threshold, we observe Coster-Kronig enhanced fluorescence from the refill of the 3d hole via the 5p and 4f channel. Fluorescence occurs mainly due to transitions in which charge-transfer provides additional 4f electrons. Resonant inelastic scattering dominates the emission process and we observe two energy loss features at 2.3 and 21 eV, which are due to net transitions within the 4f shell (4f{sup 3}{r_arrow}4f{sup 3}) and 5p{sup 6}4f{sup 3}{r_arrow}5p{sup 5}4f{sup 4}, respectively. The emission spectra resulting from excitations at various energies through the 3d and 4d thresholds were compared and a number of differences were found. Our atomic calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results indicating strong localization and a low degree of correlation of the 4f electrons. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Identification of very low energy projectile Coster-Kronig transitions in high velocity collisions using zero-degree Auger electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zouros, T.J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The unusual looking {open_quotes}mesa{close_quotes}-shaped cusp observed in O{sup 3+} collisions with He has been investigated using zero-degree electron spectroscopy, in both high resolution for collision energies of 10, 15 and 23 MeV and in lower resolution, but in coincidence with the outgoing charge-analysed projectile, at 10 MeV. The high resolution studies indicate the {open_quotes}mesa{close_quotes} peak to be actually composed of primarily two very strong antoionizing peaks (other than the cusp peak) corresponding to energies of 0.053 {+-} 0.005 and 0.103 {+-} 0.010 eV in the emitter frame. The coincidence studies, indicate these lines to originate from excitation of the O{sup 3+} ion followed by autoionization. Ongoing Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations, severely tested at these extremely small transition energies, indicate that these lines could result from the Coster-Kronig deexcitation of O{sup 3+}(1s{sup 2}2s2pnl) Rydberg states produced during the collision. Furthermore, the unusually sharp edges of these lines giving rise to the characteristic {open_quotes}mesa{close_quotes}-shape look, can be shown to be consistent with the kinematic constraints imposed by the energy and angular acceptance range of the spectrometer.

  9. Relativistic L -shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Laiman, E.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    Relativistic calculations of radiationless transition rates to L -subshell vacancy states in selected atoms with Z in the 70-96 range have been performed. The Auger and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities are calculated from perturbation theory, assuming frozen orbitals, in the Dirac-Hartree-Slater approach. Transition rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig yields are compared with nonrelativistic theoretical results and with experiment. Relativity is found to affect the L -subshell Auger widths by (10-25)% and individual transition rates to certain j-j configurations by as much as 40% at Z = 80. The widths of L sub i vacancy states and the L sub 2 Coster-Kronig yields f33 from these relativistic calculations agree much better with experiment than earlier nonrelativistic theoretical values.

  10. Observation of super Coster--Kronig-pumped gain in Zn III

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.J.; Barty, C.P.J.; Yin, G.Y.; Young, J.F.; Harris, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    We report the observation of laser gain in the vacuum ultraviolet pumped by super Coster--Kronig decay. Using a 5-J, 300-psec pump pulse of 1064-nm radiation, we have observed gain on transitions in Zn III at 127.0, 130.6, and 131.9 nm with total gains of exp(2.4), exp(5.1), and exp(3.2), respectively. The large branching ratios of the rapid super Coster--Kronig decay into a small number of final levels makes high-efficiency operation possible.

  11. Coster-Kronig yields in silver measured with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S. L.; Carr, R.; Schaphorst, S. J.; Whitfield, S. B.; Crasemann, B.

    1989-06-15

    The Coster-Kronig transition probabilities /ital f//sub /ital ij// for shifting avacancy from the /ital L//sub /ital i// to the /ital L//sub /ital j// subshell of Ag have beenmeasured by differential photoionization of the subshells with synchrotronradiation by observing the intensity of the ensuing/ital L//sub /ital j//-/ital M//sub 4,5/M/sub 4,5/ Augertransitions. In the course of the analysis, spectator satellites in these Augerspectra were identified. The following Ag Coster-Kronig yields were determined:/ital f//sub 23/=0.16+-0.03,/ital f//sub 12/=0.044+-0.004, and/ital f//sub 13/=0.61+-0.05. While /ital f//sub 23/agrees very well with relativistic independent-particle calculations by Chen/ital et/ /ital al/. (Phys. Rev. A 24, 117 (1981)), /ital f//sub 12/and /ital f//sub 13/ fall below predictions by 35% and 18%, respectively, inqualitative accord with expected many-body effects.

  12. Theory of Coster-Kronig preceded Auger processes in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Cini, Michele; Ugenti, Simona; Perfetto, Enrico; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    2007-11-15

    We propose the foundations of an extended Auger line-shape analysis of solids aiming to include three-hole features such as the ones due to core-valence-valence Auger decays following Coster-Kronig transitions. In transition metals, such features show up as intense high binding energy satellites of the diagrammatic core-valence-valence lines. Our theory is grounded on the full one-step approach, but to keep the complications to a minimum, in the present exploratory paper, the valence band is assumed fully below the Fermi level. In this way, explicit model calculations can be confidently based on a three-step approach. The line-shape analysis then amounts to compute a three-body Green's function, which, however, is much less known than one- and two-body ones. Our treatment covers the whole range between weak and strong correlations. Furthermore, we show that the relevant physics can be captured by a transparent, computationally simple closed formula. We find that, in general, the satellites cover separated spectral regions with three-hole multiplets, shifted and broadened two-hole features, and distorted bandlike continua.

  13. L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig spectra from relativistic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    The intensities of L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions in heavy atoms have been calculated relativistically. A detailed comparison is made with measured Auger spectra of Pt and U. The pertinent transition energies were computed from relativistic wave functions with inclusion of the Breit interaction, self-energy, a vacuum-polarization correction, and complete atomic relaxation. Multiplet splitting is found to distribute Auger electrons from certain transitions among several lines. The analysis leads to reassignment of a number of lines in the measured spectra. Lines originally identified as L2-L3Ni in the U spectrum are shown to arise from M4,5 Auger transitions instead.

  14. Vanishing effect in post-collision interaction during photon-excited Coster-Kronig decay

    SciTech Connect

    Armen, G.B.; Sorensen, S.L.; Whitfield, S.B.; Ice, G.E.; Levin, J.C.; Brown, G.S.; Crasemann, B.

    1987-05-01

    In radiationless transitions to atomic inner-shell hole states produced by threshold photoionization, the Auger electron energy is shifted up by post-collision interaction between the two continuum electrons. According to both semiclassical and quantum-mechanical models, this shift is expected to disappear if the photoelectron energy exceeds that of the Auger electron (the vanishing or ''no-passing'' effect). This effect, recently observed for a long-lived (4d) hole state of Xe, is now also demonstrated for the very fast Xe L/sub 2/-L/sub 3/N/sub 4/ (J = 3) Coster-Kronig transition, excited with synchrotron radiation.

  15. Auger and Coster-Kronig radial matrix elements for atomic numbers 6 le Z le 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mau Hsiung ); Larkins, F.P. ); Crasemann, B. )

    1990-05-01

    Coulomb radial matrix elements for Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions to K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2}-, and L{sub 3}-shell vacancies in singly ionized atoms have been calculated with relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions. Results are tabulated for atomic numbers Z = 6-87 for the K shell and Z = 12-92 for the L subshells. These matrix elements can be used to calculate approximate Auger rates in multiply ionized atoms; the matrix elements are expected to be very useful for the computation of Auger rates in molecules and can be applied in computations of valence-band Auger lineshapes in solids.

  16. Theoretical L-shell Coster-Kronig energies 11 or equal to z or equal to 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic relaxed-orbital calculations of L-shell Coster-Kronig transition energies have been performed for all possible transitions in atoms with atomic numbers. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first-order approximation to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. Each transition energy was computed as the difference between results of separate self-consistent-field calculations for the initial, singly ionized state and the final two-hole state. The following quantities are listed: total transition energy, 'electric' (Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater) contribution, magnetic and retardation contributions, and contributions due to vacuum polarization and self energy.

  17. Fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig probabilities for the atomic L subshells. Part II: The L1 subshell revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.L.

    2009-01-15

    Our recently recommended values for the L1 subshell fluorescence yield {omega}{sub 1} and Coster-Kronig probabilities f{sub 13} and f{sub 12} in the atomic number range 64 {<=} Z {<=} 92 are re-assessed in the light of new experimental data. Special attention is paid to the regions of atomic number in which discontinuities arise due to the onset of L1L2N1, L1L3M4, and L1L3M5 transitions. Attention is drawn to large scatter and to systematic differences in the data from different experimental techniques, both of which result in large uncertainties being attached to the recommended values. The urgent need for additional refined measurements is emphasized.

  18. Coster-Kronig yields of the {sub 54}Xe {ital L} subshells measured through synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Jitschin, W.; Stoetzel, R.; Papp, T.; Sarkar, M.; Doolen, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    The method of selective photoionization of individual subshells by monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been employed to measure all Coster-Kronig yields of the {sub 54}Xe {ital L} subshells. The energy of the primary radiation was set at about 50 energy points in the range of the {ital L} edges. At each setting, the induced Xe {ital L} fluorescence and the induced Ar {ital K} fluorescence (used for normalization purposes) were recorded simultaneously by a Si(Li) detector. Both Xe and Ar were in the gaseous state. The recorded fluorescence spectra were carefully analyzed with proper modeling of the line tailing due to the intrinsic line profile and the detector line shape. The Coster-Kronig yields were derived by fitting the measured fluorescence intensities versus primary energy with the photoelectric cross sections. The derived yields are sensitive to the precise dependence of the cross sections on primary energy. Evaluations have been performed assuming a smooth power-law dependence and employing corrections for electron-correlation effects, which were estimated from comparative calculations in the independent-particle approximation and linear-response approximation models. Still, the uncertainties of the correlation effects constitute the main contribution to the uncertainties of the derived Coster-Kronig yields. The finally adopted values are {ital f}{sub 12}=0.12{plus_minus}0.03, {ital f}{sub 13}=0.23{plus_minus}0.04, and {ital f}{sub 23}=0.14{plus_minus}0.02.

  19. Core-hole induced charge transfer and Coster-Kronig enhanced fluorescence at the {ital 3d} threshold of lanthanum studied by resonant inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moewes, A.; Stadler, S.; Winarski, R.P.; Ederer, D.L.; Grush, M.M.; Callcott, T.A.

    1998-12-01

    Soft x-ray emission near the {ital 3d} threshold of La is studied with synchrotron radiation. At excitation energies above the M{sub IV} edge we observe Coster-Kronig enhanced fluorescence that refills the {ital 3d} hole via {ital 5p} and {ital 4f} electrons. We find a new delayed onset of the fluorescence as the 7.5-eV inelastic scattering evolves into {ital 3d-4f} emission about 8 eV above the absorption threshold, which we attribute to the energy required to produce a charge-transfer hole. The 16.3-eV Raman-scattering loss is due to a net transition of a {ital 5p} electron into a {ital 4f} orbit. The results are compared with our calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Method of determining the value of the Coster-Kronig parameter (f{sub 23})

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Sumita; Mitra, Debasis; Sarkar, Manoranjan; Bhattacharya, Dipan; Sen, Prasanta; Mandal, Atis Chandra

    2004-02-01

    The present work demonstrates the utility and efficacy of a technique to measure the Coster-Kronig parameter (f{sub 23}) of elemental targets. For this purpose a pure gold foil was irradiated in a beam of 88-keV {gamma} rays from a radioactive {sup 109}Cd source. The photoinduced K and L x rays emitted from the gold foil were then measured in coincidence, with the data collected in the list mode. On analysis, the f{sub 23} value of gold was found to be 0.119{+-}0.003. The technique demonstrated here is different in the sense that, in contrast to the earlier coincidence methods, where the x rays emitted directly from a radioactive source are detected in coincidence, in the present method the x rays of the elements under investigation are obtained by photoionization.

  1. Coster-Kronig factor f/sub 13/ of /sub 39/Y measured with the synchrotron photoionization method

    SciTech Connect

    Jitschin, W.; Grosse, G.; Roehl, P.

    1989-01-01

    The intensity of the L/sub 3/-M/sub 4,5/M/sub 4,5/ Auger line of /sub 39/Y excited by photons with energies in the range of the L/sub 1/ edge has been measured. It exhibits a jump at the edge due to the onset of the Coster-Kronig vacancy transfer from the L/sub 1/ to the L/sub 3/ subshell. From the measured jump ratio 1.13 +- 0.02 the Coster-Kronig yield f/sub 13/ = 0.49 +- 0.09 is derived. This value agrees with a currently recommended value; however, it is significantly smaller than the prediction of recent relativistic calculations.

  2. Line-shape effects on the determination of Coster-Kronig probabilities using Si(Li) x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, T.; Campbell, J.L.; Raman, S. Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Debrecen, H-4001, Pf.51 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 )

    1994-02-01

    The great majority of measured values of the Coster-Kronig probability [ital f][sub 23] derive from x-ray coincidence experiments using radionuclide sources or from synchrotron-radiation excitation of thin foils. Very little attention has been paid in published work to the role of line-shape effects and satellites in the x-ray spectra that are obtained. It is shown that this neglect can influence [ital f][sub 23] values derived from such measurements. This may explain in part the well-established trends for measured [ital f][sub 23] values to fall below the theoretical predictions for elements with atomic number [ital Z][lt]90 and to fall above when [ital Z][gt]92. In elemental analysis techniques based upon x-ray emission spectroscopy, where a database of atomic parameters such as Coster-Kronig probabilities is used, the same approximations are made in treating the spectra. Until a more sophisticated approach to spectrum reduction is developed, it may be preferable in this context to use nominal'' Coster-Kronig probabilities derived from experiment in preference to theoretical values.

  3. L{sub 1}-L{sub 3} Coster-Kronig yield for elements with 70{<=}Z{<=}81

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manju; Singh, Prem; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal; Puri, Sanjiv

    2004-03-01

    The L{sub 1}-L{sub 3} Coster-Kronig (CK) yield f{sub 13} for the {sub 70}Yb, {sub 71}Lu, {sub 74}W, {sub 75}Re, {sub 79}Au, {sub 80}Hg, and {sub 81}Tl elements was deduced using measured intensities of the L{alpha} x rays emitted following decay of the L{sub i}-subshell (i=1,2,3) vacancies produced in widely different proportions by the 59.54 keV {gamma} rays (B{sub L{sub 1}}transition.

  4. Synchrotron-radiation-based determination of Xe L-subshell Coster-Kronig yields: A reexamination via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Zitnik, M.; Kavcic, M.; Bucar, K.

    2010-01-15

    The xenon L-subshell Coster-Kronig (CK) transition yields were revisited via high-resolution measurements of the Lalpha{sub 1,2} (L{sub 3}-M{sub 4,5}) and Lbeta{sub 1} (L{sub 2}-M{sub 4}) x-ray emission lines. The L x-ray spectra were measured employing a Johansson-type curved crystal spectrometer and energy-tunable synchrotron radiation. The CK yields were derived from the relative L x-ray intensity jumps at the L edges by fitting the fluorescence intensities as a function of the photon energy to the L-subshell photoionization cross sections. The latter were obtained from the measured L-edge photoabsorption spectrum. Values of 0.118+-0.029, 0.383+-0.037, and 0.096+-0.016 were found for the f{sub 23}, f{sub 13}, and f{sub 12} CK yields, respectively. Thanks to high resolution, the L{sub 1} fluorescence yield of 0.059+-0.002 was also determined from intensity ratios of the well-resolved Lbeta{sub 4} (L{sub 1}-M{sub 2}) and Lbeta{sub 1} (L{sub 2}-M{sub 4}) lines.

  5. M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Yogeshwar; Puri, Sanjiv

    2008-01-15

    A complete set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig (CK) yields has been generated by interpolation for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 from the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model based values tabulated for a limited number of elements, considering the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions in accordance with the CK transition energies evaluated in the present work. The CK transition energies have been deduced from tabulated values of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater model based neutral atom binding energies [K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18 (1976) 243] and the L{sub i} (i = 1-3) subshell CK transition energies [M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19 (1977) 97] in order to establish the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions at specific atomic numbers. A second set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence yields have also been deduced using radiative widths computed from the Dirac-Fock (DF) model based X-ray emission rates, and the total widths reevaluated to incorporate the DF model based radiative widths in place of those based on the DHS model. Further, the CK-corrected ({nu}{sub i}) and average fluorescence ({omega}{sub M}) fields, which are experimentally important, have been evaluated from the generated set of CK yields and two sets of fluorescence yields.

  6. L-subshell Coster-Kronig yields of palladium determined via synchrotron-radiation-based high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Kayser, Y.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.; Bucar, K.; Mihelic, A.; Szlachetko, J.; Slabkowska, K.

    2009-07-15

    We report on the experimental determination of the palladium L-subshell Coster-Kronig (CK) transition yields via high-resolution measurements of the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} (L{sub 3}-M{sub 4,5}) and L{beta}{sub 1} (L{sub 2}-M{sub 4}) x-ray emission lines. The L x-ray spectra were recorded by means of curved crystal spectrometers employing energy-tunable synchrotron radiation for fluorescence production. The CK yields were derived from the relative L x-ray intensity jumps at the L edges by fitting the fluorescence intensities as a function of the photon energy to the photoionization cross sections. The L x-ray intensities were corrected for solid-state effects which were estimated from the comparison of the measured and theoretical Pd L-edge x-ray-absorption spectra. Thanks to high resolution, the partial CK yield f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup M} could be extracted from the intensities of the resolved L{alpha}M satellite transitions. For f{sub 23}, f{sub 12}, and f{sub 13} CK rates, values of 0.164{+-}0.033, 0.047{+-}0.001, and 0.730{+-}0.039 were found, respectively. For the partial CK yields f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup M} and f{sub 13}{sup L{sub 1}}{sup L{sub 3}}{sup N}, results of 0.406{+-}0.023 and 0.324{+-}0.032, respectively, were obtained.

  7. Exchange and relaxation effects in low-energy radiationless transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on low-energy atomic inner-shell Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions that is produced by relaxation and by exchange between the continuum electron and bound electrons was examined and illustrated by specific calculations for transitions that deexcite the 3p vacancy state of Zn. Taking exchange and relaxation into account is found to reduce, but not to eliminate, the discrepancies between theoretical rates and measurements.

  8. Dirac-Fock calculations of K -, L -, and M -shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, and Uuo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Santos, J. P.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J. P.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we calculated the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for the K shell and the L and M subshells of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, and Uuo (Z =118 ), using a Dirac-Fock model which provides a better description of the electron-electron interaction than previous approaches, and is suitable to handle superheavy elements. The results are compared with available data from other authors. In what concerns Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn K shells, the obtained results are in very good agreement with the adopted values of Krause [25] and with experiment when available. For the L subshells, our results are in line with existing ones. For the M subshells and for all shells of Uuo there are no previous experimental and theoretical results to compare to our calculations.

  9. M sub-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yield data generation for elements, 57≤Z≤90 (computer code ‘MFCKYLD')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mittal, Raj

    2014-01-01

    M subshell fluorescence yield (ωMi, i=1-5) and Coster-Kronig yield (fMij, i=1-4, j=2-5) values have been generated for elements with Z, 57≤Z≤90. Keeping in view the importance of ωMi and fMij for M X-ray productions in the region Z>56, the interpolation of non-relativistic data of McGuire [Phys. Rev. A 1972;5:1043-7] in the region Z=57-90 as well as relativistic data of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 1980;21:449-53 and 1983;27:2989-94] in the region Z=67-90 was attempted. The agreement between the generated data and the actual ones supported the adopted procedure. Subsequently, a computer software code MFCKYLD was developed to generate the yield values on computer terminal or in file for both non-relativistic and relativistic data just by entering the atomic number Z of the element through keyboard or file. The precision of present procedure that relies on the deviation of fitted values from the actual ones was found far better than the earlier fitted data.

  10. Radiationless transitions to atomic M 1,2,3 shells - Results of relativistic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiationless transitions filling vacancies in atomic M1, M2, and M3 subshells have been calculated relativistically with Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions for ten elements with atomic numbers 67-95. Results are compared with those of nonrelativistic calculations and experiment. Relativistic effects are found to be significant. Limitations of an independent-particle model for the calculation of Coster-Kronig rates are noted.

  11. Reexamination of M2,3 atomic level widths and L1M2,3 transition energies of elements 69?Z?95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennane, K.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Raboud, P.-A.; Campbell, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We report on high-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L1M2 and L1M3 x-ray emission lines of 69Tm, 70Yb, 71Lu, 73Ta, 74W, 75Re, 77Ir, 81Tl, 83Bi, and 95Am. From the linewidths of the measured transitions an accurate set of M2 and M3 level widths is determined assuming for the L1 level widths the values reported by Raboud [P.-A. Raboud et al., Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.65.022512 65, 022512 (2002)]. Furthermore, the present experimental M2,3 data set is extended to 80Hg, 90Th, and 92U, using former L1M2,3 high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements performed by our group. A detailed comparison of the M2 and M3 level widths determined in the present work with those recommended by Campbell and Papp [J. L. Campbell and T. Papp, At. Data Nucl. Data TablesADNDAT0092-640X10.1006/adnd.2000.0848 77, 1 (2001)] and other available experimental data as well as theoretical predictions is done. The observed abrupt changes of the M2,3 level widths versus atomic number Z can be explained satisfactorily by the cutoffs and onsets of the M2M4N1, respectively M3M4N3,4,5 and M3M5N2,3 Coster-Kronig transitions deduced from the semiempirical (Z+1) approximation. As a spin-off result of this study, precise L1M2 and L1M3 transition energies are obtained for the investigated elements. A very good agreement with transition energies calculated within the many-body perturbation theory is found.

  12. Inner-valence photoionization of O({sup 1}D): Experimental evidence for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 1}D){yields}2s{sup 1}2p{sup 5}({sup 1}P) transition

    SciTech Connect

    Flesch, R.; Wirsing, A.; Barthel, M.; Plenge, J.; Ruehl, E.

    2008-02-21

    Photoionization and autoionization of electronically excited atomic oxygen O({sup 1}D) are investigated in the energy range between 12 and 26 eV using tunable laser-produced plasma radiation in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A broad, asymmetric, and intense feature is observed that is peaking at 20.53{+-}0.05 eV. It is assigned to the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 1}D){yields}2s{sup 1}2p{sup 5}({sup 1}P) transition, which subsequently autoionizes by a Coster-Kronig transition, as predicted by the previous theoretical work [K. L. Bell et al., J. Phys. B 22, 3197 (1989)]. Specifically, the energy of the unperturbed transition occurs at 20.35{+-}0.07 eV. Its shape is described by a Fano profile revealing a q parameter of 4.25{+-}0.8 and a width of {gamma}=2.2{+-}0.15 eV. Absolute photoionization cross section {sigma} is derived, yielding {sigma}=22.5{+-}2.3 Mb at the maximum of the resonance. In addition, weak contributions to the O({sup 1}D) yield from dissociative ionization originating from molecular singlet oxygen [O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g})] are identified as well. Possible applications of the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 1}D){yields}2s{sup 1}2p{sup 5}({sup 1}P) transition as a state-selective and sensitive probe of excited oxygen in combination with photoionization mass spectrometry are briefly discussed.

  13. Interpretation of the silver L X-ray spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the Ag L-series X-ray spectrum has been performed, based on relaxed-orbital relativistic transition-energy calculations. Satellite energies were computed in intermediate coupling. It is found that satellites arising from LN double-hole states generally fall within the natural width of the parent diagram lines. Contrary to previous assumption, the observed high-energy satellites are due to LM double-hole states produced by L1-L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions and by shakeoff. The observed peak structure in the satellite spectrum is due to multiplet splitting of the initial and final double-hole states. Theoretical L1-L3M4,5 transition rates based on the Coster-Kronig energies computed by Chen et al. (1977) are closer to experiment than previous results, but still are too large by a factor of about 2, indicating an as-yet undetected flaw in the theory.

  14. Decay Processes of Si 2s Core Holes in Si(111)-7 7 Revealed by Si Auger Electron Si 2s Photoelectron Coincidence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kazuhiko; Hiraga, Kenta; Arae, Sadanori; Kanemura, Rui; Takano, Yusaku; Yanase, Kotaro; Ogashiwa, Yosuke; Shohata, Nariaki; Kanayama, Noritsugu; Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Ohno, Shinya; Sekiba, Daiichiro; Okudaira, Koji K.; Okusawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    Decay processes of Si 2s core holes in a clean Si(111)-7 7 surface are investigated using coincidence measurements of Si Auger electrons and Si 2s photoelectrons at a photon energy of 180 eV. We show that Si 2s core holes exhibit two nonradiative decay processes: the first being a Si L1L23V Coster-Kronig transition followed by delocalization of the valence hole and Si L23VV Auger decay, and the second being Si L1VV Auger decay. The branching ratio of the Si L1L23V Coster-Kronig transition to the Si L1VV Auger decay is estimated to be 96.7% 0.4% to 3.2% 0.4%.

  15. Thermal ionization effects on inner-shell line emission for Au target heated by intense light ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In order to deduce the experimental beam conditions from the observed x-ray line emission spectrum of high {ital Z} elements, atomic radiative data for transition energies and oscillator strengths, ion-atom impact ionization cross sections, Coster--Kronig yields, and fluorescence yield are needed. In this paper, we report on calculations to study the dependence of these atomic data on ionization stage. It has been found that proton impact ionization cross sections decrease slowly with increasing ionization stage, and the fluoresence yields have discrete jumps when the dominant Auger, Coster--Kronig transitions become energetically forbidden. Our study indicates that thermal ionization effects are not important for the dominant {ital K}-, {ital L}-, and {ital M}-line emissions for plasmas with {ital T}{sub {ital e}} {similar to} 10{sup 2} eV.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of 3p photoionization and subsequent Auger decay in atomic chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskinen, J.; Huttula, S.-M.; Mkinen, A.; Patanen, M.; Huttula, M.

    2015-12-01

    3p photoionization and subsequent low kinetic energy Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig Auger decay have been studied in atomic chromium. The binding energies, line widths, and relative intensities for the transitions seen in the synchrotron radiation excited 3p photoelectron spectrum are determined. The high resolution M2,3 M4,5 M4,5 and M2,3 M4,5 N1 Auger electron spectra following the electron impact excited 3p ionization are presented and the kinetic energies, relative intensities, and identifications are given for the main lines. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained from Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approaches.

  17. Empirical and semi-empirical interpolation of L X-ray fluorescence parameters for elements in the atomic range 50?Z?92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylikci, V.; Kahoul, A.; Kup Aylikci, N.; Tira?o?lu, E.; Karahan, ?. H.; Abassi, A.; Dogan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, interpolations (empirical and semi-empirical) of L sub-shell fluorescence yield and L shell Coster-Kronig transition probability values and the measured L X-ray production cross-sections, intensity ratios and L sub-shell fluorescence yield values of elements have been performed in the range of 50?Z?92. In this experimental setup, two sources (50 mCi 55Fe and 50 mCi 241Am) were used. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV.

  18. Auger decay paths of mercury 5 p and 4 f vacancies revealed by multielectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaudoux, J.; Huttula, S.-M.; Huttula, M.; Penent, F.; Andric, L.; Lablanquie, P.

    2015-01-01

    Single and double Auger processes following ionization of 4 f and 5 p inner shells have been studied using multielectron coincidence spectroscopy. Coincidence technique enables us to resolve state by state all single and double Auger paths with a resolution better than the lifetime broadening. Drastic step-to-step decay lifetime changes are observed and reported as Coster-Kronig transition takes place either in the first (5 p ) or in the second (4 f ) step of the Auger cascade. Relativistic ab initio theory has been used to predict and interpret the experimental observations.

  19. M Sub-Shell Cross Sections For 75-300 keV Proton Impact On W, Pt And Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, Sam J.

    2011-06-01

    M sub-shell x-ray production cross sections from 75-300 keV proton bombardment of thick elemental targets of W, Pt, and Pb were measured and compared with ECPSSR and relativistic RPWBA-BC cross sections using different data bases of fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig factors, and x-ray transition rates. With a few exceptions, the differences between the various data base comparisons were not significant. For different sub-shells, either ECPSSR or RPWBA-BC compared better with the measurements. In all cases, agreement with theory improved as the collision energy increased.

  20. Evolution on K{alpha} in Fe and L{beta} satellites in Au in SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeoka, Nobuyuki; Oohashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Yoshiaki; Vlaicu, Aurel M.; Nisawa, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Fukushima, Sei; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2003-08-26

    With the advent of the third generation synchrotron radiation, we can perform experiments on the threshold behavior of the satellites including the excitation dynamics in atoms. Especially, x-ray emission spectroscopy is a suitable tool to study the satellites on the electron correlation. The contributions of direct ionization, i.e, the shake-off process in Fe and indirect ionization of Coster-Kronig transition in Au have not been investigated to the x-ray emission spectra yet. We present the contribution of the spectator holes to the processes around the threshold.

  1. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  2. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary K?, L? or M? line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3-5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ? Z ? 100.

  3. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  4. Ionic fragmentation of SiH4 following the K-shell excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemasa, Eiji; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Yukinori; Yagishita, Akira; Maezawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Taizo; Ukai, Masatoshi; Hayaishi, Tatsuji

    1990-01-01

    Ionic fragmentation of SiH4 has been studied in the vicinity of the Si: K-edge in the photon energy range 1800-1900eV. Ionic fragments observed at photon energies above the Si: ls ? ?* excitation are mostly atomic ions Siq+ (q = 1-3) and H+. Ratios of the abundances for Si+, and Si2+ and Si3+ are roughly 4:4:1, and the abundance of H+ is much higher than the sum of the Si+, Si2+ and Si3+ abundances. The averaged kinetic energy release given to H+ is estimated to be about 12eV. This complete decomposition of SiH4 with the ejection of energetic H+ is interpreted as Coulomb explosion of the multiply-charged (mainly +4 or +5) parent ion produced via the vacancy cascade (successive Auger and/or Coster-Kronig transitions).

  5. Width of atomic L2 and L3 vacancy states near Z=30.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Adler, I.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.

    1973-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the discontinuity in the L2 level width and the L3-M45M45/L2-M45M45 Auger intensity ratio at Z=30. The afore-mentioned intensity ratio is found to undergo a sudden decrease at Z=30. Relative L2 and L3 level widths of Cu and Zn are derived from photoelectron spectra; while the L3 width increases from Cu to Zn, the L2 width of Cu is greater than that of Zn, contrary to the general trend. The above-mentioned discontinuity is traced to a discontinuity in the Coster-Kronig transition probability f sub 23 predicted in earlier calculations.

  6. Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Física for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields (ωLi) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (fij) for elements with 55 ≤ Z ≤ 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.

  7. L/M sub-shell measurements on INDUS-2 beam line BL16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Raj Mittal

    2015-06-01

    Beamline BL-16 on INDUS-2 at RRCAT, Indore has been employed for M sub shell measurements on Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies to determine M sub-shell X-ray emission cross-sections and for L sub-shell measurements on Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb and Bi with selective creation of electron vacancies in individual sub-shells to derive L Coster-Kronig (CK) yield values. The cross sections have been measured for the first time. The determined L sub-shell CK yields were used to explore some details of CK transitions.

  8. Origin of Au L{beta}{sub 2} visible satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Oohashi, H.; Tochio, T.; Ito, Y.; Vlaicu, A. M.

    2003-09-01

    Measurements of L{beta} spectra of gold using a high-resolution single-crystal x-ray spectrometer are presented. Energy values and intensities of the L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines are confirmed by fitting Voigt functions to the observed spectra. Relative intensity ratios of L{beta}{sub 2}, L{beta}{sub 3}, L{beta}{sub 15}, and L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines are investigated at various excitation energies. The origin of the L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup '} and L{beta}{sub 2}{sup ''}, are confirmed to be mainly due to the L-LM Coster-Kronig transition, with intensities closely related to the photoionization cross section of the subshell L{sub 1}.

  9. Cascade decay of atomic magnesium after photoionization with a photoelectron-photoion coincidence method

    SciTech Connect

    Kanngiesser, B.; Malzer, W.; Mueller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Zimmermann, P.; Kochur, A. G.; Sukhorukov, V. L.

    2003-08-01

    For the K-shell decay, magnesium is the first element in the periodic table which shows cascading transitions. We investigated the whole cascade of magnesium by using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique on the 1s, 2s, and 2p decay. The experimentally determined and calculated decay probabilities for the 1s{sup -1}, the 2s{sup -1}, and the 2p{sup -1} decay, i.e., the whole cascade, are in good agreement with each other. For the calculation of higher final ionic charge states, it was found that electron correlations have to be taken into account. The fluorescence yields for the K and L shell and the Coster-Kronig factor for the L shell were determined.

  10. Evolution of Au L{beta}{sub 2} visible satellites around thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Oohashi, H.; Ito, Y.; Tochio, T.; Vlaicu, A. M.; Mukoyama, T.

    2006-02-15

    Au L{beta}{sub 2} satellites were investigated around the L{sub 1} absorption edge with a high-resolution Johann-type spectrometer at the BL15XU undulator beamline SPring-8. The intensities of the L{beta}{sub 2} satellites were drastically changed at the threshold. Therefore, it is confirmed that the two visible satellites L{beta}{sub 2}{sup '} and L{beta}{sub 2}{sup ''} are mainly attributed to the L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions accompanied by the double-hole states of L{sub 3}M{sub 4} or L{sub 3}M{sub 5}.

  11. Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier

    2013-07-03

    Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Fisica for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub Li}) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (f{sub ij}) for elements with 55 {<=} Z {<=} 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.

  12. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Bana?, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czy?ewski, T.; Fija?, I.; Jask?a, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4 70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved L?1,2, L?1, and L?2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L1-L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L1, L2, and L3 subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the coupled-subshell model (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms.

  13. Photoionization of Sc{sup 2+} ions by synchrotron radiation: Measurements and absolute cross sections in the photon energy range 23-68 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Schippers, S.; Mueller, A.; Ricz, S.; Bannister, M.E.; Dunn, G.H.; Schlachter, A.S.; Hinojosa, G.; Cisneros, C.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A.M.; Gharaibeh, M.F.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    2003-03-01

    Cross sections for the photoionization (PI) of Sc{sup 2+} ions with [Ar]3d ground-state configuration have been measured by employing the merged ion-photon beams method. The Sc{sup 2+} ions were produced from metallic vapor in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, and the photon beam was generated by an undulator in the electron-synchrotron storage ring of the advanced light source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The experimental photon energy range 23-68 eV encompasses the direct 3d and 3p photoionization thresholds. The experimental photoion spectrum is dominated by autoionizing resonances due to 3p excitations predominantly decaying via Coster-Kronig and super-Coster-Kronig transitions. Individual resonances located around E{approx_equal}40.2 eV have been measured with an instrumental energy spread {delta}E as low as 1.2 meV, corresponding to a resolving power of E/({delta}E) around 33 500. The fractions of metastable ions in the Sc{sup 2+} ion beam are obtained by comparing the photoionization cross section with the recently measured [Schippers et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 042723 (2002)] cross section for the time-reversed process of photorecombination of Sc{sup 3+} ions. Absolute strengths of several 3p{sup 5} 3d{sup 2} and 3p{sup 5} 3d 4s PI resonances have been determined. They are the same as the corresponding resonance strengths for isoelectronic Ca{sup +} ions.

  14. Coupling and binding-saturation effects in L -subshell ionization of heavy atoms by 0.3-1.3-MeV/amu Si ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fija?-Kirejczyk, I.; Jask?a, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Pajek, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.

    2008-03-01

    The coupling and binding effects have been studied in L -subshell ionization of heavy Au, Bi, Th, and U atoms by an impact of S28iq+ ions in the energy range of 8.5-36.0 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed taking into account the multiple ionization effects in outer M and N shells. The L -subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections using the L -shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields which were modified for a reduced number of electrons and closed Coster-Kronig transitions in the multiply ionized atoms. The results are compared with the available calculations, which are based on the semiclassical approximation (SCA) as well as the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA). We demonstrate that for silicon ion impact these theoretical approaches have to be modified to include the L -subshell coupling effect using the coupled subshell model (CSM) as well as the saturation of the binding effect at the united atom limit. The calculations modified for both effects are in much better agreement with the data. In particular, an order-of-magnitude improvement of agreement between the data and the SCA-CSM calculations including the binding-saturation effect is reported for low-energy Si ions for the L2 -subshell. The results are also compared with the predictions of the PWBA based ECPSSR and ECUSAR theories accounting for the energy-loss (E), Coulomb-deflection (C), and relativistic (R) effects treating the binding effect within the perturbed stationary state (PSS) approximation with correction for the binding-saturation effect introduced to describe the united-atom and separated-atom (USA) limits.

  15. Origin of the satellites L?3, L?4 and L?5 in the elements from 40Zr to 50Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendurkar, Renuka; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2014-09-01

    The origin of the L? satellites L?3, L?4 and L?5 have been explained in the elements from 40Zr to 50Sn, on the basis of multiple ionization theory. The energies and intensities of the various transitions corresponding to the L3Mx - MxM4,5 (where x = 1-5) transition array, which may give rise to these satellites, have been calculated theoretically. The energies of the transitions have been calculated using the available Hartree-Fock-Slater data for the energies of K-LM and L-MM Auger transitions. The intensities of the various transitions have been estimated by considering cross sections for L1-L3Mx Coster-Kronig transitions as well as for M-shell shake-off process occurring simultaneous to a L3 hole creation. The total cross sections for initial two-hole states L3Mx have then been distributed statistically amongst the various allowed transitions from these initial states to the final states MxM4,5. By assuming each transition as a Gaussian line, theoretical satellite spectrum has been computed as the sum of these Gaussian curves. The energies of the satellites, as obtained from the theoretical spectrum, have been found to be comparable with the measured energies of the satellites L?3, L?4 and L?5. Consequently, these satellites have been assigned the transitions.

  16. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Kadad, Ibrahim M.

    2010-01-05

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2,3}-, M{sub 1}-, M{sub 2,3}- and M{sub 4,5} subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} and Xe{sup 10+} ions, and the charged X{sup 8+} ions are the highest. The main product from the L{sub 1}- shell ionization is found to be Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} ions, while the charged Xe{sup 8+} ions predominate at L{sub 2,3} hole states. The charged Xe{sup 6+}, Xe{sup 7+} and Xe{sup 8+} ions mainly yield from 3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 1/2,3/2} ionization, while Xe in 3d{sub 3/2,5/2} hole states mainly turns into Xe{sup 4+} and Xe{sup 5+} ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

  17. Origin of the satellite observed on the high energy side of L?2,3 diagram lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Rajeev; Shrivastava, Uma; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2014-09-01

    On the high energy side of the unresolved doublet L?23in the L spectra of some elements, a satellite L?2,3' has been reported in literature, which has been ascribed to the transition L1Mx - MxN2,3, on the basis of energy considerations alone, by earlier workers. In the present work, apart from energy, calculations have also been done for the intensity of the probable transitions which may give rise to the satellite in the elements from 40Zr to 47Ag and from 57La to 63Eu. Firstly, the probability of creation of a single hole K state has been calculated. Double hole state L1Mx is created by Coster-Kronig transitions (K - L1Mx) as well as by shake off process. The probabilities of these two processes have been calculated. The total probability of creation of the double hole state thus obtained has been statistically distributed among the 24 allowed transitions from the set of L1Mx levels. By taking each of the transitions as a Gaussian line, a composite spectrum has been computed. This theoretical spectrum has been compared with the available satellite energy data. The transitions which give rise to this satellite have thus been identified in the elements studied.

  18. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pajek, M.; Banas, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czyzewski, T.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4-70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{gamma}{sub 1}, and L{gamma}{sub 2,3} transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, and L{sub 3} subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the ''coupled-subshell model'' (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms.

  19. 2s photoionization and subsequent Auger cascade in atomic Si

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, L.; Fritzsche, S.; Jaenkaelae, K.; Huttula, M.; Osmekhin, S.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.; Urpelainen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The 2s photoionization and subsequent Auger transition cascade in atomic Si were studied by means of synchrotron-radiation-induced electron spectroscopy. After the 2s photoionization, the core hole states decay predominantly by a two-step Auger transition cascade into the triply ionized [Ne]nl states. The ionization channels of the 2s core-ionized Si{sup +} atoms to Si{sup 3+} ions were observed by measuring the conventional Auger electron spectra of the L{sub 1}-L{sub 2,3}M Coster-Kronig transitions and the L{sub 2,3}M-MMM Auger transitions. The observed L{sub 1}-L{sub 2,3}M and L{sub 2,3}M-MMM Auger spectra were analyzed by means of extensive multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations. We found that the electron correlation plays a prominent role in the Auger cascade, especially for the final-step Auger L{sub 2,3}M-MMM spectrum. Additionally, it was seen that the L{sub 2,3}M-MMM Auger spectrum of Si includes more Auger groups than the isoelectronic L{sub 2,3}-MM Auger spectrum of Al. Thus, more information on the intermediate ionic states is obtained if they are produced by Auger cascade rather than by direct photoionization.

  20. Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Photoionization measurements for the iron isonuclear sequence Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 5+}, and Fe{sup 7+}

    SciTech Connect

    Gharaibeh, M. F.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Scully, S. W. J.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Mueller, A.; Bozek, J. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Schlachter, A. S.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G.

    2011-04-15

    Cross sections for single photoionization of Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 5+}, and Fe{sup 7+} ions were measured at spectral resolutions of 0.04, 0.15, and 0.13 eV, respectively, by merging mass- and charge-selected ion beams with a beam of monochromatized synchrotron undulator radiation. The measurements span photon energy ranges beginning at the ionization thresholds and extending several tens of electron volts to include the most important resonant contributions due to 3p-nd transitions to autoionizing states. The photoion yield spectra are characterized by narrow resonances and also broad features in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 5+} that are believed to result from unresolved fast super-Coster-Kronig transitions following 3p-3d excitation. Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements were also performed using ion beams containing undetermined fractions of ions in their ground and metastable states. A Rydberg series attributed to 3p-nd transitions from the {sup 2}G{sub 1} metastable state in Fe{sup 3+} was identified. The data are compared with recently published measurements on Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 5+} using a similar technique at lower spectral resolution.

  2. Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, Z between 46 and 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1976-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectra involving N sub 1, N sub 2, and N sub 3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free-atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics are found, with regard to widths and structure, in the Ag and Cd M sub 4-N sub 4,5 N sub 4,5 and M sub 5-N sub 4,5 N sub 4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N sub 1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory, however, predicts wider N sub 2 than N sub 3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N sub 2 and N sub 3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N sub 2 and N sub 3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4 p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

  3. Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, 46 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiungchen, M.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1975-01-01

    Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectra involving N1, N2, and N3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics with regard to widths and structure were found in the Ag and Cd M4-N4,5N4,5 and M5-N4,5N4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory however predicts wider N2 than N3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N2 and N3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N2 and N3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation, to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

  4. Comment on ``Relation between copper {ital L} x-ray fluorescence and 2{ital p} x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies``

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, M.

    1995-08-15

    Kawai {ital et} {ital al}. [Phys. Rev. B 48, 8560 (1993)] concluded that for Cu compounds and high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, there is a strong correlation between the {ital L}{sub 3} x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) spectrum satellite intensity and the 2{ital p}{sub 3/2} x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum satellite intensity. They interpreted the XES satellite to be mainly due to the transition from the initial core-hole charge-transfer (CT) shakeup state rather than due to the {ital L}{sub 2}{ital L}{sub 3}{ital M}{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig (CK) decay preceding the {ital L}{sub 3}{ital M}{sub 4,5-}{ital M}{sub 4,5}{ital M}{sub 4,5} spectator x-ray emission transition. One of the available experimental data shows that, despite a significant initial core-hole CT shakeup satellite intensity increase from metal Cu to high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, the relative {ital L}{sub 3} XES satellite intensity does not change at all because of the relative CK satellite intensity decrease. The latter is due to the decrease of the CK decay energy from metal Cu to high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors.

  5. Decay channels of the Ti(2p{sub 1/2}) core hole excitations in TiO{sub 2} observed by x-ray Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mier, J.; Diebold, U.; Ederer, D.L.; Callcott, T.A.; Grush, M.; Perera, R.C.

    2002-04-29

    We present high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra, corrected for self-absorption, following resonant excitation of a Ti(2p{sub 1/2}) electron in TiO{sub 2}. Several transitions are studied that show complex behavior as a function of photon excitation energy, indicative of interaction in the excitation and decay channels. Three peaks are identified as transitions resulting from the excitation of a 2p{sub 1/2} electron, one of them corresponding to direct valence emission with a 3d spectator electron and the other two to participator emission following the Coster-Kronig decay of the 2p{sub 1/2} hole. Additional emission features at higher photon energies correspond to valence emission in the presence of a charge-transfer excitation that has been found in the 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum, and also in the x-ray absorption spectrum. A detailed analysis of the energy dispersion versus excitation energy provides information about the dynamical processes involved. The results are interpreted in terms of the calculated band structure of the compound.

  6. Correlated double electron capture in slow, highly charged ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Havener, C.C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Shafroth, S.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent measurements of autoionization electrons produced in slow, highly charged ion-atom collisions are reviewed. Mechanisms for double electron capture into equivalent and nonequivalent configurations are analyzed by comparing the probabilities for the creation of L/sub 1/L/sub 23/X Coster Kronig electrons and L-Auger electrons. It is shown that the production of the Coster-Kronig electrons is due to electron correlation effects whose analysis leads beyond the independent-particle model. The importance of correlation effects on different capture mechanisms is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  8. The polarization of X-rays and magnetic photoionization cross-sections for L3 sub-shell.

    PubMed

    Han, I; Sahin, M; Demir, L

    2009-06-01

    The alignment of atoms with inner-shell vacancies resulting from ionization by photons was investigated by measuring the anisotropic emission of L shell X-ray lines. The X-ray line intensities were measured using an Si(Li) detector and radioisotope photon source in various emission angles. It was observed from measured intensities that Lalpha and Ll X-ray intensities for the L(3) sub-state depended on the emission angle, meaning that Lalpha and Ll X-rays had an anisotropic spatial distribution. Thus, the Lalpha to Ll intensity ratios for a set of elements were determined and alignment parameters for each element were obtained using these ratios. Also, the empirical values of the L(3) magnetic sub-state photoionization cross-sections for m(j)=3/2 and 1/2 were evaluated using the determined alignment parameters, sub-state photoionization cross-sections and the Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. PMID:19231211

  9. Electronic structure and charge carriers in metallic DNA investigated by soft x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNaughton, J. B.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Lee, J. S.; Wettig, S. D.; Moewes, A.

    2006-05-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements of dried metallic DNA with metal ions incorporated inside the helix [(X)M-DNA, X=Co,Ni ], dried DNA with metal ions attached to the outside of the helix [(X)B-DNA, X=Co,Ni ], and dried double-strand DNA (B-DNA) are presented. The metal L edge RIXS spectra show that the I(L2)/I(L3) intensity ratio can be used as a probe of metallicity in 3d metal-containing systems because of the influence of nonradiative Coster-Kronig transitions. Using this technique it is found that (X)B-DNA has fewer mobile charge carriers than (X)M-DNA. X-ray absorption measurements at the L edge of the 3d metals are compared to density functional calculations to confirm that spectral features are not simply results of residual metal impurities. Nitrogen RIXS measurements reveal that the occupied electronic states are more localized in B-DNA than in (X)M-DNA systems.

  10. Rates of exponential decay in systems of discrete energy levels by Stieltjes imaging.

    PubMed

    Craigie, Jacob; Hammad, Ali; Cooper, Bridgette; Averbukh, Vitali

    2014-07-01

    An isolated bound state coupled to a continuum shows an exponential decay of its survival probability. Rates of the exponential decay occurring due to the bound-continuum coupling can be recovered from discretized continuum (L(2)) calculations using a computational technique known as Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory or Stieltjes imaging. At the same time, some genuinely discrete level systems, e.g., Bixon-Jortner model, also show an exponential (or approximately exponential) decay of the initially populated level before the onset of quantum revivals. Here, we demonstrate numerically that Stieltjes imaging can be used for calculation of the rates of the exponential decay in such discrete level systems. We apply the Stieltjes imaging technique to the approximately exponential decay of inner-valence vacancies in trans-butadiene in order to show that the breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionization in the inner valence region can be physically interpreted as an energy-forbidden Coster-Kronig transition. PMID:25005275

  11. The origin of the resistance change in GeSbTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Moon Hyung; Park, Seung Jong; Park, Sung Jin; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Chang, Gap Soo

    2010-10-11

    Amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (a-GST) films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirmed the existence of the Ge-Ge homopolar bonds in the films. Raman spectra also indicated that the Ge tetrahedral coordination in the a-GST film disappeared after an annealing treatment above 220 deg. C. Resonantly excited Ge L{sub 2,3} x-ray emission spectra (which probe occupied Ge 3d4s-electronic states) show that the phase change from the amorphous to crystalline state is accompanied by a reduction in the Ge I(L{sub 2})/I(L{sub 3}) intensity ratio due to a L{sub 2}L{sub 3}N Coster-Kronig transition, indicating that the number of carriers is increased in the Ge 4sp valence state. These findings constitute direct evidence for the contribution of the Ge electronic states to the resistivity change.

  12. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  13. Double L{sub 3}M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.

    2011-02-15

    The electron-induced L{sub 3}M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L{sub 3}M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (I{sub L{alpha}M}:I{sub L{alpha}}) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

  14. L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} x-ray production cross sections of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi by electron impact: Comparison of distorted-wave calculations with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Varea, Jose M.; Segui, Silvina; Dingfelder, Michael

    2011-02-15

    We study the emission of L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} characteristic x rays by the impact of electrons on Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi atoms. To this end, ionization cross sections of the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, and L{sub 3} subshells of these atoms are calculated within the distorted-wave Born approximation. The considered energy interval spans from the ionization threshold up to 50 keV. Atomic relaxation parameters (i.e., Coster-Kronig and radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and emission rates) taken from the literature are then used to evaluate x-ray production cross sections. The theoretical predictions are compared with published experimental information. Good agreement is found for Ta, W, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi. In the case of Hf and Re, the measured cross sections are lower than the theoretical estimates by around 30%. The observed discrepancies might be attributed to the methods employed to correct the raw experimental data for the excess of detected characteristic x rays caused by the finite thickness of the sample's active layer and the presence of the thick substrate.

  15. L-subshell ionization of heavy elements by S ions with energy of 0.4 3.8 MeV/amu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fija?-Kirejczyk, I.; Jask?a, M.; Korman, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Choi?ski, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Kretchmer, W.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2008-05-01

    The L-shell X-ray production cross sections have been measured for sulphur ions in the energy range of 12.8-120 MeV for Au and Bi elements. The experimental L X-ray spectra were analyzed using the method that takes into account the multiple ionization in outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured X-ray production cross sections for resolved L?1,2 L?1 and L?2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields modified by the multiple ionization effects in the M and N shells. The results are compared with the predictions of ECUSAR theory, which is the modified ECPSSR approach describing both direct ionization and electron-capture processes and the semiclassical approximation (SCA) calculations for direct ionization. These approaches were modified by the L-subshell coupling effects within the "coupled-subshell model" (CSM). Both modified approaches are in good agreement with the data. Remaining discrepancies are discussed in terms of the L-shell decay rates modified for the multiple ionization effects.

  16. Rates of exponential decay in systems of discrete energy levels by Stieltjes imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Craigie, Jacob; Hammad, Ali; Cooper, Bridgette; Averbukh, Vitali

    2014-07-07

    An isolated bound state coupled to a continuum shows an exponential decay of its survival probability. Rates of the exponential decay occurring due to the bound-continuum coupling can be recovered from discretized continuum (L{sup 2}) calculations using a computational technique known as Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory or Stieltjes imaging. At the same time, some genuinely discrete level systems, e.g., Bixon-Jortner model, also show an exponential (or approximately exponential) decay of the initially populated level before the onset of quantum revivals. Here, we demonstrate numerically that Stieltjes imaging can be used for calculation of the rates of the exponential decay in such discrete level systems. We apply the Stieltjes imaging technique to the approximately exponential decay of inner-valence vacancies in trans-butadiene in order to show that the breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionization in the inner valence region can be physically interpreted as an energy-forbidden Coster-Kronig transition.

  17. Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization In Ne, Ar And Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Al-Zanki, Jasem M.; El-Essawy, Ashraf H.

    2010-01-05

    Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.

  18. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  19. Transitions Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the changes the Douglass school district (Kansas) underwent as they began to implement "Transitions," a school improvement model that is based on individual student accountability. Provides insight into the capacities that need to be developed within a system before Transitions can be implemented successfully. Includes a sample

  20. Newborn transition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara W; Haley, Mary Mumford

    2013-01-01

    The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a complex adaptation. Although, in a sense, the entire time in utero is in preparation for this transition, there are many specific anatomic and physiologic changes that take place in the weeks and days leading up to labor that facilitate a healthy transition. Some, including increasing pulmonary vasculature and blood flow, are part of an ongoing process of maturation. Others, such as a reversal in the lung from secreting fluid to absorbing fluid and the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, are associated with the hormonal milieu that occurs when spontaneous labor is impending. Interventions such as elective cesarean birth or induction of labor may interfere with this preparation for birth. Postnatal interventions such as immediate clamping of the umbilical cord and oropharyngeal suction may also compromise the normal process of newborn transition. This article reviews the physiology of the fetal to newborn transition and explores interventions that may facilitate or hinder the optimal process. PMID:24103003

  1. Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Linda C.; Wallender, Janis

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses how by helping students through life transitions--such as a new home, new sibling, or divorcing parents--school counselors can ensure that students are truly prepared academically and emotionally for life. (GCP)

  2. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  3. LMM Auger primary excitation spectra of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, N.; Tougaard, S.; Yubero, F.

    2014-12-01

    The shape and intensity of measured Auger peaks are strongly affected by extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface and to intrinsic excitations induced by the sudden creation of the two static core holes. Following a method developed for XPS in a previous work [N. Pauly, S. Tougaard, F. Yubero, Surf. Sci. 620 (2014) 17], we have calculated the effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross-sections, including the effects of the surface and of the two core holes, within the dielectric response theory by means of the QUEELS-XPS software (QUantitative analysis of Electron Energy Losses at Surfaces for XPS). The Auger spectra are then modeled by convoluting this energy loss cross section with the primary excitation spectrum that accounts for all effects which are part of the initial Auger process, i.e. L-S coupling and vacancy satellite effects. The shape of this primary excitation spectrum is fitted to get close agreement between the theoretical and the experimental spectra obtained from X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES). We have performed these calculations of XAES spectra for various LMM Auger transitions of pure Cu (L3M45M45, L3M23M45, L3M23M23 and L2M45M45 transitions). We compare the resulting primary excitation spectra with theoretical results published in the literature and obtain reasonable quantitative agreement. In particular, we extract from experimental spectra quantitative intensities due to Coster-Kronig, shake-off and shake-up processes relative to the intensity from the normal Auger process.

  4. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  5. Measurements of L-Auger spectra of Pu, Am, Cf, and Fm and comparison with theory

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, S.K.; Freedman, M.S.; Porter, F.T.

    1984-07-01

    The L-Auger spectra of 2 /sub 94//sup 39/Pu (64 lines), /sub 100//sup 254/Fm (54 lines), 2 /sub 95//sup 41/Am (41 LMM lines only), and 2 /sub 98//sup 50/Cf (35 LMM lines only) were scanned over the range 6--19 keV at high resolution (10/sup -3/< or =..delta..E/E< or =2 x 10/sup -3/) in the Argonne National Laboratory iron-free double toroidal spectrometer using thin (< or =1 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/) isotopically separated radioactive sources. The observed energies of lines or line complexes agreed with Larkins's semiempirical predictions within the combined (theoretical plus experimental) standard deviations (1 s.d. = 10--20 eV in 10--20 keV) in 78% of the comparisons, and 19% were within 1--2 s.d. The measured intensities (relative to L/sub 3/M/sub 4/M/sub 5/) for Pu were compared to nonrelativistic predictions of McGuire for Z = 90, with the relativistic predictions of Chen et al. for Z = 94, and with a mixed system using Chen et al. for Coster-Kronig and McGuire for L-Auger transitions. Fm intensities (and Am and Cf qualitatively) could be compared only to relativistic theories. Relativistic predictions are clearly better for Pu, but are not, in general, satisfactory for either Pu or Fm; for all Pu and Fm lines, taken together, 58% are within 1 s.d., 30% in the range 1--2 s.d., and 12% greater than 2 s.d., with the relativistic predictions generally low except for the L/sub 3/MM band, which is in acceptable agreement.

  6. Improved spectrum simulation for validating SEM-EDS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statham, P.; Penman, C.; Duncumb, P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray microanalysis by SEM-EDS requires corrections for the many physical processes that affect emitted intensity for elements present in the material. These corrections will only be accurate provided a number of conditions are satisfied and it is essential that the correct elements are identified. As analysis is pushed to achieve results on smaller features and more challenging samples it becomes increasingly difficult to determine if all conditions are upheld and whether the analysis results are valid. If a theoretical simulated spectrum based on the measured analysis result is compared with the measured spectrum, any marked differences will indicate problems with the analysis and can prevent serious mistakes in interpretation. To achieve the necessary accuracy a previous theoretical model has been enhanced to incorporate new line intensity measurements, differential absorption and excitation of emission lines, including the effect of Coster-Kronig transitions and an improved treatment of bremsstrahlung for compounds. The efficiency characteristic has been measured for a large area SDD detector and data acquired from an extensive set of standard materials at both 5 kV and 20 kV. The parameterized model has been adjusted to fit measured characteristic intensities and both background shape and intensity at the same beam current. Examples are given to demonstrate how an overlay of an accurate theoretical simulation can expose some non-obvious mistakes and provide some expert guidance towards a valid analysis result. A new formula for calculating the effective mean atomic number for compounds has also been derived that is appropriate and should help improve accuracy in techniques that calculate the bremsstrahlung or use a bremsstrahlung measurement for calibration.

  7. CosmoTransitions: Cosmological Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2015-04-01

    CosmoTransitions analyzes early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The code enables analysis of the phase structure of an input theory, determines the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and finds the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.

  8. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  9. The line shape of L2 - L2L3M4,5 - M4,5M4,5(M4,5) satellites in the auger spectra of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cini, M.; Perfetto, E.; Stefanucci, G.; Ugenti, S.

    2008-03-01

    We propose the foundations of an extended Auger Line Shape Analysis aiming to include the Coster-Kronig (CK) satellites in solid state spectra. In many solids like Cu and Zn metals they show up as intense high binding energy satellites of the Core-Valence-Valence (CVV) lines. Our theory covers the whole range between weak and strong correlation. We find that the satellites display three-hole and distorted two-hole features along with uncorrelated band-like continua.

  10. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Gimnez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  11. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  12. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  13. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  14. Transition to Adulthood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to top IDEA’s Definition of Transition Services Any discussion of transition services must begin with its definition ... writing is a topic worthy of an entire discussion on its own. To shed light on how ...

  15. Cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. |

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  16. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

  17. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by

  18. Evolution of the L satellites in the X-ray emission spectra of ? region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonia, Surendra

    2005-05-01

    The X-ray satellites L?1^I, L?1^II, L?1^III, L?1^IV, L?2^I, L?2^(b), L?2^II and L?2^(c) observed in the L-emission spectra in elements with Z = 26 to 92, have been calculated. The energies of various transitions have been calculated by available Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) data using the semi-empirical Auger transition energies in the doubly ionized atoms and their relative intensities have been estimated by considering cross - sections of singly ionized 2x-1 (x ? s, p) states and then of subsequent Coster-Kronig and shake off processes. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in the L emission spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The one to one correspondence between the peaks in calculated spectra and the satellites in measured spectra has been established on the basis of the agreement between the separations in the peak energies and those in the measured satellite energies. Group of transitions under the transition schemes L2Mx-MxM4,5 andL3Mx-MxN4,5 (x ? 1-5), which give, rise to these satellites have been identified. It is observed that the satellite L?2^(b) in all these spectra can be assigned to the superposition of ^3F4-^3G5 and ^3F4-^3D3 transitions and that this must be most intense one out of all these satellites, contributing in order of decreasing intensity. Each of the remaining satellites is found to have different origin in different elements. The possible contributions of the suitable transitions to all these lines have also been discussed. References:1. Y. Cauchois and C. Senemaud, X-Ray Wavelength Tables, 2^nd ed., (Oxford: Pergamon) pp. 217-314, (1978).2. S.N.Soni, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23, 1117-1128, (1990).3. S. N. Soni and M. H. Massoud, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58(1), 145-151 (1997).4. S. N. Soni and S. Poonia, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(9), 1509-1518 (2000).5. S. Poonia and S. N. Soni, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(3), 503-511 (2001).

  19. L{beta}1 and L{beta}2 Satellites in the X-ray Emission Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Poonia, Surendra

    2005-10-26

    The X-ray satellites L{beta}{sub 1}{sup I}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup II}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup III}, L{beta}{sub 1}{sup IV}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup I}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (b)}, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup II} and L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (c)} observed in the L-emission spectra in elements with Z = 26 to 92, have been calculated. The energies of various transitions have been calculated by available Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) data using the semi-empirical Auger transition energies in the doubly ionized atoms and their relative intensities have been estimated by considering cross - sections of singly ionized 2x-1 (x {identical_to} s, p) states and then of subsequent Coster-Kronig and shake off processes. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in the L emission spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The one to one correspondence between the peaks in calculated spectra and the satellites in measured spectra has been established on the basis of the agreement between the separations in the peak energies and those in the measured satellite energies. Group of transitions under the transition schemes L2Mx-MxM4,5 and L3Mx-MxN4,5 (x {identical_to} 1-5), which give rise to these satellites have been identified. It is observed that the satellite L{beta}{sub 2}{sup (b)} in all these spectra can be assigned to the superposition of 3F4-3G5 and 3F4-3D3 transitions and that this must be most intense one out of all these satellites, contributing in order of decreasing intensity. Each of the remaining satellites is found to have different origin in different elements. The possible contributions of the suitable transitions to all these lines have also been discussed.

  20. Deforming geometric transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Michele

    2015-04-01

    After a quick review of the wild structure of the complex moduli space of Calabi-Yau 3-folds and the role of geometric transitions in this context (the Calabi-Yau web) the concept of deformation equivalence for geometric transitions is introduced to understand the arrows of the Gross-Reid Calabi-Yau web as deformation-equivalence classes of geometric transitions. Then the focus will be on some results and suitable examples to understand under which conditions it is possible to get simple geometric transitions, which are almost the only well-understood geometric transitions both in mathematics and in physics.

  1. Photoinduced phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Bennemann, K H

    2011-02-23

    Optically induced ultrafast electronic excitations with sufficiently long lifetimes may cause strong effects on phase transitions like structural and nonmetal?metal ones and on supercooling, supersaturation, etc. Examples are the transitions diamond?graphite, graphite?graphene, non-metal?metal, solid?liquid and vapor?liquid, solid. Photoinduced formation of graphene and water condensation of saturated or supersaturated vapor due to increased bonding amongst water molecules are of particular interest. These nonequilibrium transitions are an ultrafast response, on a few hundred fs time scale, to the fast low to large energy electronic excitations. The energy of the photons is converted into electronic energy via electronic excitations changing the cohesive energy. This changes the chemical potential controlling the phase transition. In view of the advances in laser optics photon induced transitions are expected to become an active area in nonequilibrium physics and phase transition dynamics. Conservation laws like energy or angular momentum conservation control the time during which the transitions occur. Since the photon induced effects result from weakening or strengthening of the bonding between the atoms or molecules transitions like solid/liquid, etc can be shifted in both directions. Photoinduced transitions will be discussed from a unified point of view. PMID:21411879

  2. Transition between Kelvin's equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahamne, Hamid Ait; Siddiqui, Kamran; Vatistas, Georgios H.

    2009-12-01

    A transition between Kelvins equilibrium states is investigated. Using nonlinear theory, we have shown that the transition of polygonal patterns of the hollow vortex core from mode N=2 through N=4 occurs in two steps: quasiperiodicity and frequency locking. We have also shown that this transition can be modeled by a one-dimensional circle map. We extrapolate the present result and hypothesize that the transition between Kelvins equilibria follows the same route and the ratios of locking frequencies form a Farey sum and staircase function against the control parameter, where the staircase corresponds to the rational frequency ratio, (N-1)/N .

  3. Transitive and Pseudo-Transitive Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    Given that A is longer than B, and that B is longer than C, even 5-year-old children can infer that A is longer than C. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules of inference invoke simple axioms ("meaning postulates") to capture such transitive inferences. An alternative theory proposes instead that reasoners construct mental models of the…

  4. Transitions and Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    If children are to benefit from a healthy, supportive early childhood experience, it is important to strengthen transitions between early childhood experiences in educational and care settings and the more formal educational system. This issue of Coordinator's Notebook focuses on strengthening linkages and transitions between home, preschool, and

  5. Seriation, Correspondence, and Transitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Johannes

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between three types of tasks were investigated with 428 children from kindergarten through grade 6 showing that correspondence, seriation, and transitivity reflected different underlying concepts. Thus, it was concluded that neither correspondence nor transitivity tasks can serve as replacements for traditional seriation tasks in

  6. Good Transitions = Great Starts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly

  7. Transitions in Spousal Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin

    2003-01-01

    Describes transitions over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who transitioned to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…

  8. Secondary Education Transition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

    The Secondary Education Transition Model project at Colorado State University-Fort Collins represents a local and state commitment to serve students with severe handicaps who are moving into community work and living roles. These comprehensive transition services begin at the secondary education level and extend into the adult service system. The

  9. School Transition Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert

    This bibliography on school transition includes 240 entries of books, journal articles, papers, reports, bibliographies, and dissertations. These entries deal with transitions of the following populations: adult learners, youth, Plains Indian women, high school students, people with learning disabilities, disadvantaged youth, high school

  10. Bowel transit time

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lot of foods rich in fiber (whole grains, vegetables, and fruits), you will have a more rapid ... The bowel transit time dye test is rarely done these days. Instead, bowel transit is often measured with small probes called manometry. Your health care ...

  11. Transition Summary, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transition Summary, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two newsletters center on making the transition from school to work for students with disabilities. In the first newsletter, a personal reflection on transition by a man with cerebral palsy is followed by a review of services offered by colleges with support programs for learning disabled students. Guidelines are given to help parents prepare

  12. Seamless Transition for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,

  13. A Posteriori Transit Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Given the radial velocity (RV) detection of an unseen companion, it is often of interest to estimate the probability that the companion also transits the primary star. Typically, one assumes a uniform distribution for the cosine of the inclination angle i of the companion's orbit. This yields the familiar estimate for the prior transit probability of ~Rlowast/a, given the primary radius Rlowast and orbital semimajor axis a, and assuming small companions and a circular orbit. However, the posterior transit probability depends not only on the prior probability distribution of i but also on the prior probability distribution of the companion mass Mc, given a measurement of the product of the two (the minimum mass Mc sin i) from an RV signal. In general, the posterior can be larger or smaller than the prior transit probability. We derive analytic expressions for the posterior transit probability assuming a power-law form for the distribution of true masses, dΓ/dMcvpropMcα, for integer values -3 <= α <= 3. We show that for low transit probabilities, these probabilities reduce to a constant multiplicative factor fα of the corresponding prior transit probability, where fα in general depends on α and an assumed upper limit on the true mass. The prior and posterior probabilities are equal for α = -1. The posterior transit probability is ~1.5 times larger than the prior for α = -3 and is ~4/π times larger for α = -2, but is less than the prior for α>=0, and can be arbitrarily small for α > 1. We also calculate the posterior transit probability in different mass regimes for two physically-motivated mass distributions of companions around Sun-like stars. We find that for Jupiter-mass planets, the posterior transit probability is roughly equal to the prior probability, whereas the posterior is likely higher for Super-Earths and Neptunes (10 M⊕ - 30 M⊕) and Super-Jupiters (3 MJup - 10 MJup), owing to the predicted steep rise in the mass function toward smaller masses in these regimes. We therefore suggest that companions with minimum masses in these regimes might be better-than-expected targets for transit follow-up, and we identify promising targets from RV-detected planets in the literature. Finally, we consider the uncertainty in the transit probability arising from uncertainties in the input parameters, and the effect of ignoring the dependence of the transit probability on the true semimajor axis on i.

  14. Predictability of critical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  15. Slow-transit Constipation.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated. PMID:11469989

  16. Transitions in biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Thatcher, Travis; Cooley, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Biofilms are multicellular, dynamic communities formed by interacting unicellular organisms bound to a surface. Forming a biofilm is a developmental process, characterized by sequential changes in gene expression and behavior as bacteria and yeast progress from discrete, free-swimming cells though stages that arrive at a mature biofilm. We are developing automated metrics to identify key transitions in early biofilm formation as cells attach to a surface, populate that surface, and adhere to each other to form early microcolonies. Our metrics use high-throughput tracking and analysis of microscopy movies to localize these transitions in space and time. Each of these transitions is associated with a loss of entropy in the bacterial system and, therefore, with biological activity that drives this loss of entropy. Better understanding of these transitions will allow automated determination of the strength and turn-on of attractive cell-surface and cell-cell interactions as biofilm development progresses.

  17. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. PMID:25666075

  18. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem reasonable to draw the following conclusions with varying degrees of confidence. There appears to be a substantial decrease in the mean intensity of the dipole field during a transition to 25% of its usual value. The duration of an average geomagnetic polarity transition is not well known but probably lies between 1000 and 8000 years. Values outside these bounds have been reported, but we give reasons as to why such outliers are likely to be artifacts. The reversal process is probably longer than the manifestation of the reversal at Earth's surface as recorded in paleomagnetic directional data. Convection hiatus during a geomagnetic polarity transition seems unlikely, and free-decay models for reversals appear to be generally incompatible with the data. This implies that certain theorems in dynamo theory, such as Cowling's theorem, should not be invoked to explain the origin of reversals. Unfortunately, the detailed description of directional changes during transitions remains controversial. Contrary to common belief, certain low-degree nondipole fields can produce significant longitudinal confinement of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) during a transition. The data are currently inadequate to refute or verify claims of longitudinal dipole confinement, VGP clustering, or other systematics during polarity transitions.

  19. Melting of Transition Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M; Japel, S; Boehler, R

    2005-04-11

    We review the transition melting studies carried out at Mainz, and describe a recently developed model used to explain that the relatively low melting slopes are due to the partially filled d-bands, and the persistence of the pressure induced s-d transition. The basic tenets of the model have now been reconfirmed by new measurements for Cu and Ni. The measurements show that Cu which has a filled 3d-band, has a melt slope that is about 2.5 greater than its neighbor Ni. In the case of Mo, the apparent discrepancy of DAC melting measurements with shock melting can be explained by accounting for the change in melt slope due to the bcc-cp transition observed in the shock studies. The Fe melt curve is revisited. The possible relevance of the Jahn-Teller effect and recently observed transition metal melts with Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) is discussed.

  20. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  1. The Heliosphere in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Justin

    2015-04-01

    The heliosphere consists of the connective tissue of particles, fields and photons that mediate our interaction with the Sun and with interstellar space. Exploration of the heliosphere yields clues to the nature of environments we cannot reach ourselves, illuminating the composition of the solar interior, or the acceleration of cosmic rays in the galaxy. The heliosphere is also a laboratory for us to understand the fundamental physics of magnetized plasma, from heating and instabilities to coupling with neutral gas and dust. This talk will review some of the most exciting recent results in the heliosphere with a focus on transitions: what we can learn by exploring transitions within the heliosphere, how the heliosphere is responding to the long term transition in solar activity, and how our very view of the heliosphere is in transition with upcoming missions such as Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and IMAP.

  2. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  3. Quarkonia and their transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Eichten, Estia; Godfrey, Stephen; Mahlke, Hanna; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2008-07-15

    Valuable data on quarkonia (the bound states of a heavy quark Q=c,b and the corresponding antiquark) have recently been provided by a variety of sources, mainly e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, but also hadronic interactions. This permits a thorough updating of the experimental and theoretical status of electromagnetic and strong transitions in quarkonia. The QQ transitions to other QQ states are discussed, with some reference to processes involving QQ annihilation.

  4. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition, and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  5. What remains to be done to allow quantitative X-ray microanalysis performed with EDS to become a true characterization technique?

    PubMed

    Gauvin, Raynald

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews different methods used to perform quantitative X-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope and also demonstrates the urgency of measuring the fundamental parameters of X-ray generation for the development of accurate standardless quantitative methods. Using ratios of characteristic lines acquired on the same X-ray spectrum, it is shown that the Cliff and Lorimer K A-B factor can be used in a general correction method that is appropriate for all types of specimens and electron microscopes, providing that appropriate corrections are made for X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and indirect generation. Since the fundamental parameters appear in the K A-B factor, only the ratio of the ionization cross sections needs to be known, not their absolute values. In this regard, the measurement of ratios of the K A-B factor (or intensities at different beam energies of the same material with no change of beam spreading in the material) permits the validation for the best models to compute the ratio of ionization cross sections. It is shown, using this method, that the nonrelativistic Bethe equation, to compute ionization cross section, is very close to the equation of E. Casnati et al. (J Phys B 15, 155-167, 1982) and also to the equations proposed by D. Bote and F. Salvat (Phys Rev A 77, 042701, 2008) for the computation of the ratio of ionization cross sections. The method is extended to show that it could be used to determine the values of the Coster-Kronig transitions factors, an important fundamental parameter for the generation of L and M lines that is mostly known with poor accuracy. The detector efficiency can be measured with specimens where their intensities were measured with an energy dispersive spectrometer detector, the efficiency of which has been measured in an X-ray synchrotron (M. Alvisi et al., Microsc Microanal 12, 406-415, 2006). The spatial resolution should always be computed when performing quantitative X-ray microanalysis and the equations of R. Gauvin (Microsc Microanal 13(5), 354-357, 2007) for bulk materials and the one presented in this article for thin films should be used. The effects of X-rays generated by fast secondary electrons and by Auger electrons are reviewed, and their effect can be detrimental for the spatial resolution of materials involving low-energy X-ray lines, in certain specific conditions. Finally, quantitative X-ray microanalysis of heterogeneous materials is briefly reviewed. PMID:23095445

  6. Venus Transit 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.

    2002-09-01

    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the transit and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.

  7. RTGs on Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassoulas, John; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Transit, the US Navy's Navigation Satellite System was conceived at the Applied Physics Laboratory in 1957 by observing the Doppler shift while tracking Sputnik I. As spacecraft development proceeded there was concern about the ability of batteries to maintain the hermetic seal over a 5-year operational life requirement; therefore, alternate energy sources were investigated. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) concept was pursued and resulted in the launch of SNAP 3s, providing partial power on both Transit 4A and 4B. SNAP 9s provided full power on three Transit 5BNs. All launches occurred in the early 1960s. When the U.S. conducted the high altitude nuclear test from Johnson Island, several spacecraft were lost due to artificial enhancement of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere resulting in rapid degradation of solar cell power production. This led to the decision to have both an RTG and Solar cell/battery design for Transit power systems; hence, a new RTG design, with a separable heat source and radiative coupling to the thermoelectric elements, was flown on TRIAD. This pioneering effort provided the impetus for future RTGs on interplanetary spacecraft. This paper describes the origin and purpose of the Transit program and provides details on the five satellites in that program that were powered by the first American RTGs used in space. The rationale and some of the challenges inherent in that use are also described.

  8. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  9. Noise and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.

    2006-03-01

    Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase transitions? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase transitions, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase transition, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase transition. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.

  10. The ? ? Transition of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipi?ski, L.; Kowal, A.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Steur, P. P. M.; Pavese, F.

    2007-12-01

    It is well-known that, aside from its triple point, nitrogen exhibits a solid-to-solid transition at about 35 K that is of some interest as a secondary reference temperature. During the recently published highly accurate measurements of the triple point of nitrogen ( Metrologia 43, 435 (2006)), an extensive study was made also of the solid ? ? transition of nitrogen, using both the continuous heating method and the pulse-heating method. This transition is of significantly lower quality than the triple point of nitrogen. A very high thermal resistance and a large time constant characterize the transition. Therefore, even the determination of the self-heating of the thermometer requires a very long time. A value of T 90 = 35.620 K with an expanded uncertainty U = 8 mK for the coverage factor k = 2 was found, differing by +6 mK from the published CCT-recommended value. The reproducibility of the value was better than 5 mK. In addition to the temperature value found for the transition, a comparison is made with previous measurements on this point, and an overview is given of the available information about it.

  11. Perspective: The glass transition.

    PubMed

    Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P

    2013-03-28

    We provide here a brief perspective on the glass transition field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or "stylised facts," of the glass transition problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass transition and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass transition have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass transition, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook. PMID:23556751

  12. Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Eileen R.

    1995-01-01

    This brief informational flyer presents practical information on the transition from school to work for students who are deaf-blind or have other severe disabilities. After defining transition, the flyer offers guidelines on: the age at which transition services should be started, areas that should be considered in a coordinated transition plan,

  13. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.

  14. Transition and laminar instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The linear stability theory was applied to the problem of boundary layer transition in incompressible flow. The theory was put into a form suitable for three-dimensional boundary layers; both the temporal and spatial theories were examined; and a generalized Gaster relation for three-dimensional boundary layers was derived. Numerical examples include the stability characteristics of Falkner-Skan boundary layers, the accuracy of the two-dimensional Gaster relation for these boundary layers, and the magnitude and direction of the group velocity for oblique waves in the Blasius boundary layer. Available experiments which bear on the validity of stability theory and its relation to transition are reviewed and the stability theory is applied to transition prediction. The amplitude method is described in which the wide band disturbance amplitude in the boundary layer is estimated from stability theory and an interaction relation for the initial amplitude density of the most unstable frequency.

  15. Boundary-layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. K.

    The prediction of the boundary layer transition Reynolds number for the design of hypersonic vehicles is considered. The boundary layer state (laminar or turbulent) that approaches the vehicle control surfaces can significantly affect the control surface effectiveness. In addition, the heating rates associated with turbulent boundary layers are often ten times higher than those of laminar boundary layers. Unfortunately, the methodology to predict transition has eluded the aerodynamicist for over three decades, and there are still many unanswered questions. Many parameters that affect transition are considered and numerous references for those who are interested in specializing in this topic are provided. It is emphasized that during wind tunnel testing it is very important to know the boundary layer state. Typically, heat transfer distributions can provide this information; however, it is often necessary to artificially trip the flow to induce a turbulent boundary layer. The methodology of using trip spheres is discussed, and illustrative data are presented.

  16. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  17. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  18. China's urban transition.

    PubMed

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration. However, the longer migrants remain in cities the more likely Skeldon's models of early European transitions apply to China's urban transition. PMID:12178548

  19. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  20. Bottomonium dipion transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, Yu. A.; Veselov, A. I.

    2009-02-01

    Dipion transitions of the subthreshold bottomonium levels {upsilon}(nS){yields}{upsilon}(n{sup '}S){pi}{pi} with n>n{sup '}, n=2, 3, 4 n{sup '}=1, 2 are studied in the framework of the chiral decay Lagrangian, derived earlier. The channels BB, BB*+c.c., B*B* are considered in the intermediate state and realistic wave functions of {upsilon}(nS), B and B* are used in the overlap matrix elements. Imposing the Adler zero requirement on the transition matrix element, one obtains 2d and 1d dipion spectra in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  1. Network observability transitions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Jianhui; Motter, Adilson E

    2012-12-21

    In the modeling, monitoring, and control of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the comprehensive determination of the state of the system from limited measurements. Using power grids as example networks, we show that this problem leads to a new type of percolation transition, here termed a network observability transition, which we solve analytically for the configuration model. We also demonstrate a dual role of the network's community structure, which both facilitates optimal measurement placement and renders the networks substantially more sensitive to "observability attacks." Aside from their immediate implications for the development of smart grids, these results provide insights into decentralized biological, social, and technological networks. PMID:23368505

  2. Tips for Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Morningstar, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) states that transition planning should begin at the earliest age appropriate and no later than age 16. IDEA requires schools to make collaborative efforts to provide students access to an array of postschool activities including integrated employment, postsecondary

  3. Competence in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Bob

    2004-01-01

    The former Soviet economies have, for the past 12 years, looked to the advanced economies in the west for help in reforming their systems of vocational education and training. These "transition" economies still bear much of the legacy of the previous system and culture-academic in orientation, firmly supply led and implemented through vocational

  4. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof

  5. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why

  6. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  7. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  8. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  9. Modeling of transitional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    An effort directed at developing improved transitional models was initiated. The focus of this work was concentrated on the critical assessment of a popular existing transitional model developed by McDonald and Fish in 1972. The objective of this effort was to identify the shortcomings of the McDonald-Fish model and to use the insights gained to suggest modifications or alterations of the basic model. In order to evaluate the transitional model, a compressible boundary layer code was required. Accordingly, a two-dimensional compressible boundary layer code was developed. The program was based on a three-point fully implicit finite difference algorithm where the equations were solved in an uncoupled manner with second order extrapolation used to evaluate the non-linear coefficients. Iteration was offered as an option if the extrapolation error could not be tolerated. The differencing scheme was arranged to be second order in both spatial directions on an arbitrarily stretched mesh. A variety of boundary condition options were implemented including specification of an external pressure gradient, specification of a wall temperature distribution, and specification of an external temperature distribution. Overall the results of the initial phase of this work indicate that the McDonald-Fish model does a poor job at predicting the details of the turbulent flow structure during the transition region.

  10. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  11. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single

  12. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  13. Transition at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

  14. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  15. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  16. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but evolved enzymatic geometry to form the transition state. Evolution to efficient catalysis optimized this geometry and its stabilization by a transition state mimic results in tight binding. Release rates of transition state analogues are orders of magnitude slower than product release in normal catalytic function. During catalysis, product release is facilitated by altered chemistry. Compared to the weak associations found in Michaelis complexes, transition state analogues involve strong interactions related to those in the transition state. Optimum binding of transition state analogues occurs when the complex retains the system motions intrinsic to transition state formation. Conserved dynamic motion retains the entropic components of inhibitor complexes, improving the thermodynamics of analogue binding. PMID:25848811

  17. Alternative fuel transit buses: The Pierce Transit Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Pierce transit program for operating mass transit buses on compressed natural gas (CNG) is described. Cost, reliability, fuel efficiency, emission of combustion products, and future trends are discussed.

  18. Assessment for Transitions Planning. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gary M.

    Part of a series designed to provide practical resources for transition personnel on a variety of topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this guide focuses on assessment for transition planning. Chapter 1, "Transitions Assessment: What Do We Need To Know about Students and Why?," discusses the

  19. ?-? Isostructural Transition in Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanat, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Schmalian, Jrg; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-11-01

    We present zero-temperature first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and we compute its pressure-volume phase diagram within a theoretical framework able to describe simultaneously both the ? and the ? phases. A surprising result revealed by our study is the presence of a clear signature of the transition at zero temperature and that this signature can be observed if and only if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Our calculations indicate that the transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram of this material has a low-T critical point at negative pressures, placed very close to zero temperature. This suggests that cerium is very close to being quantum critical, in agreement with recent experiments.

  20. ?-? isostructural transition in cerium.

    PubMed

    Lanat, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Schmalian, Jrg; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-11-01

    We present zero-temperature first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and we compute its pressure-volume phase diagram within a theoretical framework able to describe simultaneously both the ? and the ? phases. A surprising result revealed by our study is the presence of a clear signature of the transition at zero temperature and that this signature can be observed if and only if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Our calculations indicate that the transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram of this material has a low-T critical point at negative pressures, placed very close to zero temperature. This suggests that cerium is very close to being "quantum critical," in agreement with recent experiments. PMID:24266481

  1. High speed transition prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasperas, Gediminis

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this work period was to develop, maintain and exercise state-of-the-art methods for transition prediction in supersonic flow fields. Basic state and stability codes, acquired during the last work period, were exercised and applied to calculate the properties of various flowfields. The development of a code for the prediction of transition location using a currently novel method (the PSE or Parabolized Stability Equation method), initiated during the last work period and continued during the present work period, was cancelled at mid-year for budgetary reasons. Other activities during this period included the presentation of a paper at the APS meeting in Tallahassee, Florida entitled 'Stability of Two-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers', as well as the initiation of a paper co-authored with H. Reed of the Arizona State University entitled 'Stability of Boundary Layers'.

  2. Transitions: exploring the frontier.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B

    End-of-life experiences go by various terms, including near-death experiences (NDEs), death bed visions, death bed phenomena, death bed coincidences, and nearing death awareness. Death bed escorts is the term applied to the vision of deceased family members or friends who inform the dying person that they will be accompanied in the transition from life. In this article, I examine the subject of NDEs and death bed escorts, starting with the rich body of work provided by Robert and Beatrice Kastenbaum. A subject of some interest to Robert Kastenbaum, he explored this frontier in his many writings on dying, death, and bereavement. Ever the pioneer and having made the ultimate transition, he may yet be exploring new frontiers. PMID:25351590

  3. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  4. Transition mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

  5. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  6. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  7. The Myths of Mass Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Catherine G.

    1982-01-01

    Criticizes eight commonly held notions about the value of mass transit systems in public transportation programs. Alternative approaches for improving the quality and quantity of urban transit systems are discussed. (AM)

  8. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  9. The transition to agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    1999-01-01

    The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints. PMID:10339524

  10. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  11. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Care Transitions

    Cancer.gov

    PCRB is interested in research aimed at understanding and improving transitions between types of care along the cancer care continuum. Survivorship care planning interventions, patient navigation, teamwork, transitions coaching, and models such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home and shared care are contemporary examples of efforts to promote high quality transitional care within the US health system.

  12. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the

  13. Transition "Movement" into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    Teachers usually do not give as much thought to transitions as they do to other facets of the early childhood curriculum. As a result, transitions often lead to chaos and wasted time. But this doesn't have to be the case. If teachers "plan" transitions, as they do other daily components of the curriculum, they can avoid chaos and ensure that

  14. Rural Transition Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Phebe

    Successful rural transition strategies which assist disabled rural secondary students in the transition from school to employment and community integration are described. Effective programs and specific strategies touch on such topic areas as job/career exploration, on-site job exploration, career planning, prevocational training, transition

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  16. Relativistic calculations of M-shell photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections for Hg at 5.96 keV excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections (XPCS) of M-shell vacancies in Hg at an incident photon energy of 5.96 keV (low energy X-rays of 55Fe radioactive source) using the Dirac-Fock method. Calculations are performed in single configuration approach with the Breit interaction and some vacuum polarization corrections included in the self-consistent method. Higher-order retardation corrections, self-energy and other vacuum polarization effects were also included as perturbations. Fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields necessary to derive XPCS were obtained in a previous work using the exact same approach.

  17. Suppression of Exponential Electronic Decay in a Charged Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Averbukh, Vitali; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan Michael

    2010-06-11

    Inner-shell ionization of atoms and molecules leads to the creation of highly excited ionic states that often decay by electron emission. The dynamics of the decay is usually assumed to be exponential and the process is characterized by a decay rate. Here we show that in a multiply ionized cluster created by interaction with a high-intensity free-electron laser (FEL) radiation, trapping of the emitted electron by the neighboring ions changes the character of the decay dynamics qualitatively to the extent that it can become oscillatory instead of exponential. Implications of the predicted effect on Coster-Kronig and interatomic Coulombic decay processes induced by FELs are investigated.

  18. Use of Electron Correlation to Make Attosecond Measurements without Attosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, Olga; Ivanov, Misha

    2005-06-03

    We describe how correlations between electrons can be used to trace the dynamics of correlated two-electron ionization with attosecond precision, without using attosecond pulses. The approach is illustrated using the example of Auger or Coster-Kronig decay triggered by photoionization with an extreme ultraviolet pulse. It requires correlated measurements of angle-resolved energy spectra of both the photo- and Auger electrons in the presence of a laser pulse. To reconstruct the dynamics, we use not only classical time and energy correlation, but also entanglement between the two electrons.

  19. Single, double, and triple Auger decay of the Xe 4p core-hole states

    SciTech Connect

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Eland, J. H. D.; Aoto, T.; Ito, K.

    2007-09-15

    Auger decay of Xe{sup +} states arising from 4p ionization has been studied with a very efficient multielectron coincidence method. Coster-Kronig decay from Xe{sup +} 4p{sup -1} and the subsequent decay into Xe{sup 3+} states with three valence holes are identified. Formation of Xe{sup 4+} is also observed as quadruple coincidences between a 4p photoelectron and three Auger electrons. The relative probabilities of individual multi-ionization processes are determined from the coincidence yields.

  20. Semiconducting transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using as an example the diversity of possible atomic and magnetic configurations of the O vacancy in TiO2, and the high levels of hole doping in Co2ZnO4 due to a self-doping mechanism that originates from the multivalence of Co.

  1. Transition Path Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vanden-Eijnden, E.

    The dynamical behavior of many systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. is dominated by rare but important transition events between long lived states. For over 70 years, transition state theory (TST) has provided the main theoretical framework for the description of these events [17,33,34]. Yet, while TST and evolutions thereof based on the reactive flux formalism [1, 5] (see also [30,31]) give an accurate estimate of the transition rate of a reaction, at least in principle, the theory tells very little in terms of the mechanism of this reaction. Recent advances, such as transition path sampling (TPS) of Bolhuis, Chandler, Dellago, and Geissler [3, 7] or the action method of Elber [15, 16], may seem to go beyond TST in that respect: these techniques allow indeed to sample the ensemble of reactive trajectories, i.e. the trajectories by which the reaction occurs. And yet, the reactive trajectories may again be rather uninformative about the mechanism of the reaction. This may sound paradoxical at first: what more than actual reactive trajectories could one need to understand a reaction? The problem, however, is that the reactive trajectories by themselves give only a very indirect information about the statistical properties of these trajectories. This is similar to why statistical mechanics is not simply a footnote in books about classical mechanics. What is the probability density that a trajectory be at a given location in state-space conditional on it being reactive? What is the probability current of these reactive trajectories? What is their rate of appearance? These are the questions of interest and they are not easy to answer directly from the ensemble of reactive trajectories. The right framework to tackle these questions also goes beyond standard equilibrium statistical mechanics because of the nontrivial bias that the very definition of the reactive trajectories imply - they must be involved in a reaction. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the probabilistic framework one can use to characterize the mechanism of a reaction and obtain the probability density, current, rate, etc. of the reactive trajectories.

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  3. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  4. Electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this review is to survey observations of electromagnetic transitions in hypernuclei and to point out contributions of these observations to an understanding of the effective two-body hyperon-nucleon forces in the nucleus. The discussion concentrates on lambda-hyperon nucleon potentials. Future plans for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy using Ge diode detectors is discussed, especially regarding the window of utility of such devices. Expected improvements in beam facilities are also reviewed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (DWL)

  5. Vanadium CVV Auger transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervan, P.; Valla, T.; Milun, M.

    1996-08-01

    We report an experimental study of the CVV Auger transition of vanadium. A comparison between the experimental spectrum and the self-convolution of the calculated density of states (DOS) failed to show any significant shift between the spectra as reported for Ti and Sc. We have also found good agreement between our experimental and Contini's et al.?l? calculated CVV spectrum of vanadium which may suggest that the screening of the core hole is not as important for the vanadium CVV Auger spectrum as might be expected.

  6. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  7. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  8. MINEHOUND: transition to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Hunt, Nigel; Braunstein, Jrgen; Merz, Armin

    2007-04-01

    The UK Department for International Development (DfID), in collaboration with the German Foreign Ministry (Auswrtiges Amt), contracted ERA Technology to carry out extensive field trials in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola of an advanced technology, dual sensor, and hand-held landmine detector system called MINEHOUND TM. This detector combines a metal detector with a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). As a result of extremely successful trials MINEHOUND TM was developed as a product by ERA Technology and Vallon GmbH and has been available for sale since late 2006. This paper describes the transition to production of the detector.

  9. Superradiance transition in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Alexander I.; Aceves de la Cruz, Fermn; Luchnikov, Valeriy A.; Berman, Gennady P.

    2015-12-01

    We study theoretically the conditions required for the appearance of a superradiance transition in graphene. The electron properties of graphene are described in the single pz-orbital tight-binding approximation, corresponding to the two interacting sub-lattices. The corresponding model is reduced to the effective two-level pseudo-spin 1/2 system. For each sub-lattice we introduce the electron transfer rate of escape into a continuum. We demonstrate that, under some conditions, the superradiance occurs, and it corresponds to the maximal quantum coherent escape to the continuum.

  10. Semiconducting transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-07-22

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using as an example the diversity of possible atomic and magnetic configurations of the O vacancy in TiO(2), and the high levels of hole doping in Co(2)ZnO(4) due to a self-doping mechanism that originates from the multivalence of Co. PMID:26126022

  11. Pivotal Transitions - Historical and Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to enable readers to better "design" successful transitions that move Science and Technology or Research and Development (S&T/R&D) technologies and systems into operational capabilities for users. Transitions from S&T/R&D into acquisition and operations are challenging and critical to providing capab ilities to end users. Two historical examples, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), are explored. Two current examples are also explored, including one from Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) which is in th e early stages of transition. While transitions are necessary, transition periods are inherently challenging and dynamically changing situations. These situations must be carefully managed and led in order to succeed. Characteristics, approaches, and incentives that foster effective transitions are discussed. Understanding the transition process and the communities involved allows one to maximize the chance of successfully moving an S&T/R&D development into an operational capability supporting end users.

  12. 309 Building transition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  13. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  14. Transit Timing Study of Kepler Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiwei

    2015-08-01

    Kepler space telescope has found over 4000 transiting planet candidates. Transit timing is a powerful tool to study these transit planet candidates. In this talk, I will talk about two transit timing techniques, i.e., transit timing variation (TTV) and transit duration (TD), which enable confirming their planetary nature and obtaining insight into their orbital properties.

  15. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  16. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  17. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their childrens lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were associated with higher levels of maternal stress and harsh parenting; recent transitions had stronger associations than distal transitions. Maternal education significantly moderates these associations, with less educated mothers responding more negatively to instability in terms of maternal stress, and more educated mothers responding more negatively in terms of literacy activities. PMID:21423848

  18. California transit energy demand model

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, K.

    1983-09-01

    The California Transit Energy Demand Model is a computer program for forecasting transit activity and energy consumption by urban bus and rail transit systems, intercity bus and rail, school buses, and other buses operating in California. The California Transit Model is driven by projections of population, employment, income, auto fuel economy, and auto fuel costs. It is also sensitive to changes in transit fares, service policies, and other changes in the cost of automobile travel. The structure of the model, forecasting equations, and the data used to establish parameters for these equations are described. This report also presents base-case projections of transit activity and energy consumption through 2004, as well as the data and forecasting assumptions upon which these projections are based.

  19. Transition in hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanhong; Zhu, Yiding; Chen, Xi; Yuan, Huijing; Wu, Jiezhi; Chen, Shiyi; Lee, Cunbiao; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.

  20. Diffusion phase transitions in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinovshchikov, Yu I.

    2014-07-01

    We present a critical analysis of research on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and morphology of diffusion phase transitions in alloys. We show that diffusion phase transitions are mainly driven by the chemical potential difference due to a change in the sign of the chemical interaction among the component atoms. We explain how the sign of the chemical interaction energy can be obtained from experimental measurements. Examples are given to illustrate the kinetics and morphology of the ordering-separation phase transition in Ni- and Co-based alloys. We show how introducing the concept of the ordering-separation phase transition may affect our thinking in this area.

  1. Transit administration and planning research

    SciTech Connect

    de Corla-Souza; Gupta.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Evaluation of demand-management strategies for Toledo's year 2010 transportation plan; Accommodating deaf and hard-of-hearing persons on public transportation systems in Massachusetts; Quick approach to compare highway and bus transit alternatives using the arterial analysis package; Panel survey approach to measuring transit route service elasticity of demand; UMTA and major investments: evaluation process and results; Using early performance to project transit route ridership: comparison of methods; Institutional requirements for competition: labor issues; Updating ride checks with multiple point checks; Producing section 15 service-consumed data: challenge for large transit; Parkrose targeted marketing campaign pass-incentive program.

  2. Quantum phase transition in space

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  3. Essentials of Transition Planning. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young…

  4. Transition: Student to Work. Models for Effective Transition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Fred Jay; And Others

    There are great parallels between the School-to-Work Opportunities Act and the legislation which produced transition services for individuals with disabilities. The rationale is clearly the same: a real recognition and concern exists about the difficult transition that faces all high school graduates as they prepare to live on their own, assume

  5. Essentials of Transition Planning. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young

  6. Transition Assessment: Using Gap Analysis to Enhance Effective Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Alison B.; Bassett, Diane S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on transition planning for students with exceptional needs. This is in part the result of the mandates contained in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. This increased emphasis has revealed a number of shortcomings with how transition planning is done…

  7. Presidential Transition Teams: Fostering a Collaborative Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Richard B.; Franz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Whether hiring a sitting president or one beginning a first presidency, the board of trustees should be keenly interested in ensuring that the new president's first months in office flow as smoothly as possible. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the idea of using a transition team to assist the new president. Using a transition

  8. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  9. Detection by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A periodic sequence of planetary transits provides a valid detection of an orbiting planet and provides the relative size of the planet and its orbital period. Ancillary measurements of the stellar spectrum and the variations of the star's radial velocity or position combined with stellar models allow the absolute size of the planet and its mass to be obtained. The results of this approach have already shown that the planet orbiting HD209458 has only 70% of the mass of Jupiter, but is nearly 50% larger in radius. Based on models of planetary structure, these results imply that the planet must have spent most of its lifetime so close to the star that it has not been able to cool and contract as have the giant planets in our Solar System. Thus its density is much less than Jupiter and Saturn and is actually less than that of water; i.e., about 0.4 gr/cu cm. If more sensitive measurements of the light curve of stars with closely orbiting planets can be made that provide the varying amplitude of the light reflected by the planet at various phases in its orbit, then characteristics of the planetary atmosphere can be obtained. Potentially, these data can identify major molecular species present in the atmosphere and tell us if clouds are present and yield the phase function of the aerosols. Although such detail cannot be obtained for Earth-size planets because their signal amplitudes are too small, it is possible to get data critical to the determination of the structure of extrasolar planetary systems. In particular, the size distributions and their orbital distributions can be measured by the transit photometry missions now in development. The COROT mission should be able to find large terrestrial planets in short-period orbits while the more ambitious Kepler and Eddington missions should be able to detect planets even smaller than the Earth and at orbital distances that place them in the habitable zone of their stars.

  10. Phase Transitions for Suspension Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iommi, Godofredo; Jordan, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the thermodynamic formalism for suspension flows defined over countable alphabets. We are mostly interested in the regularity properties of the pressure function. We establish conditions for the pressure function to be real analytic or to exhibit a phase transition. We also construct an example of a potential for which the pressure has countably many phase transitions.

  11. Role Transitions in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Richard L.; Levine, John M.

    This paper analyzes role transitions in small groups within the context of a more general model of group socialization that is based on the psychological processes of evaluation, commitment, and decision making. The major advantage of such an approach is that it specifies why role transitions in small groups occur. According to the model, groups

  12. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  13. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  14. Relativistic radiationless transitions in atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbing interaction appropriate for the Dirac-Fock formalism is used to formulate relativistic radiationless transitions. The transition rate between two jj-coupled many-electron configurations is expressed as a linear combination of radial integrals, suitable for numerical computation. The correlation and relaxation effects and the generalisation of the present work are discussed briefly.

  15. Transitivity of conservative toral endomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin

    2016-03-01

    It is shown that if a non-invertible area preserving local homeomorphism on {{{T}}2} is homotopic to a linear expanding or hyperbolic endomorphism, then it must be topologically transitive. This gives a complete characterization, in any smoothness category, of those homotopy classes of conservative endomorphisms that consist entirely of transitive maps.

  16. Brunton Pocket Transit, 1960s

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    First patented in 1894, the pocket transit is a relatively simple instrument which provides horizontal and vertical readings; it has adjustable sights and also can function as a plumb bob. The pocket transit is commonly used in geologic mapping, surveying and claim staking. Although the basic design...

  17. Transition radiation of multicharged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshevsky, V. S.; Fomin, G. V.; Ivanova, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    The problem of the effect of charge exchange processes of multiply charged accelerated ions in a medium on transition-radiation characteristics is solved. It is shown that the capture (or loss) of electrons by accelerated multiply charged ions at the interface of two media leads to considerable increasing the transition irradiation yield at the achievement of equilibrium charge in a medium.

  18. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers' partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first 5 years of their children's lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between

  19. Transitional Services for Troubled Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolford, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The 11 articles in this monograph, selected from more than 100 presentations made at the National Conference on Transitional Services for Troubled Youth, examine the history, current status, best practices, and future needs of troubled youth who are returning from residential to community settings. The papers are the following: "Transitional

  20. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  1. Spontaneous phase transitions in ferrite garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siryuk, Yu. A.; Bezus, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous phase transitions in ferrite garnet films have been studied. It has been shown that, with variations in the temperature, domain walls undergo phase transitions which cause spontaneous phase transitions in the lattice of cylindrical magnetic domains. The phase transition in a domain wall causes a spin-reorientation phase transition over the whole sample near the magnetic compensation point. The character of the phase transition in the domain wall determines the mechanism of the spin-reorientation phase transition.

  2. Lb2 satellites spectra emitted due to N - shell spectator vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonia, Surendra

    2003-05-01

    Lb2 satellites spectra emitted due to N - shell spectator vacancy SURENDRA POONIA Division of Natural Resources and Environment, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur - 342 003, Rajasthan, India Telephone No. +91-0291-514692, Fax No. +91-0291-745089 E - mail: asrao@cazri.raj.nic.in PACS No. 32.20Rj and 78.70E Key words: Lb2 satellites, N vacancy Lb2 transitions. ABSTRACT: The X-ray satellite spectra arising due to 2p3/2-14x-1-4x-14d-1 (x = s, p, d) transition array, in the elements Z = 40 to 92, have been calculated. While the energies of various transitions of the array have been determined by using available Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) data on 1s-1-2p-14x-1 and 2p-1-4x-14d-1 Auger transition energies and their relative intensities have been estimated by considering cross - sections of singly ionized 2x-1 (x = s, p) states and then of subsequent Coster-Kronig and shake off processes. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in Lb2 spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The one to one correspondence between the peaks in calculated spectra and the satellites in measured spectra has been established on the basis of the agreement between the separations in the peak energies and those in the measured satellite energies. It has been established that two satellites observed in the Lb2 region of the X-ray spectra of various elements and named b20 and b2(a) in order of increasing energy are mainly emitted by 2p-14d-1-4d-2 transitions. Considering the relative intensities of these transitions and the mutual closeness in their energies, the most intense one, namely the 3F4-3F4, and seven others of this array have been associated with the emission of the satellite b2(a), reported in the spectra of elements with Z < 60. In the range Z > 70, the second most intense transition, namely the 1D2-1D2, and a comparatively weaker transition, namely the 3D3-3P2 one, deviate from this group. Hence, only six transitions superpose to give rise to this satellite, which has been named as b20, in case of elements with Z > 70, in the literature. In the range Z > 65, this satellite gets an added intensity due to the superposition of some intense transitions 2p-14f-1-4d-14f-1 array. This superposition of two arrays in high Z elements justifies the name b20 different from b2(a), given to the analogously placed satellite in the spectra of lower Z elements. Finally, the four closely spaced satellites, reported in the b2 region of the spectrum 46Pd have been assigned to suitable 2p-14x-1-4x-14d-1 (x = s, p, d) transitions. REFERENCES: 1.Y. Cauchois and C. Senemaud, X-Ray wavelength Tables, 2nd ed., (Oxford: Pergamon) pp. 217-314, (1978). 2.S. N. Soni and M. H. Massoud, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58(1), 145-151 (1997). 3.S. N. Soni and S. Poonia, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(9), 1509-1518 (2000). 4.S. Poonia and S. N. Soni, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(3), 503-511 (2001). 5.A. M. Vlaicu, T. Tochio, T. Ishizuka, D. Ohsawa, Y. Ito, T. Mukoyama, A. Nisawa, T. Shoji and S. Yoshikado, Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3544-3551, (1998). 6.R. Diamant, S. Huotari, K. Hamalainen, R. Sharon, C. C. Kao and M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. A 63(2), 2508-2513 (2001).

  3. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  5. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  6. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  7. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  8. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  9. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Doyle, Laurance; McIntosh, Dawn; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent photometric detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet across a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of solar-like stars that satisfy the geometric condition for Earth transit visibility are presented.

  10. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Tim; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet around a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming, of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of candidate target stars, their properties, and simulations of the photometric Earth transit signal detectability at each target is presented.

  11. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  12. Electronic Transitions of Yttrium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Allan S. C.; Li, Biu Wa; Chan, MAN-CHOR

    2015-06-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the visible region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 seeded in argon. Thirteen vibrational bands were analyzed and five electronic transition systems have identified, namely the [12.2] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.3] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.4] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, [13.5] Ω = 3 - X3 Π_2 transition, and [13.4] Ω = 2 - X3 Π_2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state symmetry and the bond length r_0 of the YP molecule have been determined to be a X3 Π_2 state and 2.4413 Å respectively in this work. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to help the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectrum of the YP molecule.

  13. Nonradiative transition dynamics in alexandrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The first direct picosecond time-resolved measurement of the nonradiative transition dynamics between the excited 4T2 pump band and the metastable 2E storage level of the trivalent chromium ion in alexandrite is reported. The nonradiative relaxation times of 17 ps for intra-4T2 vibrational transitions, and 27 ps for 4T2-2E electronic transition are obtained. The thermal repopulation rate of the 4T2 state from the metastable 2E level is of the order 3.5 x 10 to the 9th per s.

  14. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  15. Transition circumnstellar disks in Lupus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Cieza, L. A.; Rebassa-Manssergas, A.; Williams, J. P.; Merin, B.; Smith-Castelli, A.; Orellana, M.

    2011-10-01

    Based on Spitzer selected YSOs, we present a study of transition disks located in Lupus. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their defining characteristic: an inner opacity hole and an optically thick outer disk. These processes are: planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, tidal truncation in close binaries. We have carried out Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging, submillimeter photometry, and echelle spectroscopy in order to observationally characterize our transition disk sample. With the analyzed data we can distinguish the four scenarios and identify candidate transition disk systems that are currently forming planets. Such objects are excellent targets to be followed-up with Herschel and ALMA.

  16. Measurements of Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziere, Kyle; Wiseman, Nicolas; Rovny, Jared; Dinehart, Elise; Dufrain, Blaise; Bechter, Andrew; Bechter, Eric; Olenick, Richard; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    A campaign to measure properties of extrasolar planets using the transit method was undertaken at the University of Dallas using a C-14 telescope and SBIG 2000XM CCD camera. We successfully recorded transits of TrES-1b, Wasp-3, and HatP1. The C-14 exposure and tracking data (on WASP-3) indicate that we can probably effectively monitor stars to 13.5 or 14 magnitude with the C-14. We present the transit data, modeling, and determined planetary characteristics. The equipment used in this research was comparatively inexpensive and widely available and can be implemented at other small universities.

  17. Parity nonconservation in atomic Zeeman transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Angstmann, E. J.; Dinh, T. H.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2005-11-15

    We discuss the possibility of measuring nuclear anapole moments in atomic Zeeman transitions and perform the necessary calculations. Advantages of using Zeeman transitions include variable transition frequencies and the possibility of enhancement of parity nonconservation effects.

  18. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  19. Transit variations in WASP-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.; Teresa Eibe, M.; Ulln, A.; Prez-Verde, A.; Navas, J.

    2013-05-01

    The variations in the period and duration of the transits of exoplanets allow us to obtain some of their orbital properties. Here we investigate the variations in the transit parameters of WASP-3 over a period of time that covers more than three years. Apart from providing complementary information on the geometrical configuration of the system, the investigation of transit duration (TDV) can also provide indirect evidence of the presence of additional planets. The WASP-3 system constitutes the first example for which the TDV have been tracked over a long period of time, allowing for the easier detection of secular variations of the orbital parameters. This work shows that the effects of nodal precession are clearly discernible in the TDV of WASP-3, as the theory predicts. We also confirm the presence of strong transit time (TTV) in a shorter time scale but in this case the periodicity of the signal is not so clear.

  20. Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the capture of beneficial symbionts via the evolution of strict vertical transmission within host lineages, and the evolutionary breakdown of bacterial mutualism. Each of these transitions has occurred many times in the history of bacterial–eukaryote symbiosis. We investigate these evolutionary events across the bacterial domain and also among a focal set of well studied bacterial mutualist lineages. Subsequently, we generate a framework for examining evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis and test hypotheses about the selective, ecological, and genomic forces that shape these events. PMID:21690339

  1. Modelling the transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.

  2. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

  3. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society. From 1972 on, the fertility decline spread in the rural sectors and was intensified as a response to the profound economic crisis experienced in Peru from 1975 to the present. Increased contraceptive usage was apparently the most important cause of Peru's fertility decline. Overall prevalence increased from 31% in 1977-78 to 46% in 1986, and use of modern methods by women in union doubled in the same years. Regional fertility differences are correlated strongly to contraceptive prevalence and especially to prevalence of modern methods. The 3 most recent national fertility surveys and a series of more limited surveys suggest that women have an increasingly strong desire to control their fertility. The greatest barriers to use of modern contraception are fears of health effects and lack of knowledge. PMID:12287034

  4. Premelting transition in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiernaut, J. P.; Hyland, G. J.; Ronchi, C.

    1993-03-01

    Thermal analysis of the cooling curves of small samples of UO2 x initially laser heated (in a high-pressure autoclave to inhibit evaporation) on a subsecond time scale to temperatures just below their melting points [ T m( x)]reveals, in the case of nominally stoichiometric UO2.00, a significant, ?-like, heat capacity [ C p( T)] peak near 2670 K; the cooling curves of samples exposed to a reducing environment, on the other hand, exhibit undercooling, characteristic of a first-order phase transition, while under oxidizing conditions it is found that the premelting transition readily disappears. These findings confirm Bredig's original prediction of a premelting transition in this material, in common with that found in other (nonactinide) fluorites near 0.85 T m. A simple model is presented in terms of which the observed behavior can be rationalized. The model is based on the hypothesis that the premelting transition is due to Frenkel disordering of the oxygen sublatticea process which is rendered cooperative by attractive interactions between complementary Frenkel defects (oxygen interstitials and vacancies); these interactions are treated in a mean-field approximation. The quantitative degree of maximum disorder (realized just above the transition) is, on the other hand, controlled by repulsive interactions between like defectsthe inclusion of which, solely through their effect on the configurational entropy, satisfactorily reproduces the values inferred from recent high-temperature neutron diffraction experiments. Assuming that the phase transition in stoichiometric UO2.00 is of second order, the model predicts a divergent heat capacity, C v, which approximates well to the experimental ( ?-like) C p peak. Crucial to reproducing the observed behavior away from stoichiometry is the introduction of a (linear) dependence of the nonconfigurational partial entropy of formation on the prevailing concentration of intrinsic Frenkel defects in UO2x; interestingly, it is found that the line of calculated (but unrealized) second-order transitions in UO2+x intersects the U4O9 phase boundary near to where a high-temperature diffuse order-disorder transition has been observed in the oxygen superlattice, suggesting that the second-order, ?-transition in UO2.00 is the stoichiometric counterpart of this transition in U4O9.

  5. Transition boiling heat transfer and the film transition regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramilison, J. M.; Lienhard, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The Berenson (1960) flat-plate transition-boiling experiment has been recreated with a reduced thermal resistance in the heater, and an improved access to those portions of the transition boiling regime that have a steep negative slope. Tests have been made in Freon-113, acetone, benzene, and n-pentane boiling on horizontal flat copper heaters that have been mirror-polished, 'roughened', or teflon-coated. The resulting data reproduce and clarify certain features observed by Berenson: the modest surface finish dependence of boiling burnout, and the influence of surface chemistry on both the minimum heat flux and the mode of transition boiling, for example. A rational scheme of correlation yields a prediction of the heat flux in what Witte and Lienhard (1982) previously identified as the 'film-transition boiling' region. It is also shown how to calculate the heat flux at the boundary between the pure-film, and the film-transition, boiling regimes, as a function of the advancing contact angle.

  6. Phase transition in dimer liquids.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Diep, H T

    2014-01-22

    We study the phase transition in a system composed of dimers interacting with each other via a nearest-neighbor (NN) exchange J and competing interactions taken from a truncated dipolar coupling. Each dimer occupies a link between two nearest sites of a simple cubic lattice. We suppose that dimers are self-avoiding and can have only three orientations, which coincide with the x, y or z direction. The interaction J is attractive if the two dimers are parallel to each other at the NN distance, zero otherwise. The truncated dipolar interaction is characterized by two parameters: its amplitude D and the cutoff distance rc. Using the steepest descent method, we determine the ground-state (GS) configuration as functions of D and rc. We then use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the nature of the low-temperature phase and to determine characteristics of the phase transition from the ordered phase to the disordered phase at high temperatures at a given dimer concentration. We show that as the temperature increases, dimers remain in the compact state and the transition from the low-T compact phase to the disordered phase where dimers occupy the whole space is of second order when D is small, but becomes of first order for large enough D, for both polarized and nonpolarized dimers. This transition has a resemblance to the unfolding polymer transition. The effect of rc is discussed. PMID:24285401

  7. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74... Transit declaration. (a) A Seaway Transit Declaration Form (Cargo and Passenger) shall be forwarded to the... bound transit. The form may be obtained from the St. Lawrence Management Corporation, 151 Ecluse...

  8. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74... Transit declaration. (a) Seaway Transit Declaration Form (Cargo and Passenger) shall be forwarded to the... ships, within fourteen days after the vessel enters the Seaway on any upbound or downbound transit....

  9. The Acquisition of Transitivity in Quiche Mayan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    1985-01-01

    A study of the awareness of verb transitivity in the spontaneous speech of two two-year-old native speakers of Quiche was accomplished by examining three factors: transitive terminations given to verbs, subject markers on the verbs, and syntax. The first was studied by counting the number of transitive verbs used with both transitive and

  10. 29 CFR 36.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transition plans. 36.230 Section 36.230 Labor Office of the... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 36.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution... submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition...

  11. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  12. 18 CFR 1317.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition plans. 1317... Coverage 1317.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 1317.225 applies... transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  13. Individualized Transition Plans (ITP): A National Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Information concerning implementation of Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) was collected from 46 states and analyzed to determine documentation used in transition planning, relationship between the ITP and Individualized Education Programs, age for beginning transition planning, individuals involved in transition planning, and issues addressed

  14. Cellular Transitions and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kolind, Mille; Little, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) describe complex changes in progenitor lineage, cell morphology, and gene expression. Stimulated by environmental cues, these cellular transitions are essential for elements of embryonic development and can be pathologically dysregulated in disease states. EMT occurs in biological processes such as gastrulation, cardiogenesis, and fibrosis. EndMT is involved in development and tissue fibrosis, but recent studies have implicated this process in musculoskeletal biology and pathology. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine typically rely on endogenous progenitors or progenitors expanded ex vivo to repair damaged or impaired tissues or organs. The processes of EMT and EndMT may aid in elucidating new methods for reducing fibrosis and identifying novel plastic progenitor populations for tissue repair. This review will discuss the potential for EMT and EndMT to impact on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23550730

  15. Transition metals in superheat melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  16. Implementing transition: Ready Steady Go

    PubMed Central

    Nagra, Arvind; McGinnity, Patricia M; Davis, Nikki; Salmon, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    There is good evidence that morbidity and mortality increase for young persons (YP) following the move from paediatric to adult services. Studies show that effective transition between paediatric and adult care improves long-term outcomes. Many of the issues faced by young people across subspecialties with a long-term condition are generic. This article sets out some of the obstacles that have delayed the implementation of effective transition. It reports on a successful generic transition programme ‘Ready Steady Go’ that has been implemented within a large National Health Service teaching hospital in the UK, with secondary and tertiary paediatric services, where it is now established as part of routine care. PMID:26063244

  17. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological transition witnessed by the developed nations, with similar matrices for India. PMID:24848651

  18. Epigenetic switches and network transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Masaki

    2012-02-01

    We investigate dynamics of gene networks which are regulated by both the fast binding/unbinding of transcription factors to/from DNA and the slow processes of chromatin structural change or histone modification. This heterogeneous dynamics consisting of different time scales is analyzed by the mean-field approximation and the stochastic simulation to show that the network exhibits multiple metastable states and is characterized by transitions among them. We discuss distribution and fluctuation of states of the core gene network of embryonic stem cells as an example of such heterogeneous dynamics and the simulated transitions are compared with the experimental data on the distribution of stem cell states.

  19. Nuclear Multifragmentation & the Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharenberg, Rolf; Srivastava, Brijesh; Hirsch, Andy; Porile, Norbert

    2002-04-01

    A high statistics exclusive study of 1 GeV/nucleon Au, La and Kr on carbon has been performed, where the size and energy of the fragmenting system is measured for each event. The distributions of projectile fragments are analyzed using the statistical multifragmentation model. The nature of the phase transition has been examined using the caloric curve. For lighter systems a backbending is observed in the caloric curve implying a negative specific heat, while for heavier system there is a positive specific heat. This suggests that the breakup of heavier systems (Au and La) is consistent with a continuous phase transition.

  20. Structural transitions in helical polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Matthew; Bachmann, Michael; Soft Matter Systems Research Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Helical structures, as well as more complex tertiary structures, made up of helixes are relevant in biological systems. We perform generalized-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations to examine homopolymer models which include a torsional potential energy associated with each bond. With the inclusion of a torsional potential, helical structures emerge and can contort to form a variety of tertiary structural phases. We explore the two-dimensional space, parametrized by temperature and torsional energy scale, to map helical structures and to locate structural transitions. We see transitions occur between helical and non-helical secondary structures and also between various tertiary structures.

  1. Observation of stimulated transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, H.; Kung, P.; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.; Hernandez, M.

    1996-05-01

    Stimulated, coherent transition radiation (STR) has been observed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from femtosecond electron bunches are recycled in a special cavity to arrive back at the radiator coincident with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This overlap enables the electrons to do work on the electromagnetic field, thus stimulating the emission of more radiated energy than would be possible without this external field. The experimental setup to observe STR via cavity detuning measurements and experimental results is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Space Station transition through Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Wicks, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate that NASA's Office of Space Science and Application's science management structures and processes that have proven successful on Spacelab be applied and extrapolated to Space Station utilization, wherever practical. Spacelab has many similarities and complementary aspects to Space Station Freedom. An understanding of the similarities and differences between Spacelab and Space Station is necessary in order to understand how to transition from Spacelab to Space Station. These relationships are discussed herein as well as issues which must be dealt with and approaches for transition and evolution from Spacelab to Space Station.

  3. Mode Transition of Trichel pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kexin, Zhang; Yongjun, Piao; Miao, Tang; Jingfeng, Tang; Liqiu, Wei; Chaohai, Zhang

    2015-11-01

    The trichel pulse is a typical kind of negative corona current observed in electronegative gases. In this work, stochastic behavior of the trichel pulse has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a negative corona reactor consisting of a stainless steel pin and a stainless steel powered by a dc high voltage source. The characteristic parameters distributions of corona current pulses, including the amplitude, rise time, half-wave time, and repetition frequency, are analyzed statistically. The results show there is a mode transition during the period of voltage increasing. This transition process happens in a certain voltage region, and change of pulse amplitude is the main difference between the two modes.

  4. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  5. Structural transitions in superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-04-04

    The ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. phase transition in AgI is studied with use of the new molecular-dynamics technique which allows for a dynamical variation of the shape and size of the cell. In the present model, upon heating of ..beta..-AgI, the iodine ions undergo a hcp..-->..bcc transformation and silver ions become mobile, whereas the reverse transformation is observed on cooling of ..cap alpha..-AgI. The calculated ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. transition temperature and structural and dynamical properties are in good agreement with experiments.

  6. The migration transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1996-01-01

    "Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition." PMID:12320775

  7. Dynamic Transitions of Generalized Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limei; Ong, Kiah Wah

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we study the dynamic transition for the one dimensional generalized Burgers equation with periodic boundary condition. The types of transition are dictated by the sign of an explicitly given parameter b, which is derived using the dynamic transition theory developed by Ma and Wang (Phase transition dynamics. Springer, New York, 2014). The rigorous result demonstrates clearly the types of dynamics transition in terms of length scale l, dispersive parameter δ and viscosity ν.

  8. Dynamic Transitions of Generalized Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limei; Ong, Kiah Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study the dynamic transition for the one dimensional generalized Burgers equation with periodic boundary condition. The types of transition are dictated by the sign of an explicitly given parameter b, which is derived using the dynamic transition theory developed by Ma and Wang (Phase transition dynamics. Springer, New York, 2014). The rigorous result demonstrates clearly the types of dynamics transition in terms of length scale l, dispersive parameter ? and viscosity ?.

  9. Sustainability Transitions as new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

  10. Leadership Transitions: Keys for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Marilu; Golden, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A leadership transition poses dangers and challenges for both leaders and followers. While each party naturally focuses on the organization's success, time needs to be spent on how the new relationships will develop and mature into effective working relationships. This article discusses the following four areas of interaction between leaders and

  11. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  12. Structural transitions of encapsidated polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, D. G.; Linse, P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Bruinsma, R. F.

    2008-03-01

    Conformations and structural transitions of polyelectrolytes strictly confined onto a spherical 2D surface have been investigated by scaling descriptions based on physical arguments concerning polyelectrolyte adsorption onto planar surface and liquid crystals as well as by Monte Carlo simulations using a bead-spring model with short-range and electrostatic repulsions. In case of the electrostatic screened regime, a disordered-ordered (spiral) transition at increasing persistence length of the chain was found. It was predicted that the transition occurred when the persistence length is comparable with the mean spacing between adjacent strands of the ordered chain. The presence of a non-screened electrostatic repulsion led to a more complex behavior with i) a re-entrant order-disorder transition and ii) a tennis ball texture as an additional smectic/nematic structure. The various competing structures given by the theory were recovered by the Monte Carlo simulations, which also indicated that the tennis ball texture was favored over the spiral structure by the long-range interactions for semi-flexible chains.

  13. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  14. Alkali and transition metal phospholides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezkishko, I. A.; Zagidullin, A. A.; Milyukov, V. A.; Sinyashin, O. G.

    2014-06-01

    Major tendencies in modern chemistry of alkali and transition metal phospholides (phosphacyclopentadienides) are systematized, analyzed and generalized. Basic methods of synthesis of these compounds are presented. Their chemical properties are considered with a special focus on their complexing ability. Potential applications of phospholides and their derivatives are discussed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  15. Stadia Hand Transit with Case

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This instrument was manufactured by Keuffel & Esser Company, New York & New Jersey, serial #2300. Stadia Hand Transits are made of up a small telescope with cross and stadia hairs and a circular box which serves as either a magnetic compass or clinometer. The company sold these instruments from 1910...

  16. Zipf's law and phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukierska-Walasek, K.; Topolski, K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the link between the Zipf law and statistical distributions for the Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters in Ising as well as Potts models. From these results, it is seen that Zipf's law can be a criterion of a phase transition, but it does not determine its order. We present the corresponding histograms for fixed domain configurations.

  17. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  18. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market

  19. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  20. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and

  1. The nature of transition blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Plotkin, R. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Burnett, T. H.; Myers, A. D.

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  2. Electronic transitions of yttrium monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biu Wa; Chan, Man-Chor; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2015-11-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of the yttrium monophosphide (YP) molecule in the near infrared region between 715 nm and 880 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The YP molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated yttrium atoms with PH3 gas seeded in argon. Eleven vibrational bands were analyzed and six electronic transitions have been identified, namely the [12.17] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.27] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.44] Ω = 3 - X3Π2, [13.46] Ω = 3 - X3Π2 and [13.40] Ω = 2 - X3Π2 transitions and a [13.69] Ω = 3 - a1Δ2 transition. Least squares fits of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the ground and excited states. The ground state has been determined to be a X3Π2 state and the bond length ro and vibrational separation, ΔG1/2, were determined to be 2.4413 Å and 390.77 cm-1 respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram has been used to aid the assignment of the observed electronic states. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the electronic spectrum of the YP molecule.

  3. Mass transit: A barren promise

    SciTech Connect

    Love, J.

    1992-07-01

    Last fall, Congress passed a transportation act that could increase Federal aid to mass transit over the next six years by more than 50 percent - to $31.5 billion. This figure doesn`t even include possible diversions of 50 percent to 100 percent of Federal highway funds in some communities. Most of the new money will be used to purchase buses and build rail lines. The alleged benefits of increased Federal assistance are seductive: For wear motorists, public transit promises reduced traffic congestion; for environmentalists, it promises less use of fossil fuels and less air pollution; for city planners, it promises a step toward urban revitalization; for the poor, it promises inexpensive access to transportation; and for the business community, it promises to lure suburbanites back to central business districts. Taxpayers have pumped more than $100 billion into urban mass transit systems during the past 25 years. Regretfully, experience demonstrates that each supposed benefit of publicly supported transit is more myth than reality. 5 figs.

  4. Presidential Transitions during Capital Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, capital campaigns at institutions of higher education have increased in duration, while collegiate presidential tenures have been doing just the opposite. Turnover in the top post was frequent, even during major fundraising campaigns. Before this study, presidential transitions during campaigns had not been previously…

  5. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  6. Quantifying macromolecular conformational transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Sean; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, Michael; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes that are challenging for computer simulations. A range of fast path-sampling techniques have been used to generate transitions, but it has been difficult to compare paths from (and assess the relative strengths of) different methods. We introduce a comprehensive method (pathway similarity analysis, PSA) for quantitatively characterizing and comparing macromolecular pathways. The Hausdorff and Fréchet metrics (known from computational geometry) are used to quantify the degree of similarity between polygonal curves in configuration space. A strength of PSA is its use of the full information available from the 3 N-dimensional configuration space trajectory without requiring additional specific knowledge about the system. We compare a sample of eleven different methods for the closed-to-open transitions of the apo enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) and also apply PSA to an ensemble of 400 AdK trajectories produced by dynamic importance sampling MD and the Geometrical Pathways algorithm. We discuss the method's potential to enhance our understanding of transition path sampling methods, validate them, and help guide future research toward deeper physical insights into conformational transitions.

  7. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral

  8. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  9. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  10. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones

  11. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  12. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  13. Understanding Student Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This

  14. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  15. Supporting Student Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumann, Corey B.; Hamrick, Florence A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to offer frameworks and considerations for student affairs professionals seeking to serve the transition needs of the current generation of student veterans. The historical intersections of the military and higher education, particularly with respect to the effects of the draft on students and higher education,

  16. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  17. The Nature of Transition Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Plotkin, R. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Burnett, T. H.; Myers, A. D.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously "transitioned" from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ~0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  18. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the

  19. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  20. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence

  1. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, George R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Schingler, R. H.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Villasenor, J. N.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    TESS is a low-cost SMEX-class satellite mission. In a two-year all-sky survey, TESS will observe more than 2,000,000 nearby stars, searching for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. TESS is expected to identify more than 1000 transiting exoplanet candidates, including a sample of about 100 Super Earths---small rock-and-ice planets in the range 1 to 10 Earth masses---orbiting F, G, K, and M dwarfs. TESS's "wide-shallow” survey complements the "narrow-deep” CoRoT and Kepler surveys. TESS-discovered transiting systems will be nearby (< 50 pc), and typically 10-20 x brighter than those discovered by CoRoT and Kepler. Thus, the resulting TESS Transit Catalog will comprise all of the best transiting systems for follow-up observations. TESS will identify Super Earths orbiting IR-bright stars, within reach of JWST spectroscopic searches for planetary water and carbon dioxide. TESS is a collaborative effort led by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and the NASA Ames Research Center. Additional TESS scientific partners include Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Lowell Observatory, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology, the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), and Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (France). TESS was funded by NASA for a Phase A study from May 2008 - June 2009, but was not selected for flight. Additional funding leading to a flight opportunity is being sought. Support has also been provided by the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution. TESS could launch as early as 2013-2014.

  2. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  3. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (? _? ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ? _? is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ? _? across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the ? ? splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of ? cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  4. Elements and their transitions feasible for NEET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakabe, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hashida, M.; Shimizu, S.; Iida, T.

    2005-09-01

    Electron and nuclear transitions in the nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) process have been investigated. The NEET transitions for nuclei are presented in a table in which the electron and nuclear transitions, their transition energies, transition multipoles, and nuclear spin angular momentum are given. The elements are listed for which the difference between the electron and nuclear transition energy is <5 keV, because the NEET probability will be appreciable if the electron transition energy is close to the nuclear transition one. As both the experimental and theoretical studies for NEET are at an early stage, only the elements and their parameters related to NEET are listed here. The present compilation, however, provides a useful direction for future studies of NEET and its applications to nuclear science.

  5. Understanding topological phase transition in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jun; Chang, K. J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as M X2 with M =(Mo ,W ) and X =(S ,Se ,Te ) , the physical origin of their topological nature is still poorly understood. In the conventional view of topological phase transition (TPT), the nontrivial topology of electron bands in TMDs is caused by the band inversion between metal d - and chalcogen p -orbital bands where the former is pulled down below the latter. Here, we show that, in TMDs, the TPT is entirely different from the conventional speculation. In particular, M S2 and M S e2 exhibits the opposite behavior of TPT such that the chalcogen p -orbital band moves down below the metal d -orbital band. More interestingly, in M T e2 , the band inversion occurs between the metal d -orbital bands. Our findings cast doubts on the common view of TPT and provide clear guidelines for understanding the topological nature in new topological materials to be discovered.

  6. Head-up/head-down transition: measurement of transition times.

    PubMed

    Menu, J P

    1986-03-01

    A method was developed to measure transition times between a head-up signal and a response given to a head-down display. Various arrangements of motor response (vocal, hand) and HDD images were used. In the first experiment, vocal and manual response times were recorded in a current fighter aircraft mock-up situation. The shortest times were obtained for voice responses. The time elapsed between a HUD signal and the simple response to the HDD was approximately 1600 ms. The time for physical transition where accommodation changes occur was 700 ms. In the second experiment, two types of images were displayed on the HDD: a "positive" contrast (green symbol on black background), and a "negative" contrast (black symbol on green background) in order to compare accommodation to structured and unstructured backgrounds. Perception time was significantly shorter for the "positive" contrast, and transition times were similar to those measured in the first experiment. This method permits the evaluation in a dynamic aeronautical environment of the acquisition and processing of information. Changes in psychological conditions (heavier information processing) and/or physiological conditions (changing accommodation, gaze axis, convergence) can be evaluated in future research. PMID:3964150

  7. Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

    Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  8. Magnetic phase transition in chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, Yew-San

    Transition metal Chalcogenides exhibit a great variety of complex physical responses or properties, most of which are still not fully understood. This work will present a few interesting examples that are suggestive of phase competition in various circumstances. The pyrite (Co, Fe)(S, Se)2 system exhibits competition between itinerant antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) metallic phases, resulting in unusual metamagnetism. The Cu(Ir, Cr) 2S4 system has been found to have a very interesting phase diagram, exhibiting simultaneous charge-ordering and spin dimerization before undergoing an insulator-metal transition to a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we have observed superconductivity in CuRh2Se4, which is remarkably sensitive to very minute (0.5%) traces of Cr-doping, before ferromagnetism sets in at the magnetic percolation threshold.

  9. Phase transitions in wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Natalia; Derevyanko, Stanislav; Falkovich, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    We consider turbulence within the Gross-Pitaevsky model and look into the creation of a coherent condensate via an inverse cascade originating at small scales. The growth of the condensate leads to a spontaneous breakdown of statistical symmetries of overcondensate fluctuations: First, isotropy is broken, then a series of phase transitions marks the changing symmetry from twofold to threefold to fourfold. We describe respective anisotropic flux flows in the k space. At the highest level reached, we observe a short-range positional and long-range orientational order (as in a hexatic phase). In other words, the more one pumps the system, the more ordered the system becomes. The phase transitions happen when the system is pumped by an instability term and does not occur when pumped by a random force. We thus demonstrate nonuniversality of an inverse-cascade turbulence with respect to the nature of small-scale forcing. PMID:22400497

  10. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dbarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brah (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phnomnes rares et tonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vnus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  11. Weighing Protoplanets in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Panic, Olja; Thalmann, Christian; van Boekel, Roy; Dominik, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Forming giant planets are believed to be responsible for creating the gaps and holes in the most massive transitional disks. But the details of how these planets shape their parental disks, and how we can constrain planet properties from disk observations, remains unclear. I will present a new diagnostic for elucidating the nature of these unseen companions: the wall shape at the far end of a disk gap. Hydrodynamical simulations show that this shape depends sensitively on the embedded planet's mass and location. We focus on two transitional disks with observed candidate planetary companions, HD 100546 and LkCa 15. We have spatially resolved the disk wall in both objects, using mid-infrared interferometry and scattered light imaging, respectively. Comparing the observed wall shapes to hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to derive the masses of these embedded proto-planets.

  12. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  13. The transition regions of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self-consistent only when the fluxes from each emitting component are considered separately. In particular, the transition region abundance distributions appear to be different on the two stars, and the spin-forbidden lines were not detected in the B component. The emission measures for component H (the G1 star) are consistent with a constant electron pressure (or hydrostatic equilibrium) transition region with P(sub e) = 10(exp 15 + 0.1)/cu cm K and possibly solar 'coronal' abundances.

  14. Electronic transitions of palladium dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yue; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, Zhihua; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2013-11-21

    The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) in the visible region between 480 and 700 nm has been observed and analyzed. The gas-phase Pd{sub 2} molecule was produced by laser ablation of palladium metal rod. Eleven vibrational bands were observed and assigned to the [17.1] {sup 3}II{sub g} - X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} transition system. The bond length (r{sub o}) and vibrational frequency (ΔG{sub 1/2}) of the ground X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} state were determined to be 2.47(4) Å and 211.4(5) cm{sup −1}, respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram was used to understand the observed ground and excited electronic states. This is the first gas-phase experimental investigation of the electronic transitions of Pd{sub 2}.

  15. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  16. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, George R.; Winn, Joshua N.; Vanderspek, Roland; Latham, David W.; Bakos, Gspr. .; Bean, Jacob L.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Butler, R. Paul; Chaplin, William J.; Charbonneau, David; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jrgen; Clampin, Mark; Deming, Drake; Doty, John; De Lee, Nathan; Dressing, Courtney; Dunham, E. W.; Endl, Michael; Fressin, Francois; Ge, Jian; Henning, Thomas; Holman, Matthew J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ida, Shigeru; Jenkins, Jon; Jernigan, Garrett; Johnson, John A.; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kjeldsen, Hans; Laughlin, Gregory; Levine, Alan M.; Lin, Douglas; Lissauer, Jack J.; MacQueen, Phillip; Marcy, Geoffrey; McCullough, P. R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Narita, Norio; Paegert, Martin; Palle, Enric; Pepe, Francesco; Pepper, Joshua; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rinehart, S. A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Sato, Bun'ei; Seager, Sara; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stassun, Keivan G.; Sullivan, Peter; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo; Udry, Stephane; Villasenor, Joel

    2014-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS ) will search for planets transiting bright and nearby stars. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission. The spacecraft will be placed into a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit around the Earth. During its two-year mission, TESS will employ four wide-field optical CCD cameras to monitor at least 200,000 main-sequence dwarf stars with IC (approximately less than) 13 for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. Each star will be observed for an interval ranging from one month to one year, depending mainly on the star's ecliptic latitude. The longest observing intervals will be for stars near the ecliptic poles, which are the optimal locations for follow-up observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Brightness measurements of preselected target stars will be recorded every 2 min, and full frame images will be recorded every 30 min. TESS stars will be 10-100 times brighter than those surveyed by the pioneering Kepler mission. This will make TESS planets easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS is expected to find more than a thousand planets smaller than Neptune, including dozens that are comparable in size to the Earth. Public data releases will occur every four months, inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the nearest and brightest stars hosting transiting planets, which will endure as highly favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  17. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, George R.; Winn, Joshua N.; Vanderspek, Roland; Latham, David W.; Bakos, Gspr .; Bean, Jacob L.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Butler, R. Paul; Chaplin, William J.; Charbonneau, David; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jrgen; Clampin, Mark; Deming, Drake; Doty, John; De Lee, Nathan; Dressing, Courtney; Dunham, Edward W.; Endl, Michael; Fressin, Francois; Ge, Jian; Henning, Thomas; Holman, Matthew J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ida, Shigeru; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jernigan, Garrett; Johnson, John Asher; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kjeldsen, Hans; Laughlin, Gregory; Levine, Alan M.; Lin, Douglas; Lissauer, Jack J.; MacQueen, Phillip; Marcy, Geoffrey; McCullough, Peter R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Narita, Norio; Paegert, Martin; Palle, Enric; Pepe, Francesco; Pepper, Joshua; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Sato, Bun'ei; Seager, Sara; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stassun, Keivan G.; Sullivan, Peter; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo; Udry, Stephane; Villasenor, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright and nearby stars. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission. The spacecraft will be placed into a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit around the Earth. During its 2-year mission, TESS will employ four wide-field optical charge-coupled device cameras to monitor at least 200,000 main-sequence dwarf stars with IC?4-13 for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. Each star will be observed for an interval ranging from 1 month to 1 year, depending mainly on the star's ecliptic latitude. The longest observing intervals will be for stars near the ecliptic poles, which are the optimal locations for follow-up observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Brightness measurements of preselected target stars will be recorded every 2 min, and full frame images will be recorded every 30 min. TESS stars will be 10 to 100 times brighter than those surveyed by the pioneering Kepler mission. This will make TESS planets easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS is expected to find more than a thousand planets smaller than Neptune, including dozens that are comparable in size to the Earth. Public data releases will occur every 4 months, inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the nearest and brightest stars hosting transiting planets, which will endure as highly favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  18. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected fringe nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its fringe peers. PMID:21483683

  19. Marital transitions. A child's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, E M; Stanley-Hagan, M; Anderson, E R

    1989-02-01

    Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions. PMID:2653140

  20. Transition physics and scaling overview

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, T.N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A dear B{sub t} dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices.

  1. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

  2. Critical transition in fiber suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, Alexandre; Guazzelli, Elizabeth; Pine, David

    2010-03-01

    A single buoyant fiber in a low Reynolds shear flow has a fully determined motion, so-called Jeffery orbit. However, the behavior of a concentrated fiber suspension remains unclear; even slight interactions between objects can disturb the system [1]. The non-reversible motion of the fiber suspension in oscillatory flow is monitored with a) quantitative image analysis and b) measurement of the in-phase torque response. A dynamical phase transition from a quasi-reversible state to a fluctuating one is observed as the strain amplitude is increased over a threshold at which the transient time exhibits a power law divergence. We discuss here the nature of this transition and its universality class. The main features of this transition are consistent with earlier results on sphere suspensions [2, 3], such systems might be one of the few realizations of conserved directed percolation [4].[4pt] [1] Okagawa A and al, Science, Volume 181, Issue 4095, p159 (1973)[0pt] [2] Pine DJ and al, Nature, vol 438, Issue 7070, p997 (2005)[0pt] [3] Corte L and al, Nature physics, vol 4, Issue 5, p420 (2008)[0pt][4] Menon GI and al, PrE, vol 79, 061108 (2009)

  3. Giant Transiting Planets Observations GITPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, C.; Henning, Th.; Weldrake, D.; Mazeh, T.; Dreizler, S.

    The search for extrasolar planets is nowadays one of the most promising science drivers in Astronomy. The radial velocity technique proved to be successful in planet hunting, harvesting more than a hundred planets to date. In these last recent years, the transit method has come to fruition, with the detection of seven Jupiter-mass extrasolar transiting planets in close-in orbits ({ AU). Currently, the radius of planets can only be determined from transiting planets, representing the principal motivation and strength of this technique. The MPIA is presently building the Large Area Imager (LAIWO) for the 1m telescope in the Wise Observatory, Israel. LAIWO will have a field of view of one square degree. An intensive search for extra-solar planets will be performed with the 1m Wise telescope, together with the 1.2m MONET telescope in Texas. We will monitor three fields at a given time during three years and more than 200 nights per year. We expect several dozens of extra-solar planets.

  4. Giant Transiting Planets Observations - GITPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, C.

    2006-08-01

    The search for extrasolar planets is nowadays one of the most promising science drivers in Astronomy. The radial velocity technique proved to be successful in planet hunting, harvesting more than a hundred planets to date. In these last years, the transit method has come to fruition, with the detection of seven Jupiter-mass extrasolar transiting planets in close-in orbits (< 0.05 AU). Currently, the radius of planets can only be determined from transiting planets, representing the principal motivation and strength of this technique. The MPIA is presently building the Large Area Imager (LAIWO) for the 1m telescope in the Wise Observatory, Israel. LAIWO will have a field of view of one square degree. An intensive search for extra-solar planets will be performed with the 1m Wise telecope, together with the 1.2m MONET telescope in Texas. We will monitor three fields at a given time during three years and more than 200 nights per year. We expect several dozens of extra-solar planets.

  5. Saturn as a Transiting Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    Previous investigations of exoplanet atmospheres have not targeted those resembling the gas giant planets in our solar system. These types of exoplanets are too cold to be directly imaged or observed in emission, and their low transit probabilities and frequencies make characterization via transmission spectroscopy a challenging endeavor. However, studies of cold giant exoplanets would be highly valuable to our understanding of planet formation and migration and could place the gas giant members of our own solar system in a greater context. Here, we use solar occultations observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard the Cassini Spacecraft to extract the 1 to 5 ?m transmission spectrum of Saturn, as if it were a transiting exoplanet. We detect absorption features from several molecules despite the presence of ammonia clouds. Self-consistent exoplanet atmosphere models show good agreement with Saturn's transmission spectrum but fail to reproduce the largest feature in the spectrum. We also find that atmospheric refraction determines the minimum altitude that could be probed during mid-transit of a Saturn-twin exoplanet around a Sun-like star. These results suggest that transmission spectroscopy of cold, long-period gaseous exoplanets should be possible with current and future observatories.

  6. Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-04-24

    This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions.

  7. On the Chondrite-Achondrite Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkins, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    Textural changes across the chondrite-achondrite transition have been investigated by studying over 35 primitive achondrites of different types and over 30 Type 6 ordinary and CK chondrites. Two isograds are identified that mark this transition.

  8. Site Transition Plan Guidance, December 2004

    SciTech Connect

    2004-12-01

    A short Department of Energy program document has been created to provide an outline on what the Site Transition Plan (STP) objectives are for the transition from the Office of Environmental Management to the newly established Office of Legacy Management.

  9. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  10. OBSERVATIONAL WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN PLANET TRANSIT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu

    2009-09-01

    The probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data is sensitively dependent upon the window function of the observations. We quantitatively characterize and provide visualizations of the dependence of this probability as a function of orbital period upon several observing strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, transit duration and depth, and the minimum number of sampled transits. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of observational window functions, we explicitly address noncorrelated (Gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two noise components affect transit detectability in fundamentally different manners, especially for long periods and/or small transit depths. We furthermore discuss the consequence of competing effects on transit detectability, elaborate on measures of observing strategies, and examine the projected efficiency of different transit survey scenarios with respect to certain regions of parameter space.

  11. Deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemrod, M.

    1983-06-01

    The author spent one half of the Spring 1983 semester at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. During that time he interacted with colleagues, engaged in research, and gave two public lectures at the Institute: chaos in phase transitions, and dynamics of phase transitions. The main thrust of his research was in two areas, specifically: deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions, and admissibility criteria for weak solutions of the non-hyperbolic conservation laws which describe dynamic phase transitions.

  12. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2007-08-31

    The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

  13. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  14. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with 401.5...

  15. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with 401.5...

  16. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with 401.5...

  17. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with 401.5...

  18. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with 401.5...

  19. 12 CFR 933.4 - Transition provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provisions. 933.4 Section 933.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS 933.4 Transition provisions. (a) The capital plan of a Bank may include a transition provision that would allow...

  20. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One tends to remember

  1. Electrical Dissipation Measurement of Polymer Phase Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., R; Schuszler, A., II

    1983-01-01

    Technique measures solid/solid, glass/rubber, and liquid/liquid transition temperatures in polymers having dipole moments. Technique based on change in dipole packing that occurs with each transition and measured as change in electrical dissipation factor. Change in dipole packing occuring with each transition sensed by effect on dissipation factor.

  2. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment 401.74 Transit declaration. (a) Seaway Transit...

  3. Order-(incommensurable disorder) phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, A.; Nagaev, E.

    1982-01-05

    In first-order phase transitions in magnetic materials exhibiting a high-order spin, the short-range-order vector above the transition point may be incommensurable with the long-range-order vector below the transition point. This theoretical result explains some experiments on UAs. Some other materials which may exhibit this effect are pointed out.

  4. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

  5. Ease of Transition through Direct Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackdanz, R. Alfred

    This paper describes a rural school program that assists high school special education students in achieving a successful transition from the school to the community. Plans for transition are first introduced at the special education staffing in 10th grade and are viewed as an integral part of the individual education plan. The transition

  6. 9 CFR 381.522 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition grants. 381.522 Section 381... Interstate Shipment of Poultry Products § 381.522 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  7. 9 CFR 332.12 - Transition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition grants. 332.12 Section 332... CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.12 Transition grants. (a) Transition grants are funds that a... grant must use grant funds to reimburse the training costs of one employee per each...

  8. A Latent Transition Model with Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hwan; Walls, Theodore A.; Park, Yousung

    2007-01-01

    Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian

  9. 34 CFR 106.17 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition plans. 106.17 Section 106.17 Education... Coverage 106.17 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 106.16 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  10. 45 CFR 618.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition plans. 618.230 Section 618.230 Public... Coverage 618.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 618.225 applies and... plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit....

  11. A Smoother Transition for Black Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    For all students, the transition to high school may lead to lower academic achievement and adjustment problems. Black students are at greater risk for academic and social decline during this transition. Holcomb-McCoy identifies four obstacles that make black students more vulnerable as they navigate the transition into high school: stereotyping in

  12. Fluor Hanford (FH) River Corridor Transition Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCBRIDE, D.J.

    2002-08-28

    This Transition Plan defines the scope and schedule for actions that are critical for a smooth transition of the River Corridor scope of work and to ensure the achievement of transition as planned, with minimal or no impact to ongoing baseline activities.

  13. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One tends to remember…

  14. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with

  15. Handbook for Transition Planning and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Barbara; And Others

    The handbook was developed as part of a 2-year grant which developed a rural transition model for handicapped students. It provides special education personnel with suggested guidelines for transitioning handicapped students into post-secondary employment and independent living environments. Part I provides an introduction to the transitional

  16. Educational Policies of the Countries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report discusses the emergence of a new geopolitical reality, that of countries in transition. Although the expression usually refers to former Communist countries, a closer analysis shows that transition is, in fact, a universal historical phenomenon. As used here, countries in transition must evidence the following factors: (1) the

  17. Transition Problems and Play as Transitory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap between preschool and school. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental functions, among others the development of children's…

  18. Changes in the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsborough, Halliman H.

    Research has shown that the transition period from a man's completion of school to first full-time job and first marriage has become shorter in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to explain part of the time reduction in this transitional period. Early in the twentieth century the transition took about 18 years because many men left school…

  19. Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,

  20. On transit time instability in liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.

    1982-01-01

    A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.

  1. Transition Problems and Play as Transitory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Because too many children experience the transition to school as a culture shock, during the past decade teachers have implemented so-called transition activities in order to bridge the gap between preschool and school. However, transition to school also calls for a development of higher mental functions, among others the development of children's

  2. The Transition Experiences of Successful Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.; Yeung, Thomas; Sun, Iris; Chan, Keith; Cheng, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    This article focused on the transition experiences of 20 successful Chinese immigrants, in particular their transition stories and how they accounted for their success (what facilitated and hindered their transition). An enhanced critical incident method was used for data analysis. Four major success categories emerged: having a positive attitude

  3. A Latent Transition Model with Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hwan; Walls, Theodore A.; Park, Yousung

    2007-01-01

    Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian…

  4. Community Transition Teams as the Foundation for Transition Services for Youth with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blalock, Ginger

    1996-01-01

    This article synthesizes descriptions of and recommendations for community transition teams which assist in the transition of youth with learning or other disabilities from school to adult life. The levels, composition, and functions of transition teams are described. Community-level transition teams are shown to be critical support vehicles for

  5. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Yue, Qu

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13? and ?7? for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  6. Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, E; Bragana, H; Dorner, R; Frana Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J

    2014-06-01

    We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. PMID:25019721

  7. Partially resolved super transition array method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian G.; Iglesias, Carlos A.; Chen, Mau H.

    2015-03-01

    The partially resolved transition array model for radiative transitions between ordinary electronic configurations is extended to the super configuration approach. The specific application incorporates intermediate coupling effects into transition arrays to describe the transition from LS to JJ coupling without the ad hoc approximations introduced in past formulations. More generally, the extended concept permits stepwise refinement of the super transition array method towards the line-by-line limit in ordinary configurations. Thus, the formalism forms a framework for a hybrid scheme to combine detailed line accounting and statistical methods.

  8. Precise Photometry and Spectroscopy of Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, J. N.

    A planetary transit produces both a photometric signal and a spectroscopic signal. Precise observations of the transit light curve reveal the planetary radius and allow a search for timing anomalies caused by satellites or additional planets. Precise measurements of the stellar Doppler shift throughout a transit (the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect) place a lower bound on the stellar obliquity, which may be indicative of the planet's migration history. I review recent results of the Transit Light Curve project, and of a parallel effort to measure the Rossiter effect for many of the known transiting planets.

  9. Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbert, P.A.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G. ); Zimanyi, G.T. )

    1990-03-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. We map the problem onto a generalized Coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, we find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties.

  10. Tax equity and the finance of transit

    SciTech Connect

    Cervero, R.

    1983-07-01

    The financing of American transit services is based on two principles of equity: the ability-to-pay principle or the benefit principle. Sixty per cent of current transit revenues come from local, state, and federal tax sources with no clear cut identification available as to which level of government should carry the greatest amount of responsibility. This mix of tax sources for transit financing was recently favored in a national survey of transit officials. The same survey respondents favored additional means of transit revenue sources; gasoline and motor vehicle registration taxes, sales taxes, property taxes, payroll and profits taxes, and local excise taxes on alcohol and cigarettes. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Electronic transitions and multiferroicity in transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haidong

    Four systems have been studied for the localized-itinerant electronic transition in transition-metal oxides: (i) In CaV1- xTixO3, substitution of Ti(IV) introduces Anderson-localized states below a mobility edge mu c that increases with x, crossing epsilon F in the range 0.2 < x< 0.4 and also transforms the strong-correlation fluctuations to localized V(IV): t1e0 configurations for x ≥ 0.1. (ii) The properties of LaTiO3+delta reveal that a hole-poor, strongly correlated electronic phase coexists with a hole-rich, itinerant-electron phase. With delta ≥ 0.03, the hole-rich phase exists as a minority phase of isolated, mobile itinerant-electron clusters embedded in the hole-poor phase. With delta ≥ 0.08, isolated hole-poor clusters are embedded in an itinerant-electron matrix. As delta > 0.08 increases, the hole-poor clusters become smaller and more isolated until they are reduced to super-paramagnetic strong-correlation fluctuations by delta = 0.12. (iii) The data of Y1-xLaxTiO 3 appears to distinguish an itinerant-electron antiferromagnetic phase in the La-rich samples from a localized-electron ferromagnetic phase with a cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion in the Y-rich phase. (iv) The transition at Tt in Mg[Ti2]O4 is a semiconductor-semiconductor transition associated with Ti-Ti dimerization instabilities. The dimerization is caused by lattice instabilities resulting from a double-well Ti-Ti bond potential at a crossover from localized to itinerant electronic behavior. RMn1-xGaxO 3 (R = Ho, Y) and Ho1-xY xMnO3 have been studied for the multiferroicity of RMnO3. Ga doping raises the ferrielectric Curie temperature TC and the Mn-spin reorientation temperature TSR while lowering TN of the Mn spins and the Ho magnetic ordering temperature T 2. The data show an important coupling between the Mn3+-ion and HO3+-ion spins as well as a TSR that is driven by a cooperative MnO5 site rotation and R 3+-ion displacements that modify the c lattice parameter. The data also support an enhanced spin-lattice interaction in the geometrically frustrated (GF) Mn-spin system. Y doping enhances the temperature region for the P6'3cm' magnetic phase and thereby increases TSR for Ho1-xY xMnO3. The studies of several oxygen non-stoichiometric Fe4+/Fe 3+ oxoperovskite show that two mechanisms, the formation of Fe 3+-O-Fe4+ pair and the disproportionation reaction 2Fe(IV)O6/2 = Fe3+ + Fe(V)O6, dominate the electronic behavior. The properties of DyBaCo2O5.5 reveal a spin-state transition from the low-spin t 6e0 ground state to higher spin-state at octahedral-site Co3+, which is also accounted for the metamagnetism in the sample.

  12. Dengue in the health transition.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B

    1994-12-01

    The "Health Transition" describes the medical consequences which accompany the demographic transition and development. In many Asian countries, as the infectious diseases of infancy decline, such as diarrhea, acute respiratory disease, measles and malaria, so too, do infant mortality rates. As a consequence of falling infant mortality rates and declines in fertility, the age pyramid has become more rectangular. No longer is nearly half of the population under the age of 15 years. Diseases of adults are beginning to become predominant: trauma, heart disease, cancer, stroke and diabetes. Life expectancy has increased along with costs of the health care system. As a fraction of per capita gross domestic product, health care is beginning to become a major national expense. It is ironic that the one vector-borne infectious disease likely to bridge the health transition in tropical countries is dengue. As evidenced by the experience of Singapore and Taiwan, modern housing and commercial development provide more, rather than fewer breeding places for Aedes aegypti. Greater affluence often means less compliance with mosquito control programs. Meanwhile, the dengue viruses, heeding some unknown genetic imperative, cause ever more severe disease. Modern Asian societies must count dengue as a real and enduring threat. To prevent costly hospitalizations and a sense of social disorder, effective measures must be adopted to achieve a significant reduction of Aedes aegypti populations. Sustained dengue control requires source reduction which, in turn depends upon imaginative leadership, skilled man power, legislative authority, an authentic national research program and intersectoral cooperation. A leadership role beckons for new actors in the control of Aedes aegypti: large municipalities, environmental agencies and the private sector. PMID:7844846

  13. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  14. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  15. Dynamics of the deconfinement transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananos, G.; Fraga, E. S.; Krein, G.; Mizher, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    We estimate the dissipation coefficient ? that appears in Ginzburg-Landau-Langevin equations that describe phenomenologically the deconfinement transition in QCD. This is done through the implementation of Glauber dynamics of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The coefficient ? is extracted from the short-time exponential growth of the equal time correlation function of the order parameter. Although the absolute determination of ? is ambiguous due to the difficulties in relating real time and Monte Carlo time, its relative temperature dependence can be obtained with much less arbitrariness.

  16. Phase transitions in operational risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.

  17. Phase transitions in operational risk.

    PubMed

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions. PMID:17358228

  18. Dynamics of the deconfinement transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ananos, G.; Krein, G.; Fraga, E. S.; Mizher, A. J.

    2007-02-27

    We estimate the dissipation coefficient {gamma} that appears in Ginzburg-Landau-Langevin equations that describe phenomenologically the deconfinement transition in QCD. This is done through the implementation of Glauber dynamics of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The coefficient {gamma} is extracted from the short-time exponential growth of the equal time correlation function of the order parameter. Although the absolute determination of {gamma} is ambiguous due to the difficulties in relating real time and Monte Carlo time, its relative temperature dependence can be obtained with much less arbitrariness.

  19. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-10-28

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation.

  20. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  1. Radiative transitions in metallic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalin, A. S.

    2008-02-01

    In this article, a new theoretical approach to studying light-scattering characteristics of nanosized objects based on the solution to the Thomas-Fermi equation and quasi-classical approximation is considered. It is shown that the distribution of valence electrons in the volume of metallic clusters exhibits a specific structure of "spatial zones." With the aid of quasi-classical wave functions, expressions for the appropriate dipole moments of the transitions between the ground and excited states are obtained; the behavior of the spectrum of gold clusters depending on their sizes is studied; a comparison with existing experimental data is carried out.

  2. Shim for sealing transition pieces

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2012-07-24

    According to one aspect of the invention, a shim for sealing two adjacent turbine transition pieces is disclosed. The shim includes a circumferential member that includes a first lateral flange and a second lateral flange. Further, the first and second lateral flanges each comprise a tab configured to mate to a first surface plane and the first and second lateral flanges are configured to mate to a second surface plane, wherein the first and second surface planes are substantially parallel. In addition, the shim includes a first flange extending substantially perpendicular from the circumferential member.

  3. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Arajo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-19

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin. PMID:22258611

  4. TERMS PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela; Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T.; Zachary Gazak, J.; Rabus, Markus

    2011-10-15

    The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

  5. Transitional Care Strategies From Hospital to Home

    PubMed Central

    Ranji, Sumant R.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are challenged with reevaluating their hospitals transitional care practices, to reduce 30-day readmission rates, prevent adverse events, and ensure a safe transition of patients from hospital to home. Despite the increasing attention to transitional care, there are few published studies that have shown significant reductions in readmission rates, particularly for patients with stroke and other neurologic diagnoses. Successful hospital-initiated transitional care programs include a bridging strategy with both predischarge and postdischarge interventions and dedicated transitions provider involved at multiple points in time. Although multicomponent strategies including patient engagement, use of a dedicated transition provider, and facilitation of communication with outpatient providers require time and resources, there is evidence that neurohospitalists can implement a transitional care program with the aim of improving patient safety across the continuum of care. PMID:25553228

  6. Energy Landscape of Zirconia Phase Transitions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2015-07-01

    The solid-phase transitions of zirconia are important phenomena for many industrial applications. Because of the lack of tools for resolving the atom displacement pattern, the transition kinetics has been disputed for over 60 years. Here, first-principles-based stochastic surface walking (SSW) pathway sampling is utilized for resolving the mechanism of ZrO2 tetragonal-to-monoclinic solid-phase transition. Two types of lattice and atom correspondence allowed in phase transition are determined for the first time from energy criterion, which are originated from two nearly energy-degenerate lowest-transition pathways and one stress-induced ferroelastic transition channel of tetragonal phase. An orthorhombic crystal phase (Pbc2/1) is discovered to be a trapping state at low temperatures in phase transition, the presence of which does not create new orientation relation but deters transformation toughening significantly. This new finding may facilitate the design of new functional oxide materials in ceramic industry. PMID:26075311

  7. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron.

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the "rigid liquid" state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  8. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron

    PubMed Central

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the “rigid liquid” state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  9. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

  10. Elaborating transition interface sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erp, Titus S. van . E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

    2005-05-01

    We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

  11. Transition Strengths in 67Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Elder, R. M.; Le, K. Q.; Morrow, S. I.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Bender, P. C.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Doring, J.

    2014-09-01

    High-spin states in 67Ga were studied using the 55Mn(18O, ?2 n) reaction at 50 MeV performed at Florida State University. Prompt ?- ? coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was verified based on the measured ?- ? coincidences. Lifetimes of 13 excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Reduced electric quadrupole transition rates B(E 2) were calculated from the lifetimes and compared with the predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Plus Broken Pair Model (IBFBPM) from previous work. The evolution of shape with spin was inferred from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations. High-spin states in 67Ga were studied using the 55Mn(18O, ?2 n) reaction at 50 MeV performed at Florida State University. Prompt ?- ? coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The existing level scheme was verified based on the measured ?- ? coincidences. Lifetimes of 13 excited states were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Reduced electric quadrupole transition rates B(E 2) were calculated from the lifetimes and compared with the predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Plus Broken Pair Model (IBFBPM) from previous work. The evolution of shape with spin was inferred from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity ?h{sub 11/2}??h{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ? 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  13. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-11-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the ``rigid liquid'' state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line.

  14. Transit Fixatives: An Innovative Study

    PubMed Central

    A, Ravi Prakash; G, Sreenath; JK, Sonia Bai; NDVN, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Universally accepted fixative is 10% formalin which has been used for preserving the tissues and their architecture. In certain conditions, formalin might not be readily available for immediate fixation. We here by explore more economical, eco-friendly and easily available solutions that can be used as transit media/ transporting media for tissue specimens. Materials and Methods: The study included commonly available solutions like Spirit, Saline, Betadine solution, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Local anesthesia (L.A), Rose water, Coconut oil, Coconut water, Ice cold water, Honey and Milk while keeping formalin as control. The fresh tissue sample was cut into multiple bits and placed in different containers for a period of 8 hours before transferring to formalin solution. Conclusion: Transit fixatives are very important in certain situations where formalin is not readily available. These fixatives can be used to fix the tissues for a period of at least 8 hours without causing any damage or distortion before they are fixed in formalin solution. PMID:25954725

  15. Quantum transitions between classical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter-like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)-(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.

  16. Electric Field Induced Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardone, Marco; Karpov, Victor

    2012-02-01

    A novel theory of phase transitions that are driven by strong, symmetry-breaking electric fields is presented. The underlying mechanism is based on the formation of needle-shaped, metallic embryos that acquire strong dipole moments in the applied field. It is shown that the electrostatic contribution to the free energy can be so significant that it dominates the nucleation process and elongated metallic particles can form even in cases where they would be otherwise unstable in the bulk. As such, the theory predicts that any insulator will eventually form metallic inclusions when immersed in a sufficient electric field. Materials can thus be synthesized by the controlled application of a dc or laser field. In this work, the general mechanism is described and closed form expressions are presented for the field-dependent nucleation barrier and the effective field range as functions of material parameters. Overall, the theory presents a new parameter space to explore phase transitions and opens the venue of Field Induced Materials Synthesis (FIMS). As a provocative example, the potential for FIMS of metallic hydrogen at standard pressure is discussed; the effective field range is estimated to be 10^7 < E10^9 V/cm (laser intensity 10^12< I 10^16 W/cm^2).

  17. Synfuels and the energy transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzhiser, R. E.

    1981-08-01

    Various synfuel options and their impact on the electric utility industry are discussed. The energy transition for the U.S.A. is seen as moving from natural fluid fuels to solid fuels and renewable energy resources. The key to this transition is electrification, which can encompass both nuclear and renewable resources, centralized and dispersed technologies. It is shown that the fraction of total energy converted to electricity has risen steadily for the past 30 years, reaching 33% last year. The abundance and cost of production of the various fossil energy resources, including natural gas, heavy oil, oil shale, and coal are considered. EPRI analyses indicate that an integrated-combined-cycle power plant could be competitive with conventional coal plant technology. These plants would use only half the water of current coal-fired plants, would meet tighter sulfur emission standards, and would produce a vitreous ash that is less leachable than the ash from today's coal plants. Solvent-refined coal processes, currently being developed in the U.S.A. are a second approach to converting coal to liquid fuels. It is pointed out, however, that synfuels will complement, not replace, other sources of energy in the continued electrification of the U.S.A.

  18. THE QUASIPERIODIC AUTOMATED TRANSIT SEARCH ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Joshua A.; Agol, Eric

    2013-03-10

    We present a new algorithm for detecting transiting extrasolar planets in time-series photometry. The Quasiperiodic Automated Transit Search (QATS) algorithm relaxes the usual assumption of strictly periodic transits by permitting a variable, but bounded, interval between successive transits. We show that this method is capable of detecting transiting planets with significant transit timing variations without any loss of significance-{sup s}mearing{sup -}as would be incurred with traditional algorithms; however, this is at the cost of a slightly increased stochastic background. The approximate times of transit are standard products of the QATS search. Despite the increased flexibility, we show that QATS has a run-time complexity that is comparable to traditional search codes and is comparably easy to implement. QATS is applicable to data having a nearly uninterrupted, uniform cadence and is therefore well suited to the modern class of space-based transit searches (e.g., Kepler, CoRoT). Applications of QATS include transiting planets in dynamically active multi-planet systems and transiting planets in stellar binary systems.

  19. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence E-mail: bkocsis@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10{sup 6} solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or {approx}10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  20. Research on Methods of Processing Transit IC Card Information and Constructing Transit OD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiuhua; Li, Jin; Peng, Han

    Transit OD matrix is of vital importance when planning urban transit system. Traditional transit OD matrix constructing method needs a large range of spot check survey. It is expensive and needs long cycle time to process information. Recently transit IC card charging systems have been widely applied in big cities. Being processed reasonably, transit passenger information stored in IC card database can turn into information resource. It will reduce survey cost a lot. The concept of transit trip chain is put forward in this paper. According to the characteristics of closed transit trip chain, it discusses how to process IC card information and construct transit OD matrix. It also points out that urban transit information platform and data warehouse should be constructed, and how to integrate IC card information.

  1. Synthesis of transition metal carbonitrides

    DOEpatents

    Munir, Zuhair A. R. (Davis, CA); Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam (Davis, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Transition metal carbonitrides (in particular, titanium carbonitride, TiC.sub.0.5 N.sub.0.5) are synthesized by a self-propagating reaction between the metal (e.g., titanium) and carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. Complete conversion to the carbonitride phase is achieved with the addition of TiN as diluent and with a nitrogen pressure .gtoreq.0.6 MPa. Thermodynamic phase-stability calculations and experimental characterizations of quenched samples provided revealed that the mechanism of formation of the carbonitride is a two-step process. The first step involves the formation of the nonstoichiometric carbide, TiC.sub.0.5, and is followed by the formation of the product by the incorporation of nitrogen in the defect-structure carbide.

  2. Transition Strengths in 70As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Robert; Haring-Kaye, Robert; Morrow, Sylvia; Tabor, Sam; Tripathi, V.; Bender, P.; Medina, N.; Allegro, P.; Doring, J.; Jones, Kamali; Khahn, Le

    2014-09-01

    High-spin states in 70As were produced at Florida State University through the 55Mn(18O, 3 n) reaction at 50 MeV. Prompt ?- ? coincidences were measured with a Compton-suppressed Ge array consisting of 3 Clover and 7 single-crystal detectors. An enhanced level scheme was developed from the coincidence relations and relative intensity measurements. Spin assignments were based on directional correlation of oriented nuclei ratios. Lifetimes were determined using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Transition quadrupole moments inferred from the lifetimes will be compared with those predicted from cranked Woods-Saxon calculations, which indicate near-prolate collective structures competing with single-particle excitations in the lowest positive- and negative-parity bands.

  3. Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Joaqun J.; Marro, J.

    2015-07-01

    We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modificationin fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectomeshowing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation.

  4. Prehypertension: Defining the Transitional Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Camilo; Sander, Gary E; Giles, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    More than a simple "transitional stage" defined by covenanted cut points of systolic pressure from 120 to 139mm of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic pressure from 80 to 89mm Hg, prehypertension should be referred to as a categorical term that defines a specific phenotype in the progression from the "absence of disease" to clinically overt disease. While the currently utilized definition of prehypertension stresses the use of blood pressure cut points to establish the diagnosis, it is of relevance to direct our attention to the structural and functional hemodynamic alterations that occur in response to the two cardinal abnormalities in the development of prehypertension and hypertension: autonomic dysfunction and arterial remodeling. Our current review addresses these aspects of the pathophysiology or prehypertension on its progression to hypertension and suggests a new approach to its classification. PMID:26694821

  5. Approximating metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej

    2015-12-01

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  6. Magnetochromism in Transition Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musfeldt, Janice; Choi, Jongwoo; Haraldsen, Jason; Woodward, Jonathan; Wei, Xing; He, Jian; Mandrus, David; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark; Suryanarayanan, Ramanathanan; Revcolevschi, Alex

    2004-03-01

    We discuss the discovery and mechanism of magnetic field-induced color changes in three different low-dimensional transition metal oxides: Li purple bronze, (CPA)_2CuBr_4, and Pr-substituted La_1.2Sr_1.8Mn_2O_7. In Li purple bronze, the field manipulates the density of states near E_F, altering O p to Mo d excitations. In the copper halide, the applied field rotates the CuBr4 chromophore units, yielding a strong magnetochromic effect. And in (La_0.4Pr_0.6_1.2Sr_1.8Mn_2O_7, the magnetic field acts on the Jahn-Teller-split Mn^3+ eg orbitals, with consequences of a substantial CMR effect, unusual magnetic relaxation behavior, and a change in orbital occupation.

  7. Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.

    2015-01-01

    We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation. PMID:26193453

  8. The transition to a sustainable society.

    PubMed Central

    Speth, J G

    1992-01-01

    Transitions in dealing with the root causes of environmental problems are advocated to achieve environmental sustainability. These transformations include (i) a demographic transition, (ii) a technology transition that includes the "green" automobile, (iii) an economic transition to one in which prices reflect full environmental costs, (iv) a transition in social equity, and (v) an institutional transition to different arrangements among governments, businesses, and peoples. Businessmen and environmentalists are urged to work together in the next decade to make the environment a personal issue, to call for government action, to recognize the environmental challenges, and to commit to accountability in order to leave a legacy of hope to the twenty-first century. PMID:11607270

  9. More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan

    2010-08-15

    We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.

  10. The catalytic transition state in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Senior, A E; Weber, J; Nadanaciva, S

    2000-10-01

    The catalytic transition state of ATP synthase has been characterized and modeled by combined use of (1) Mg-ADP-fluoroaluminate, Mg-ADP-fluoroscandium, and corresponding Mg-IDP-fluorometals as transition-state analogs; (2) fluorescence signals of beta-Trp331 and beta-Trp148 as optical probes to assess formation of the transition state; (3) mutations of critical catalytic residues to determine side-chain ligands required to stabilize the transition state. Rate acceleration by positive catalytic site cooperativity is explained as due to mobility of alpha-Arg376, acting as an "arginine finger" residue, which interacts with nucleotide specifically at the transition state step of catalysis, not with Mg-ATP- or Mg-ADP-bound ground states. We speculate that formation and collapse of the transition state may engender catalytic site alpha/beta subunit-interface conformational movement, which is linked to gamma-subunit rotation. PMID:15254388

  11. Filling transitions in acute and open wedges.

    PubMed

    Malijevsk, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2015-05-01

    We present numerical studies of first-order and continuous filling transitions in wedges of arbitrary opening angle ?, using a microscopic fundamental measure density functional model with short-ranged fluid-fluid forces and long-ranged wall-fluid forces. In this system the wetting transition characteristic of the planar wall-fluid interface is always first order regardless of the strength of the wall-fluid potential ?(w). In the wedge geometry, however, the order of the filling transition depends not only on ?(w) but also on the opening angle ?. In particular we show that even if the wetting transition is strongly first order the filling transition is continuous for sufficient acute wedges. We show further that the change in the order of the transition occurs via a tricritical point as opposed to a critical end point. These results extend previous effective Hamiltonian predictions which were limited only to shallow wedges. PMID:26066177

  12. Picking the right transition strategy.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves. PMID:19227407

  13. Picocyanobacteria in Adriatic transitional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, Alessandro; Celussi, Mauro; Valeri, Annalisa; Larato, Chiara; Bussani, Andrea; Umani, Serena Fonda; Vadrucci, Maria Rosaria; Mazziotti, Cristina; Del Negro, Paola

    2007-10-01

    In the marine realm picoplanktonic cyanobacteria (PC) show a broad distribution from the surface ocean to the offshore and coastal waters of semi-enclosed seas and, because of their photoheterotrophy, they are responsible for a substantial fraction of both primary production and organic matter degradation/utilization. In the present study, we investigated PC distribution related to some physical-chemical parameters (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen), in the most productive periods of the year, spring and fall, at 37 stations located in seven transitional systems all along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea: Grado and Marano, Venezia, Pialassa Baiona, Margherita di Savoia, Torre Guaceto, Cesine and Alimini. The aim of the study was to determine if PC are common elements of these transitional systems (lagoons, marshes and solar salterns) or whether they are only occasionally important during stochastic bloom events. PC mean abundances were all over the seven habitats more than one order of magnitude higher (>5 10 7 cells L -1) than those found in coastal and offshore waters of the Adriatic Sea. Their range of variability was also broader (10 5-10 9 cells L -1 vs. 10 6-10 8 cells L -1). PC populations appeared well adapted to ample variations in salinity (5-87). The highest abundances (close to 10 9 cells L -1) were found at extremely high/low salinity values. Even oxygen concentrations close to hypoxia did not seem to negatively affect PC abundances. Because of their ability in adapting to extreme conditions, PC may become the prevailing fraction of the phototrophic plankton in these sites and their role in such ecosystems should not be underestimated.

  14. Observation of transitions in lithiumlike germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behring, W. E.; Seely, J. F.; Brown, C. M.; Feldman, U.; Knauer, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Transitions of the type n = 2-2, n = 2-3 and n = 3-4 in Li-like Ge(29+) have been observed in the spectrum from a laser-produced plasma. The energy levels and ionization energy of Ge(29+) were derived from the observed wavelengths. The wavelength of the 2s 2S1/2-2p 2P3/2 transition is sufficiently accurate to determine the quantum-electrodynamic contribution to the transition energy.

  15. New O(3) transition in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Michael; Murthy, Ganpathy

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional lattice of Heisenberg spins with nearest-neighbor interactions is studied by numerical simulation under the constraint that no free topological singularities (hedgehogs) are allowed. Only nearest-neighbor pairs of oppositely charged hedgehogs are permitted in the sum over configurations. A disordering transition with exponents different from the usual Heisenberg transition is found and tentatively identified as a pure spin wave disordering transition.

  16. Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  17. Transition dipole moments of the lithium dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Jasik, Patryk Sienkiewicz, Jzef E.

    2013-03-15

    In addition to knowledge of interatomic adiabatic potential energy curves of diatomic systems, it is essential to know electronic transition dipole moments. They are needed in understanding processes like photodissociation, photoassociation, cooling, and trapping. Here, we present electronic transition dipole moments calculated for 74 allowed transitions between 26 states of Li{sub 2} [P. Jasik, J.E. Sienkiewicz, Chem. Phys. 323 (2006) 563]. In the asymptotic internuclear region our results reasonably agree with previously calculated and measured results.

  18. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Jofr, E.; Cneo, V.; Gmez, M.; Martnez, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54s.

  19. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-05-15

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  20. Aspects of the non-zonal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hatch, D. R.

    2014-05-15

    The non-zonal transition, a process which can bring about very large heat fluxes in gyrokinetic simulations, occurs once a certain threshold plasma ? is reached. This threshold is parameterized via a simulation database, yielding an expression estimating at what ? a given system may approach the transition. Furthermore, the diffusive outward transport of a heat blob in a temperature profile marginally stable with respect to the non-zonal transition is discussed: the resulting transport timescale combines the underlying turbulent transport timescale and the linear instability growth time, thus demonstrating that the non-zonal transition provides a mechanism for very fast heat dissipation.

  1. Dynamics of stimulated L → H transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, K.; Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chiba 277-8587 ; Diamond, P. H.; Xiao, W. W.; Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 ; Hahn, S.-H.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Tynan, G. R.

    2013-08-15

    We report on model studies of stimulated L → H transitions [K. Miki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 195002 (2013)]. These studies use a reduced mesoscale model. Model studies reveal that L → H transition can be triggered by particle injection into a subcritical state (i.e., Ptransition. For low ambient heating, strong injection is predicted to trigger a transient turbulence collapse. Repetitive injection at a period less than the lifetime of the collapsed state can thus maintain the turbulence collapse and so sustain a driven H-mode-like state. The total number of particles required to induce a transition by either injection or gas puffing is estimated. Results indicate that the total number of injected particles required is much smaller than that required for a transition by gas puffing. We thus show that internal injection is more efficient than gas puffing of comparable strength. We also observe that zonal flows do not play a critical role in stimulated transitions. For spontaneous transitions, the spike of the Reynolds work of turbulence on the zonal flow precedes the spike in the mean electric field shear. In contrast, we show that the two are coincident for stimulated transitions, suggesting that there is no causal link between zonal and mean flows for stimulated transitions.

  2. The Helix Coil Transition of DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    This transition, observed with an inexpensive ultraviolet photometer, is a potentially useful experiment for an advanced freshman class because it introduces several concepts of general physical interest. (DF)

  3. The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yury

    2013-10-01

    The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid (3)He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using (3)He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states. PMID:24026020

  4. Kepler Stars with Multiple Transiting Planet Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit in March of 2009. Kepler is designed to conduct a statistical census of planetary system properties using transit photometry. Among the most exciting early results from Kepler are target stars found to have photometric signatures that suggest the presence of more than one transiting planet. Individual transiting planets provide information on the size and orbital period distributions of exoplanets. Multiple transiting planets provide additional information on the spacing and flatness distributions of planetary systems. Results to d ate and plans for future analysis will be presented.

  5. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-01

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  6. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  7. 34 CFR 303.653 - Transitional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH.... Each Council shall advise and assist the State educational agency regarding the transition of...

  8. 34 CFR 303.653 - Transitional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... Transitional services. Each Council shall advise and assist the State educational agency regarding...

  9. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  10. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search for exoplanets More than 100 planets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. These "exoplanets" come in many different sizes and they move in a great variety of orbits at different distances from their central star, some nearly round and others quite elongated. Some planets are five to ten times more massive than the largest one in the solar system, Jupiter - the lightest exoplanets known at this moment are about half as massive as Saturn, i.e. about 50 times more massive than the Earth. Astronomers are hunting exoplanets not just to discover more such objects, but also to learn more about the apparent diversity of planetary systems. The current main research goal is to eventually discover an Earth-like exoplanet, but the available telescopes and instrumentation are still not "sensitive" enough for this daunting task. However, also in this context, it is highly desirable to know not only the orbits of the observable exoplanets, but also their true masses . But this is not an easy task. Masses of exoplanets Virtually all exoplanets detected so far have been found by an indirect method - the measurement of stellar velocity variations . It is based on the gravitational pull of the orbiting planet that causes the central star to move a little back and forth; the heavier the planet, the greater is the associated change in the star's velocity. This technique is rapidly improving: the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) , now being tested on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , can measure such stellar motions with an unrivalled accuracy of about 1 metre per second (m/s), cf. ESO PR 06/03 . It will shortly be able to search for exoplanets only a few times more massive than the Earth. However, velocity measurements alone do not allow to determine the true mass of the orbiting planet. Because of the unknown inclination of the planetary orbit (to the line-of-sight), they only provide a lower limit to this mass . Additional information about this orbital inclination is therefore needed to derive the true mass of an exoplanet. The transit method Fortunately, this information becomes available if the exoplanet is known to move across ("transit") the star's disk, as seen from the Earth; the orbital plane must then necessarily be very near the line-of-sight. This phenomenon is exactly the same that happens in our own solar system, when the inner planets Mercury and Venus pass in front of the solar disk, as seen from the Earth [3]. A solar eclipse (caused by the Moon moving in front of the Sun) is a more extreme case of the same type of event. During such an exoplanet transit, the observed brightness of the star will decrease slightly because the planet blocks a part of the stellar light. The larger the planet, the more of the light is blocked and the more the brightness of the star will decrease. A study of the way this brightness changes with time (astronomers refer to the "light curve"), when combined with radial velocity measurements, allows a complete determination of the planetary orbit, including the exact inclination. It also provides accurate information about the planet's size, true mass and hence, density. The chances that a particular exoplanet passes in front of the disk of its central star as seen from the Earth are small. However, because of the crucial importance of such events in order to characterize exoplanets fully, astronomers have for some time been actively searching for stars that experience small regularly occurring "brightness dips" that might possibly be caused by exoplanetary transits. The OGLE list Last year, a first list of 59 such possible cases of stars with transiting planets was announced by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) [2]. These stars were found - within a sample of about 5 million stars observed during a 32-day period - to exhibit small and regular brightness dips that might possibly be caused by transits of an exoplanet. For one of these stars, OGLE-TR-56 , a team of American astronomers soon thereafter observed slight variations of the velocity , strongly indicating the presence of an exoplanet around that star. UVES spectra of OGLE-TR-3 ESO PR Photo 10a/03 ESO PR Photo 10a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 466 pix - 41k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 931 pix - 280k] ESO PR Photo 10b/03 ESO PR Photo 10b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 492 x 400 pix - 52k [Normal - JPEG: 984 x 800 pix - 224k] Captions : PR Photo 10a/03 shows the 16.5-mag star OGLE-TR-3 , a solar-like star in the direction of the Galactic Center, discovered during an extensive photometric search for planetary and low-luminosity object transits [2]. The image is reproduced from an I-band CCD frame of a 1 x 1 arcmin 2 sky field. North is up and East is left. PR Photo 10b/03 displays a small portion of a high-dispersion spectrum of OGLE-TR-3 , obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is divided into five adjacent wavelength intervals and represents the mean of ten 1-hour spectral exposures. The fully drawn curve shows the spectrum of the "best fitting" stellar model from which the composition, temperature, mass, age of OGLE-TR-3 were deduced. Now, a team of German and ESO astronomers [1] have used the UVES High-Dispersion Spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile) to obtain very detailed spectra of another star on that list, OGLE-TR-3 , cf. PR Photos 10a-b/03 . Over a period of one month, a total of ten high-resolution spectra - each with an exposure time of about one hour - were obtained of the 16.5-mag object, i.e. its brightness is about 16,000 fainter that what can be perceived with the unaided eye. A careful evaluation shows that OGLE-TR-3 is very similar to the Sun, with a temperature of about 5800 °C (6100 K). And most interestingly, it undergoes velocity variations of the order of 120 m/s . The exoplanet at OGLE-TR-3 ESO PR Photo 10c/03 ESO PR Photo 10c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 507 pix - 24k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1014 pix - 95k] ESO PR Photo 10d/03 ESO PR Photo 10d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 466 x 400 pix - 20k [Normal - JPEG: 932 x 800 pix - 120k] ESO PR Photo 10e/03 ESO PR Photo 10e/03 [Preview - JPEG: 510 x 200 pix - 21k [Normal - JPEG: 1024 x 400 pix - 120k] Captions : PR Photo 10c/03 illustrates the relationship between the variations in stellar brightness and velocity, caused by an orbiting exoplanet that transits the disk of its central star. Consecutive positions of the planet in its (circular) orbit are marked by black dots, with the motion from left to right. The figure has been drawn to scale, i.e. the dots actually represent the size of the planet itself. At the top is the view of the planetary orbit from above - below a view from the Earth with the planetary transit. Further down, the lightcurve with a brightness (intensity) dip when the planet blocks a small part of the star's light is shown, and at the bottom the corresponding change in the star's velocity. Before the transit, when the planet moves towards us, the star moves in the opposite direction, i.e. away from us and the velocity is positive; during the transit, the relative velocity is zero and later is becomes negative as the star moves towards us. PR Photo 10d/03 displays the velocity variation of the star OGLE-TR-3 , as measured from ten VLT-UVES spectra (each with 1-hour exposure time) and plotted according to the "photometric phase". This means that the planetary transit occurs at phase 0 (left) and again at phase 1 (right). The observed variation is in agreement with the expected one, cf. PR Photo 10c/03 . The fully drawn curve represents the best fit to the observations (velocity variation about 120 m/s) - the mass of the planet is derived from this. PR Photo 10e/03 shows the brightness variation ("light-curve") of the star OGLE-TR-3 obtained during the OGLE observations [2]. The crosses correspond to the observations and the fully drawn curve represents a model fit, with the stellar parameters from the analysis of the UVES spectra (1 solar radius and 1 solar mass) and the planetary parameters from the velocity analysis (0.6 Jupiter mass). The best fit allows determination of the planet's size as about 200,000 km (1.4 times the size of Jupiter). The 2 per cent dip in the brightness of OGLE-TR-3 , as observed during the OGLE programme, occurs every 28 hours 33 minutes (1.1899 days), cf. PR Photo 10e/03 . The UVES velocity measurements ( PR Photo 10d/03 ) fit this period well and reveal, with high probability, the presence of an exoplanet orbiting OGLE-TR-3 with this period. In any case, the observations firmly exclude that the well observed brightness variations could be due to a small stellar companion. A red dwarf star would have caused velocity variations of 15 km/s and a brown dwarf star 2.5 km/s; both would have been easy to observe with UVES, and it is clear that such variations can be excluded. Although the available observations are still insufficient to allow an accurate determination of the planetary properties, the astronomers provisionally deduce a true mass of the planet of the order of one half of that of Jupiter . The density is found to be about 250 kg/m 3 , only one-quarter of that of water or one-fifth of that of Jupiter, so the planet is quite big for this mass - a bit "blown up". It is obviously a planet of the gaseous type . A very hot planet The orbital period, 28 hours 33 minutes (1.1899 days), is the shortest known for any exoplanet and the distance between the star and the planet is correspondingly small, only 3.5 million kilometres . The temperature of the side of the planet facing the star must therefore be very high, of the order of 2000 °C . Clearly, the planet must be losing its atmosphere by evaporation. The astronomers also conclude that it might in fact be possible to observe this exoplanet directly because of its comparatively strong infrared radiation. An attempt to do so will soon be made. As only the third exoplanet found this way (after those at the stars HD209458 and OGLE-TR-56 ), the new object confirms the current impression that a considerable number of stars may possess giant planets in close orbits. Since such planets cannot form so close to their parent star, they must have migrated inwards to the current orbit from a much larger, initial distance. It is not known at this time with certainty how this might happen. Future prospects It is expected that more observational campaigns will be made to search for transiting planets around other stars. There is good hope that OGLE-TR-3 and OGLE-TR-56 are just the first two of a substantial number of exoplanets to be discovered this way. Some years from now, searches will also begin from dedicated space observatories, e.g. ESA's Eddington and Darwin , and NASA's Kepler .

  11. A Catalog of Transit Timing Posterior Distributions for all Kepler Planet Candidate Transit Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin Tyler; Becker, Juliette C.; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-12-01

    Kepler has ushered in a new era of planetary dynamics, enabling the detection of interactions between multiple planets in transiting systems for hundreds of systems. These interactions, observed as transit timing variations (TTVs), have been used to find non-transiting companions to transiting systems and to measure masses, eccentricities, and inclinations of transiting planets. Often, physical parameters are inferred by comparing the observed light curve to the result of a photodynamical model, a time-intensive process that often ignores the effects of correlated noise in the light curve. Catalogs of transit timing observations have previously neglected non-Gaussian uncertainties in the times of transit, uncertainties in the transit shape, and short cadence data. Here, I present a catalog of not only times of transit centers, but also posterior distributions on the time of transit for every planet candidate transit event in the Kepler data, developed through importance sampling of each transit. This catalog allows one to marginalize over uncertainties in the transit shape and incorporate short cadence data, the effects of correlated noise, and non-Gaussian posteriors. Our catalog will enable dynamical studies that reflect accurately the precision of Kepler and its limitations without requiring the computational power to model the light curve completely with every integration. I will also present our open-source N-body photodynamical modeling code, which integrates planetary and stellar orbits accounting for the effects of GR, tidal effects, and Doppler beaming.

  12. Structural transitions in nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Mina

    In this work I investigate three different materials: nanoscale carbon systems, ferrofluid systems, and molecular-electronic devices. In particular, my study is focused on the theoretical understanding of structural changes and the associated electronic, mechanical, and magnetic properties of these materials. To study the equilibrium packing of fullerenes in carbon nanotube peapods optimization techniques were applied. In agreement with experimental measurements, my results for nanotubes containing fullerenes with 60--84 atoms indicate that the axial separation between the fullerenes is smaller than in the bulk crystal. The reduction of the inter-fullerene distance and also the structural relaxation of fullerenes result from a large internal pressure within the peapods. This naturally induced "static" pressure may qualify nanotubes as nanoscale autoclaves for chemical reactions. Combining total energy calculations with a search of phase space, I investigated the microscopic fusion mechanism of C60 fullerenes. I show that the (2+2) cycloaddition reaction, a necessary precursor for fullerene fusion, can be accelerated inside a nanotube. Fusion occurs along the minimum energy path as a finite sequence of Stone-Wales (SW) transformations. A detailed analysis of the transition states shows that Stone-Wales transformations are multi-step processes. I propose a new microscopic mechanism to explain the unusually fast fusion process of carbon nanotubes. The detailed pathway for two adjacent (5, 5) nanotubes to gradually merge into a (10, 10) tube, and the transition states have been identified. The propagation of the fused region is energetically favorable and proceeds in a morphology reminiscent of a Y-junction via a so called zipper mechanism, involving only SW bond rearrangements with low activation barriers. Using density functional theory, the equilibrium structure, stability, and electronic properties of nanostructured, hydrogen terminated diamond fragments have been studied. Such diamondoids can enter spontaneously into carbon nanotubes where polymerization of diamondoids is favourable. I studied the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, modeling a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. These structural changes depend on external parameters and result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be described analytically within a continuum approximation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Atomic Transitions in Dense Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Michael Sean

    Motivation for the study of hot, dense ( ~solid density) plasmas has historically been in connection with stellar interiors. In recent years, however, there has been a growing interest in such plasmas due to their relevance to short wavelength (EUV and x-ray) lasers, inertial confinement fusion, and optical harmonic generation. In constrast to the stellar plasmas, these laboratory plasmas are typically composed of high-z elements and are not in thermal equilibrium. Descriptions of nonthermal plasma experiments must necessarily involve the consideration of the various atomic processes and the rates at which they occur. Traditionally, the rates of collisional atomic processes are calculated by considering a binary collision picture. For example, a single electron may be taken to collisionally excite an ion. A cross section may be defined for this process and, multiplying by a flux, the rate may be obtained. In a high density plasma this binary picture clearly breaks down as the electrons no longer act independently of each other. The cross section is ill-defined in this regime and another approach is needed to obtain rates. In this thesis an approach based on computing rates without recourse to a cross section is presented. In this approach, binary collisions are replaced by stochastic density fluctuations. It is then these density fluctuations which drive transitions in the ions. Furthermore, the oscillator strengths for the transitions are computed in screened Coulomb potentials which reflect the average polarization of the plasma near the ion. Numerical computations are presented for the collisional ionization rate. The effects of screening in the plasma -ion interaction are investigated for He^+ ions in a plasma near solid density. It is shown that dynamic screening plays an important role in this process. Then, density effects in the oscillator strength are explored for both He^+ and Ar^{+17}. Approximations which introduce a nonorthogonality between the initial and final states is shown to introduce a nonnegligible error. Changes in the bound state energy levels are included in the calculation as well and are shown to dramatically increase the ionization rate over the low density result. Finally, a calculation is presented in which the final state wavefunctions are found exactly within a (density-dependent) screened Coulomb potential.

  14. Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, A.

    2009-04-17

    We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should thraw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.

  15. Making the Transition to Primary School: An Evaluation of a Transition Program for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The transition to primary school is an important time for both children and parents. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effectiveness of a Transition to Primary School Parent Program in strengthening parent knowledge and confidence to manage the transition process, increasing parent involvement in their children's

  16. Implementing Secondary Transition Evidence-Based Practices: A Multi-State Survey of Transition Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Plotner, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have produced a call for enhanced transition service delivery that includes implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, research indicates transition service providers still lack the knowledge and skills to effectively implement EBPs to ensure youth with disabilities

  17. Project STEPS: Assessment of Current Transition Practices and Transition System Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth

    This set of forms is part of Project STEPS (Sequenced Transition to Education in the Public Schools). They are intended to assist communities develop and use a formalized process for assessing the current status of transition within their community and for interagency planning related to the development of a community-wide transition team. The

  18. Transition metals activate TFEB in overexpressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Karina A.; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal toxicity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of numerous human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Lysosomes have emerged as important factors in transition metal toxicity because they handle transition metals via endocytosis, autophagy, absorption from the cytoplasm and exocytosis. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of lysosomal proteins in response to lysosomal and/or metabolic stresses. Since transition metals cause lysosomal dysfunction, we proposed that TFEB may be activated to drive gene expression in response to transition metal exposure and that such activation may influence transition metal toxicity. We found that transition metals copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) activate recombinant TFEB and stimulate the expression of TFEB-dependent genes in TFEB-overexpressing cells. In cells that show robust lysosomal exocytosis, TFEB was cytoprotective at moderate levels of Cu exposure, decreasing oxidative stress as reported by the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene. However, at high levels of Cu exposure, particularly in cells with low levels of lysosomal exocytosis, activation of overexpressed TFEB was toxic, increasing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Based on these data, we conclude that TFEB-driven gene network is a component of the cellular response to transition metals. These data suggest limitations and disadvantages of TFEB overexpression as a therapeutic approach. PMID:26251447

  19. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  20. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply with the minimum leverage and...

  1. Presidential Transitions: Planning the Last Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Mary Brown

    2007-01-01

    Presidential transitions can be difficult, but they are also unavoidable. As a member of two corporate boards, the author has observed several highly public and successful CEO transitions. To help guide outgoing presidents and campus communities away from the past and toward the future, the author offers some advice based on her own recent

  2. Schooling and the Development of Transitive Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Lavee; Cahan, Sorel

    1993-01-01

    A total of 10,785 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in Hebrew-language elementary schools in Jerusalem were given a written test that assessed their understanding of transitive syllogisms. Analyses indicated that the effect of schooling on children's understanding of transitive inference was larger than the effect of age. (MDM)

  3. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is

  4. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  5. Financial Management for Transit: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaselden, Mark; And Others

    This handbook is primarily intended to serve as a primer for transit system managers who have not had any formal financial education through college classes, professional development programs, or extensive on-the-job programs. The following topics are covered: financial planning techniques for transit (beginning the financial planning process,…

  6. Collaborating in the Transition to Tertiary Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila

    The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three

  7. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  8. Changes and Exchanges in Marginal Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrell, Dorothy; Armstrong, Derrick

    2007-01-01

    While some groups of young people may negotiate successful transitions to work, others are unable or unlikely to do so. The concept of "fair exchange" is pertinent to understanding youth transitions in their formative stages through educational experiences. Patterns of disrupted education challenge the education-work nexus not only because failure

  9. Phase transitions in the web of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.

  10. Transitions to School: Reframing Professional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Tess; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Systemic splits between pre-compulsory and compulsory early years education impact on transitions to school through discontinuities in children's experience. This paper presents data from a critical participatory action research project about transitions between pre-compulsory and compulsory early education schooling in Australia. The project

  11. Transitions in the Development of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Fred A., II

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the factors that lead to success in transitions of giftedness among a middle school student cohort. As part of the Yale University (PACE Center) Transitions in the Development of Giftedness evaluation plan, qualitative data were collected via a semistructured interview protocol. A total of 63

  12. Launching Students into Their Decade of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedmond, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    In the 2007 edition of "Diplomas Count", "Education Week" reported that nationally more than one-third of the students lost from the high school pipeline fail to make the transition from the ninth to the 10th grade. This explains why, for more than two decades, schools and districts across the country have struggled to develop freshman transition

  13. Factors Affecting Third Culture Kids' (TCKs) Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    (TCKs) transition becomes challenging for both the student and the school. The programs implemented, or lack thereof, are imperative to the successful transition of TCKs into their new, diverse, multicultural environment. Research has been written on the positive effects and challenges faced by TCKs' transient lifestyle. Although international

  14. Infant Mother Vocalization Patterns in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.

    Video-analysis was used to investigate the transition from coacting to alternating patterns of infant-mother vocalizations in this longitudinal study of one infant. In addition to investigating the transition and its developmental implications, the relationship between the temporal patterning of kinesic and vocal behaviors was studied. The study

  15. Transition: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s movement for improved transition of handicapped youth from school to work is considered in light of similar previous movements: (1) the career education movement of the 1970s and (2) the work/study movement of the 1960s. The influence of broad social issues (such as educational reform) on outcomes for the transition movement is stressed.…

  16. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  17. Bullying and school transition: Context or development?

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Brittain, Heather; McDougall, Patricia; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relative impact of school transition versus development on peer victimization and bullying perpetration were examined in a natural experiment involving 698 students where half transitioned into middle school from Grade 5 to Grade 6 and the other half remained in their elementary school over the same period. Results indicated that, on average, peer victimization decreased over the transition period while bullying perpetration remained stable for the whole sample. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the effects of school transition and sex on changes in victimization and perpetration. Results indicated that the effect of transition status on changes in peer victimization was moderated by sex. Middle school transition status predicted decreases in peer victimization for girls, but not for boys, who transitioned. However, school transition status and participants' sex (and their interaction) did not predict changes in perpetration over time. Our findings indicate that changes in student involvement with peer victimization are better understood as a contextual rather than a typical developmental process, whereas bullying perpetration may be better understood as developmental. PMID:26522183

  18. Transition Management: The Student Teacher's Achilles Heel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dawn Vincent

    Classroom observation of four student teachers during the first, seventh, and fourteenth weeks of their teaching semester focused on their management of transition periods between lesson segments. Videotapes and stimulated recall analysis of the differences revealed that: (1) the most effective student teachers averaged fewer transitions per

  19. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the…

  20. 6 CFR 17.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition plans. 17.230 Section 17.230 Domestic... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 17.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 17.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  1. 10 CFR 1042.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition plans. 1042.230 Section 1042.230 Energy... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 1042.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 1042.225 applies and that is composed of more than one...

  2. 49 CFR 25.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition plans. 25.230 Section 25.230... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 25.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 25.225 applies and that is composed of more than...

  3. 28 CFR 54.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition plans. 54.230 Section 54.230... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 54.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 54.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  4. 14 CFR 1253.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition plans. 1253.230 Section 1253.230... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage 1253.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to which 1253.225 applies and that is composed of more...

  5. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  6. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  7. Middle Grades Transition Programs around the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Colin; Bishop, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Transitions into and out of the middle grades can be challenging for many reasons. Students need to acclimate to new policies, practices, and buildings; teachers require accurate data about their new students' capacities; and families must navigate relationships with new personnel. All school transitions present different and, at times, puzzling

  8. High School to Employment Transition: Contemporary Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

    This book contains 24 articles discussing the transition to employment for noncollege-bound youths in the United States. The book is organized around four major themes: background, reviews of research on students' transition experiences, employers' needs, and government efforts; analysis of programs, including successful ones in western Europe and

  9. 42 CFR 412.533 - Transition payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.533 Transition payments. (a) Duration of transition periods. Except for a long-term care hospital that makes an election under paragraph (c) of this section or for a long-term care hospital...

  10. 42 CFR 412.533 - Transition payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.533 Transition payments. (a) Duration of transition periods. Except for a long-term care hospital that makes an election under paragraph (c) of this section or for a long-term care hospital...

  11. 42 CFR 412.626 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment for Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units 412.626 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period and... October 1, 2002, an inpatient rehabilitation facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of...

  12. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transitional rules. 3.3 Section 3.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions § 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than...

  13. 27 CFR 41.233 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transitional rule. 41.233... Tobacco 41.233 Transitional rule. (a) Any person who: (1) On April 1, 2009, had already been engaged in business as an importer of processed tobacco; and (2) Before June 30, 2009, submits an application for...

  14. 27 CFR 40.493 - Transitional rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Tobacco 40.493 Transitional rule. (a) Any person who: (1) On April 1, 2009, is engaged in business as a... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transitional rule. 40.493... authorization as provided in this part to engage in such business, may continue to engage in that...

  15. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Sustainability Program Funds: Announcement of Project Selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation... sustainability efforts and were announced in FTA's Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) on June 24, 2011....

  16. 36 CFR 219.35 - Transition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplement of the Forest Service directive system (36 CFR 200.4) or to one or more plans and give notice in... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Applicability and Transition 219.35 Transition. (a... under the 1982 planning regulations in effect prior to November 9, 2000 (See 36 CFR parts 200 to...

  17. 36 CFR 219.35 - Transition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplement of the Forest Service directive system (36 CFR 200.4) or to one or more plans and give notice in... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Applicability and Transition 219.35 Transition. (a... under the 1982 planning regulations in effect prior to November 9, 2000 (See 36 CFR parts 200 to...

  18. Case Studies in Assessment for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Patton, James R.; Clark, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a group of case studies to show how to assess students to develop a clear statement of transition service needs and then use that information for goals and objectives in their IEP or ITP (individual transition plan). The case studies format will help you see in a concrete way how assessment procedures relate to young people with

  19. The Chancellor's Role in a Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, James R.; Dorsey, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Successful transitions involving a formal role for the former president, such as chancellor, are rare enough that the authors think theirs is an exceptional experience and is worth sharing, especially given the bulge of presidential retirements anticipated over the next decade. The authors believe that this model of transition can be successful,…

  20. Youth Transitions: From Offending to Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the

  1. Transitional Dialects between Bhojpuri and Maithili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonntag, Selma K.

    A dialect survey of the transition between two major Indo-Aryan languages in Nepal, Bhojpuri and Maithili, was conducted focusing on both the linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects of the various languages and dialects. The purpose of the study was to find out where and how this transition occurred between the pure Bhojpuri-speaking area and the

  2. Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

  3. College Students in Transition: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Stephanie M., Ed.; Hinkle, Sara M., Ed.; Kranzow, Jeannine, Ed.; Pistilli, Matthew D., Ed.; Miles, LaTonya Rease, Ed.; Simmons, Jannell G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from high school to college is an important milestone, but it is only one of many steps in the journey through higher education. This volume is an annotated bibliography of the emerging literature examining the many other transitions students make beyond the first year, including the sophomore year, the transfer experience, and the…

  4. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  5. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  6. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  7. A Conceptual Model for Leadership Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of leadership transition based on an integrative review of literature. The article establishes a compelling case for focusing on leadership transitions as an area for study and leadership development practitioner intervention. The proposed model in this study identifies important success factors

  8. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenzli, Linda A., Ed.

    A facilitator's manual for the Summer Transition Enrichment Program at Bowling Green State University is presented. The overall objectives of the program are: (1) to facilitate the transition of entering freshmen into the academic and cultural life of the university; and (2) to assist students in their personal growth and adjustment to the

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  10. Transition: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s movement for improved transition of handicapped youth from school to work is considered in light of similar previous movements: (1) the career education movement of the 1970s and (2) the work/study movement of the 1960s. The influence of broad social issues (such as educational reform) on outcomes for the transition movement is stressed.

  11. Children's Agency during Transition to Formal Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Children's transition to school is a key issue in early years of education. Research in this field points to the counterintuitive possibility that the transition to school may actually lead to a reduction rather than a facilitation of children's agency. The paper presents findings of a longitudinal comparative ethnography on children's transition…

  12. Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of

  13. Structure and Agency in Transition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of transition studies in the UK, Germany, USA and Canada, the virtues of analysing the structural contexts, institutional arrangements and the young peoples' action orientations are presented. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, school and the labour market have become more and more decoupled and transition routes

  14. Family Perceptions of Transitions in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David L.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores three broad themes about transitions that have emerged in a naturalistic study of experiences of families with young children with disabilities. Generalizations regarding early transitions include families going through a birth crisis have difficulty understanding all the information they are provided. Not only is their role

  15. Youth in Transition: Are They Adult Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Lester H.; Conti, Gary J.; Shaw, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Since at-risk youth are in transition to adulthood, major adult learning concepts can be applied to them. The purpose of this study was to describe the learning strategies of youth in transition to adulthood in the urban life skills program of A Pocket Full of Hope®. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting methods were used. Assessing…

  16. Transiting Exoplanet Observations at Grinnell College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerhaft, Julia; Slough, P.; Cale, B.; Kempton, E.

    2014-01-01

    Grinnell College, a small liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa with 1600 undergraduate students, is home to the Grant O. Gale Observatory. Over the past year, we have successfully detected extrasolar planets using the transit method with our 24-inch Cassegrain reflecting telescope equipped with a CCD camera. With little light pollution and an easily accessible observatory, Grinnell College is an optimal location for transiting exoplanet observations. With the current telescope set-up and CCD camera, we have taken time series data and created image calibration and post-processing programs that detect exoplanet transits at high photometric precision. In the future, we will continue to use these observation and data reduction procedures to conduct transiting exoplanet research. Goals for our research program include performing follow-up observations of transiting exoplanet candidates to confirm their planetary nature, searching for additional exoplanets in known planetary systems using the transit timing detection method, tracking long period transiting planets, and refining properties of exoplanets and their host stars. Ground-based transiting planet science is especially important in the post-Kepler era, and our dedicated mid-sized telescope with plenty of access to dark clear nights provides an ideal resource for a variety of follow up and exoplanet detection efforts.

  17. Understanding Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In Clark and Lovric ("Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics", "Math. Educ. Res. J." 20(2) (2008), pp. 25-37) we began developing a model for the secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics, based on the anthropological notion of a rite of passage. We articulated several reasons why we believe that the

  18. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  19. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  20. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.