Sample records for coster-kronig transitions

  1. X-Ray Fluorescence Yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig Transition Probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Bambynek; Bernd Crasemann; R. W. Fink; H.-U. Freund; Hans Mark; C. D. Swift; R. E. Price; P. Venugopala Rao

    1972-01-01

    The present status of the field of fluorescence yields, radiationless (Auger and Coster-Kronig) and radiative transition probabilities is summarized. Tables of experimental and theoretical results are included, and tables of \\

  2. Investigation of low-Z Coster-Kronig transitions by means of Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental intensity ratios of Auger transitions for Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn as well as the relative L sub 2 and L sub 3 level widths of Cu and Zn, derived from their photoelectron spectra, are presented. Evidence is presented that a great deal of vacancy reorganization took place following photoionization and prior to Auger emission. These reorganizations are assumed to be due to Coster-Kronig transitions f sub 23. These results are compared with theoretical calculations and agree with predicted discontinuity at Z = 30 where f sub 23 transitions become energetically impossible.

  3. Auger and Coster-Kronig radial matrix elements for atomic numbers 6 le Z le 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mau Hsiung (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA)); Larkins, F.P. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)); Crasemann, B. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Coulomb radial matrix elements for Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions to K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2}-, and L{sub 3}-shell vacancies in singly ionized atoms have been calculated with relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions. Results are tabulated for atomic numbers Z = 6-87 for the K shell and Z = 12-92 for the L subshells. These matrix elements can be used to calculate approximate Auger rates in multiply ionized atoms; the matrix elements are expected to be very useful for the computation of Auger rates in molecules and can be applied in computations of valence-band Auger lineshapes in solids.

  4. Effect of fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields on L X-ray emission cross-sections by impact of 2MeV 4He2+ ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Hallak

    2001-01-01

    L-subshell X-rays of some rare-earth elements of Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were measured for 2MeV 4He2+ ion bombardment. The dependence on the atomic number of X-ray ionization cross sections of the above elements using different data bases for the fluorescence yield and Coster-Kronig transitions are examined. The same effect on theoretical calculations of the

  5. Effect of fluorescence and Coster–Kronig yields on L X-ray emission cross-sections by impact of 2 MeV 4He 2+ ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Hallak

    2001-01-01

    L-subshell X-rays of some rare-earth elements of Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were measured for 2MeV 4He2+ ion bombardment. The dependence on the atomic number of X-ray ionization cross sections of the above elements using different data bases for the fluorescence yield and Coster–Kronig transitions are examined. The same effect on theoretical calculations of the

  6. Effect of fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields on L X-ray emission cross-sections by impact of 2 MeV 4He 2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallak, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    L-subshell X-rays of some rare-earth elements of Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were measured for 2 MeV 4He 2+ ion bombardment. The dependence on the atomic number of X-ray ionization cross sections of the above elements using different data bases for the fluorescence yield and Coster-Kronig transitions are examined. The same effect on theoretical calculations of the relative intensities of individual lines in the X-ray spectrum is presented for the ECPSSR theory and its extensions, namely, ECPSSR-IS and ECPSSR-IS-UA.

  7. Measurement of the O2O3O4 and O3O4O5 super Coster-Kronig rates in tungsten via asymmetric diffraction spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, John; Glover, Jack L.; Hudson, Lawrence; Ralchenko, Yuri; Pereira, Nino; Feldman, Uri

    2014-06-01

    The tungsten L? transitions between 11 and 12 keV and K? transitions from 57 to 60 keV were produced by a laboratory electron-bombarded x-ray source and simultaneously recorded with high resolution by using multiple diffraction planes of the same quartz crystal operating in Cauchois transmission geometry. The W K? transitions were dispersed by the (5?0?2) planes, which were perpendicular to the crystal entrance surface, and by the (6?0?2), (7?0?2), and (8?0?4) planes which were rotated with respect to the (5?0?2) planes by angles up to 4.80°. The W L? transitions were dispersed by the (2?0?1) planes rotated from the (5?0?2) planes by 4.01°. The spectra from the five planes were simultaneously recorded on image plate detectors, and spectra were also recorded by scanning solid-state electronic detectors with narrow slits across the spectral lines. The metrology of the L and K shell spectra diffracted from multiple quartz planes enabled the detailed analysis of the detector spatial resolution and accurate measurement of the instrumental broadening produced by the various quartz diffraction planes. The W L? spectra had the highest instrumental resolving power, 1800, permitting for the first time the resolution of the blended L?4? (L1O2) and L?4 (L1O3) transitions. After subtracting the instrumental and detector contributions to the line widths, the remainder was assigned to the natural line widths. The measured widths of the O2 and O3 levels were 2.9 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively, and based on atomic code calculations these widths are attributed to the O2O3O4 and O3O4O5 super Coster-Kronig processes. This work demonstrates the ability to simultaneously record high resolution (<1 eV) L and K spectra to determine the line shapes of the heavy elements (e.g. W through Am) by using multiple planes of a single quartz crystal and to accurately measure the non-radiative super Coster-Kronig rates which are closely related to the energy level structure of the outer shells of the heavy elements.

  8. M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Yogeshwar [University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (India); Puri, Sanjiv [University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (India)], E-mail: sanjivpurichd@yahoo.com

    2008-01-15

    A complete set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig (CK) yields has been generated by interpolation for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 from the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model based values tabulated for a limited number of elements, considering the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions in accordance with the CK transition energies evaluated in the present work. The CK transition energies have been deduced from tabulated values of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater model based neutral atom binding energies [K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18 (1976) 243] and the L{sub i} (i = 1-3) subshell CK transition energies [M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19 (1977) 97] in order to establish the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions at specific atomic numbers. A second set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence yields have also been deduced using radiative widths computed from the Dirac-Fock (DF) model based X-ray emission rates, and the total widths reevaluated to incorporate the DF model based radiative widths in place of those based on the DHS model. Further, the CK-corrected ({nu}{sub i}) and average fluorescence ({omega}{sub M}) fields, which are experimentally important, have been evaluated from the generated set of CK yields and two sets of fluorescence yields.

  9. M sub-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yield data generation for elements, 57?Z?90 (computer code ‘MFCKYLD')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mittal, Raj

    2014-01-01

    M subshell fluorescence yield (?Mi, i=1-5) and Coster-Kronig yield (fMij, i=1-4, j=2-5) values have been generated for elements with Z, 57?Z?90. Keeping in view the importance of ?Mi and fMij for M X-ray productions in the region Z>56, the interpolation of non-relativistic data of McGuire [Phys. Rev. A 1972;5:1043-7] in the region Z=57-90 as well as relativistic data of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 1980;21:449-53 and 1983;27:2989-94] in the region Z=67-90 was attempted. The agreement between the generated data and the actual ones supported the adopted procedure. Subsequently, a computer software code MFCKYLD was developed to generate the yield values on computer terminal or in file for both non-relativistic and relativistic data just by entering the atomic number Z of the element through keyboard or file. The precision of present procedure that relies on the deviation of fitted values from the actual ones was found far better than the earlier fitted data.

  10. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental analysis of Coster-Kronig electron spectra from 64-MeV S12+ ions excited through He gas and C-foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sataka, M.; Imai, M.; Kawatsura, K.; Komaki, K.; Tawara, H.; Vasilyev, A.; Safronova, U. I.

    2002-05-01

    In Coster-Kronig electrons from the autoionizng Rydberg states of 64 MeV S12+ ions excited through He gas and very thin C-foil targets, several peaks have been observed in the electron energy range up to 2.5 eV. To obtain a better understanding on low-energy electron production mechanisms in such collisions, we synthesize the expected electron spectrum by assuming that the spectral (energy) distribution of each line can be expressed with a Gaussian profile with proper resolution and compare that with the observed spectrum. Two theoretical methods, namely, the perturbation theory of the Z-expansion (MZ code) and multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method (Cowan code) are used to calculate Auger electron energies and rates. It is found that the 1s2p15l 1s2s1S,1s2p13l 1s2s3S,1s22p9l 1s22s,1s22s2p9l 1s22s2,1s22p27l 1s22s2p3P, and 1s22p29l 1s22s2p1P decays give a significant contribution in the electron spectrum near threshold in the range of 0 2.5 eV. Synthetic spectra have been found to reproduce the observed spectra reasonably well if the ion charge distributions are taken into account properly. Based upon the synthetic electron spectra from particular core configurations best fitted to the observed spectra, we have inferred the ion charge “inside” foils which can be compared with the well-established equilibrium charge “after” foil.

  11. LE RENDEMENT DE LA TRANSITION DE COSTER-KRONIG LI ~ LIII DES LMENTS DE NOMBRE ATOMIQUE COMPRIS ENTRE 73 ET 92

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . [8] et de Sujkowski et al. [12] pour le thal- lium (Z = 81). Kinsey [6] a employ6 une m6thode semi-Kronig LI - LIII de chaque element. R6cemment Listengarten [7] a repris la methode de Kinsey en admettant

  12. Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Krause

    1979-01-01

    The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x-ray and Auger line widths, (e) x-ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster-Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and

  13. L-shell ionization studies of Pb and Bi with alpha particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Dhal; T. Nandi; H. C. Padhi

    1994-01-01

    Ionization cross sections for the L subshells of Pb and Bi by alpha-particle bombardment (2.2-8.2 MeV) have been determined from the experimental data and the currently available radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig factors. The measured ionization cross sections and their ratios are compared with the results of ECPSSR calculations [ECPSSR denotes perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) theory with energy-loss (E), Coulomb

  14. Effect of atomic parameters on L-shell X-ray production cross-sections by proton impact with energies below 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J.; Romo-Kröger, C.; Lugo-Licona, M.

    2002-04-01

    The role of the atomic parameters involved in the calculation of L-shell X-ray production cross-sections due to the impact of protons with energies below 1 MeV is discussed. Three data sets of emission rates and two tables of fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig probabilities are compared, based on the whole body of published experimental measurements of L X-ray lines and theoretical predictions of the ECPSSR model. It is found that one specific set of emission rates together with one specific set of fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig factors provide the best results for X-ray lines involving L 2 and L 3 subshell transitions. For lines based on L 1 subshell transitions, however, that set of emission rates is not the best to predict the cross-sections. It is noted, however, that more reliable measurements of Coster-Kronig probabilities are necessary, in spite of the availability of refined experimental methods.

  15. M Sub-Shell Cross Sections For 75-300 keV Proton Impact On W, Pt And Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, Sam J. [Physics Department, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    M sub-shell x-ray production cross sections from 75-300 keV proton bombardment of thick elemental targets of W, Pt, and Pb were measured and compared with ECPSSR and relativistic RPWBA-BC cross sections using different data bases of fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig factors, and x-ray transition rates. With a few exceptions, the differences between the various data base comparisons were not significant. For different sub-shells, either ECPSSR or RPWBA-BC compared better with the measurements. In all cases, agreement with theory improved as the collision energy increased.

  16. Relativistic intermediate-coupling calculations of dielectronic-recombination coefficients for the Li isoelectronic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.H. (High Temperature Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California (USA))

    1991-10-01

    Total dielectronic-recombination rate coefficients for 11 ions with 6{le}{ital Z}{le}54 in the Li isoelectronic sequence have been calculated using the distorted-wave technique and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model. The total rate coefficients for the fine-structure states for ions with {ital Z}{ge}24 can differ by as much as one order of magnitude at low temperatures due to the effects of relativity and intermediate coupling. Effects of Coster-Kronig transitions on rate coefficients are examined. Results from the present work are compared with previous nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock calculations.

  17. M-shell x-ray production by 0.8-4.0-MeV 4He+ ions in ten elements from hafnium to thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Kobzev, A. P.; Sandrik, R.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Ilkhamov, R. A.; Khusmurodov, S. H.; Lapicki, G.

    1990-11-01

    M-shell x-ray production cross sections are reported for 72Hf, 73Ta, 74W, 75Re, 76Os, 77Ir, 78Pt, 79Au, 83Bi, and 90Th bombarded by 4He ions of energy 0.8-4.0 MeV. The measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the semiclassical and first-order Born approximations and the calculations of the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) theory that accounts for energy-loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), and relativistic (R) effects (ECPSSR). The ECPSSR theory gives the best overall description of the measured data, although systematical discrepancies are found in the low-velocity region. Apart from deficiency of the available M-shell Coster-Kronig factors and fluorescence yields near or above Z2=74, where strong M4-M5N6,7 Coster-Kronig transitions become energetically forbidden, the increasing underestimation of the data by the ECPSSR theory with decreasing projectile velocities is genuine. In fact, we have found previously [Pajek et al., Phys. Rev. A 42, 261 (1990)] the same discrepancy for identical target elements bombarded by protons at comparably low velocities.

  18. M -shell x-ray production by 0. 8--4. 0-MeV sup 4 He sup + ions in ten elements from hafnium to thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Pajek, M. (Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, (Poland)); Kobzev, A.P.; Sandrik, R.; Skrypnik, A.V. (Joint Institutefor Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Ilkhamov, R.A.; Khusmurodov, S.H. (Institute of Applied Physics, Tashkent State University, Tashkent (USSR)); Lapicki, G. (Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville North Carolina (USA))

    1990-11-01

    {ital M}-shell x-ray production cross sections are reported for {sub 72}Hf, {sub 73}Ta, {sub 74}W, {sub 75}Re, {sub 76}Os, {sub 77}Ir, {sub 78}Pt, {sub 79}Au, {sub 83}Bi, and {sub 90}Th bombarded by {sup 4}He ions of energy 0.8--4.0 MeV. The measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the semiclassical and first-order Born approximations and the calculations of the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) theory that accounts for energy-loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), and relativistic (R) effects (ECPSSR). The ECPSSR theory gives the best overall description of the measured data, although systematical discrepancies are found in the low-velocity region. Apart from deficiency of the available {ital M}-shell Coster-Kronig factors and fluorescence yields near or above {ital Z}{sub 2}=74, where strong {ital M}{sub 4}-{ital M}{sub 5}{ital N}{sub 6,7} Coster-Kronig transitions become energetically forbidden, the increasing underestimation of the data by the ECPSSR theory with decreasing projectile velocities is genuine. In fact, we have found previously (Pajek {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. A 42, 261 (1990)) the same discrepancy for identical target elements bombarded by protons at comparably low velocities.

  19. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  20. PIXEF: The Livermore PIXE spectrum analysis package

    SciTech Connect

    Antolak, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Bench, G.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    PIXEF (for, PIXE-Fit) is a proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) data analysis program designed for analyzing medium to heavy element matrices while retaining the capability to treat lower atomic number targets. Using nonlinear least squares fitting techniques, algorithms have been developed or modified both for fitting the characteristic x-ray peaks and representing the associated bremsstrahung and {gamma}-ray background. Self-absorption and secondary fluorescence are explicitly determined for K shell and L subshell x rays. Data bases have been created or improved, where necessary, from reliable current literature values or by direct measurement for element mass attenuation coefficients, photoionization and proton ionization cross sections, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and relative line intensities. The utility of the program is demonstrated with PDM spectra obtained at Livermore.

  1. Relativistic calculations of dielectronic recombination coefficients for the Ne isoelectronic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.H.

    1986-08-01

    Dielectronic recombination coefficients for ground-state ions of the Ne isoelectronic sequence have been calculated for seven ions, with atomic number 18< or =Z-italic< or =54, in the isolated resonance approximation, for temperatures in the range 0.2< or =T-italic< or =6 keV. The Auger and radiative rates of each doubly excited state were evaluated explicitly by using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model. The calculations were performed with intermediate coupling. The effect of the configuration interaction was also included for the low-lying doubly excited states. The effect of Coster-Kronig-type transitions on the dielectronic rate coefficients has been found to be very significant for low-Z-italic ions. However, it is quite small for medium and heavy ions. The effect of relativity on the total dielec- tronic coefficient and dielectronic satellite spectra is also discussed.

  2. L-subshell ionization of Bi, Au, and Yb induced by F ions at intermediate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Y. P.; Mitra, D.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Tandon, P. N.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the absolute cross sections for the L-subshell ionization for Yb, Au, and Bi induced by intermediate and low-energy F ions. A comparative study of the different methods of extracting the vacancy production cross sections from the L x-ray line intensities is presented. The measured cross sections are compared with the available theoretical calculations based on the perturbed stationary state (PSS) approximation including the effects due to the increased binding energy, Coulomb (C) deflection, energy (E) loss, and the relativistic (R) wave function (ECPSSR). In the case of Yb and Au targets, the ratio of the subshell ionization cross section for L1 to that for L2 is found to be larger than 1.0 contrary to theoretical predictions, whereas the ratio is less than 1.0 for Bi, as expected. Similar ratios for the L2 to L3 subshells are, however, in agreement with the theoretical predictions for all three targets. These observations can be understood in terms of the multiple vacancies in the outer shells and their effect on the fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transitions. In the case of L1 ionization, the ECPSSR calculations are found to fall much below the experimental data for Yb and Au, and a part of the deviation is understood to be due to the existence of multiple vacancies in the outer shells and the interplay between the Coster-Kronig and radiative transition probability. Quantitative estimates on the enhancement in the effective fluorescence yields of the L1 subshell are also provided for all three targets.

  3. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Bana?, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czy?ewski, T.; Fija?, I.; Jaskó?a, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4 70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved L?1,2, L?1, and L?2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L1-L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L1, L2, and L3 subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the “coupled-subshell model” (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms.

  4. Coupling and binding-saturation effects in L -subshell ionization of heavy atoms by 0.3-1.3-MeV/amu Si ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fija?-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskó?a, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Pajek, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.

    2008-03-01

    The coupling and binding effects have been studied in L -subshell ionization of heavy Au, Bi, Th, and U atoms by an impact of S28iq+ ions in the energy range of 8.5-36.0 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed taking into account the multiple ionization effects in outer M and N shells. The L -subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections using the L -shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields which were modified for a reduced number of electrons and closed Coster-Kronig transitions in the multiply ionized atoms. The results are compared with the available calculations, which are based on the semiclassical approximation (SCA) as well as the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA). We demonstrate that for silicon ion impact these theoretical approaches have to be modified to include the L -subshell coupling effect using the “coupled subshell model” (CSM) as well as the saturation of the binding effect at the united atom limit. The calculations modified for both effects are in much better agreement with the data. In particular, an order-of-magnitude improvement of agreement between the data and the SCA-CSM calculations including the binding-saturation effect is reported for low-energy Si ions for the L2 -subshell. The results are also compared with the predictions of the PWBA based ECPSSR and ECUSAR theories accounting for the energy-loss (E), Coulomb-deflection (C), and relativistic (R) effects treating the binding effect within the perturbed stationary state (PSS) approximation with correction for the binding-saturation effect introduced to describe the united-atom and separated-atom (USA) limits.

  5. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Kadad, Ibrahim M. [Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-01-05

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2,3}-, M{sub 1}-, M{sub 2,3}- and M{sub 4,5} subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} and Xe{sup 10+} ions, and the charged X{sup 8+} ions are the highest. The main product from the L{sub 1}- shell ionization is found to be Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} ions, while the charged Xe{sup 8+} ions predominate at L{sub 2,3} hole states. The charged Xe{sup 6+}, Xe{sup 7+} and Xe{sup 8+} ions mainly yield from 3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 1/2,3/2} ionization, while Xe in 3d{sub 3/2,5/2} hole states mainly turns into Xe{sup 4+} and Xe{sup 5+} ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

  6. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pajek, M.; Banas, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czyzewski, T.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, 25-406 Kielce, (Poland); The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk, (Poland); Physikalisches Instituet, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen, (Germany); Instituet fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel, (Switzerland); Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA (United States); Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1001, (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4-70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{gamma}{sub 1}, and L{gamma}{sub 2,3} transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, and L{sub 3} subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the ''coupled-subshell model'' (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms.

  7. Photoionization measurements for the iron isonuclear sequence Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 5+}, and Fe{sup 7+}

    SciTech Connect

    Gharaibeh, M. F.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Scully, S. W. J.; Phaneuf, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0220 (United States); Mueller, A. [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Bozek, J. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Schlachter, A. S. [Advanced Light Source, MS 7-100, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 6-96, Cuernavaca 62131 (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    Cross sections for single photoionization of Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 5+}, and Fe{sup 7+} ions were measured at spectral resolutions of 0.04, 0.15, and 0.13 eV, respectively, by merging mass- and charge-selected ion beams with a beam of monochromatized synchrotron undulator radiation. The measurements span photon energy ranges beginning at the ionization thresholds and extending several tens of electron volts to include the most important resonant contributions due to 3p-nd transitions to autoionizing states. The photoion yield spectra are characterized by narrow resonances and also broad features in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 5+} that are believed to result from unresolved fast super-Coster-Kronig transitions following 3p-3d excitation. Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements were also performed using ion beams containing undetermined fractions of ions in their ground and metastable states. A Rydberg series attributed to 3p-nd transitions from the {sup 2}G{sub 1} metastable state in Fe{sup 3+} was identified. The data are compared with recently published measurements on Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 5+} using a similar technique at lower spectral resolution.

  8. Widths of atomic 4s and 4p vacancy states, 46 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiungchen, M.; Crasemann, B.; Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1975-01-01

    Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectra involving N1, N2, and N3 vacancy states of Pd, Ag, Cd, In, and Sn were measured and compared with results of free atom calculations. As previously observed in Cu and Zn Auger spectra that involve 3d-band electrons, free-atom characteristics with regard to widths and structure were found in the Ag and Cd M4-N4,5N4,5 and M5-N4,5N4,5 Auger spectra that arise from transitions of 4d-band electrons. Theoretical N1 widths computed with calculated free-atom Auger energies agree well with measurements. Theory however predicts wider N2 than N3 vacancy states (as observed for Xe), while the measured N2 and N3 widths are nearly equal to each other and to the average of the calculated N2 and N3 widths. The calculations are made difficult by the exceedingly short lifetime of some 4p vacancies and by the extreme sensitivity of super-Coster-Kronig rates, which dominate the deexcitation, to the transition energy and to the fine details of the atomic potential.

  9. Studies on radiative collisional and ultraviolet lasers. Final report, 1 January 1983-31 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.E.; Young, J.F.

    1985-11-01

    Significant accomplishments of this program include: the first microwave pumping of an excimer laser; the first use of pulsed hollow-cathode technology to produce substantial quantities of core-excited metastable atoms; the use of these metastable atoms to delineate a partial Grotrian diagram for core-excited Na; the proposal of the concept of quasi-metastable quartet levels and the experimental verification of their importance in the column I metals; and the proposal for short-wavelength systems based on super Coster-Kronig transitions. Abstracts: Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy; Active Mode Looking of a Microwave-Pumped XeCl Laser; Measurement of Lithium and Sodium Metastable Quartet Atoms in a Hollow-Cathode Discharge; Quasi-Metastable Quartet Levels in Alkalilike Atoms and Ions; Grotrian Diagram of the Quartet System of Na I; Emission at 1091 A in Neutral Core-Excited Cs; Metastability in the Extreme Ultraviolet: Lasers and Spectroscopy; Laser Spectroscopy of Na I Quartets; X-Ray Excitation of Energetic Metastable Levels in Atoms and Ions; Proposal for an Extreme-Ultraviolet Selective Autoionization Laser in Zn III; XUV Emission Spectra of Core-Excited Levels in Sodium and Magnesium; Quasi-Metastable Energy Levels and Applications; Shake-up as a Mechanism for VUV Lasers; and Emission Spectra of Quasi-Metastable Levels of Alkali Atoms.

  10. L X-ray production cross-section ratios for protons incident on high- Z atoms: A test of ECPSSR theory and newly recommended vacancy de-excitation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. N.; Campbell, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The X-ray intensity ratios L?/L? and L?/L? for six heavy elements have been measured using a Si(Li) detector coupled to both analog and digital signal processors. The proton energies were chosen to ensure that possible united atom (UA) and intra-shell (IS) effects would be small, thereby ensuring that the experiments were a direct test of the ECPSSR together with the L subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig probabilities. Careful attention was paid to reducing recognized uncertainties in the fitting of the spectra, with the desired intensity ratios being extracted from a procedure that assumed the DF radiative transition rates of Scofield to be correct. Experiment and ECPSSR theory agree closely when the fluorescence and CK probabilities from a recent critical review are adopted in preference to those commonly used in earlier work. This result provides a significant improvement in the database used for PIXE analysis, and it paves the way for more definitive studies at lower proton energies, aimed at testing predicted UA and IS corrections.

  11. Calculated L-shell x-ray line intensities for proton and helium ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, D.D.; Harrigan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical L-shell X-ray line intensities have been calculated for proton and helium bombardment of atoms from nickel (Z/sub 2/ = 28) to curium (Z/sub 2/ = 96). The ionization cross sections for the three L subshells were obtained from the recent calculations by Cohen and Harrigan in the ECPSSR theory, which uses the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed-stationary-state (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects. The fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities were taken from M. O. Krause (Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307 (1979)) and the L-subshell emission rates from S. I. Salem, S. L. Panosian, and R. A. Krause (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 14, 91 (1974)). The line intensities Ll, L..cap alpha.., Leta, L..beta../sub 1/ to L..beta../sub 6/, L..beta../sub 9,10/, and L..gamma../sub 1/ to Lgg/sub 6/ are tabulated for selected ion energies from 0.2 to 10 MeV.

  12. L-subshell ionization of heavy elements by S ions with energy of 0.4 3.8 MeV/amu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fija?-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskó?a, M.; Korman, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Choi?ski, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Kretchmer, W.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2008-05-01

    The L-shell X-ray production cross sections have been measured for sulphur ions in the energy range of 12.8-120 MeV for Au and Bi elements. The experimental L X-ray spectra were analyzed using the method that takes into account the multiple ionization in outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured X-ray production cross sections for resolved L? 1,2 L? 1 and L? 2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields modified by the multiple ionization effects in the M and N shells. The results are compared with the predictions of ECUSAR theory, which is the modified ECPSSR approach describing both direct ionization and electron-capture processes and the semiclassical approximation (SCA) calculations for direct ionization. These approaches were modified by the L-subshell coupling effects within the "coupled-subshell model" (CSM). Both modified approaches are in good agreement with the data. Remaining discrepancies are discussed in terms of the L-shell decay rates modified for the multiple ionization effects.

  13. Rates of exponential decay in systems of discrete energy levels by Stieltjes imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Craigie, Jacob; Hammad, Ali; Cooper, Bridgette; Averbukh, Vitali, E-mail: v.averbukh@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-07

    An isolated bound state coupled to a continuum shows an exponential decay of its survival probability. Rates of the exponential decay occurring due to the bound-continuum coupling can be recovered from discretized continuum (L{sup 2}) calculations using a computational technique known as Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory or Stieltjes imaging. At the same time, some genuinely discrete level systems, e.g., Bixon-Jortner model, also show an exponential (or approximately exponential) decay of the initially populated level before the onset of quantum revivals. Here, we demonstrate numerically that Stieltjes imaging can be used for calculation of the rates of the exponential decay in such discrete level systems. We apply the Stieltjes imaging technique to the approximately exponential decay of inner-valence vacancies in trans-butadiene in order to show that the breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionization in the inner valence region can be physically interpreted as an energy-forbidden Coster-Kronig transition.

  14. L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} x-ray production cross sections of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi by electron impact: Comparison of distorted-wave calculations with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Varea, Jose M.; Segui, Silvina; Dingfelder, Michael [Facultat de Fisica (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We study the emission of L{alpha}, L{beta}, and L{gamma} characteristic x rays by the impact of electrons on Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi atoms. To this end, ionization cross sections of the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, and L{sub 3} subshells of these atoms are calculated within the distorted-wave Born approximation. The considered energy interval spans from the ionization threshold up to 50 keV. Atomic relaxation parameters (i.e., Coster-Kronig and radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and emission rates) taken from the literature are then used to evaluate x-ray production cross sections. The theoretical predictions are compared with published experimental information. Good agreement is found for Ta, W, Os, Au, Pb, and Bi. In the case of Hf and Re, the measured cross sections are lower than the theoretical estimates by around 30%. The observed discrepancies might be attributed to the methods employed to correct the raw experimental data for the excess of detected characteristic x rays caused by the finite thickness of the sample's active layer and the presence of the thick substrate.

  15. L3 subshell alignment of gold in low energy carbon impact

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, D.; Sarkar, M.; Bhattacharya, D. [SINP, Calcutta (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The L3(2p3/2) alignment parameters of gold following 4.2, 6.4 and 8.9 MeV Carbon ion impact have been determined from the angular distribution of Au L x-rays. The intensity ratio L{sub 1}/L{sub {gamma}{sub 1}} was measured with a Si(Li) detector at various angles with respect to the incident beam. The data were analysed in the standard way to yield the A2 parameters. The measured A2 values were corrected for the Coster-Kronig transitions which change the subshell populations subsequent to ionization but prior to the radiative decay. These corrected A2 parameters are compared with the theoretical values. It is observed that the measured values for A2 agree with the data of Jitschin et al, within errors. However, the A2 values calculated from the ECPSSR (or ECPSSR with intra shell effect included) grossly overpredict the data.

  16. Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization In Ne, Ar And Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Al-Zanki, Jasem M.; El-Essawy, Ashraf H. [Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-01-05

    Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.

  17. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  18. LMM Auger primary excitation spectra of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, N.; Tougaard, S.; Yubero, F.

    2014-12-01

    The shape and intensity of measured Auger peaks are strongly affected by extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface and to intrinsic excitations induced by the sudden creation of the two static core holes. Following a method developed for XPS in a previous work [N. Pauly, S. Tougaard, F. Yubero, Surf. Sci. 620 (2014) 17], we have calculated the effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross-sections, including the effects of the surface and of the two core holes, within the dielectric response theory by means of the QUEELS-XPS software (QUantitative analysis of Electron Energy Losses at Surfaces for XPS). The Auger spectra are then modeled by convoluting this energy loss cross section with the primary excitation spectrum that accounts for all effects which are part of the initial Auger process, i.e. L-S coupling and vacancy satellite effects. The shape of this primary excitation spectrum is fitted to get close agreement between the theoretical and the experimental spectra obtained from X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES). We have performed these calculations of XAES spectra for various LMM Auger transitions of pure Cu (L3M45M45, L3M23M45, L3M23M23 and L2M45M45 transitions). We compare the resulting primary excitation spectra with theoretical results published in the literature and obtain reasonable quantitative agreement. In particular, we extract from experimental spectra quantitative intensities due to Coster-Kronig, shake-off and shake-up processes relative to the intensity from the “normal” Auger process.

  19. Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, Carole A.

    2010-07-01

    1. Our solar system from afar; 2. Exoplanet discoveries by the transit method; 3. What the transit lightcurve tells us; 4. The transiting exoplanet population; 5. Transmission spectroscopy and Rossiter-McLaughlin effect; 6. Secondary eclipses and phase variations; 7. Transit timing variations and orbital dynamics; 8. Brave new worlds: the future; Index.

  20. Transit Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-11

    In this space science activity, learners explore transits and the conditions when a transit may be seen. Learners use models to investigate how a planet's size and distance from its star affects the behavior of transits. Learners also use mathematics to interpret graphs of brightness vs. time to deduce information about planet-star systems. This lesson includes educator instructions, photocopy masters for Transit Light Curves, Option Math for Transit Tracks, Kepler’s 3rd Law graphs, cube root tables, an account of Jeremiah Horrocks' 1639 observation of the transit of Venus, and an answer key for the Transit Tracks Light Curves.

  1. [ital L]-shell ionization studies of Pb and Bi with [alpha] particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dhal, B.B.; Nandi, T.; Padhi, H.C. (Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India))

    1994-01-01

    Ionization cross sections for the [ital L] subshells of Pb and Bi by [alpha]-particle bombardment (2.2--8.2 MeV) have been determined from the experimental data and the currently available radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig factors. The measured ionization cross sections and their ratios are compared with the results of ECPSSR calculations [ECPSSR denotes perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) theory with energy-loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), and relativistic (R) corrections]. The measured individual cross sections for [ital L][sub 1] and [ital L][sub 2] subshells deviated in opposite directions from the theory, whereas their sum shows good agreement. The [ital L][sub 3] and total ionization cross sections obtained from the data also show good agreement with the ECPSSR theory. The ionization cross-section ratios [sigma][sub [ital L]1]/[sigma][sub [ital L]2] and [sigma][sub [ital L]3]/[sigma][sub [ital L]2] show large deviations from the ECPSSR theory. The experimental x-ray production cross-section ratios are found to be in better agreement with the theoretical results obtained from using ECPSSR ionization cross sections and the decay yield data of Xu and Xu [J. Phys. B 25, 695 (1992)] rather than those obtained from using the decay yield data of Krause [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307 (1979)]. The x-ray production cross sections, however, are in better agreement with the theoretical results obtained from using the decay yield data of Krause. The measured centroid energy of the [ital L][gamma] lines of Pb shows large deviations at high projectile energy, whereas for Bi large deviations are found at the low-energy region.

  2. Transition & Beyond

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About NDSS Mission & Vision NDSS History Our Team Media Kit Financials Newsroom Donate Home » Resources » Transition & Beyond Transition & Beyond Issues that effect adolescents and adults with Down syndrome and their families ...

  3. Beam Energy Considerations for Gold Nano-Particle Enhanced Radiation Treatment

    E-print Network

    Heuvel, F Van den; Nuyts, S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A novel approach using nano technology enhanced radiation modalities is investigated. The proposed methodology uses antibodies labeled with organically inert metals with a high atomic number. Irradiation using photons with energies in the kilo--electron volt (keV) range show an increase in dose due to a combination of an increase in photo-electric interactions and a pronounced generation of Auger and/or Coster-Kronig (A-CK) electrons. Methods: The dependency of the dose deposition on various factors is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation models. The factors investigated include: agent concentration, spectral dependency looking at mono--energetic sources as well as classical bremsstrahlung sources. The optimization of the energy spectrum is performed in terms of physical dose enhancement as well as the dose deposited by Auger and/or Coster-Kronig electrons and their biological effectiveness. Results: A quasi-linear dependency on concentration and an exponential decrease within the target medium ...

  4. PIXE-INP computer code for PIXE analyses of thin and thick samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Havránek; V. Hnatowicz; J. Kvítek; I. Obrusník

    1994-01-01

    The Pascal 6.0 program package PIXE-INP was developed at Institute of Nuclear Physics (Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic) for quantitative evaluation of PIXE spectra from thin and thick samples. The K-, L- and M-sensitivities are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical ionization cross sections, tabulated relative X-ray emission probabilities, Coster-Kronig and fluorescence yields. The X-ray detector efficiency is determined by

  5. Effects of multiple ionization and intrashell coupling in L -subshell ionization by heavy ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Lapicki; G. A. V. Ramana Murty; G. J. Naga Raju; B. Seetharami Reddy; S. Bhuloka Reddy; V. Vijayan

    2004-01-01

    L -subshell ionization cross sections are extracted from measured Lalpha , Lbeta , Lgamma , Lgamma1 , Lgamma23 , and Lgamma44 x-ray production cross sections in thin targets of Re75 , Pt78 , and Au79 bombarded by 4-8MeV C3+ ions. For each projectile energy, using the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields recently recommended by Campbell with an amendment for multiple ionization

  6. More Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra from copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Thurgate; C. P. Lund; C. Creagh; R. Craig

    1998-01-01

    We have recently re-built our Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) system at Murdoch University. The new instrument counts at much higher rates and with greater energy resolution. With this we have looked again at the APECS spectra from Cu. We have been able to see more clearly the L2–L3V–VV(V) Coster–Kronig satellite and, in a reverse experiment, to find out which

  7. L-Shell X-ray production cross-sections by impact of 5.0 to 7.5 MeV 10B 2+ ions on selected rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lugo-Licona; J. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    L-shell X-ray production cross-sections by 5.0 to 7.5 MeV 10B2+ heavy ion impact on selected rare elements (Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Gd and Yb) were measured. An evaluation is given of the effect of using several databases for the atomic parameters (fluorescence yields and Coster–Kronig probabilities). Moreover, the application of different theories to predict ionization cross-sections, such as

  8. Transition metals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals such as Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) are essential for plant cell development. At the same time, due their capability to generate hydroxyl radicals they can be potentially toxic to plant metabolism. Recent works on hydroxyl-radical activation of ion transporters suggest that hydroxyl radicals generated by transition metals could play an important role in plant growth and adaptation to imbalanced environments. In this mini-review, the relation between transition metals uptake and utilization and oxidative stress-activated ion transport in plant cells is analyzed, and a new model depicting both apoplastic and cytosolic mode of ROS signaling to plasma membrane transporters is suggested. PMID:23333964

  9. Transit Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a collection of mathematical problems about transits in the solar system. Learners can work problems created to be authentic glimpses of modern science and engineering issues, often involving actual research data.

  10. TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS IN TRANSITION METAL OXIDES by D. B. McWHAN, A. MENTH oxydes de metaux de transition on observe une transition d'isolant a metal puis de metal a isolant de type Mott lorsque l'on augmentelenombre d'electrons d. Danslesysthe(V1-~Cr~)203une transition de Mott

  11. Transition Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Transition

    2011-11-23

    This is a site for teachers that work with students with disabilities at the secondary level. This site is broken down into categories to help you with the transition aspect of the IEP. The categories are as follows: Employment/Training, For Students - Career Exploration and Profiles, Independent Living, Learning Styles & Trainings, Level 1 Assessments, Self-Determination, and Transition Resources. All of the resources included in this site are free! TRANSITION RESOURCES: 1.) Adult Career and Continuing Education Services (ACCES-VR) This website takes you directly to the ACCES-VR website, where you can find information about vocational rehabilitation and the referral process. 2,) Guide to Quality Individualized Education Program (IEP) Development and Implementation Created by the New York State Special Education Department to help answer questions regarding the New IEP. Great resource! Gives examples!! 3.) Indicator 13 Checklist Use this ...

  12. Metric transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  13. Venus Transit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the Venus Transit and how it helped astronomers determine the scale of the solar system. Learners will use measurement, ratios, and graphing to construct a model of the solar system and determine the relationship of each planet to the Sun. They will explore the scales needed to represent the size of the planets and the distances to the Sun. This activity corresponds to the NASA CONNECT video, titled Venus Transit, and has supplemental questions to support the video viewing.

  14. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  15. Radioactive Transitions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an interactive activity demonstrating how radioactive transitions (photon absorption and stimulated emission) occur in an optical field. Many important phenomena are emergent behaviors of this dynamic model. An interactive diagram is presented allowing students to experiment and watch a simulation of the result.

  16. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  17. Dynamo Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M. K.; Yadav, R.; Chandra, M.; Paul, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Wahi, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2010-11-23

    In this article we review the experimental and numerical results related to the dynamo transitions. Recent experiments of Von Karman Sodium (VKS) exhibit various dynamo states including constant, time-periodic, and chaotic magnetic fields. Similarly pseudospectral simulations of dynamo show constant, time-periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic magnetic field configurations. One of the windows for the magnetic Prandtl number of unity shows period doubling route to chaos. Quasiperiodic route to chaos has been reported for the Prandtl number of 0.5. The dynamo simulations also reveal coexisting multiple attractors that were obtained for different initial conditions.

  18. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  19. MassTransitMag

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The MassTransit website is dedicated to "Better Transit Through Better Management", and their offerings include industry news, email newsletters, video profiles, and opinion pieces about the world of mass transit. The site is mostly dedicated to providing information about mass transit systems in the United States, though visitors will note that there is some coverage of international transit systems as well. The "Current Issue" section includes full-text version of most of the articles found in the print issue, along with an archive dating back to 2005. For more up-to-the minute coverage of transit affairs, the "Daily News" area digests ongoing legislation, transit improvements, and long-range plan updates from a variety of sources. The "MassTransit Interactive" area allows users to read and comment on editor's comments on the news affecting the transit world, including issues such as federal funding mechanisms, light-rail initiatives, and union contracts.

  20. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  1. Transition Handbook: Valley Transitional School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Rehabilitation Services, Richmond.

    The handbook was developed by the 3-year Valley Transitional School Project, serving Augusta, Staunton, and Waynesboro schools, all located in Augusta County, Virginia. The purpose of the project was to develop and validate a model which would assist school youth with severe disabilities to make the transition from school to employment, in the…

  2. Transitional Tetrapod Fossil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-11-01

    In this video segment from NOVA: Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial, learn about the discovery of a well-preserved transitional fossil and how such transitional fossils support the theory of evolution.

  3. Phase transitions in ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Zhang; G. H. Rao; J. R. Sun; J. K. Liang

    1998-01-01

    Phase transitions in sintered (0022-3727\\/31\\/4\\/005\\/img2 were investigated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in combination with magnetization measurement. Below 300 K, three phase transitions were identified: charge disorder-order, paramagnetism-antiferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism-canted spin structure transitions. In contrast to the reported single-crystal sample, no field-induced metamagnetic transition occurred in the sintered sample at an applied magnetic field up to 6.5

  4. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

  5. Cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  6. Light Rail Transit Strengthening

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Light Rail Transit Improving mobility Easing congestion Strengthening our communities Central Corridor Communicating to the Public During Major Construction May 25, 2011 #12;2 Light Rail Transit;Light Rail Transit Central Corridor Route and Stations 3 · 18 new stations · 9.8 miles of new double

  7. Single, double, and triple Auger decay of the Xe 4p core-hole states

    SciTech Connect

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F. [LCP-MR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 and CNRS (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Eland, J. H. D. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Aoto, T.; Ito, K. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Auger decay of Xe{sup +} states arising from 4p ionization has been studied with a very efficient multielectron coincidence method. Coster-Kronig decay from Xe{sup +} 4p{sup -1} and the subsequent decay into Xe{sup 3+} states with three valence holes are identified. Formation of Xe{sup 4+} is also observed as quadruple coincidences between a 4p photoelectron and three Auger electrons. The relative probabilities of individual multi-ionization processes are determined from the coincidence yields.

  8. Measurements and calculations of M-shell X-ray production in Er, Yb and Lu by 0.75 6 MeV He ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F.; Duggan, J. L.; Holland, O. W.; McDaniel, F. D.; Lapicki, G.

    2005-12-01

    M-shell X-ray production cross sections for the light rare-earth elements of 68Er, 70Yb and 71Lu have been measured for incident 4He + ions in the energy range from 0.75 to 6 MeV. The measured X-ray production cross sections are compared to the predictions of the First Born approximation, the ECPSSR theory and the ECUSAR theory. A comparison of the ytterbium M-shell X-ray production cross sections with these theories is made for two different sets of fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig factors that are further modified for multiple ionization.

  9. Relativistic calculations of M-shell photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections for Hg at 5.96 keV excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections (XPCS) of M-shell vacancies in Hg at an incident photon energy of 5.96 keV (low energy X-rays of 55Fe radioactive source) using the Dirac-Fock method. Calculations are performed in single configuration approach with the Breit interaction and some vacuum polarization corrections included in the self-consistent method. Higher-order retardation corrections, self-energy and other vacuum polarization effects were also included as perturbations. Fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields necessary to derive XPCS were obtained in a previous work using the exact same approach.

  10. Transition Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomskii, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    1. Localised and itinerant electrons in solids; 2. Isolated transition metal ions; 3. Transition metal ions in crystals; 4. Mott–Hubbard vc charge-transfer insulators; 5. Exchange interaction and magnetic structures; 6. Cooperative Jahn–Teller effect and orbital ordering; 7. Charge ordering in transition metal compounds; 8. Ferroelectrics, magnetoelectrics and multiferroics; 9. Doping of correlated systems and correlated metals; 10. Metal-insulator transitions; 11. Kondoeffect, mixed valence and heavy fermions; Appendix A. Some historical notes; Appendix B. A layman's guide to second quantization; Appendix C. Phase transitions and free energy expansion: Landau theory in a nutshell.

  11. The chiral transition as an Anderson transition

    E-print Network

    Matteo Giordano; Sandor D. Katz; Tamas G. Kovacs; Ferenc Pittler

    2014-10-31

    At low temperature the low-lying QCD Dirac spectrum obeys random matrix statistics. Recently we found that above $T_{c}$ the lowest part of the spectrum consists of localized modes that obey Poisson statistics. An interesting implication of this is that as the system crosses $T_{c}$ from above, the spectral statistics at $\\lambda=0$ changes from Poisson to random matrix. Here we study this transition and its possible implications for the finite temperature transition of QCD-like theories.

  12. Reconstructing Regulatory Network Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Petricka, Jalean J.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses often involve a transition of cells from one state to another. A transition from a stem cell to differentiated cell state, for example, may occur in response to gene expression changes induced by a transcription factor, or signaling cascades triggered by a hormone or pathogen. Regulatory networks are thought to control such cellular transitions. Thus, many researchers are interested in reconstructing regulatory networks, not only to gain a deeper understanding of cellular transitions, but also with the aim of using networks to predict and potentially manipulate cellular transitions and outcomes. In this review, we highlight approaches to the reconstruction of regulatory networks underlying cellular transitions, with special attention to transcriptional regulatory networks. We describe recent regulatory network reconstructions in a variety of organisms and discuss the success they share in identifying new regulatory components as well as shared relationships and phenotypic outcomes. PMID:21632251

  13. Metal-insulator transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Imada; Atsushi Fujimori; Yoshinori Tokura

    1998-01-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by

  14. Transition Region Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The SOLAR TRANSITION REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The transition region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the transition regi...

  15. Anomalous radiative transitions

    E-print Network

    Kenzo Ishikawa; Toshiki Tajima; Yutaka Tobita

    2014-09-30

    Anomalous transitions involving photons derived by many-body interaction of the form, $\\partial_{\\mu} G^{\\mu}$, in the standard model are studied. This does not affect the equation of motion in the bulk, but makes wave functions modified, and causes the unusual transition characterized by the time-independent probability. In the transition probability at a time-interval $T$ expressed generally in the form $P=T \\Gamma_0 +P^{(d)}$, now with $ P^{(d)} \

  16. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  17. METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS IN TRANSITION METAL COMPOUNDS.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS IN TRANSITION METAL COMPOUNDS. THE ELECTRONIC PHASE TRANSITIONS IN FeS AND NiS J. M. D. COEY, H. ROUX-BUISSON and R. BRUSETTI Groupe des Transitions de Phases, C. N. R. S., B respectivement une transition de phasede premier ordre accompagneed'un changementde structureelectronique. La

  18. Transitive and Pseudo-Transitive Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    Given that A is longer than B, and that B is longer than C, even 5-year-old children can infer that A is longer than C. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules of inference invoke simple axioms ("meaning postulates") to capture such transitive inferences. An alternative theory proposes instead that reasoners construct mental models of the…

  19. Measuring accurate transit parameters

    E-print Network

    Joshua N. Winn

    2008-08-15

    By observing the transits of exoplanets, one may determine many fundamental system parameters. I review current techniques and results for the parameters that can be measured with the greatest precision, specifically, the transit times, the planetary mass and radius, and the projected spin-orbit angle.

  20. Transitions and Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    If children are to benefit from a healthy, supportive early childhood experience, it is important to strengthen transitions between early childhood experiences in educational and care settings and the more formal educational system. This issue of Coordinator's Notebook focuses on strengthening linkages and transitions between home, preschool, and…

  1. Quantum Phase Transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subir Sachdev; Matthew P. A. Fisher

    2001-01-01

    Quantum Phase Transitions details the fundamental changes that can occur in the macroscopic nature of matter at zero temperature due to small variations in a given external parameter. The author develops the theory of quantum phase transitions in the simplest possible class of nondisordered, interacting systems--the quantum Ising and rotor models. He pays particular attention to their non-zero temperature dynamic

  2. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  3. Good Transitions = Great Starts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

  4. Transition, Governance and Corruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Budak; Rajeev K. Goel

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion and understanding of corruption in transition countries. Specifically, we use annual data over 1998 - 2002 for 25 transition economies to study factors that cause corruption. Two widely used measures of corruption are employed to test the validity of our findings. Among the various factors that significantly lower corruption, the degree of economic prosperity,

  5. Seamless Transition for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…

  6. Transforming Cities With Transit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cervero, Robert.

    How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

  7. Transition Implementation Guide. Instructor Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Stephens, Arden, Ed.

    This transition model, called Guiding Education toward Adult Roles for Success (GEARS), provides a comprehensive framework from which transition services and programs can evolve. Three components of transition services are considered: transition partners, the transition process, and adult outcomes. After an introduction, the report's second…

  8. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments AGENCY: Commodity Credit...CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to...

  9. Accessibility-based transit planning

    E-print Network

    Busby, Jeffrey R

    2004-01-01

    A method for evaluating transit planning proposals using accessibility metrics is advanced in this research. A transit-accessibility model is developed intended for use by in-house transit agency planning staff as a ...

  10. Michael Grunwald Transition path sampling

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Michael

    Michael Gr¨unwald Transition path sampling simulations of structural phase transformations compromises the comparability of simulation and experiment considerably. Here, we use transition path sam of parallel crystal planes. We subject the pathways obtained with transition path sam- pling

  11. Transitions into Adolescence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concerns regarding personal and physical barriers play greater roles for these special teens. Just as parents assist children without Spina Bifida with this transition, parents of children with Spina Bifida and the professionals who ...

  12. MATHEMATICS: RETHINKING THE TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    Peters, Achim

    SENIOR SECONDARY MATHEMATICS: RETHINKING THE TRANSITION BILL BARTON THE UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND, NZ #12;THE ENVISIONING PROJECT · Mathematics education project of NZIMA (New Zealand Institute of Mathematics & Its Applications--the mathematics research funding body). · Brought together mathematics

  13. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  14. The Heliosphere in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Justin

    2015-04-01

    The heliosphere consists of the connective tissue of particles, fields and photons that mediate our interaction with the Sun and with interstellar space. Exploration of the heliosphere yields clues to the nature of environments we cannot reach ourselves, illuminating the composition of the solar interior, or the acceleration of cosmic rays in the galaxy. The heliosphere is also a laboratory for us to understand the fundamental physics of magnetized plasma, from heating and instabilities to coupling with neutral gas and dust. This talk will review some of the most exciting recent results in the heliosphere with a focus on transitions: what we can learn by exploring transitions within the heliosphere, how the heliosphere is responding to the long term transition in solar activity, and how our very view of the heliosphere is in transition with upcoming missions such as Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and IMAP.

  15. Transit & Arterial Performance

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

  16. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  17. Transit of Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Transit of Venus is similar to a solar eclipse, where -- from the perspective on Earth -- Venus passes in front of the Sun. This event does not happen very often. In fact, no one alive today has experienced this phenomenon, which will take place on June 8 and will be visible for most of Europe, Asia, and Africa.First, the Armagh Planetarium created a great, expansive informational site all about the Transit of Venus (1). Users can find basic facts, observing information, histories of past transits, and much more. Next, the European Southern Observatory presents the VT-2004 project's aim to gain knowledge and encourage public interest in the event (2). Users can observe Venus's progression towards the transit with the daily images from April 17, 2004 to present news updates. Educators can discover transit-related activities and educational materials. The third site, created by NASA, discusses the details of the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum and San Francisco's Exploratorium's live webcast of the Transit (3). The site supplies enjoyable, educational materials for students, educators, museums, scientists, and amateur astronomers. The next site, also created by NASA, provides an introduction to the Venus Transits that will take place June 2004 and 2012 (4). Visitors can find helpful figures and text about the geographic visibility of the events. The site offers an observer's handbook as well as a discussion about the predictions of the event. Next, Professor Backhaus presents a project where schools, amateur astronomers, and universities will collaborate to gather transit data and learn about observing (5). Users can discover the six parts of the project as well as learn how to participate in the worldwide endeavor. The sixth site also discusses a Venus Transit project (6). Endorsed by the Astronomical Association of Zurich, this project's goals are to process data collected by amateur astronomers by different observation methods, to act as a data exchange center, and to determine the astronomical unit. Next, the Exploratorium furnishes general information about the Transit, its history, how viewers observe it, what it looks like, and why it is an important event (7). Users can find out about the live webcast that will begin on June 7, 2004 from Athens, Greece. Educators can find student activities developed to integrate discussions into the classroom. Lastly, Willie Koorts, an employee at the South African Astronomical Observatory, recounts the observations of scientists in Africa of the last transit of Venus (8). The site contains many historical photographs along with informational diagrams and figures.

  18. Transitions in Professional Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Dana

    Multicultural competency exemplars and practice demonstrations are now available to all professional psychologists to facilitate\\u000a professional psychological practice. These information resources, published guidelines, and training program applications\\u000a provide transitions toward more adequate mental health care for global populations. Despite their availability, these transitions\\u000a predicated on good ethnic science have not prepared students and professionals adequately for practice with existing and

  19. Segmental colonic transit time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Arhan; Ghislain Devroede; Bertrand Jehannin; Michel Lanza; Claude Faverdin; Catherine Dornic; Bernard Persoz; Léon Tétreault; Bernard Perey; Denys Pellerin

    1981-01-01

    Mean segmental transit time of radiopaque markers through the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid areas of adults and\\u000a children has been calculated from their distribution on consecutive plain films of the abdomen. Overall mean transit does\\u000a not differ significantly in the large bowel between adults and children. However, there are regional differences within the\\u000a colon in relation to age.

  20. Quantum phase transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Vojta

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of\\u000aboth theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These\\u000atransitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a\\u000anon-thermal control parameter, can influence the behavior of electronic systems\\u000aover a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a\\u000aresult of competing ground state

  1. Transition metals in silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eicke R. Weber

    1983-01-01

    A review is given on the diffusion, solubility and electrical activity of 3d transition metals in silicon. Transition elements (especially, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) diffuse interstitially and stay in the interstitial site in thermal equilibrium at the diffusion temperature. The parameters of the liquidus curves are identical for the Si:Ti — Si:Ni melts, indicating comparable silicon-metal interaction

  2. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  3. Bus Centric Rapid Transit

    E-print Network

    Banasiak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer Center TOD ? SmartCode/CNU Goals ? Public/private development partnership ? Emphasis on the pedestrian ? Bicycle and transit oriented development ? Dover Kohl TOD report, Dec. 2010 ? WTC will be anchor and terminus for BRT 11 18 Westside... Transfer Center 18 18 Five Points TOD #2 15 Five Points TOD 16 ? SmartCode/CNU Goals ? Public/private development partnership ? Emphasis on the pedestrian ? Bicycle and transit oriented development ? Dover Kohl TOD report, Dec. 2010 ? Five...

  4. Urban renewal in transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stouten

    1995-01-01

    Urban renewal in transition consists revised and enlarged version of two papers. The first paper 'urban renewal and restructuring: between economie and social renewal' had been presented at the\\u000aconference 'Labour on the move and transitions in the building process', organlzed by the Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning (University college of LOndonl, Les Archives du Monde du Travail\\u000aand

  5. M -shell x-ray production by 0. 6--4. 0-MeV protons in ten elements from hafnium to thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Pajek, M. (Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, 25-509 Kielce, Poland (PL)); Kobzev, A.P.; Sandrik, R.; Skrypnik, A.V. (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (U.S.S.R.)); Ilkhamov, R.A.; Khusmurodov, S.H. (Institute of Applied Physics, Tashkent State University, Tashkent (U.S.S.R.)); Lapicki, G. (Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1990-07-01

    {ital M}-shell x-ray production cross sections for selected heavy elements, namely, {sub 72}Hf, {sub 73}Ta, {sub 74}W, {sub 75}Re, {sub 76}Os, {sub 77}Ir, {sub 78}Pt, {sub 79}Au, {sub 83}Bi, and {sub 90}Th, were measured for protons of energy 0.6--4.0 MeV. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the first Born and semiclassical approximations for {ital M}-shell ionization; these data are also compared with the theory that accounts for the projectile's energy loss and Coulomb deflection as well as for the target's {ital M}-shell electron perturbed stationary state and relativistic nature (ECPSSR). Generally, fair agreement between the data and the ECPSSR theory is found. Some systematical discrepancies observed for the lightest elements (Hf, Ta, and W) are explained as possible ambiguities in the {ital M}-shell Coster-Kronig factors and fluorescence yields, which were used to convert theoretical {ital M}-subshell ionization cross sections to the total {ital M}-x-ray production cross sections. The experimental total {ital M}-shell ionization cross sections were obtained from measured {ital M}-x-ray cross sections using the proposed approximate average fluorescence yield {bar {omega}}{sub {ital M}} that relies on two fluorescence yields and the Coster-Kronig factor for {ital only} {ital M}{sub 4} and {ital M}{sub 5} subshells.

  6. Venus Transit 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.

    2002-09-01

    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the transit and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.

  7. Certificate in Transit Management and

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Certificate in Transit Management and Operations UMass Transit, in partnership with the UMass Transportation Center and CTTransit, are pleased to offer "A Certificate in Transit Management and Operations" "Within the next 5-10 years more than 50 percent of transit industry workers are expected to retire

  8. Certificate in Transit Management and

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Certificate in Transit Management and Operations UMass Transit, in partnership with the UMass Transportation Center and CTTransit, are pleased to offer "A Certificate in Transit Management and Operations" to students at the University of Massachusetts. "Within the next 5-10 years more than 50 percent of transit

  9. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.

  10. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  11. Thermomechanical Transitions of Rice Kernels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenhua Sun; Wade Yang; Terry Siebenmorgen; Annemieke Stelwagen; Auke Cnossen

    2002-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 79(3):349-353 Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calori- metry (DSC) were used to investigate the thermal transitions of long-grain rice kernels. Three distinct thermomechanical transitions were identified as rice kernels were heated from 0 to 200°C. The identified transitions were a low temperature transition with onset at ?45°C, an intermediate tem- perature transition at ?80°C, and a high

  12. Venus Transit 2004

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In just several weeks, Venus, the Earth's sister planet, will pass in front of the sun, affording astronomers and the general public the ability to take part in a extremely rare event. While persons in Europe, Africa, and Asia will have the best vantage point for this occurrence, those interested in the Venus transit will want to take a detailed look at this lovely website in order to find out more about the event. Launched by the European Southern Observatory and the European Association for Astronomy Education (in cooperation with three other organizations), the site contains ample information about the latest news from the project, detailed background material about this astronomical event, the network of institutions involved with the project, and information on how individuals may participate in the Venus Transit 2004 project. One of the most helpful areas contains animations of the Venus transit from different perspectives.

  13. Solitosynthesis induced phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Lauren Pearce

    2012-04-24

    We consider a phase transition induced by the growth of Q-balls in a false vacuum. Such a transition could occur in the early universe in the case of broken supersymmetry with a metastable false vacuum. Small Q-balls with a negative potential energy can grow in a false vacuum by accretion of global charge until they reach critical size, expand, and cause a phase transition. We consider the growth of Q-balls from small to large, using the Bethe-Salpeter equation to describe small charge solitons and connecting to the growth of larger solitons for which the semiclassical approximation is reliable. We thus test the scenario in a simplified example inspired by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model.

  14. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  15. Viscosity near phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Antonio Dobado; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres-Rincon

    2010-09-30

    Probably the most enticing observation in theoretical physics during the last decade was the discovery of the great amount of consequences obtained from the AdS/CFT conjecture put forward by Maldacena. In this work we review how this correspondence can be used to address hydrodynamic properties such as the viscosity of some strongly interacting systems. We also employ the Boltzmann equation for those systems closer to low-energy QCD, and argue that this kind of transport coefficients can be related to phase transitions, in particular the QGP/hadronic phase transition studied in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Transit of Mercury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    It isn't every day that one gets to view a transit of Mercury. In fact, it's an event that only occurs approximately twelve times a century. For those of you who missed this event on November 8th, the researchers and scientists at the Exploratorium in San Francisco have created this program that contains the complete event and offer it to visitors to this lovely website. The transit was recorded from Kitt Peak in Arizona, and visitors to the site can watch a brief introduction to the program, and then watch various images from the webcast, complete with audio commentary at the beginning of each hour of coverage.

  17. AGU Leadership Transition Begins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The election is over, and now we begin AGU's leadership transition! Newly elected leaders will take office on 1 January 2015 and about half of the current Board and Council members will rotate off. In addition, new volunteers will join AGU committees and task forces (http://sites.agu.org/leadership/committees/).

  18. Transit-bus maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, J.E.; Wiegmann, J.D.; Maze, T.H.; Cook, A.R.; List, G.

    1987-01-01

    The 4 papers in the report deal with the following areas; vehicle maintenance: cost relationship and estimating methodology; theory and practice of transit-bus maintenance performance measurement; bus maintenance performance indicators; historical development and current practice; and terrain effects on bus-maintenance performance.

  19. Tips for Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Morningstar, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) states that transition planning should begin at the earliest age appropriate and no later than age 16. IDEA requires schools to make collaborative efforts to provide students access to an array of postschool activities including integrated employment, postsecondary…

  20. Tax Systems in Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Mitra; Nicholas Stern

    2003-01-01

    How have tax systems, whose primary role is to raise resources to finance public expenditures, evolved in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union? Mitra and Stern find that: (1) the ratio of tax revenue-to-GDP decreased largely due to a fall in revenue from corporate income tax; (2) the fall in revenue from the corporate income

  1. Efficient Transitive Closure Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannis E. Ioannidis; Raghu Ramakrishnan

    1988-01-01

    We have developed some efficient algorithms for computing the transitive closure of a directed graph. This paper presents the algorithms for the problem of reachability. The algorithms, however, can be adapted to deal with path computations and a signitkantJy broader class of queries based on onesided recursions. We analyze these algorithms and compare them to algorithms in the literature. The

  2. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  3. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  4. MONGOLIAN RANGELANDS IN TRANSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mongolia has a rich history and diverse, expansive rangelands. Mongolia's rangelands have always been publicly owned, but their management has changed with the country's governing structure. In its transition from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy since 1990, livestock production ...

  5. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  6. Transition radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Dolgoshein

    1993-01-01

    The use of transition radiation (TR) as a means of identifying high energy particles has now become a subject of intensive experimental investigations and applications. Our intention is first to study the physics of these phenomena and to describe ways of building detectors which can efficiently identify particles.

  7. Transition Fault Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom; Barry Rosen; Vijay Iyengar

    1987-01-01

    Delay fault testing is becoming more important as VLSI chips become more complex. Components that are fragments of functions, such as those in gate-array designs, need a general model of a delay fault and a feasible method of generating test patterns and simulating the fault. The authors present such a model, called a transition fault, which when used with parallel-pattern,

  8. Modeling of transitional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    An effort directed at developing improved transitional models was initiated. The focus of this work was concentrated on the critical assessment of a popular existing transitional model developed by McDonald and Fish in 1972. The objective of this effort was to identify the shortcomings of the McDonald-Fish model and to use the insights gained to suggest modifications or alterations of the basic model. In order to evaluate the transitional model, a compressible boundary layer code was required. Accordingly, a two-dimensional compressible boundary layer code was developed. The program was based on a three-point fully implicit finite difference algorithm where the equations were solved in an uncoupled manner with second order extrapolation used to evaluate the non-linear coefficients. Iteration was offered as an option if the extrapolation error could not be tolerated. The differencing scheme was arranged to be second order in both spatial directions on an arbitrarily stretched mesh. A variety of boundary condition options were implemented including specification of an external pressure gradient, specification of a wall temperature distribution, and specification of an external temperature distribution. Overall the results of the initial phase of this work indicate that the McDonald-Fish model does a poor job at predicting the details of the turbulent flow structure during the transition region.

  9. Mongolian rangelands in transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Johnson; Dennis P. Sheehy; Daniel Miller; Daalkhaijav Damiran

    2006-01-01

    Mongolia has a rich history and diverse, expansive rangelands. Mongolia's range- lands have always been publicly owned, but their management has changed with the Country's governing structure. In its transition from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy since 1990, livestock production has undergone marked changes that have affected the management and ecological condition of Mongolia's range- lands. A

  10. TRANSITIONAL SETTLEMENTS Planning Homeless

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    TRANSITIONAL SETTLEMENTS 1 Planning Homeless Settlement Communities Western Washington University the living conditions faced by our fellow citizens who live in Homeless camps, public resources are necessary to help the Homeless segment of society regain their footing in society. PROJECT FOCUS This course

  11. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  12. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  13. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  14. Transition at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

  15. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but evolved enzymatic geometry to form the transition state. Evolution to efficient catalysis optimized this geometry and its stabilization by a transition state mimic results in tight binding. Release rates of transition state analogues are orders of magnitude slower than product release in normal catalytic function. During catalysis, product release is facilitated by altered chemistry. Compared to the weak associations found in Michaelis complexes, transition state analogues involve strong interactions related to those in the transition state. Optimum binding of transition state analogues occurs when the complex retains the system motions intrinsic to transition state formation. Conserved dynamic motion retains the entropic components of inhibitor complexes, improving the thermodynamics of analogue binding. PMID:25848811

  16. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  17. Assessment for Transitions Planning. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gary M.

    Part of a series designed to provide practical resources for transition personnel on a variety of topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this guide focuses on assessment for transition planning. Chapter 1, "Transitions Assessment: What Do We Need To Know about Students and Why?," discusses the…

  18. The Myths of Mass Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Catherine G.

    1982-01-01

    Criticizes eight commonly held notions about the value of mass transit systems in public transportation programs. Alternative approaches for improving the quality and quantity of urban transit systems are discussed. (AM)

  19. Calixarene supported transition metal clusters 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Stephanie Merac

    2013-06-29

    This thesis describes a series of calix[n]arene polynuclear transition metal and lanthanide complexes. Calix[4]arenes possess lower-rim polyphenolic pockets that are ideal for the complexation of various transition metal ...

  20. Model of contact transitioning with \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Barber; Yuri A. Dreizin

    1995-01-01

    Arcing transition of metal-to-metal contacts is a key technical challenge in the development of railgun launchers. Theoretical understanding of the process remains poor and controversial. Several authors have explained transitioning by a velocity skin effect driven \\

  1. Transition-fault test generation

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Bradley Douglas

    2013-02-22

    . One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

  2. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  3. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  4. The transition to agricultural sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ruttan, V W

    1999-05-25

    The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints. PMID:10339524

  5. Precision photometry for planetary transits

    E-print Network

    Frederic Pont; Claire Moutou

    2007-02-06

    We review the state of the art in follow-up photometry for planetary transit searches. Three topics are discussed: (1) Photometric monitoring of planets discovered by radial velocity to detect possible transits (2) Follow-up photometry of candidates from photometric transit searches to weed out eclipsing binaries and false positives (3) High-precision lightcurves of known transiting planets to increase the accuracy on the planet parameters.

  6. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  7. Models for transition clinics.

    PubMed

    Carrizosa, Jaime; An, Isabelle; Appleton, Richard; Camfield, Peter; Von Moers, Arpad

    2014-08-01

    Transition is a purposeful, planned process that addresses the medical, psychosocial, educational, and vocational needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions, as they advance from a pediatric and family-centered to an adult, individual focused health care provider. This article describes some of the models for transition clinics or services for epilepsy in five countries (Canada, France, Colombia, Germany, and the United Kingdom). These models include joint adult and pediatric clinics, algorithm-driven service, and a check list system in the context of pediatric care. Evaluation of these models is limited, and it is not possible to choose an optimal program. The attitude and motivation of health care providers may be the most important elements. PMID:25209087

  8. Phase Transitions in Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultz, Brent

    2014-08-01

    Part I. Basic Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations: 1. Introduction; 2. Essentials of T-c phase diagrams; 3. Diffusion; 4. Nucleation; 5. Effects of diffusion and nucleation on phase transformations; Part II. The Atomic Origins of Thermodynamics and Kinetics: 6. Energy; 7. Entropy; 8. Pressure; 9. Atom movements with the vacancy mechanism; Part III. Types of Phase Transformations: 10. Melting; 11. Transformations involving precipitates and interfaces; 12. Spinodal decomposition; 13. Phase field theory; 14. Method of concentration waves and chemical ordering; 15. Diffusionless transformations; 16. Thermodynamics of nanomaterials; 17. Magnetic and electronic phase transitions; 18. Phase transitions in quantum materials; Part IV. Advanced Topics; 19. Low temperature analysis of phase boundaries; 20. Cooperative behavior near a critical temperature; 21. Elastic energy of solid precipitates; 22. Statistical kinetics of ordering transformations; 23. Diffusion, dissipation, and inelastic scattering; 24. Vibrational thermodynamics of materials at high temperatures.

  9. A Transitive Closure Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Walton Purdom Jr.

    1970-01-01

    An algorithm is given for computing the transitive closure of a directed graph in a time no greater thana1N1n+a2n2 for largen wherea1 anda2 are constants depending on the computer used to execute the algorithm,n is the number of nodes in the graph andN1 is the number of arcs (not counting those arcs which are part of a cycle and not

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  11. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yibin Kang; Joan Massagué

    2004-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) are vital for morphogenesis during embryonic development and are also implicated in the conversion of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies. Several key inducers of EMT are transcription factors that repress E-cadherin expression. A recent report in Cell(Yang et al., 2004) adds Twist to this list and links EMT to the ability of breast cancer cells to

  12. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  13. Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan F. Browne; William C. Torreggiani

    Transitional cell carcinoma is a common urological malignancy and in up to 5% of cases occurs in the kidney. The multicentric\\u000a nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential prior to treatment. Vigilant urological and radiological\\u000a follow-up is also warranted post-treatment to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. Conventional imaging modalities,\\u000a such as IVU, RP, and US, still

  14. Transition to Kindergarten. NCEDL Spotlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.

    Noting recent research findings indicating that commonly used transition practices may not be well-suited to the needs of children and families, this report summarizes educational policy issues related to the transition to kindergarten and presents recommendations for policy changes. The report notes that the transition to kindergarten and the…

  15. ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: August 2014

    E-print Network

    ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: August 2014 (beginning on Aug. 2, 2014, and ending in late August) Faculty Construction zone Pedestrian routes Crosswalk UniversityPlace ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: August 2014 (beginning Construction zone Vehicular circulation UniversityPlace ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: August 2014 (beginning on Aug

  16. REGIONAL TRANSIT SIGNAL PRIORITY INTEROPERABILITY

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    REGIONAL TRANSIT SIGNAL PRIORITY INTEROPERABILITY Mark Pitstick, Ph. D. Chicago Regional · Where? ­ 30 Arterial Corridors · Closing Comments #12;RTA Transit System · 2 million trips per day · 3rd Transportation Authority ­ Chicago Transit Authority ­ Pace Suburban Bus Company ­ Illinois DOT ­ City of Chicago

  17. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  18. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  19. Searching for transit timing variations in transiting exoplanet systems

    E-print Network

    Marie Hrudková; Ian Skillen; Chris Benn; Don Pollacco; Neale Gibson; Yogesh Joshi; Petr Harmanec; Simon Tulloch

    2008-07-07

    Searching for transit timing variations in the known transiting exoplanet systems can reveal the presence of other bodies in the system. Here we report such searches for two transiting exoplanet systems, TrES-1 and WASP-2. Their new transits were observed with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope located on La Palma, Spain. In a continuing programme, three consecutive transits were observed for TrES-1, and one for WASP-2 during September 2007. We used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to derive transit times and their uncertainties. The resulting transit times are consistent with the most recent ephemerides and no conclusive proof of additional bodies in either system was found.

  20. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  1. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

  2. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

  3. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

  5. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign Relations...IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An...

  6. Evaluation of traffic signal controller transition methods

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Curtis Lloyd

    2000-01-01

    methods in an Eagle EPAC300 series Controller unit were evaluated. The three transition methods tested were a Shortway Transition method, Shortway Add Only Transition method, and Infinite Dwell Transition method. The goal was to develop a methodology...

  7. A Decade of Transition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    UNICEF last month issued the Monee Report 8, A Decade of Transition, which focuses on the effects of the last decade's changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltics on the region's children. The report finds that, while the economies of most of these states are growing and teen birth rates and maternal mortality have dropped, child poverty remains wide-spread and the gap between the rich and poor is growing. Users can download the report by chapter in .pdf format in either English or Russian. Press release and additional information about UNICEF's involvement in the region are also available.

  8. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  9. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  10. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  11. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  12. Land use, Transit and Jobs Adam Harrington

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Land use, Transit and Jobs Adam Harrington Director of Service Development May 22, 2014 #12;What is Effective Transit? · Transit that carries people · Transit that is a cost-effective use of public funding · Transit that supports efficient development · Transit that provides a basic level of access region-wide 2

  13. Transition Modeling in FLOWer — Transition Prescription and Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Krumbein

    This paper summarizes the developments of transition prescription and transition prediction techniques which were implemented\\u000a into the DLR Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver FLOWer in the framework of the DLR projects MEGAFLOW and MEGAFLOW\\u000a II and the German research project MEGAFLOW. The very basic transition handling functionalities which FLOWer provided before\\u000a the projects started were generalized in order to prescribe arbitrary

  14. 309 Building transition plan

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  15. Privatization of Public Transit Services

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    he 1980s was a period of adjustment for the transit industry. Some of the megatrends seen in the i970s-namely, changing demographics, rapidly escalating operating costs, fiscal problems at all levels of government, reduced federal funding, and an explosive suburbanization with its associated problems of road congestion, as well as new demands for transit services—have forced a reevaluation of the ways in which mass transit services are provided. As a result of the ongoing reevaluation of transit services, primarily at the initiative of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA)*, there is a new interest in involving the private sector in the provision of transit services. This interest was based on the belief that if the private sector were more involved, it could solve some of the industry’s problems by increasing productivity, reducing costs, attracting more riders, and finding innovative w~ys of providing service,

  16. Electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Anderson; Lawrence Hall

    1992-01-01

    We give an analytic treatment of the one-Higgs-doublet, electroweak phase transition which demonstrates that the phase transition is first order. The phase transition occurs by the nucleation of thin-walled bubbles and completes as a temperature where the order parameter {l angle}Ï{r angle}{sub {ital T}} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous

  17. Diffusion phase transitions in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinovshchikov, Yu I.

    2014-07-01

    We present a critical analysis of research on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and morphology of diffusion phase transitions in alloys. We show that diffusion phase transitions are mainly driven by the chemical potential difference due to a change in the sign of the chemical interaction among the component atoms. We explain how the sign of the chemical interaction energy can be obtained from experimental measurements. Examples are given to illustrate the kinetics and morphology of the ordering-separation phase transition in Ni- and Co-based alloys. We show how introducing the concept of the ordering-separation phase transition may affect our thinking in this area.

  18. Quantum phase transition in space

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  19. Transit administration and planning research

    SciTech Connect

    de Corla-Souza; Gupta.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Evaluation of demand-management strategies for Toledo's year 2010 transportation plan; Accommodating deaf and hard-of-hearing persons on public transportation systems in Massachusetts; Quick approach to compare highway and bus transit alternatives using the arterial analysis package; Panel survey approach to measuring transit route service elasticity of demand; UMTA and major investments: evaluation process and results; Using early performance to project transit route ridership: comparison of methods; Institutional requirements for competition: labor issues; Updating ride checks with multiple point checks; Producing section 15 service-consumed data: challenge for large transit; Parkrose targeted marketing campaign pass-incentive program.

  20. NASA CONNECT: Venus Transit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    In this program, students learn about the importance of using scale models to represent the size and distance of objects in the Solar System and beyond. They are introduced to the astronomical unit (AU), the baseline distance from the Earth to the Sun, which astronomers use to determine the relative distances from Earth to other planets, stars, asteroids, and objects in space. They also discover facts about the Venus Transit, a celestial and historical event, which helped astronomers determine the scale of the Solar System. Students use measurement, ratios, and graphing to construct a model of the solar system and determine the relationship of each planet to the Sun. They will explore the scales needed to represent the size of the planets and the distances to the Sun.

  1. Transition to electronic publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowning, Sam

    Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.

  2. Light Rail Transit Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Light rail has been an effective form of transportation for many years, and it is quite common in the US and throughout Europe. The Web site of the Light Rail Transit Association (LRTA) has extensive news, historical background, and information about light rail systems. A good overview of light rail is given that outlines its advantages over other transportation methods. One of the best features of the site is its world systems list, which is frequently updated with new light rail projects across the globe. There are also photo galleries of several light rail cars in operation in different countries. Only members can access the LRTA magazines, but the rest of the site's resources are available to anyone.

  3. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  4. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  5. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  6. Transition: Student to Work. Models for Effective Transition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Fred Jay; And Others

    There are great parallels between the School-to-Work Opportunities Act and the legislation which produced transition services for individuals with disabilities. The rationale is clearly the same: a real recognition and concern exists about the difficult transition that faces all high school graduates as they prepare to live on their own, assume…

  7. Transitions for the People: Theory and Practice of `Transition' and

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    's Transition Movement Alex Haxeltine and Gill Seyfang July 2009 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research researchers, they have not been subject to a full peer review. The accuracy of this work and the conclusions respond to the challenges, and opportunities, of Peak Oil and Climate Change?" [Transition Network 2008

  8. Essentials of Transition Planning. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young…

  9. Spontaneous phase transitions in ferrite garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siryuk, Yu. A.; Bezus, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous phase transitions in ferrite garnet films have been studied. It has been shown that, with variations in the temperature, domain walls undergo phase transitions which cause spontaneous phase transitions in the lattice of cylindrical magnetic domains. The phase transition in a domain wall causes a spin-reorientation phase transition over the whole sample near the magnetic compensation point. The character of the phase transition in the domain wall determines the mechanism of the spin-reorientation phase transition.

  10. Water drives peptide conformational transitions

    E-print Network

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Transitions between metastable conformations of a dipeptide are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water with the peptide's configurational motions indicate that water is the main driving force of the conformational changes.

  11. Brunton Pocket Transit, 1960s

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    First patented in 1894, the pocket transit is a relatively simple instrument which provides horizontal and vertical readings; it has adjustable sights and also can function as a plumb bob. The pocket transit is commonly used in geologic mapping, surveying and claim staking. Although the basic design...

  12. Personal Rapid Transit Minneapolis, Minnesota

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    and Background Tom Sorel Laurie McGinnis The second event on personal rapid transit in Minnesota in less than/DOT commissioner Tom Sorel said the agency issued the RFI to see if personal rapid transit is a viable technologies, he said. "That's what's driving us, that's why we're here today to discuss PRT," he said. Sorel

  13. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  14. Detection by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A periodic sequence of planetary transits provides a valid detection of an orbiting planet and provides the relative size of the planet and its orbital period. Ancillary measurements of the stellar spectrum and the variations of the star's radial velocity or position combined with stellar models allow the absolute size of the planet and its mass to be obtained. The results of this approach have already shown that the planet orbiting HD209458 has only 70% of the mass of Jupiter, but is nearly 50% larger in radius. Based on models of planetary structure, these results imply that the planet must have spent most of its lifetime so close to the star that it has not been able to cool and contract as have the giant planets in our Solar System. Thus its density is much less than Jupiter and Saturn and is actually less than that of water; i.e., about 0.4 gr/cu cm. If more sensitive measurements of the light curve of stars with closely orbiting planets can be made that provide the varying amplitude of the light reflected by the planet at various phases in its orbit, then characteristics of the planetary atmosphere can be obtained. Potentially, these data can identify major molecular species present in the atmosphere and tell us if clouds are present and yield the phase function of the aerosols. Although such detail cannot be obtained for Earth-size planets because their signal amplitudes are too small, it is possible to get data critical to the determination of the structure of extrasolar planetary systems. In particular, the size distributions and their orbital distributions can be measured by the transit photometry missions now in development. The COROT mission should be able to find large terrestrial planets in short-period orbits while the more ambitious Kepler and Eddington missions should be able to detect planets even smaller than the Earth and at orbital distances that place them in the habitable zone of their stars.

  15. Transit Market Index Validating Local Potential for

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Transit Market Index Validating Local Potential for Transit Ridership #12;Transit Market Areas Characteristics -- 2010 TPP Characterized by different levels of transit service. Core Areas, 1 & 2: A variety-period service. Area 4: Potential for siting of park-and-rides and peak- period express. #12;#12;Transit Market

  16. Transit Project Development in Uncertain Times

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Transit Project Development in Uncertain Times May 23, 2012 #12;Redlands Corridor, CA #12;Project Goals · improve transit travel time · enhance transit options · use the transit corridor to focus ­ AB 32 and SB 375 #12;Conceptual Alternatives · Build alternatives considered: ­ Bus Rapid Transit

  17. ?*?*??c transition form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri

    2012-07-01

    We study the ?*?*??c transition form factor, F?c??(Q12,Q22), with the local-duality (LD) version of QCD sum rules. We analyze the extraction of this quantity from two different correlators, ?PVV? and ?AVV?, with P, A, and V being the pseudoscalar, axial-vector, and vector currents, respectively. The QCD factorization theorem for F?c??(Q12,Q22) allows us to fix the effective continuum thresholds for the ?PVV? and ?AVV? correlators at large values of Q2=Q22 and some fixed value of ??Q12/Q22. We give arguments that, in the region Q2?10-15GeV2, the effective threshold should be close to its asymptotic value such that the LD sum rule provides reliable predictions for F?c??(Q12,Q22). We show that, for the experimentally relevant kinematics of one real and one virtual photon, the result of the LD sum rule for F?c?(Q2)?F?c??(0,Q2) may be well approximated by the simple monopole formula F?c?(Q2)=2ec2NcfP(MV2+Q2)-1, where fP is the ?c decay constant, ec2 is the c-quark charge, and the parameter MV lies in the mass range of the lowest c¯c vector states.

  18. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  19. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Savagner, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes a series of rapid changes in cellular phenotype. During EMT, epithelial cells down-modulate cell-cell adhesion structures, alter their polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton, and become isolated, motile, and resistant to anoikis. The term EMT is often applied to distinct biological events as if it were a single conserved process, but in fact EMT-related processes can vary in intensity from a transient loss of cell polarity to the total cellular reprogramming, as found by transcriptional analysis. Based on clinical observations, it is more appropriate in most cases to describe the emergence of an EMT-like phenotype during tumor progression. Although EMT implies complete trans-differentiation, EMT-like emphasizes the intermediary phenotype associated with tumor cell renewal and adaptation to specific microenvironments. Here, we categorize the various EMT-like phenotypes found in human carcinomas that, depending on the tumor type, may or not represent analogous stages in tumor progression. We based these categories on the global tumor phenotype. The tumor microenvironment, which is associated with stromal reactions, hypoxia, paucity of nutrients, impaired differentiation, and activation of various EMT-associated pathways, modulates overall tumor phenotype and leads to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:19342369

  20. Dynamic Phase Transitions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Robert Michael, Jr.

    For fluids with non-anomalous equations of state. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). one can decide whether a given shock is physically realizable by using either the Lax or viscosity admissibility criterion. However, for fluids with anomalous equations of state. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). these criteria are too restrictive. For example, they rule out static phase transitions. In this thesis an admissibility criterion based on Korteweg's theory of capillarity (and heat conduction for non-isothermal motions) is used. It is shown that this admissibility criterion is equivalent to the preceding criteria for an ideal gas. For anomalous fluids, the new admissibility criterion is used to find the isothermal shocks which connect equilibrium states belonging to distinct phases. As a particular example, the case of a van der Waals fluid is treated. Then the new admissibility criterion is used to find nearly isothermal traveling waves that connect equilibrium states in different phases of a van der Waals fluid.

  1. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Tim; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet around a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming, of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of candidate target stars, their properties, and simulations of the photometric Earth transit signal detectability at each target is presented.

  2. The Visibility of Earth Transits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Doyle, Laurance; McIntosh, Dawn; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent photometric detection of planetary transits of the solar-like star HD 209458 at a distance of 47 parsecs suggest that transits can reveal the presence of Jupiter-size planetary companions in the solar neighborhood. Recent space-based transit searches have achieved photometric precision within an order of magnitude of that required to detect the much smaller transit signal of an earth-size planet across a solar-size star. Laboratory experiments in the presence of realistic noise sources have shown that CCDs can achieve photometric precision adequate to detect the 9.6 E-5 dimming of the Sun due to a transit of the Earth. Space-based solar irradiance monitoring has shown that the intrinsic variability of the Sun would not preclude such a detection. Transits of the Sun by the Earth would be detectable by observers that reside within a narrow band of sky positions near the ecliptic plane, if the observers possess current Earth epoch levels of technology and astronomical expertise. A catalog of solar-like stars that satisfy the geometric condition for Earth transit visibility are presented.

  3. OAKLAND TRANSIT CONNECTOR DOWNTOWN PITTSBURGH TO OAKLAND

    E-print Network

    Blelloch, Guy E.

    OAKLAND TRANSIT CONNECTOR AND DOWNTOWN PITTSBURGH TO OAKLAND CONNECTOR PITTSBURGH, PA Project;Oakland-Downtown/Oakland Transit Connector TRANSPORTATION ACTION PARTNERSHIP Project Information Document.................................................................................. 7 Populations with High Transit Needs

  4. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

  5. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

  6. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

  7. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

  8. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

  9. Computational Model Symbiotic Composition Evolutionary Transitions

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Computational Model Symbiotic Composition Evolutionary Transitions Richard Watson Jordan B symbiotic composition examine its on evolvability. exemplify adaptive capacity of composition we a scale major evolutionary transitions symbiotic composition evolutionary transitions 1987, Maynard Szathmary

  10. 21 December 2007 Light Rail Transit Construction

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    21 December 2007 Light Rail Transit Construction Impact Mitigation Strategies: Case Studies and Recommendations for the Central Corridor #12;Light Rail Transit Construction Impact Mitigation Strategies: Case Rail Transit Construction Impact Mitigation Strategies 21 December 2007 i TABLE OF CONTENTS

  11. Transitions: From Pediatric to Adult Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Businesses & Schools > Transitions Transitions From Pediatric to Adult Health Care Transitioning from teenage years to adulthood can be ... management and make more independent judgments about their health care needs. NDEP has assembled the materials below to ...

  12. Parity nonconservation in atomic Zeeman transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Angstmann, E. J.; Dinh, T. H.; Flambaum, V. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2005-11-15

    We discuss the possibility of measuring nuclear anapole moments in atomic Zeeman transitions and perform the necessary calculations. Advantages of using Zeeman transitions include variable transition frequencies and the possibility of enhancement of parity nonconservation effects.

  13. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  14. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by ? SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ?300 K?50000 ? ? cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  15. Measurements of Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziere, Kyle; Wiseman, Nicolas; Rovny, Jared; Dinehart, Elise; Dufrain, Blaise; Bechter, Andrew; Bechter, Eric; Olenick, Richard; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    A campaign to measure properties of extrasolar planets using the transit method was undertaken at the University of Dallas using a C-14 telescope and SBIG 2000XM CCD camera. We successfully recorded transits of TrES-1b, Wasp-3, and HatP1. The C-14 exposure and tracking data (on WASP-3) indicate that we can probably effectively monitor stars to 13.5 or 14 magnitude with the C-14. We present the transit data, modeling, and determined planetary characteristics. The equipment used in this research was comparatively inexpensive and widely available and can be implemented at other small universities.

  16. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  17. 76 FR 47296 - Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Transit Asset Management (TAM) Pilot Program Funds AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Transit Asset Management...

  18. Transition from Hospital to Home

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  19. Feeding the Transition Dairy Cow

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1999-09-20

    Proper nutrition management during a cow's transition period (from the last 3 weeks of gestation through the first 2 weeks of lactation), is critical to successful lactation. This publication gives details for nutrition management. Two charts list...

  20. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  1. Phase Transition in VO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuyuki Kawakubo; Takehiko Nakagawa

    1964-01-01

    The thermal dilatation of VO2 has been measured on ceramic samples from room temperature to 95°C, in connection with Mott's consideration which interpretes the non-metal to metal transition observed in some transition metal oxides as an effect of contraction of lattice spacings. A discontinuous volume expansion was unexpectedly observed at 65°C with increasing temperature. The magnetic susceptibility has also been

  2. Hurricanes Canadian Style: Extratropical Transition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-05-02

    This Webcast is based on a presentation delivered by Jim Abraham of MSC at the Winter Weather Course in February 2001. The presentation discusses how, under the right synoptic conditions, hurricanes and tropical storms undergo a transition process to extratropical cyclones as they move into northern latitudes. During the transition process these "hybrid" systems can bring damaging weather conditions to Eastern Canada and the Northeastern States. It uses several case examples to demonstrate the process.

  3. Glass Transitions: Opportunities and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yrjö H. Roos; Nattiga Silalai

    \\u000a Glass transition is a time-dependent change in the state of a noncrystalline material. It often explains solid–liquid transformations\\u000a in foods and it may control changes in food structure and texture as well as chemical reactions. At temperatures around the\\u000a glass transition, an amorphous solid transforms to a supercooled liquid (rubber) which contributes to changes in molecular\\u000a mobility and flow properties

  4. Phase Transitions without Thermodynamic Limit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. E. Gross; Bereich Theoretische Physik; Fachbereich Physik

    1998-01-01

    Microcanonical statistics can be well applied to non-extensive systems like\\u000anuclei, atomic clusters and systems at phase transitions of first order with\\u000ainhomogeneous configurations like phase separation. No thermodynamic limit has\\u000ato be invoked. It allows to determine the transition temperature, latent heat\\u000aand surface entropy. In the present paper this is demonstrated for systems of\\u000a200 - 3000 Na-,

  5. The Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbie E. Goldberg

    \\u000a The transition to parenthood is generally regarded as a major life event that necessitates change and readjustment on the\\u000a part of individuals and couples in order to negotiate a successful transition (Belsky et al. 1985). Specifically, the dyadic\\u000a (couple) unit must evolve from a two-person to a three-person system; in turn, partners must expand their repertoire of roles\\u000a to include

  6. Modelling the transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.

  7. Transition boiling heat transfer and the film transition regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramilison, J. M.; Lienhard, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The Berenson (1960) flat-plate transition-boiling experiment has been recreated with a reduced thermal resistance in the heater, and an improved access to those portions of the transition boiling regime that have a steep negative slope. Tests have been made in Freon-113, acetone, benzene, and n-pentane boiling on horizontal flat copper heaters that have been mirror-polished, 'roughened', or teflon-coated. The resulting data reproduce and clarify certain features observed by Berenson: the modest surface finish dependence of boiling burnout, and the influence of surface chemistry on both the minimum heat flux and the mode of transition boiling, for example. A rational scheme of correlation yields a prediction of the heat flux in what Witte and Lienhard (1982) previously identified as the 'film-transition boiling' region. It is also shown how to calculate the heat flux at the boundary between the pure-film, and the film-transition, boiling regimes, as a function of the advancing contact angle.

  8. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

  9. L-Shell X-ray production cross-sections by impact of 5.0 to 7.5 MeV 10B 2+ ions on selected rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo-Licona, M.; Miranda, J.

    2004-06-01

    L-shell X-ray production cross-sections by 5.0 to 7.5 MeV 10B 2+ heavy ion impact on selected rare elements (Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Gd and Yb) were measured. An evaluation is given of the effect of using several databases for the atomic parameters (fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig probabilities). Moreover, the application of different theories to predict ionization cross-sections, such as the ECPSSR and the ECPSSR with United Atom correction (ECPSSR-UA) is considered, as well as the effect of multiple ionization in outer shells of the target atom. It is found that the ECPSSR-UA approximation describes the experimental results very well.

  10. AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science

    E-print Network

    Sirianni, Marco

    AST2010 Science Whitepaper JWST Transit Science 1 Comparative Planetology: Transiting Exoplanet Science with JWST Mark Clampin, JWST Science Working Group, JWST Transits Working Group, Drake Deming, and Don Lindler 1. Introduction The study of transiting exoplanets has provided most of the key data

  11. Minnesota Transit Conference Mayo Civic Center, Rochester

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Minnesota Transit Conference Mayo Civic Center, Rochester September 15, 2010 Study of Transit, by the Blandin Foundation and AEOA. Pam Smith Marketing/Public Relations Coordinator Arrowhead Transit..."Arrowhead Transit is the best kept secret around" · We do need a new, fresh outlook on what we are doing · We can

  12. Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

  13. Multilevel Models for Studying Organizational Transition Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-Jin

    Over the past 15 years a body of research has investigated organizational transitions in adolescent development. Researchers studying school transitions exclusively ask whether significant transition affects students' social and psychological development. To test the presence of transition effects, researchers have typically observed mean…

  14. Puckering transitions of pseudoproline residues.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Kee; Park, Hae Sook; Byun, Byung Jin

    2009-06-01

    The puckering transitions of pesudoprolines such as oxazolidine and thiazolidine residues (Oxa and Thz dipeptides) with trans and cis prolyl peptide bonds were explored by optimizations along the endocyclic torsion angle chi(1) using quantum-chemical methods in the gas phase and in water. The overall shapes of the potential energy surfaces for Oxa and Thz dipeptides in the gas phase and in water are similar to those for the Pro dipeptide, although there are some differences in relative stabilities of local minima and in barriers to puckering transition. On the whole, the barriers to puckering transition for Oxa and Thz dipeptides are computed to be 0.8-3.2 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level in the gas phase and in water, which are lower by 0.5-1.9 kcal/mol than those for the Pro dipeptide. The n --> sigma* interactions for the delocalization of the lone pair of the prolyl amide nitrogen into the antibonding orbitals that are anti to the lone pair appear to play a role in stabilizing the nonplanar puckered transition states over the corresponding planar structures. The calculated barriers indicate that the down-to-up puckering transition can proceed in the orders Pro < Oxa < Thz in the gas phase and Pro approximately Oxa < Thz in water. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 444-455, 2009. PMID:19189373

  15. Cooperative Transit Tracking using Smart-phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Thiagarajan; James Biagioni; Tomas Gerlich; Jakob Eriksson

    2010-01-01

    Real-time transit tracking is gaining popularity as a means for transit agencies to improve the rider experience. However, many transit agencies lack either the funding or initiative to provide such tracking services. In this paper, we describe a crowd-sourced alternative to official transit tracking, which we call cooperative transit tracking. Participating users install an application on their smart-phone. With the

  16. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Sheets

    E-print Network

    Arthur A. Evans; Eric Lauga

    2009-05-31

    Intermolecular forces are known to precipitate adhesion events between solid bodies. Inspired by a macro-scale experiment showing the hysteretic adhesion of a piece of flexible tape over a plastic substrate, we develop here a model of far-field dry adhesion between two flexible sheets interacting via a power-law potential. We show that phase transitions from unadhered to adhered states occur as dictated by a dimensionless bending parameter representing the ratio of interaction strength to bending stiffness. The order of the adhesion transitions, as well as their hysteretic nature, is shown to depend on the form of the interaction potential between the flexible sheets. When three or more sheets interact, additional geometrical considerations determine the hierarchical or sequential nature of the adhesion transitions.

  17. Transition metals in superheat melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  18. Rainbow transition in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso

    2002-03-01

    We study the effects of classical chaotic scattering on the differential cross section, which is the measurable quantity in most scattering experiments. We show that the fractal set of singularities in the deflection function is not, in general, reflected on the differential cross section. We show that there are systems in which, as the energy (or some other parameter) crosses a critical value, the system's differential cross-section changes from a singular function having an infinite set of rainbow singularities with structure in all scales to a smooth function with no singularities, the scattering being chaotic on both sides of the transition. We call this metamorphosis the rainbow transition. We exemplify this transition with a physically relevant class of systems. These results have important consequences for the problem of inverse scattering in chaotic systems and for the experimental observation of chaotic scattering. PMID:11909149

  19. Certificate Program in Transit Management and Operations Allan Byam, Krystal Oldread, UMass Transit Services

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Certificate Program in Transit Management and Operations Allan Byam, Krystal Oldread, UMass Transit pathways in the U.S. transit industry 2) Offer certificate to college students who are interested in the transit profession. 3) Serve as a model for public transit operators and university partnerships. 4

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SERVICES COMPUTING, 201X 1 Spot Transit: Cheaper Internet Transit

    E-print Network

    Li, Baochun

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SERVICES COMPUTING, 201X 1 Spot Transit: Cheaper Internet Transit for Elastic Internet transit market, where transit is sold using the under-utilized backbone capacity at a lower price. The providers can improve profit by capitalizing the perishable capacity, and customers can buy transit

  1. OCEAN TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION MARINE SENSOR AND ADVANCED OBSERVING TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    selected for funding in the first year of the project: 1) transitioning new ocean acidification sensor Acidification The NOAA Ocean Acidification (OA) Program and U.S. IOOS jointly developed a series of activities across the West Coast, Alaska, and Hawaii to support ocean acidification sensor development

  2. The structures of transition metal-transition metal alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy K. Burdett; Timothy J. McLarnan

    1984-01-01

    A structure map using the average electron count and d orbital energy difference as indices is used to sort transition metal alloys of stoichiometry AB. The gross features of the map are mimicked by tight-binding calculations. The inclusion of s orbitals on the metal atoms appear to be important in the determination of alloy structure in some parts of the

  3. Disorder driven quantum phase transitions in transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohjiro Kobayashi; Nandini Trivedi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effect of disorder on a class of transition metal oxides described by a single orbital Hubbard model at half filling and away from half filling. The phases are characterized by the nature of the electronic and spin excitations. We calculate the local density of states, frequency and temperature-dependent conductivity and spin susceptibility as functions of disorder and

  4. Transition probabilities and static moments in transitional nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Casten, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic transition probabilities and static moments of excited nuclear states are known to be good probes of nuclear structure. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the large amount of existing experimental data for these observables is expected to provide valuable information about the respective isotopes. It is the purpose of this talk to show that a combined analysis of static magnetic moments of 2/sub 1//sup +/ states and B(E2) transition probabilities for even-even nuclei can be used to obtain effective numbers of valence nucleons. This kind of information is of particular interest in cases where subshell closures are found. For example, it is well known that for the transitional nuclei in the A = 150 region the Z = 64 subshell is active when the number of neutrons N < 90, but disappears for N greater than or equal to 90. A similar situation exists in the A = 100 region, where the Z = 38 subshell is active for N less than or equal to 58. In the following sections we present the method by which effective numbers of valence protons and neutrons can be deduced from B(E2) and g-factor data, and show applications of this method to the A = 150 and A = 100 transitional regions. Part of these results were recently published.

  5. Theoretical Studies of Atomic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Charlotte Froese Fischer

    2005-07-08

    Atomic structure calculations were performed for properties such as energy levels, binding energies, transition probabilities, lifetimes, hyperfine structure, and isotope shifts. Accurate computational procedures were devised so that properties could be predicted even when they could not be obtained from experiment, and to assist in the identification of observed data. The method used was the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method, optionally corrected for relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli approximation. Fully relativistic Dirac-Fock calculations also were performed using the GRASP code A database of energy levels, lifetimes, and transition probabilities was designed and implemented and, at present, includes many results for Be-like to Ar-like.

  6. Finding Transition Pathways on Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Tiejun Li; Xiaoguang Li; Xiang Zhou

    2014-08-13

    We consider noise-induced transition paths in randomly perturbed dynami- cal systems on a smooth manifold. The classical Freidlin-Wentzell large devia- tion theory in Euclidean spaces is generalized and new forms of action functionals are derived in the spaces of functions and the space of curves to accommodate the intrinsic constraints associated with the manifold. Numerical meth- ods are proposed to compute the minimum action paths for the systems with constraints. The examples of conformational transition paths for a single and double rod molecules arising in polymer science are numerically investigated.

  7. Phase transition during uniaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, V. V.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Stepanov, N. N.; Smirnov, I. A.

    1983-05-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the possibility of a first-order isostructural phase transition during the uniaxial compression of single crystals of Sm(1-x)Gd(x)S solid solutions (x = 0.15). The compression of the samples was carried out along the longest dimension corresponding to the 100 crystallographic direction. A change in the color of samples from black to golden yellow and a discontinuity in electrical conductivity were observed. When the pressure was removed the inverse transition did not occur.

  8. Epigenetic switches and network transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Masaki

    2012-02-01

    We investigate dynamics of gene networks which are regulated by both the fast binding/unbinding of transcription factors to/from DNA and the slow processes of chromatin structural change or histone modification. This heterogeneous dynamics consisting of different time scales is analyzed by the mean-field approximation and the stochastic simulation to show that the network exhibits multiple metastable states and is characterized by transitions among them. We discuss distribution and fluctuation of states of the core gene network of embryonic stem cells as an example of such heterogeneous dynamics and the simulated transitions are compared with the experimental data on the distribution of stem cell states.

  9. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  10. Transit Timing Variation Analysis of Ogle-Tr-132b with Seven New Transits

    E-print Network

    Adams, Elisabeth Rose

    We report the results of the first transit timing variation analysis of the very hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-132b, using 10 transits collected over a seven-year period. Our analysis combines three previously published transit light ...

  11. Femtosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition

    E-print Network

    McCusker, James K.

    Femtosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Charge-Transfer Complexes JAMES K. MCCUSKER ABSTRACT Our research is concerned with the application of femtosecond time-resolved absorption techniques, where semiconductors are the functional element of most photovoltaic devices, absorption of light leads

  12. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  13. Transitioning to 12-hour shifts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Suter; S. M. Cervassi

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Yankee Rowe nuclear power station successfully implemented a 12-hour shift schedule for all shiftworkers (control room personnel, auxiliary operators, and radiation protection shift technicians) with many positive effects on morale, motivation, and performance. The transition from an 8-hour to a 12-hour shift schedule was initiated, organized, and promoted by the shiftworkers themselves after they had identified numerous inadequacies

  14. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  15. Sustainability Transitions as new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

  16. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  17. Stadia Hand Transit with Case

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This instrument was manufactured by Keuffel & Esser Company, New York & New Jersey, serial #2300. Stadia Hand Transits are made of up a small telescope with cross and stadia hairs and a circular box which serves as either a magnetic compass or clinometer. The company sold these instruments from 1910...

  18. Non-Integer Quantum Transitions

    E-print Network

    Qi-Ren Zhang

    2005-12-04

    We show that in the quantum transition of a system induced by the interaction with an intense laser of circular frequency $\\omega$, the energy difference between the initial and the final states of the system is not necessarily being an integer multiple of the quantum energy $\\hbar\\omega$.

  19. Extinction Transition on a Pie

    E-print Network

    Nadav M. Shnerb

    2000-07-11

    Extinction transition of bacteria under forced rotation is analyzed in pie geometry. Under convection, separation of the radial and the azimuthal degrees of freedom is not possible, and the linearized evolution operator is diagonalized numerically. Some characteristics scales are compared with the results of recent experiments, and the ``integrable'' limit of the theory at narrow growth region is analyzed.

  20. PBVE Calls for Orderly Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    In this article, one of five concerning trends in vocational education, performance-based vocational education (PBVE) is viewed as the wave of the near future, permeating every aspect of the program. The author notes that in an orderly transition, personnel development should take the lead to produce change agents as well as the practioners who…

  1. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Cufaro Petroni; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

    1999-01-01

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first signficant application we present a detailed treatment of

  2. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  3. Understanding Student Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

  4. Resilient communities: sustainabilities in transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Barr; Patrick Devine-Wright

    2012-01-01

    In this brief commentary, we focus on the notion of resilient communities in developed nations through the lens of social, economic and individual “transitions”. In so doing, we aim to chart the trajectory of the shifts between “thinking global and acting local” and the new emphasis is being placed on reactions to ecological and economic threats in particular localities. We

  5. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Palffy

    2010-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This

  6. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and…

  7. ALMA Observations of Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Laura M.; Isella, A.; Carpenter, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A small fraction of circumstellar disks show a remarkable deficit of infrared flux - indicative of a dust-depleted inner cavity - while substantial emission at longer wavelengths points to the presence of a massive outer disk. These so-called “transitional disks” are thought to represent a brief, but extremely important, evolutionary phase between young, optically thick protoplanetary disks and old, optically thin debris disks. We have employed ALMA's exquisite sensitivity and high angular resolution, already available in Early Science, to study a sample of massive transitional disks in the nearby Taurus and ?-Ophiuchus star-forming regions. These disks were selected because they possess large inner cavities and show little evidence for stellar-mass companions. We present ALMA Band 9 observations (0.45 mm) that resolve the inner cavities and outer regions of these transitional disks in the dust continuum emission, with an angular resolution of ˜0.2?-0.3? (˜25-40 AU at the distance of these objects). Additionally, we obtained observations in the CO(J = 6-5) transition, to investigate the presence of gas inside the dust-depleted cavities and the extent of the outer gaseous disk. These ALMA Early Science observations provide an unique opportunity to study the structure of disks with possible planetary companions.

  8. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  9. Transition Personnel Preparation Projects, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Betty

    This document is a catalog of approximately 50 projects concerned with the transition from school to work of students with disabilities and sponsored by the Division of Personnel Preparation (DPP) of the Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services for the fiscal year 1992. The introduction notes that these…

  10. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  11. Wildfire Policy in Transition Yellowstone

    E-print Network

    Wildfire Policy in Transition 1910 #12;Yellowstone 1988 #12;Colorado South Canyon Fire 1994 #12;Forest Change #12;Condition Class #12;What's At Risk #12;2000 #12;Managing the Impact of Wildfires on Communities and the Environment A Report to the President In Response to the Wildfires of 2000 #12;What

  12. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  13. Fertility Transition: Forecast for Demography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Caputo; M. Nicotra; E. Gloria-Bottini

    2008-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century most industrialized nations had undergone the so-called fertility transition, characterized by a reduction in fertility to below replacement level and a delay in age at initiation of childbearing. An emerging concern is the severe economic and social consequences of this demographic decline. We present an overview of fertility changes in Italy in the

  14. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  15. China's Transition and Feminist Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günseli Berik; Xiao-yuan Dong; Gale Summerfield

    2007-01-01

    Since 1978 China has been undergoing transition from a socialist to a capitalist economy and the opening up to international trade and investment. This process has been accelerated by WTO membership. This article presents an overview of the gendered processes and outcomes associated with China's reforms, mainly focusing on the post-1992 period when the pace of reforms accelerated. The imperative

  16. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (? _? ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ? _? is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ? _? across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the ? ? splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of ? cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  17. Coastal lagoons: “transitional ecosystems” between transitional and coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these

  18. Youth in Transition: A Description of Selected Transition Programs Serving Adolescents with Emotional Disabilities. Youth in Transition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modrcin, Matthew J.; And Others

    This monograph addresses the transition needs of adolescents with serious emotional disabilities, describing programs in various settings and states. An introductory chapter discusses the concept of transition and outlines service components. Findings from a national survey of 53 transition programs are then presented. Findings indicated that 60%…

  19. OBSERVATIONAL WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN PLANET TRANSIT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: kaspar@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu

    2009-09-01

    The probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data is sensitively dependent upon the window function of the observations. We quantitatively characterize and provide visualizations of the dependence of this probability as a function of orbital period upon several observing strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, transit duration and depth, and the minimum number of sampled transits. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of observational window functions, we explicitly address noncorrelated (Gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two noise components affect transit detectability in fundamentally different manners, especially for long periods and/or small transit depths. We furthermore discuss the consequence of competing effects on transit detectability, elaborate on measures of observing strategies, and examine the projected efficiency of different transit survey scenarios with respect to certain regions of parameter space.

  20. Metal-insulator transitions: Orbital control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokawa, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    On cooling, transition metal oxides often undergo a phase change from an electrically conducting to an insulating state. Now it is shown that the metal-insulator transition temperature of vanadium dioxide thin films can be controlled by applying strain.

  1. Fat-Tree Routing for Transit

    E-print Network

    DeHon, Andre

    1990-02-01

    The Transit network provides high-speed, low-latency, fault-tolerant interconnect for high-performance, multiprocessor computers. The basic connection scheme for Transit uses bidelta style, multistage networks to ...

  2. Correlations in noisy Landau-Zener transitions

    E-print Network

    Pokrovsky, Valery L.; Scheidl, S.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the influence of colored classical Gaussian noise on Landau-Zener transitions during a two-level crossing in a time-dependent regular external field. Transition probabilities and coherence factors become random due to the noise. We...

  3. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  4. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, Zagreb (Croatia); Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece); Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-08-31

    The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

  5. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  6. The transition regions of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self-consistent only when the fluxes from each emitting component are considered separately. In particular, the transition region abundance distributions appear to be different on the two stars, and the spin-forbidden lines were not detected in the B component. The emission measures for component H (the G1 star) are consistent with a constant electron pressure (or hydrostatic equilibrium) transition region with P(sub e) = 10(exp 15 + 0.1)/cu cm K and possibly solar 'coronal' abundances.

  7. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  8. Transition crossing in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Scaling laws are provided for the effects of chromatic non-linearity, self-field mismatch, and microwave instability. It is indicated that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a {gamma}{sub T}-jump'' of about 0.8 unit within a time period of 60 ms is adequate to achieve a clean'' crossing, provided that the remnant voltage of the 160 MHz rf system is less than 10 kV. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Structural transitions in liquid cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashchenko, D. K.

    2014-09-01

    Two series of models of liquid cesium at temperatures of 493 and 623 K and pressures lower than 18 GPa are constructed by means of molecular dynamics using the potential of the embedded atom model. The thermodynamic properties of the models, pair correlation functions, pair radial distribution functions, structure factors, coordination numbers, and distributions of the Voronoi polyhedra and Delaunay simplexes are analyzed. No indications of structural transitions in liquid cesium of the first-order phase transition type are observed near a pressure of 3.9 GPa. Divergences from the results of some X-ray diffraction studies could be due to incorrect determination of the coordination numbers via the standard method because of the strong asymmetry of the first peaks of the pair radial distribution functions.

  10. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  11. Transition Radiation in QCD matter

    E-print Network

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2005-12-22

    In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

  12. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  13. Venus transits - A French view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Débarbat

    2005-01-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement

  14. Ferromagnetic state and phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Yuri Mnyukh

    2011-06-20

    Evidence is summarized attesting that the standard exchange field theory of ferromagnetism by Heisenberg has not been successful. It is replaced by the crystal field and a simple assumption that spin orientation is inexorably associated with the orientation of its carrier. It follows at once that both ferromagnetic phase transitions and magnetization must involve a structural rearrangement. The mechanism of structural rearrangements in solids is nucleation and interface propagation. The new approach accounts coherently for ferromagnetic state and its manifestations.

  15. Valence Tautomeric Transition Metal Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Hendrickson; Cortlandt G. Pierpont

    Valence d-orbital energies of the first row transition metals are close to the frontier ?-orbital energies of o-benzoquinones. Complexes prepared with quinone ligands most commonly have the quinone coordinated with the metal in the form of a semiquinonate (SQ) radical-anion or as a catecholate (Cat) dianion. In a few unique complexes it has been possible to observe intramolecular electron transfer

  16. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, George R.; Winn, Joshua N.; Vanderspek, Roland; Latham, David W.; Bakos, Gáspár. Á.; Bean, Jacob L.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Butler, R. Paul; Chaplin, William J.; Charbonneau, David; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Clampin, Mark; Deming, Drake; Doty, John; De Lee, Nathan; Dressing, Courtney; Dunham, E. W.; Endl, Michael; Fressin, Francois; Ge, Jian; Henning, Thomas; Holman, Matthew J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ida, Shigeru; Jenkins, Jon; Jernigan, Garrett; Johnson, John A.; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kjeldsen, Hans; Laughlin, Gregory; Levine, Alan M.; Lin, Douglas; Lissauer, Jack J.; MacQueen, Phillip; Marcy, Geoffrey; McCullough, P. R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Narita, Norio; Paegert, Martin; Palle, Enric; Pepe, Francesco; Pepper, Joshua; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rinehart, S. A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Sato, Bun'ei; Seager, Sara; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stassun, Keivan G.; Sullivan, Peter; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo; Udry, Stephane; Villasenor, Joel

    2014-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS ) will search for planets transiting bright and nearby stars. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission. The spacecraft will be placed into a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit around the Earth. During its two-year mission, TESS will employ four wide-field optical CCD cameras to monitor at least 200,000 main-sequence dwarf stars with IC (approximately less than) 13 for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. Each star will be observed for an interval ranging from one month to one year, depending mainly on the star's ecliptic latitude. The longest observing intervals will be for stars near the ecliptic poles, which are the optimal locations for follow-up observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Brightness measurements of preselected target stars will be recorded every 2 min, and full frame images will be recorded every 30 min. TESS stars will be 10-100 times brighter than those surveyed by the pioneering Kepler mission. This will make TESS planets easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS is expected to find more than a thousand planets smaller than Neptune, including dozens that are comparable in size to the Earth. Public data releases will occur every four months, inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the nearest and brightest stars hosting transiting planets, which will endure as highly favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  17. Fertility Transition: Forecast for Demography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Caputo; M. Nicotra; E. Gloria-Bottini

    2008-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century most industrialized nations had undergone the so-called fertility transition, characterized by a reduction in fertility to below replacement level and a delay in age at initiation of child-bearing. An emerging concern is the severe economic and social consequences of this demographic decline. We present an overview of fertility changes in Italy in the

  18. ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: SeptemberNovember 2014

    E-print Network

    ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: September­November 2014 (beginning Aug. 28, 2014) Faculty Road ElmStreet College Road Baker Rink MacMillan New South #12;ARTS & TRANSIT PROJECT: September­November 2014 (beginning & TRANSIT PROJECT: September­November 2014 (beginning Aug. 28, 2014) Vehicular Routes Faculty Road Elm

  19. TRANSIT REALITIES IN THE SUBURBAN GTA

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    TRANSIT REALITIES IN THE SUBURBAN GTA Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto November 1998 #12;TRANSIT REALITIES IN THE SUBURBAN GTA Prepared for Data Management Dalton November 1998 #12;i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report looks at current transit realities and trends

  20. On transit time instability in liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.

    1982-01-01

    A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.

  1. Regional Transit System: Return on Investment Assessment

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional Transit System: Return on Investment Assessment May 2014 #12;1 Today's agenda Itasca Project introduction Transit ROI objectives Results of analysis Comments from business leaders transit options Enables strategic, efficient investment in long-term infrastructure, e.g., energy grid

  2. Educational Policies of the Countries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar

    This report discusses the emergence of a new geopolitical reality, that of countries in transition. Although the expression usually refers to former Communist countries, a closer analysis shows that transition is, in fact, a universal historical phenomenon. As used here, countries in transition must evidence the following factors: (1) the…

  3. Optimum Transit Operations during the Emergency Evacuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui SONG; Shiwei HE; Li ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    16. Abstract: The objective of this project is to provide Coast Transit Authority in Gulfport, MS an optimum transit schedule and passenger pick up routes during an emergency evacuation. This final report summarizes the methodologies, findings, and conclusions for the study objectives. The location-routing problem (LRP) with uncertain demands has been explored to develop an optimal evacuation plan for transit-dependent

  4. Phase transition for dielectric breakdown model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxuan Chang; Houqiang Li; De Liu; Libin Lin

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the phase transition for DBM when ? varies is investigated by using real-space renormalization-group method. The result demonstrates that there are phase transitions for almost all the value of ?, and we find a new result that the larger ? is, the larger the value of phase transition point qc is.

  5. Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Richter, Sharon M.; White, James; Mazzotti, Valerie; Walker, Allison R.; Kohler, Paula; Kortering, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify evidence-based practices in secondary transition using quality indicator checklists for experimental research. Practices were categorized by the Taxonomy for Transition Programming. Overall, 32 secondary transition evidence-based practices were identified. Two practices had a strong level of evidence,…

  6. Meeting the Needs of Students in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Al; Moehnke, Larry

    2006-01-01

    As our society becomes more mobile, smooth and rewarding student transitions become more important. This article describes a partnership between U. S. Army Child and Youth Services and the Military Child Education Coalition that helps schools ease transitions for thousands of students. The program is based on the principle that transition does not…

  7. Children's Agency during Transition to Formal Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Children's transition to school is a key issue in early years of education. Research in this field points to the counterintuitive possibility that the transition to school may actually lead to a reduction rather than a facilitation of children's agency. The paper presents findings of a longitudinal comparative ethnography on children's transition

  8. A Smoother Transition for Black Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    For all students, the transition to high school may lead to lower academic achievement and adjustment problems. Black students are at greater risk for academic and social decline during this transition. Holcomb-McCoy identifies four obstacles that make black students more vulnerable as they navigate the transition into high school: stereotyping in…

  9. National Directory of Transition Specialists, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippolitus, Mona; Beyerle, Shaazka

    This directory is designed for use by parents, professionals, and disabled persons interested and concerned about the transition period from high school to adult working life. It lists persons in each state who can be contacted for information on current transition activities as well as future transition services being planned by the state. It…

  10. Programming guidelines on transition to IPv6

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Programming guidelines on transition to IPv6 Tomás P. de Miguel and Eva M. Castro tmiguel to IPv6 Acknowledgements This research has been supported by LONG (Laboratories Over Next Generation on Transition to IPv6 PROGRAMMING GUIDELINES ON TRANSITION TO IPV6

  11. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  12. Student Life Veterans Education and Transition Services

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    Student Life Veterans Education and Transition Services Veterans Services #12;The UMaine VETS Office (Veterans Education and Transition Services) works in every way possible to make the transition from military to student life simple and hassle-free. Our Mission: The VETS Office connects veteran

  13. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

  14. Electrical Dissipation Measurement of Polymer Phase Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., R; Schuszler, A., II

    1983-01-01

    Technique measures solid/solid, glass/rubber, and liquid/liquid transition temperatures in polymers having dipole moments. Technique based on change in dipole packing that occurs with each transition and measured as change in electrical dissipation factor. Change in dipole packing occuring with each transition sensed by effect on dissipation factor.

  15. Radiationless processes in transition-metal complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Robbins; A. J. Thomson

    1973-01-01

    This work applies recent theories of radiationless relaxation processes to the case of transition-metal complexes. Existing theories developed for understanding radiationless transitions in organic molecules separate coupling terms into electronic and vibrational factors. In this work the symmetry based selection rules on the coupling terms are examined since the high symmetry of many transition-metal complexes offers the possibility that strict

  16. Transition strengths in 79Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, J. W.; Döring, J.; Glasmacher, T.; Johns, G. D.; Johnson, T. D.; Riley, M. A.; Womble, P. C.; Tabor, S. L.

    1993-09-01

    High angular momentum states in 79Rb were populated via the 63Cu(19F,2pn)79Rb and 65Cu(18O,4n)79Rb reactions. The 65 MeV 19F and 65 MeV 18O beams were provided by the Florida State University FN Tandem accelerator. Prompt ?-? coincidences were measured for both reactions. Two additional ? cascades have been assigned to 79Rb, including a new high-excitation structure dominated by dipole transitions. Firm spin assignments were made for the first time for a number of states by means of directional correlation ratios and an angular distribution measurement using the 63Cu(19F,2pn) reaction. The Doppler-shift attenuation method was used to determine lifetimes for states and their respective side-feeding times in both the yrast positive-parity and yrast negative-parity states. Transition quadrupole moments were deduced from the transition strengths and compared with those predicted by Woods-Saxon cranking calculations. The energy spacings and mixing ratios were compared with particle-rotor calculations.

  17. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

  18. Transit times in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J.

    2010-04-01

    Statistics of the motion of passively convected point particles in turbulent flows are studied. The database used is obtained by direct numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We estimate the probability distribution of the transit times of such particles through reference volumes with given forms and sizes. A selected position within the reference volume is moving with the local flow velocity, thus determining the motion of the entire surface. The transit time is defined as the interval between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the volume by the turbulent motions. Spherical as well as hemispherical surfaces are studied. Scale sizes in the inertial as well as in the viscous subranges of the turbulence are considered. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the transit times in terms of the basic properties of the turbulent flow and the geometry. In the present formulation, the results of the analysis are relevant for chemical reactions, but also for understanding details of the feeding rate of micro-organisms in turbulent waters, for instance.

  19. Phase Transition to Exact Susy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavelli, L.

    2007-04-01

    The anthropic principle is based on the observation that, within narrow bounds, the laws of physics are such as to have allowed the evolution of life. The string theoretic approach to understanding this observation is based on the expectation that the effective potential has an enormous number of local minima with different particle masses and perhaps totally different fundamental couplings and space time topology. The vast majority of these alternative universes are totally inhospitable to life, having, for example, vacuum energies near the natural (Planck) scale. The statistics, however, are assumed to be such that a few of these local minima (and not more) have a low enough vacuum energy and suitable other properties to support life. In the inflationary era, the "multiverse" made successive transitions between the available minima until arriving at our current state of low vacuum energy. String theory, however, also suggests that the absolute minimum of the effective potential is exactly supersymmetric. Questions then arise as to why the inflationary era did not end by a transition to one of these, when will the universe make the phase transition to the exactly supersymmetric ground state, and what will be the properties of this final state.

  20. Transition

    E-print Network

    Welling, Lois

    1982-01-01

    ferent. Not required, not programmed by drugs. You were conceived in the free expression of the bonding your mother and I share, a favored way to begin life. Charles Scott ... J did not fail you . . . You were born in freedom, your short life lived... in freedom. You were never a slave. Your body never bore the sign that proclaimed you the property of another. Were you aware? Your mother sits next to me. She has dealt with her grief in her own way. I accept it, as she does mine. We are so different...

  1. Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

    Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  2. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  3. Energetic Transitions of Magnetic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Jacob A. J.

    The vortex state in a magnetic disk contains a zero-dimensional domain wall, and consequently, is a system of interest for the study of fundamental physics. In particular, the disk geometry presents a prototypical system to study the properties of vortex states and to construct proof-of-concept magnetic logic devices. Here, work was performed to elevate the understanding of this system so that device development and experiments may be performed in a truly quantitative fashion. In order to achieve this, hysteretic transitions of the vortex state in thin-film magnetic disks were studied using a variety of techniques. The annihilation transition and its statistics arising from thermal dynamics were studied using a novel tool, AC magneto-optical Kerr effect susceptometry, that permits rapid acquisition of transition statistics. Much smaller hysteretic transitions were studied using extremely sensitive torsional magnetometry. Strong interactions between the core of the vortex and inhomogeneities in the thin-film were studied in 1D and 2D. The bistable states participating in hysteresis were found to exhibit low speed stochastic dynamics that allowed quantitative analysis of transition barriers. To aid in this work an improved analytical model describing the evolution of the vortex state with applied field was developed. In particular this model was demonstrated to be capable of correctly accounting for both the non-monotonic evolution of the magnetization and the vortex core position of the vortex state under a changing magnetic field in the presence of a pinning site. The combination of the model with the torsional magnetometer creates a powerful scanning vortex probe microscope, capable of imaging the energy landscape of the disk with a high spatial resolution. Concurrently, a time-resolved STM equipped with spin polarized tips was successfully constructed, and applied to study in situ fabricated patterned magnetic disks. This attempt to observe magneto-dynamics on an unprecedented combination of spatial and temporal scales has not yet provided results, as magnetic contrast remains elusive. In developing novel high speed STM samples, cluster dynamics were discovered and studied in a metallic glass. In addition to equilibrium dynamics, the formation of a surface state of large clusters was directly observed as the film aged.

  4. Protein dynamical transition at 110 K

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chae Un; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are known to undergo a dynamical transition at around 200 K but the underlying mechanism, physical origin, and relationship to water are controversial. Here we report an observation of a protein dynamical transition as low as 110 K. This unexpected protein dynamical transition precisely correlated with the cryogenic phase transition of water from a high-density amorphous to a low-density amorphous state. The results suggest that the cryogenic protein dynamical transition might be directly related to the two liquid forms of water proposed at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:22167801

  5. On the design of system transitions Is Transition Management in the energy domain feasible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile J. L. Chappin; Gerard P. J. Dijkema

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of Transition Management appears to be dasiato manage transitions towards sustainability.psila The emerging body-of-knowledge on system transitions to date remains largely descriptive, however. We propose a research agenda to develop a prescriptive system transition body-of-knowledge, which eventually will provide handles for policy makers to push and pull transitions. This agenda is developed by focusing on energy systems.

  6. TERMS PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zachary Gazak, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rabus, Markus, E-mail: diana@phas.ubc.ca [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

  7. Constraining Orbital Parameters Through Planetary Transit Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun

    2008-08-13

    The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters affect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the expected transiting planet yield and the significance of a potential null result, as well as the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

  8. Closure Phase Signatures of Planet Transit Events

    E-print Network

    G. T. van Belle

    2008-04-16

    Planet transit events present as attractive targets for the ultra-high-resolution capabilities afforded by optical interferometers. Herein is presented an evaluation of the possibility of detection of such events through measurement of high-precision closure phases with the MIRC instrument on the CHARA Array. Recovery of the transit position angle upon the sky appears readily achievable with the existing capabilities of the instrument, along with characterization of other system parameters, such as stellar radius, planet radius, and other parameters of the transit event. This technique is the only one presently available that can provide a transiting planet's orbital plane position angle, and can directly determine the planet's radius independent of any outside observations, appearing able to improve substantially upon other determinations of that radius. Additional directly observed parameters - also not dependent upon transit photometry or spectroscopy - include impact parameter, transit ingress time, transit velocity and stellar radius.

  9. Transitional Care Strategies From Hospital to Home

    PubMed Central

    Ranji, Sumant R.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are challenged with reevaluating their hospital’s transitional care practices, to reduce 30-day readmission rates, prevent adverse events, and ensure a safe transition of patients from hospital to home. Despite the increasing attention to transitional care, there are few published studies that have shown significant reductions in readmission rates, particularly for patients with stroke and other neurologic diagnoses. Successful hospital-initiated transitional care programs include a “bridging” strategy with both predischarge and postdischarge interventions and dedicated transitions provider involved at multiple points in time. Although multicomponent strategies including patient engagement, use of a dedicated transition provider, and facilitation of communication with outpatient providers require time and resources, there is evidence that neurohospitalists can implement a transitional care program with the aim of improving patient safety across the continuum of care. PMID:25553228

  10. 7 CFR 322.27 - Eligible ports for transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Eligible ports for transit shipments. 322.27 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.27 Eligible ports for transit shipments. You may transit...

  11. 7 CFR 322.27 - Eligible ports for transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Eligible ports for transit shipments. 322.27 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.27 Eligible ports for transit shipments. You may transit...

  12. 7 CFR 322.27 - Eligible ports for transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Eligible ports for transit shipments. 322.27 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.27 Eligible ports for transit shipments. You may transit...

  13. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section 122.102 Customs...COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit...

  14. 7 CFR 322.27 - Eligible ports for transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Eligible ports for transit shipments. 322.27 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.27 Eligible ports for transit shipments. You may transit...

  15. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section 122.102 Customs...COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit...

  16. 7 CFR 322.27 - Eligible ports for transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Eligible ports for transit shipments. 322.27 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.27 Eligible ports for transit shipments. You may transit...

  17. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section 122.102 Customs...COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit...

  18. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section 122.102 Customs...COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit...

  19. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section 122.102 Customs...COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit...

  20. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo, E-mail: jbli@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattice and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yue, Qu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13?Å and ?7?Å for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  1. Phase transitions in KIO(3).

    PubMed

    Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren; Wiehl, Leonore; Friedrich, Alexandra; Winkler, Björn; Juarez-Arellano, Erick A; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Haussühl, Eiken

    2012-08-15

    The high-pressure behavior of KIO(3) was studied up to 30 GPa using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) experiments and density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. Triclinic KIO(3) shows two pressure-induced structural phase transitions at 7 GPa and at 14 GPa. Single crystal x-ray diffraction at 8.7(1) GPa was employed to solve the structure of the first high-pressure phase (space group R3, a = 5.89(1) ?, ? = 62.4(1)°). The bulk modulus, B, of this phase was obtained by fitting a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (eos) to synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data resulting in B(exp,second) = 67(3) GPa. The DFT model gave B(DFT,second) = 70.9 GPa, and, for a third order Birch-Murnaghan eos, B(DFT,third) = 67.9 GPa with a pressure derivative of [Formula: see text]. Both high-pressure transformations were detectable by Raman spectroscopy and the observation of second harmonic signals. The presence of strong SHG signals shows that all high-pressure phases are acentric. By using different pressure media, we showed that the transition pressures are very strongly influenced by shear stresses. Earlier work on low- and high-temperature transitions was complemented by low-temperature heat capacity measurements. We found no evidence for the presence of an orientational glass, in contrast to earlier dielectric studies, but consistent with earlier low-temperature diffraction studies. PMID:22787136

  2. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce (Beverly Hills, MI); Blessing, Leonard J. (Rochester, MI)

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  3. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-print Network

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  4. Transition splices and cost comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remedios, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development and testing of two designs of transition splices are reported. The design goal was to produce splice terminations that are electrically insulated to withstand the environmental conditions of commercial aircraft and are capable of being repaired and reworked on installed cables with the use of hand tools. In addition, a cost study comparison of FCC vs. RCC is reported. The comparison was made on a basis of 10 aircraft with each vehicle using approximately 100,000 feet of wiring and 2,000 connectors. The results are tabulated for seven different wiring configurations.

  5. Shim for sealing transition pieces

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Demiroglu, Mehmet (Troy, NY); Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-07-24

    According to one aspect of the invention, a shim for sealing two adjacent turbine transition pieces is disclosed. The shim includes a circumferential member that includes a first lateral flange and a second lateral flange. Further, the first and second lateral flanges each comprise a tab configured to mate to a first surface plane and the first and second lateral flanges are configured to mate to a second surface plane, wherein the first and second surface planes are substantially parallel. In addition, the shim includes a first flange extending substantially perpendicular from the circumferential member.

  6. Approximating Metal-Insulator Transitions

    E-print Network

    C. Danieli; K. Rayanov; B. Pavlov; G. Martin; S. Flach

    2014-05-06

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-Andre model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  7. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-19

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin. PMID:22258611

  8. Bus rapid transit identity: An overview of current branding practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Baldwin Hess; Alex Bitterman

    2008-01-01

    The federal tax code allows employers to provide tax-free transit benefits to employees. Although transit benefits programs are commonly promoted as having advantages for transit agencies, such as increasing transit ridership and transit agency revenues, their effects and effectiveness are not well understood and need to be better assessed. This research is designed to help transit agencies, policy-makers, and organizations

  9. Transition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Space

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    The AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Space The AMSThe AMS--0202 Transition Radiation DetectorTransition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Spaceto Search.it On behalf of the AMS collaboration Transition Radiation DetectorTransition Radiation Detector Transition

  10. THE QUASIPERIODIC AUTOMATED TRANSIT SEARCH ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present a new algorithm for detecting transiting extrasolar planets in time-series photometry. The Quasiperiodic Automated Transit Search (QATS) algorithm relaxes the usual assumption of strictly periodic transits by permitting a variable, but bounded, interval between successive transits. We show that this method is capable of detecting transiting planets with significant transit timing variations without any loss of significance-{sup s}mearing{sup -}as would be incurred with traditional algorithms; however, this is at the cost of a slightly increased stochastic background. The approximate times of transit are standard products of the QATS search. Despite the increased flexibility, we show that QATS has a run-time complexity that is comparable to traditional search codes and is comparably easy to implement. QATS is applicable to data having a nearly uninterrupted, uniform cadence and is therefore well suited to the modern class of space-based transit searches (e.g., Kepler, CoRoT). Applications of QATS include transiting planets in dynamically active multi-planet systems and transiting planets in stellar binary systems.

  11. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron.

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Brazhkin, V V; Trachenko, K

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the "rigid liquid" state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  12. The nurse manager in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Shearer, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    With the current, widespread, highly visible, non-fault dismissals brought about by massive hospital downsizing and restructuring, there has been a layoff of many capable, responsible, and respectable managers. In some localities it will not be possible to obtain a similar position to the one that is lost. Adjusting to this significant life transition event, moving from one job to another involves a process that is initiated when the manager's current reality is disrupted and ends when a bridge is built from the disrupted reality to one of the possible realities that can be created. During this process there are many emotional ups and downs and confusion as to identity. While what is happening may be clear to an observer, for the person in transition reality may be fractured in such a devastating way that it is like being frozen in time. Finally, a new reality is built as the old one is relinquished, and the excitement of new beginnings is experienced with a new and perhaps different role. Eventually, the pain and disappointment of losing a job is replaced with the challenges of the present. Meanwhile, while the present job seems secure it is good planning for the future to be aware and ready for the job hunt process. Getting laid off or fired is a real possibility in today's tightening economic conditions and the astute nurse manager should be ready for it. PMID:14694753

  13. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-11-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the ``rigid liquid'' state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line.

  14. Dynamic transition in supercritical iron

    PubMed Central

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance in understanding the supercritical state posits the existence of a new line above the critical point separating two physically distinct states of matter: rigid liquid and non-rigid gas-like fluid. The location of this line, the Frenkel line, remains unknown for important real systems. Here, we map the Frenkel line on the phase diagram of supercritical iron using molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of our data, we propose a general recipe to locate the Frenkel line for any system, the recipe that importantly does not involve system-specific detailed calculations and relies on the knowledge of the melting line only. We further discuss the relationship between the Frenkel line and the metal-insulator transition in supercritical liquid metals. Our results enable predicting the state of supercritical iron in several conditions of interest. In particular, we predict that liquid iron in the Jupiter core is in the “rigid liquid” state and is highly conducting. We finally analyse the evolution of iron conductivity in the core of smaller planets such as Earth and Venus as well as exoplanets: as planets cool off, the supercritical core undergoes the transition to the rigid-liquid conducting state at the Frenkel line. PMID:25424664

  15. Buckling transition in long ?-helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen?ár, Peter; Bleha, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    The treatment of bending and buckling of stiff biopolymer filaments by the popular worm-like chain model does not provide adequate understanding of these processes at the microscopic level. Thus, we have used the atomistic molecular-dynamic simulations and the Amber03 force field to examine the compression buckling of ?-helix (AH) filaments at room temperature. It was found that the buckling instability occurs in AHs at the critical force fc in the range of tens of pN depending on the AH length. The decrease of the force fc with the contour length follows the prediction of the classic thin rod theory. At the force fc the helical filament undergoes the swift and irreversible transition from the smoothly bent structure to the buckled one. A sharp kink in the AH contour arises at the transition, accompanied by the disruption of the hydrogen bonds in its vicinity. The kink defect brings in an effective softening of the AH molecule at buckling. Nonbonded interactions between helical branches drive the rearrangement of a kinked AH into the ultimate buckled structure of a compact helical hairpin described earlier in the literature.

  16. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    PubMed

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health. PMID:24824339

  17. Synfuels and the energy transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzhiser, R. E.

    1981-08-01

    Various synfuel options and their impact on the electric utility industry are discussed. The energy transition for the U.S.A. is seen as moving from natural fluid fuels to solid fuels and renewable energy resources. The key to this transition is electrification, which can encompass both nuclear and renewable resources, centralized and dispersed technologies. It is shown that the fraction of total energy converted to electricity has risen steadily for the past 30 years, reaching 33% last year. The abundance and cost of production of the various fossil energy resources, including natural gas, heavy oil, oil shale, and coal are considered. EPRI analyses indicate that an integrated-combined-cycle power plant could be competitive with conventional coal plant technology. These plants would use only half the water of current coal-fired plants, would meet tighter sulfur emission standards, and would produce a vitreous ash that is less leachable than the ash from today's coal plants. Solvent-refined coal processes, currently being developed in the U.S.A. are a second approach to converting coal to liquid fuels. It is pointed out, however, that synfuels will complement, not replace, other sources of energy in the continued electrification of the U.S.A.

  18. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity ?h{sub 11/2}??h{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ? 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  19. Chiral transition with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, Luis Alberto; Mizher, Ana Júlia; Rojas, Juan Cristóbal; Villavicencio, Cristián

    2014-06-01

    We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses—taken as functions of the order parameter—can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants, and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic field and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

  20. Gardner transition in finite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Biroli, Giulio

    2015-03-01

    Recent works on hard spheres in the limit of infinite dimensions revealed that glass states, envisioned as metabasins in configuration space, can break up in a multitude of separate basins at low enough temperature or high enough pressure, leading to the emergence of new kinds of soft-modes and unusual properties. In this paper we study by perturbative renormalization group techniques the critical properties of this transition, which has been discovered in disordered mean-field models in the 1980s. We find that the upper-critical dimension du, above which mean-field results hold, is strictly larger than six and apparently nonuniversal, i.e., system dependent. Below du, we do not find any perturbative attractive fixed point (except for a tiny region of the one-step replica symmetry breaking parameter), thus showing that the transition in three dimensions either is governed by a nonperturbative fixed point unrelated to the Gaussian mean-field one or becomes first order or does not exist. We also discuss possible relationships with the behavior of spin glasses in a field.

  1. Buckling transition in long ?-helices

    SciTech Connect

    Palen?ár, Peter; Bleha, Tomáš, E-mail: bleha@savba.sk [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-11-07

    The treatment of bending and buckling of stiff biopolymer filaments by the popular worm-like chain model does not provide adequate understanding of these processes at the microscopic level. Thus, we have used the atomistic molecular-dynamic simulations and the Amber03 force field to examine the compression buckling of ?-helix (AH) filaments at room temperature. It was found that the buckling instability occurs in AHs at the critical force f{sub c} in the range of tens of pN depending on the AH length. The decrease of the force f{sub c} with the contour length follows the prediction of the classic thin rod theory. At the force f{sub c} the helical filament undergoes the swift and irreversible transition from the smoothly bent structure to the buckled one. A sharp kink in the AH contour arises at the transition, accompanied by the disruption of the hydrogen bonds in its vicinity. The kink defect brings in an effective softening of the AH molecule at buckling. Nonbonded interactions between helical branches drive the rearrangement of a kinked AH into the ultimate buckled structure of a compact helical hairpin described earlier in the literature.

  2. Texas A&M Transportation Institute | 2012 Page | 1 Seven transit providers in the Central Puget Sound region came together to develop the ORCA fare card system.

    E-print Network

    Texas A&M Transportation Institute | 2012 Page | 1 ORCA SUMMARY Seven transit providers Community Transit, Everett Transit, King County Metro, Kitsap Transit, Pierce Transit, Sound Transit Transit, Everett Transit, King County Metro, Kitsap Transit, Pierce Transit, Sound Transit

  3. Transit Detection of Radial Velocity Planets

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun

    2008-06-30

    The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters effect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the significance of a null result and the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

  4. More holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We find two systems via holography that exhibit quantum Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transitions. The first is the ABJM theory with flavor and the second is a flavored (1, 1) little string theory. In each case the transition occurs at nonzero density and magnetic field. The BKT transition in the little string theory is the first example of a quantum BKT transition in (3+1) dimensions. As in the 'original' holographic BKT transition in the D3/D5 system, the exponential scaling is destroyed at any nonzero temperature and the transition becomes second order. Along the way we construct holographic renormalization for probe branes in the ABJM theory and propose a scheme for the little string theory. Finally, we obtain the embeddings and (half of) the meson spectrum in the ABJM theory with massive flavor.

  5. Transition dipole moments of the lithium dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasik, Patryk; Sienkiewicz, Józef E.

    2013-03-01

    In addition to knowledge of interatomic adiabatic potential energy curves of diatomic systems, it is essential to know electronic transition dipole moments. They are needed in understanding processes like photodissociation, photoassociation, cooling, and trapping. Here, we present electronic transition dipole moments calculated for 74 allowed transitions between 26 states of Li2 [P. Jasik, J.E. Sienkiewicz, Chem. Phys. 323 (2006) 563]. In the asymptotic internuclear region our results reasonably agree with previously calculated and measured results.

  6. New O(3) transition in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Michael; Murthy, Ganpathy

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional lattice of Heisenberg spins with nearest-neighbor interactions is studied by numerical simulation under the constraint that no free topological singularities (hedgehogs) are allowed. Only nearest-neighbor pairs of oppositely charged hedgehogs are permitted in the sum over configurations. A disordering transition with exponents different from the usual Heisenberg transition is found and tentatively identified as a pure spin wave disordering transition.

  7. Transition Region Oscillations in a Sunspot Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brynildsen; T. Fredvik; O. Kjeldseth-Moe; P. Maltby

    1999-01-01

    Umbral oscillations in the sunspot transition region have been detected and described from SOHO observations, mainly taken with SUMER of NOAA 8156 on 18 February 1998 between 16:00 UT and 21:07 UT. SUMER recorded simultaneously in the transition regions lines O V lambda629, N V lambda1238 and N V lambda1242, combined with long exposures for wavelength calibration. Transition region oscillations

  8. Symmetry systematics of pressure - induced phase transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish C. Gupta; R. Chidambaram

    1994-01-01

    Most pressure induced phase transitions are diffusionless. Because of this, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the positions of atoms in the parent and the product phases, which, therefore, show interesting symmetry relationships. In this paper, we have used these for discussing a symmetry classification of pressure induced phase transitions into four categories: iso-symmetric, group-subgroup, intersection group, and order-disorder transitions.

  9. Continuous and discontinuous metal-insulator transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Mott

    1978-01-01

    In non-crystalline systems a continuous metal-insulator transition of Andersontype is frequently observed when the Fermi energy moves through a mobility edge. In crystalline systems, on the other hand, the activation energy for conduction should change discontinuously at the transition. The aim of this paper is to enquire under what conditions a discontinuous transition can occur in non-crystalline systems. It clearly

  10. Bimodal Accretion Disks: SSD-ADAF Transitions

    E-print Network

    Wei-Min Gu; Ju-Fu Lu

    2000-08-21

    We show that, unlike the results presented previously in the literature, the transition from an outer Shakura-Sunyaev disk (SSD) to an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) is possible for large values of the viscosity parameter $\\alpha >0.5$. The transition is triggered by thermal instability of a radiation-pressure-supported SSD. The transition radius is close to the central black hole. We confirm our qualitative prediction by actually constructing global bimodal SSD-ADAF solutions.

  11. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Oded

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth PMID:25089157

  12. Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Lalazissis, G. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece); Ring, P. [Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  13. The liquid-glass transition of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Barbara; Verrocchio, Paolo

    2002-03-01

    We studied the liquid-glass transition of SiO2 by means of replica theory, utilizing an effective pair potential which was proved to reproduce a few experimental features of silica. We found a finite critical temperature T0, where the system undergoes a phase transition related to replica symmetry breaking, in a region where experiments do not show any transition. The possible sources of this discrepancy are discussed.

  14. Optimal output-transitions for linear systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Perez; Santosh Devasia

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses the optimal (minimum-input-energy) output-transition problem for linear systems. The goal is to transfer the output from an initial value y(t )= y (for all time t 6 ti) to a \\/nal output value y(t )= 0 y (for all time t ¿ tf ). Previous methods solve this output-transition problem by transforming it into a state-transition problem;

  15. Improved parameters for extrasolar transiting planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Torres; Joshua N. Winn; Matthew J. Holman

    2008-01-01

    We present refined values for the physical parameters of transiting\\u000aexoplanets, based on a self-consistent and uniform analysis of transit light\\u000acurves and the observable properties of the host stars. Previously it has been\\u000adifficult to interpret the ensemble properties of transiting exoplanets,\\u000abecause of the widely different methodologies that have been applied in\\u000aindividual cases. Furthermore, previous studies often

  16. The Phase Transition in VO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Kosuge

    1967-01-01

    Magnetic properties in VO2 have been studied in the temperature range from 100 to 380°K with the Mössbauer effect measurement of Fe57 doped in VO2. Above and below the transition temperature, no internal field is observed. The observation indicates that VO2 is paramagnetic even below the transition temperature and then it was concluded that the drastic transition in VO2 from

  17. Observation of transitions in lithiumlike germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behring, W. E.; Seely, J. F.; Brown, C. M.; Feldman, U.; Knauer, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Transitions of the type n = 2-2, n = 2-3 and n = 3-4 in Li-like Ge(29+) have been observed in the spectrum from a laser-produced plasma. The energy levels and ionization energy of Ge(29+) were derived from the observed wavelengths. The wavelength of the 2s 2S1/2-2p 2P3/2 transition is sufficiently accurate to determine the quantum-electrodynamic contribution to the transition energy.

  18. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sartakov, Boris G. [General Physics Institute, RAS, Vavilov Street 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  19. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-01

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  20. Kepler Stars with Multiple Transiting Planet Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit in March of 2009. Kepler is designed to conduct a statistical census of planetary system properties using transit photometry. Among the most exciting early results from Kepler are target stars found to have photometric signatures that suggest the presence of more than one transiting planet. Individual transiting planets provide information on the size and orbital period distributions of exoplanets. Multiple transiting planets provide additional information on the spacing and flatness distributions of planetary systems. Results to d ate and plans for future analysis will be presented.

  1. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D. [Department of Physics, 1150 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  2. SUCCESSFUL TRANSITION Counseling & Substance Abuse Services

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    SUCCESSFUL TRANSITION TO COLLEGE Counseling & Substance Abuse Services Director, Frank Budd, Ph and Substance Abuse Services · Undergraduate Academic Services · Dean of Students · Their Professor during

  3. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  4. Aspects of the non-zonal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hatch, D. R. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The non-zonal transition, a process which can bring about very large heat fluxes in gyrokinetic simulations, occurs once a certain threshold plasma ? is reached. This threshold is parameterized via a simulation database, yielding an expression estimating at what ? a given system may approach the transition. Furthermore, the diffusive outward transport of a heat blob in a temperature profile marginally stable with respect to the non-zonal transition is discussed: the resulting transport timescale combines the underlying turbulent transport timescale and the linear instability growth time, thus demonstrating that the non-zonal transition provides a mechanism for very fast heat dissipation.

  5. Transit station energy impacts. Research report (Interim)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, P.; Euritt, M.; Walton, C.M.

    1992-12-01

    Transit trips-when compared with automobile travel-not only relieve congestion, but also offer considerable energy savings per person. Transit trips also affect land use and development patterns that surround a transit station. In the report, a methodology will be developed to estimate the energy savings associated with land use changes in the station areas. Since changes in land use and development in a station area are partially dependent on the type of service offered (rail versus bus rapid, for example), a classification system will be developed for different types of transit stations, a system based on the land use and development changes that occur within the station's zone of influence.

  6. Transition manager is liaison between teams.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    At University of Utah Health Care, a transition case manager acts as a liaison between the outpatient care team at community clinics and the inpatient care team. The transition navigator works with case managers at the hospital and the clinics to make sure both have the information they need to coordinate care for the patient. The transition navigator visits patients in the hospital and works with the unit case manager to make sure the discharge plan will work. To further smooth transitions, the patients receive a one-page sheet that summarizes their discharge instructions, follow-up appointments, and medication regimen. PMID:25065104

  7. Liquid-glass transition in equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, G.; Seoane, B.

    2014-02-01

    We show in numerical simulations that a system of two coupled replicas of a binary mixture of hard spheres undergoes a phase transition in equilibrium at a density slightly smaller than the glass transition density for an unreplicated system. This result is in agreement with the theories that predict that such a transition is a precursor of the standard ideal glass transition. The critical properties are compatible with those of an Ising system. The relations of this approach to the conventional approach based on configurational entropy are briefly discussed.

  8. Liquid-glass transition in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Parisi, G; Seoane, B

    2014-02-01

    We show in numerical simulations that a system of two coupled replicas of a binary mixture of hard spheres undergoes a phase transition in equilibrium at a density slightly smaller than the glass transition density for an unreplicated system. This result is in agreement with the theories that predict that such a transition is a precursor of the standard ideal glass transition. The critical properties are compatible with those of an Ising system. The relations of this approach to the conventional approach based on configurational entropy are briefly discussed. PMID:25353474

  9. Dynamics of stimulated L ? H transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, K. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Diamond, P. H.; Xiao, W. W. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Hahn, S.-H. [KSTAR Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [KSTAR Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Gürcan, Ö. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 92118 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 92118 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)] [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    We report on model studies of stimulated L ? H transitions [K. Miki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 195002 (2013)]. These studies use a reduced mesoscale model. Model studies reveal that L ? H transition can be triggered by particle injection into a subcritical state (i.e., Ptransition. For low ambient heating, strong injection is predicted to trigger a transient turbulence collapse. Repetitive injection at a period less than the lifetime of the collapsed state can thus maintain the turbulence collapse and so sustain a driven H-mode-like state. The total number of particles required to induce a transition by either injection or gas puffing is estimated. Results indicate that the total number of injected particles required is much smaller than that required for a transition by gas puffing. We thus show that internal injection is more efficient than gas puffing of comparable strength. We also observe that zonal flows do not play a critical role in stimulated transitions. For spontaneous transitions, the spike of the Reynolds work of turbulence on the zonal flow precedes the spike in the mean electric field shear. In contrast, we show that the two are coincident for stimulated transitions, suggesting that there is no causal link between zonal and mean flows for stimulated transitions.

  10. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  11. Transition from Pediatric to Adult OI Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... making medical appointments and take responsibility for own healthcare decisions • Discuss options for transitioning to adult healthcare • Discuss sexuality, marriage, parenting. Assure that teens have ...

  12. Transitions between patterns in thermal convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenschatz, E.; de Bruyn, J.R.; Ahlers, G.; Cannell, D.S. (Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California (USA) Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

    1991-11-25

    We present experimental studies of the transitions between conduction, hexagons, and rolls in non-Boussinesq convection of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a cylindrical cell of radius-to-height ratio 86. Except for the transition from conduction to hexagons, transitions occur when the two states involved have nearly the same value of a generalized potential rather than at the stability limits. Conduction gives way to hexagons via the propagation of a front connecting the two states, while the transitions between hexagons and rolls are facilitated at the cell walls which appear to nucleate the minority state.

  13. Lilienfeld Transition Radiation Brought to Light

    E-print Network

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2003-07-09

    Presently, the term transition radiation tends to denote a somewhat different physical phenomenon than the original transition radiation discovered by J. E. Lilienfeld in 1919, and re-employed in different forms again in 1953 and 1971. Lilienfeld transition radiation is a subtle kind of radiation with distinctive properties that may often be unexpected in prospect, yet is intuitive and readily understood in retrospect. This paper distinguishes in clear terms between the different kinds of transition radiation, and shows its link to modern apparatus such as possible applications in the area of x-ray microscopy, microholography, and the free electron laser .

  14. Transitions in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, Jesse; Lewis, James; Stokes, Harold; Hatch, Dorian

    2003-10-01

    We investigate SiC as it undergoes a pressure induced phase transition from the NaCl structure to the ZnS structure. Various pathways were chosen by the computer program COMSUBS. We estimate the barrier energy height by calculating the pathway midpoints with SCAD and FIREBALL. We calculated more detailed pathways with optimization using FIREBALL. We checked a point on the most favorable pathway for unstable modes and chose new possible pathways accordingly. The most favorable results so far show a barrier of 0.55 eV at a pressure 93 GPa for pathways with space group symmetries IMM2(44) and AMM2(38). There are other pathways that we are still investigating that might prove to be more favorable.

  15. Glass Transition, Cooperativity and Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Salez, Thomas; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the physical ideas of molecular crowding and resultant cooperative motion, and address the effects of free interfaces on dynamics. First, we obtain a simple scaling expression for the diverging number of particles taking part in bulk cooperative relaxation as the system approaches kinetic arrest, and in doing so provide a robust derivation of the Adam and Gibbs description of cooperative dynamics. Then, by including thermal expansivity of the material, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, we predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length $\\xi$ of bulk relaxation, and explore the influence of sample boundaries on the glassy dynamics when the system size becomes comparable to $\\xi$. The theory is in full agreement with measurements of the glass transition temperature of thin polystyrene films. This agreement comes with two adjustable parameters, the critical interparticle distance and the Vogel temperature. Alth...

  16. Transition Radiation Detector in MACRO

    E-print Network

    M. N. Mazziotta; for the MACRO Collaboration

    1999-05-13

    The MACRO detector is located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. MACRO's overburden varies from 3150 to 7000 hg/cm^2. A transition radiation detector (TRD) has been added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons entering MACRO, i.e. the energy they have after passing through the Gran Sasso's rock overburden. The TRD consists of three identical modules with a total horizontal area of 36 m^2. The results presented here are referred to single and double events in MACRO with one muon crossing one of the TRD modules. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones, as predicted by the interaction models of primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere.

  17. Chicago Transit Authority: Public Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) has long had an ambitious public art program. This handy 62-page guidebook provides interested parties and tourists with a complete listing of these works. Not surprisingly, the works are arranged by elevated line and by stop. The guide starts with providing information about works on the Brown Line, which is a great place to begin. It's a real treat to start with Josh Garber's "Hope and Renewal" which is located at the Kimball stop at the end of the Brown Line in the Albany Park community. Also, baseball fans won't want to miss the artworks located close to the train stations at Wrigley Field and US Cellular Field. The guide also includes an artist index and information about the gorgeous works at CTA headquarters in the city's Near West Side neighborhood.

  18. Transition dipole strength of eumelanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, J. J.; Gilmore, J. B.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Powell, B. J.; Pederson, M. R.; Meredith, P.

    2007-08-01

    We report the transition dipole strength of eumelanin (the principal human photoprotective pigment) in the ultraviolet and visible. We have used both theoretical (density functional) and experimental methods to show that eumelanin is not an unusually strong absorber amongst organic chromophores. This is somewhat surprising given its role as a photoprotectant, and suggests that the dark coloring in vivo (and in vitro) of the eumelanin pigment is a concentration effect. Furthermore, by observing the polymerization of a principle precursor (5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid) into the full pigment, we observe that eumelanin exhibits a small amount (˜20%) of hyperchromism (i.e., the reaction process enhances the light absorption ability of the resultant macromolecule relative to its monomeric precursor). These results have significant implications for our understanding of the photophysics of these important functional biomolecules. In particular, they appear to be consistent with the recently proposed chemical disorder secondary structure model of eumelanins.

  19. Mixing and Transition Control Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Considerable progress in understanding nonlinear phenomena in both unbounded and wallbounded shear flow transition has been made through the use of a combination of high- Reynolds-number asymptotic and numerical methods. The objective of this continuing work is to fully understand the nonlinear dynamics so that ultimately (1) an effective means of mixing and transition control can be developed and (2) the source terms in the aeroacoustic noise problem can be modeled more accurately. Two important aspects of the work are that (1) the disturbances evolve from strictly linear instability waves on weakly nonparallel mean flows so that the proper upstream conditions are applied in the nonlinear or wave-interaction streamwise region and (2) the asymptotic formulations lead to parabolic problems so that the question of proper out-flow boundary conditions--still a research issue for direct numerical simulations of convectively unstable shear flows--does not arise. Composite expansion techniques are used to obtain solutions that account for both mean-flow-evolution and nonlinear effects. A previously derived theory for the amplitude evolution of a two-dimensional instability wave in an incompressible mixing layer (which is in quantitative agreement with available experimental data for the first nonlinear saturation stage for a plane-jet shear layer, a circular-jet shear layer, and a mixing layer behind a splitter plate) have been extended to include a wave-interaction stage with a three-dimensional subharmonic. The ultimate wave interaction effects can either give rise to explosive growth or an equilibrium solution, both of which are intimately associated with the nonlinear self-interaction of the three dimensional component. The extended theory is being evaluated numerically. In contrast to the mixing-layer situation, earlier comparisons of theoretical predictions based on asymptotic methods and experiments in wall-bounded shear-flow transition have been somewhat lacking in one aspect or another. The current work strongly suggests that the main weakness is the underlying asymptotic representation of the linear "part" of the problem and not the explicit modeling of the nonlinear/wave-interaction effects. Consequently, the long-wave-length/high-Reynolds-number asymptotic limit for the Blasius boundary-layer stability problem was reexamined, and a new dispersion relationship for the instability waves that is uniformly valid for both the upper- and lower branch regions to the required order of approximation was obtained. A comparison with numerical results, obtained by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld stability problem, shows that the asymptotic formula provides surprisingly good results, even for values of the frequency parameter usually encountered in experimental investigations. This is particularly evident in the dynamically important upper-branch region, where much of the nonlinear interactions in transition experiments are believed to take place. The result is important in that it can be used to greatly improve the accuracy of weakly nonlinear critical-layer-based theories, and a consistent nonlinear theory is currently under evaluation.

  20. Picking the right transition strategy.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Leaders in transition reflexively rely on the skills and strategies that worked for them in the past. That's a mistake, says Watkins, whose research shows that executives moving into new roles must gain a deep understanding of the situation at hand and adapt to it. To help them accurately assess their organizations and tailor their strategies and styles accordingly, he developed the STARS framework. "STARS" is an acronym for the five common situations leaders move into: start-up, turnaround, accelerated growth, realignment, and sustaining success. Thus, the model outlines the challenges of launching a venture or project; saving a business or initiative that's in serious trouble; dealing with rapid expansion; reenergizing a once-leading company that's now facing problems; and following in the footsteps of a highly regarded leader with a strong legacy of success. Executives can accelerate their immersion in new roles by following certain fundamental principles: Organize to learn about the business, establish A-item priorities, define strategic intent, quickly build the leadership team, secure early wins, and create supportive alliances across the company. But the way those principles should be applied depends very much on the business situation, which the STARS framework can help leaders analyze. Turnarounds and realignments present especially distinct leadership challenges that call for particular transition strategies. Regardless of the business situation, leaders must figure out which things need to happen--perhaps a jump in market share or an expansion into different markets--for their business to achieve its goals. And they must determine which leadership style best fits the new culture they're joining. Armed with such clarity, executives can design effective plans to manage their organizations and themselves. PMID:19227407

  1. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    E-print Network

    J. E. Lawler; E. A. Den Hartog; Z. E. Labby; C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan; I. I. Ivans

    2006-11-01

    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf/La) = -0.13 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06) and log epsilon (Hf/Eu) = +0.04 +/- 0.02 (sigma = 0.06). The observed average stellar abundance ratio of Hf/Eu and La/Eu is larger than previous estimates of the solar system r-process-only value, suggesting a somewhat larger contribution from the r-process to the production of Hf and La. The newly determined Hf values could be employed as part of the chronometer pair, Th/Hf, to determine radioactive stellar ages.

  2. THE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE PROJECT. XIII. SIXTEEN TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ 1214b

    E-print Network

    Carter, Joshua Adam

    We present optical photometry of 16 transits of the super-Earth GJ 1214b, allowing us to refine the system parameters and search for additional planets via transit timing. Starspot-crossing events are detected in two light ...

  3. Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, A. [ECTP, Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics, MTI Modern University, Mukattam Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-04-17

    We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should thraw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.

  4. Assessing the Dutch Energy Transition Policy: How Does it Deal with Dilemmas of Managing Transitions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Kemp; Jan Rotmans; Derk Loorbach

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the national government is committed towards altering the systems of energy, transport and agriculture in the name of sustainable development. A process of deliberation and change was started—aimed at achieving ‘transitions’—using a model of transition management. This paper examines how the new arrangements of governance for energy transition deal with six problems of steering: ambivalence about goals,

  5. TRANSIT OF VENUS 2012, Observation with PICARD/SODISM during transit

    E-print Network

    Widemann, Thomas

    TRANSIT OF VENUS 2012, Observation with PICARD/SODISM during transit SODISM (Solar Diameter Imager mission Ø The space instrument SODISM of the PICARD mission Ø Transit of Venus 2012 Ø Conclusion radius changes that are in phase. #12;PICARD is a French space scientific mission. Its objectives are

  6. Dynamic Transition Theory and its Application to Gas-Liquid Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    Wang, Shouhong

    for the complete set of transition states. With this philosophy, a dynamic transition theory is developed under, then the steady state equation reduces to the van der Waals equation. 8 #12;III. Phase Transition Dynamics for PVT of equations = 0 critical parameter eq a2 = 0 -(bp + RT)0 + a2 0 - ab3 0 + p = 0 steady state eq (van der

  7. Making the Transition to Primary School: An Evaluation of a Transition Program for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    The transition to primary school is an important time for both children and parents. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effectiveness of a Transition to Primary School Parent Program in strengthening parent knowledge and confidence to manage the transition process, increasing parent involvement in their children's…

  8. Glass transition in computer-simulated iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Laurent J.

    1989-06-01

    A constant-pressure molecular-dynamics simulation has been carried out to investigate glass formation in iron as described by the short-range Johnson potential. In agreement with recent constant-volume results by Chen, Egami, and Vitek [Phys. Rev. B 37, 2440 (1988)], evidence is found for the existence of a stress transition at a temperature well above the glass transition.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  10. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  11. Transiting Exoplanet Observations at Grinnell College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerhaft, Julia; Slough, P.; Cale, B.; Kempton, E.

    2014-01-01

    Grinnell College, a small liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa with 1600 undergraduate students, is home to the Grant O. Gale Observatory. Over the past year, we have successfully detected extrasolar planets using the transit method with our 24-inch Cassegrain reflecting telescope equipped with a CCD camera. With little light pollution and an easily accessible observatory, Grinnell College is an optimal location for transiting exoplanet observations. With the current telescope set-up and CCD camera, we have taken time series data and created image calibration and post-processing programs that detect exoplanet transits at high photometric precision. In the future, we will continue to use these observation and data reduction procedures to conduct transiting exoplanet research. Goals for our research program include performing follow-up observations of transiting exoplanet candidates to confirm their planetary nature, searching for additional exoplanets in known planetary systems using the transit timing detection method, tracking long period transiting planets, and refining properties of exoplanets and their host stars. Ground-based transiting planet science is especially important in the post-Kepler era, and our dedicated mid-sized telescope with plenty of access to dark clear nights provides an ideal resource for a variety of follow up and exoplanet detection efforts.

  12. Estimating the Size of Generalized Transitive Closures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Lipton; Jeffrey F. Naughton

    1989-01-01

    We present a framework for the estimation of the size of binary recursively defined relations. We show how the framework can be used to provide estimating algo rithms for the size of the transitive closure and gener- alizations of the transitive closure, and also show that for bounded degree relations, the algorithm runs in linear time. Such estimating algorithms are

  13. Boolean Matrix Multiplication and Transitive Closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Fischer; Albert R. Meyer

    1971-01-01

    Arithmetic operations on matrices are applied to the problem of finding the transitive closure of a Boolean matrix. The best transitive closure algorithm known, due to Munro, is based on the matrix multiplication method of Strassen. We show that his method requires at most O(n? ¿ P(n)) bitwise operations, where ? = log27 and P(n) bounds the number of bitwise

  14. Hadronic transitions ?(2S)??(1S)

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhou, L.

    1998-08-07

    Using a 73.6pb(-1) data sample of ?(2S) events collected with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the hadronic transitions between the ?(2S) and the ?(1S). The dipion transition ?(2S)??(1S...

  15. Effective Transition Planning for Learners with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the transition requirements of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and a growing body of research in support of effective transition planning for learners with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), many adults on the spectrum remain without employment in large numbers. Even for those generally regarded as most capable, they…

  16. Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit

    E-print Network

    Widemann, Thomas

    Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit 3rd Europlanet workshop ­ 4th PHC/Sakura meeting: Venus as a transiting exoplanet March 5 ­ 7 2012, Paris, France A. García Muñoz (Formerly at) Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Frank P. Mills (Venus work) The Australian National

  17. Skills constraints and the low carbon transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Jagger; Tim Foxon; Andy Gouldson

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a successful transition to a low carbon economy, in the UK and other countries, will require sufficient people with appropriate qualifications and skills to manufacture, install, and operate the low carbon technologies and approaches. The actual numbers and types of skills required are uncertain and will depend on the speed and direction of the transition pathways, but there are

  18. Thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chungyoon Chun; Akihiro Tamura

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces. This topic investigates thermal comfort during walking activities through transitional spaces-urban corridors, shopping streets, and open-ended passageways. The study involves a field study and a laboratory study with a sequenced walk through an environmental control chamber. Subjects in both studies wore the same clothing ensembles, walked the same speed, and

  19. Youth in Transition: Are They Adult Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Lester H.; Conti, Gary J.; Shaw, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Since at-risk youth are in transition to adulthood, major adult learning concepts can be applied to them. The purpose of this study was to describe the learning strategies of youth in transition to adulthood in the urban life skills program of A Pocket Full of Hope®. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting methods were used. Assessing…

  20. Electrically driven phase transition in magnetite nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungbae; Fursina, Alexandra; Mayo, John T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Colvin, Vicki L; Sofin, R G Sumesh; Shvets, Igor V; Natelson, Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4), an archetypal transition-metal oxide, has been used for thousands of years, from lodestones in primitive compasses to a candidate material for magnetoelectronic devices. In 1939, Verwey found that bulk magnetite undergoes a transition at TV approximately 120 K from a high-temperature 'bad metal' conducting phase to a low-temperature insulating phase. He suggested that high-temperature conduction is through the fluctuating and correlated valences of the octahedral iron atoms, and that the transition is the onset of charge ordering on cooling. The Verwey transition mechanism and the question of charge ordering remain highly controversial. Here, we show that magnetite nanocrystals and single-crystal thin films exhibit an electrically driven phase transition below the Verwey temperature. The signature of this transition is the onset of sharp conductance switching in high electric fields, hysteretic in voltage. We demonstrate that this transition is not due to local heating, but instead is due to the breakdown of the correlated insulating state when driven out of equilibrium by electrical bias. We anticipate that further studies of this newly observed transition and its low-temperature conducting phase will shed light on how charge ordering and vibrational degrees of freedom determine the ground state of this important compound. PMID:18084295

  1. TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, B.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) is a NASA Small-Explorer (SMEX) satellite developed to study the impact of magnetic fields on the solar outer atmosphere. The instrument observes the solar surface (SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE) and the hotter overlying domains (TRANSITION REGION and CORONA) with an angular resolution of 1 arcsec, equivalent to 725 km on the Sun, an average cadence of about...

  2. Determinants of Enterprise Performance during Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan A. Bevan; Saul Estrin; Mark E. Schaffer

    1999-01-01

    This paper takes the form of a comparative study of the body of research upon enterprise performance and restructuring in established market economies and transition economies (TEs). We firstly examine issues related to empirical studies of enterprise performance and restructuring, including the influence of historical cost accounting, reverse causality, sample selection bias and transition specific factors. Subsequent analysis is sub-divided

  3. Branding and Bricolage. Gender, Consumption and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…

  4. A Hamiltonian analogue of the meandering transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Wul

    In this paper a Hamiltonian analogue of the well-known meandering transition from rotating waves to modulated rotating and modulated travelling waves in systems with the Euclidean symmetry of the plane is presented. In non-Hamiltonian systems, for example in spiral wave dynamics, this transition is a Hopf bifurcation in a corotating frame, as external parameters are varied, and modulated traveling waves

  5. Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System

    E-print Network

    A. Leviatan

    2006-12-05

    A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.

  6. A Conceptual Model for Leadership Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of leadership transition based on an integrative review of literature. The article establishes a compelling case for focusing on leadership transitions as an area for study and leadership development practitioner intervention. The proposed model in this study identifies important success factors…

  7. Women in Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bystydzienski, Jill M., Ed.; Resnik, Estelle P., Ed.

    This series of 14 essays focuses on experiences of women who have made cross-cultural transitions. Cross-cultural transitions refer to moving across cultures, usually from one country to another or across subcultures within one society. The essays document what individual women perceived, how they felt when in the process of moving from one…

  8. Dynamic transitions of surface tension driven convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Henk; Sengul, Taylan; Wang, Shouhong

    2013-03-01

    We study the well-posedness and dynamic transitions of the surface tension driven convection in a three-dimensional (3D) rectangular box with non-deformable upper surface and with free-slip boundary conditions. It is shown that as the Marangoni number crosses the critical threshold, the system always undergoes a dynamic transition. In particular, two different scenarios are studied. In the first scenario, a single mode losing its stability at the critical parameter gives rise to either a Type-I (continuous) or a Type-II (jump) transition. The type of transition is dictated by the sign of a computable non-dimensional parameter, and the numerical computation of this parameter suggests that a Type-I transition is favorable. The second scenario deals with the case where the geometry of the domain allows two critical modes which possibly characterize a hexagonal pattern. In this case we show that the transition can only be either a Type-II or a Type-III (mixed) transition depending on another computable non-dimensional parameter. We only encountered Type-III transitions in our numerical calculations. The second part of the paper deals with the well-posedness and existence of global attractors for the problem.

  9. Viability of Modern Automated Rapid Transit Applications

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    guideway: elevated, underground, at grade · Fully automated: electric-powered, electronic controls · Non project that more fully addresses concerns and benefits · Need for securing a combination of private to Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) Primary Features of ART: · Automation · Fast service · Transit advantage

  10. Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition A diploma thesis in physics submitted and stabilization of a new fiber laser system to ma- nipulate the Barium quadrupolar transition, with the aim with a single Barium ion trapped in a linear Paul trap and Doppler cooled to the Lamb Dicke regime. The narrow

  11. Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Brainerd

    1998-01-01

    The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

  12. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  13. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  14. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  15. Financial Management for Transit: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaselden, Mark; And Others

    This handbook is primarily intended to serve as a primer for transit system managers who have not had any formal financial education through college classes, professional development programs, or extensive on-the-job programs. The following topics are covered: financial planning techniques for transit (beginning the financial planning process,…

  16. Clinical and technological transition in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poortmans, Philip; Marsiglia, Hugo; De las Heras, Manuel; Algara, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This article is a summary of the conference “Clinical and technological transition in breast cancer” that took place in the Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology, placed in Vigo (Spain) on June 21, 2013. Hugo Marsiglia and Philip Poortmanns were the speakers, the first discussed about “Clinical and technological transition” and the second about “EORTC clinical trials and protocols”. PMID:24416578

  17. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2009-08-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A recent explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 37 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  18. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A continuing explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 45 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  19. Electronic Structures of Transition-Metal Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Orgel

    1955-01-01

    The empirically determined values of the parameter Dq, which in transition-metal complexes, measure the influence of the ligands on the metal d-orbitals are interpreted theoretically. A quantitative treatment of ``the magnetic criterion of the bond type,'' is given. Values of Slater-Condon parameters for transition metal ions are tabulated.

  20. Schooling and the Development of Transitive Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Lavee; Cahan, Sorel

    1993-01-01

    A total of 10,785 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in Hebrew-language elementary schools in Jerusalem were given a written test that assessed their understanding of transitive syllogisms. Analyses indicated that the effect of schooling on children's understanding of transitive inference was larger than the effect of age. (MDM)

  1. The Transition out of High School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Cullen; T. Baranowski

    1996-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify increased cancer risk behaviors during the transition out of high school.Low intakes of fruits and vegetables (F&V) are related to increased cancer risk Little research has focused on dietary behavior in the transition out of high school (HS), when diet is likely to change due to changes in school status, employment, living arrangements, income, and marital

  2. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-print Network

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK 4Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR years, the prevailing model of epidermal homeostasis has been that epidermal stem cells give rise

  3. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  4. Transitions in Midlife Women's Lives: Contemporary Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie S. Dare

    2011-01-01

    In this article I report on a research project conducted in Perth, Western Australia, which investigated how contemporary women experience physiological and psychosocial midlife transitions. Qualitative in-depth interviews explored the challenges confronting women during this period. In doing so, continuities and divergences that exist between existing literature on midlife transitions and women's own perspectives are highlighted. Based on key findings,

  5. TRANSIT OF MERCURY PREPARING FOR VENUS

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    TRANSIT OF MERCURY PREPARING FOR VENUS Günther Wuchterl, MPE #12;2003 Preparations · ESA/SOHO; mirrors · Media-warmup: Evening vis., LASCO #12;Mercury approaching Transit: SOHO/LASCO C3 Mercury #12" #12;SOHO ­ the movie SOHO ---- the movie Quicktime, made available via ftp, since ESA-TV satellite

  6. 6, 21612177, 2012 Transition in the

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    incident20 sunlight, melt ponds absorb most of it. As melting increases so does solar absorp- tion, whichTCD 6, 2161­2177, 2012 Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds C. Hohenegger et al if available. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds C. Hohenegger1 , B. Alali1 , K. R

  7. Improving High School Transition with CAT Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geltner, Jill; Law, Brian; Forehand, Amanda; Miles, Dinah Amber

    2011-01-01

    Transition to a new school for adolescent students can be challenging. Students who have difficulty navigating the transition to ninth grade are at an increased disadvantage academically and personally. Even students who approach the move with excitement often have unrealistic expectations of what is necessary for success. Overall, those who do…

  8. Changes and Exchanges in Marginal Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrell, Dorothy; Armstrong, Derrick

    2007-01-01

    While some groups of young people may negotiate successful transitions to work, others are unable or unlikely to do so. The concept of "fair exchange" is pertinent to understanding youth transitions in their formative stages through educational experiences. Patterns of disrupted education challenge the education-work nexus not only because failure…

  9. Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

  10. UTD multiple-edge transition zone diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bach Andersen

    1997-01-01

    The uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) is applied to multiple absorbing screens, which are in the transition zones near shadow boundaries. The theory includes the application of slope diffraction, which is a first-order effect in transition zone diffraction. By choosing length parameters independently for amplitude and slope diffraction, it is ensured that the solution has continuity of amplitude and slope

  11. Transit polarimetry of exoplanetary system HD189733

    E-print Network

    Kostogryz, N M; Yakobchuk, T M

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss a polarimetric effect caused by a planet transiting the stellar disk thus breaking the symmetry of the light distribution and resulting in linear polarization of the partially eclipsed star. Estimates of this effect for transiting planets have been made only recently. In particular, we demonstrate that the maximum polarization during transits depends strongly on the centre-to-limb variation of the linear polarization of the host star. However, observational and theoretical studies of the limb polarization have largely concentrated on the Sun. Here we solve the radiative transfer problem for polarized light and calculate the centre-to-limb polarization for one of the brightest transiting planet host HD189733 taking into account various opacities. Using that we simulate the transit effect and estimate the variations of the flux and the linear polarization for HD189733 during the event. As the spots on the stellar disk also break the limb polarization symmetry we simulate the flux and pola...

  12. Transitioning safely from intravenous to subcutaneous insulin.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Kathryn Evans; Lien, Lillian F

    2015-05-01

    The transition from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SQ) insulin in the hospitalized patient with diabetes or hyperglycemia is a key step in patient care. This review article suggests a stepwise approach to the transition in order to promote safety and euglycemia. Important components of the transition include evaluating the patient and clinical situation for appropriateness, recognizing factors that influence a safe transition, calculation of proper SQ insulin doses, and deciding the appropriate type of SQ insulin. This article addresses other clinical situations including the management of patients previously on insulin pumps and recommendations for patients requiring glucocorticoids and enteral tube feedings. The use of institutional and computerized protocols is discussed. Further research is needed regarding the transition management of subgroups of patients such as those with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease. PMID:25772640

  13. Detection of Terrestrial Planets Using Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Boruci, William; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Transit photometry detection of planets offers many advantages: an ability to detect terrestrial size planets, direct determination of the planet's size, applicability to all main-sequence stars, and a differential brightness change of the periodic signature being independent of stellar distance or planetary orbital semi-major axis. Ground and space based photometry have already been successful in detecting transits of the giant planet HD209458b. However, photometry 100 times better is required to detect terrestrial planets. We present results of laboratory measurements of an end-to-end photometric system incorporating all of the important confounding noise features of both the sky and a space based photometer including spacecraft jitter. In addition to demonstrating an instrumental noise of less than 10 ppm (an Earth transit of a solar-like star is 80 ppm), the brightnesses of individual stars were dimmed to simulate Earth-size transit signals. These 'transits' were reliably detected as part of the tests.

  14. Transitions in the quantum computational power

    E-print Network

    Tzu-Chieh Wei; Ying Li; Leong Chuan Kwek

    2014-05-16

    We construct two spin models on lattices (both two and three-dimensional) to study the capability of quantum computational power as a function of temperature and the system parameter. There exists a finite region in the phase diagram such that the thermal equilibrium states are capable of providing a universal fault-tolerant resource for measurement-based quantum computation. Moreover, in such a region the thermal resource states on the 3D lattices can enable topological protection for quantum computation. The two models behave similarly in terms of quantum computational power. However, they have different properties in terms of the usual phase transitions. The first model has a first-order phase transition only at zero temperature whereas there is no transition at all in the second model. Interestingly, the transition in the quantum computational power does not coincide with the phase transition in the first model.

  15. Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Peter, E-mail: peter.reininger@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarz, Benedikt; Detz, Hermann; MacFarland, Don; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Baumgartner, Oskar; Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the concept of diagonal transitions for quantum cascade detectors (QCD). Different to standard, vertical QCDs, here the active transition takes place between two energy levels in adjacent wells. Such a scheme has versatile advantages. Diagonal transitions generally yield a higher extraction efficiency and a higher resistance than vertical transitions. This leads to an improved overall performance, although the absorption strength of the active transition is smaller. Since the extraction is not based on resonant tunneling, the design is more robust, with respect to deviations from the nominal structure. In a first approach, a peak responsivity of 16.9?mA/W could be achieved, which is an improvement to the highest shown responsivity of a QCD for a wavelength of 8??m at room-temperature by almost an order of magnitude.

  16. Thermomechanical transitions of egg-ceramide monolayers.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Elisa R; Lillo, M P; García Rodríguez, C; Natale, P; Langevin, D; Monroy, F; López-Montero, I

    2015-04-01

    Ceramides have unique biophysical properties. Their high melting temperature and their ability to form lateral domains have converted ceramides into the paradigm of rigid lipids. Here, using shear surface rheology of egg-ceramide Langmuir monolayers, a solid to fluid transition was evidenced as a vanishing shear rigidity at lower temperatures than the lipid melting temperature. Such a mechanical transition, which depends on the lipid lateral pressure, was found in a broad range temperature (40-50 °C). The solid to fluid transition was correlated to a LC to LC+LE phase transition, as confirmed by BAM experiments. Interestingly, together with the softening transition, a supercooling process compatible with a glassy behavior was found upon freezing. A new phase scenario is then depicted that broadens the mechanical behavior of natural ceramides. The phase diversity of ceramides might have important implications in their physiological roles. PMID:25763506

  17. Cardiovascular Admissions, Readmissions, and Transitions of Care

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anna Marie; Rising, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Hospital 30-day readmissions have become a major priority for hospitals. Hospitals face penalties for excessive readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). Thus, it is important for hospitals to understand the transitions of care that occur for both of these conditions, and what tools are available to guide the processes involved. A multi-disciplinary team including Emergency Medical Service providers, Emergency Medicine providers, cardiologists, hospitalists, pharmacists, nurses, case managers, and outpatient physicians can all be involved in the process of safely transitioning a patient between care settings. Small-scale studies in the geriatric population have shown improved transitions of care and decreased readmissions with these care teams. The emergency department is a key transition point for patients with AMI and HF, yet it is rarely identified and utilized as such in transitions of care interventions. Future research and implementation projects will need to refine and expand the role of the emergency department in the process. PMID:24678446

  18. First-Order Dynamical Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovi, Elena; Werner, Philipp; Eckstein, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Recently, dynamical phase transitions have been identified based on the nonanalytic behavior of the Loschmidt echo in the thermodynamic limit [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. By introducing conditional probability amplitudes, we show how dynamical phase transitions can be further classified, both mathematically, and potentially in experiment. This leads to the definition of first-order dynamical phase transitions. Furthermore, we develop a generalized Keldysh formalism which allows us to use nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to study the Loschmidt echo and dynamical phase transitions in high-dimensional, nonintegrable models. We find dynamical phase transitions of first order in the Falicov-Kimball model and in the Hubbard model.

  19. Theory of conformational transitions of viral shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2007-12-01

    We propose a continuum theory for the conformational transitions of viral shells. Conformational transitions of viral shells, as encountered during viral maturation, are associated with a soft mode instability of the capsid proteins [F. Tama and C. L. Brooks, J. Mol. Biol. 345(2), 299 (2005)]. The continuum theory presented here is an adaptation of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of soft-mode structural phase transitions of solids to viral shells. The theory predicts that the conformational transitions are characterized by a pronounced softening of the shell elasticity in the critical region. We demonstrate that the thermodynamics of the conformational transition can be probed quantitatively by a micromechanical atomic force microscope study. The external force can drive a capsid into a state of phase coexistence characterized by a highly nonlinear force deformation curve.

  20. Structural transitions in nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Mina

    In this work I investigate three different materials: nanoscale carbon systems, ferrofluid systems, and molecular-electronic devices. In particular, my study is focused on the theoretical understanding of structural changes and the associated electronic, mechanical, and magnetic properties of these materials. To study the equilibrium packing of fullerenes in carbon nanotube peapods optimization techniques were applied. In agreement with experimental measurements, my results for nanotubes containing fullerenes with 60--84 atoms indicate that the axial separation between the fullerenes is smaller than in the bulk crystal. The reduction of the inter-fullerene distance and also the structural relaxation of fullerenes result from a large internal pressure within the peapods. This naturally induced "static" pressure may qualify nanotubes as nanoscale autoclaves for chemical reactions. Combining total energy calculations with a search of phase space, I investigated the microscopic fusion mechanism of C60 fullerenes. I show that the (2+2) cycloaddition reaction, a necessary precursor for fullerene fusion, can be accelerated inside a nanotube. Fusion occurs along the minimum energy path as a finite sequence of Stone-Wales (SW) transformations. A detailed analysis of the transition states shows that Stone-Wales transformations are multi-step processes. I propose a new microscopic mechanism to explain the unusually fast fusion process of carbon nanotubes. The detailed pathway for two adjacent (5, 5) nanotubes to gradually merge into a (10, 10) tube, and the transition states have been identified. The propagation of the fused region is energetically favorable and proceeds in a morphology reminiscent of a Y-junction via a so called zipper mechanism, involving only SW bond rearrangements with low activation barriers. Using density functional theory, the equilibrium structure, stability, and electronic properties of nanostructured, hydrogen terminated diamond fragments have been studied. Such diamondoids can enter spontaneously into carbon nanotubes where polymerization of diamondoids is favourable. I studied the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, modeling a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. These structural changes depend on external parameters and result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be described analytically within a continuum approximation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Chiral phase transition in lattice QCD as a metal-insulator transition

    E-print Network

    Antonio M. Garcia-Garcia; James C. Osborn

    2007-03-09

    We investigate the lattice QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions at temperatures around the chiral phase transition. We present evidence of a metal-insulator transition in the low lying modes of the Dirac operator around the same temperature as the chiral phase transition. This strongly suggests the phenomenon of Anderson localization drives the QCD vacuum to the chirally symmetric phase in a way similar to a metal-insulator transition in a disordered conductor. We also discuss how Anderson localization affects the usual phenomenological treatment of phase transitions a la Ginzburg-Landau.

  2. New graduate nurses in transition: a review of transition programmes and transition experiences within mental health care.

    PubMed

    Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2014-12-01

    Research on experiences of transition into mental health-care roles seems sparse, but it is vital in order to produce a comprehensive understanding of the transition into mental health-care roles and to serve as a foundation for future research and development. The aim of the present study was to review existing research literature, and in doing so, investigate transition programmes for new graduate nurses (NGN) into mental health care, and their experiences of role transition and evaluations of participation in transition programmes. The literature review spans literature published after the year 2000. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Pubmed. Search results consisting of 14 articles were analysed using thematic analysis. Results from the analysis showed four overall themes: nursing education, transition programmes and evaluations, working environment, and the NGN role. We conclude that it is not possible to produce a comprehensive understanding specifically concerning the transition programmes for NGN into mental health care, and that further research is necessary due to the limitations of this review. PMID:25606623

  3. Transit-Oriented Communities: a Blueprint for Bellingham, WA.

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    1 Transit-Oriented Communities: a Blueprint for Bellingham, WA. 2011 Urban Transitions Studio (UTS) March 10, 2011 #12;2 1.0 Introduction March 10, 2011 2011 Urban Transitions Studio (UTS) Transit's Urban Transitions Studio project by examining redevelopment opportunities for six locations

  4. Evolutionary transitions in parental care and live bearing in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Reynolds; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Robert P. Freckleton

    2002-01-01

    We provide the é rst review of phylogenetic transitions in parental care and live bearing for a wide variety of vertebrates. This includes new analyses of both numbers of transitions and transition probabilities. These reveal numerous transitions by shorebirds and anurans toward uniparental care by either sex. Whereas most or all of the shorebird transitions were from biparental care, nearly

  5. I -3 Structure interne de la Terre Transition Ol

    E-print Network

    Grigné, Cécile

    I - 3 Structure interne de la Terre · Transition Ol 410 -- Ol : - pente de Clapeyron "dP dT " 410 positive - transition exothermique · Transition Ol 660 -- Ol : - pente de Clapeyron "dP dT " 660 négative Ol 410 -- Ol : - pente de Clapeyron "dP dT " 410 positive - transition exothermique · Transition Ol

  6. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  7. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  8. Piperazine pivoted transition metal dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sadaf; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Siddiqi, K. S.

    2008-03-01

    A quadridentate ligand disodium bis(2,2'-dithiopiperazinato-2,2'-diamino diethylamine) Na 2L 2 and its self assembled transition metal complexes of the type, M 2(L 2) 2 {M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)} have been reported. The piperazine pivoted homodinuclear complexes have been characterized by a range of spectral, thermal, microanalytical and conductometric techniques. On the basis of IR and 1HNMR data a symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the cases. The TGA profile of the ligand exhibits two stage thermolytic pattern although the complexes decompose in three steps, respectively. Metal sulfide is found to be the end product. The formation of homodinuclear complexes has been ascertained on the basis of FAB mass spectral data and a probable fragmentation pattern has been proposed. On the basis of UV-visible spectroscopic results and room temperature magnetic moment data a tetrahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes except for the Ni(II) and Cu(II) which are found to be square-planar.

  9. Los Angeles Mass Transit Strike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beginning on Saturday, September 16, 2000, the drivers of the Los Angeles city buses launched a strike, stopping the 2,000 buses, subway, and rail lines that cover the 1,400 square miles of Los Angeles County, and stranding nearly half a million bus riders. The 4,300 members of the United Transportation Union (UTU) are on strike over wages and overtime. The Mass Transit Authority (MTA) of Los Angeles will face a $438 million deficit by 2010 if it does not manage to cut costs. Rather than raise fares, the MTA suggested cutting the cost of drivers's overtime pay by fifteen percent over the next three years, for a saving of $23 million. To do this, the MTA proposed that 400 drivers accept a four-day-a-week work schedule, in which they would be on duty twelve hours a day, but would only be paid for ten hours. Overtime would start only after twelve hours. The strike has already proven itself difficult for the people of Los Angeles. Traffic increased nearly five percent, and those Los Angelenos who depend on public transportation to get to work and school, have been forced to walk, carpool, or ride bikes. According to the MTA, 68 percent of MTA riders have household incomes under $15,000 a year. Talks between the UTU and the MTA were to have resumed on Tuesday morning.

  10. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  11. Student-Directed Transition Planning: Increasing Student Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in the Transition Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in transition IEP…

  12. Game Theory and Topological Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Tieyan Si

    2008-03-29

    Phase transition is a war game. It widely exists in different kinds of complex system beyond physics. Where there is revolution, there is phase transition. The renormalization group transformation, which was proved to be a powerful tool to study the critical phenomena, is actually a game process. The phase boundary between the old phase and new phase is the outcome of many rounds of negotiation between the old force and new force. The order of phase transition is determined by the cutoff of renormalization group transformation. This definition unified Ehrenfest's definition of phase transition in thermodynamic physics. If the strategy manifold has nontrivial topology, the topological relation would put a constrain on the surviving strategies, the transition occurred under this constrain may be called a topological one. If the strategy manifold is open and noncompact, phase transition is simply a game process, there is no table for topology. An universal phase coexistence equation is found, it sits at the Nash equilibrium point. Inspired by the fractal space structure demonstrated by renormalization group theory, a conjecture is proposed that the universal scaling law of a general phase transition in a complex system comes from the coexistence equation around Nash equilibrium point. Game theory also provide us new understanding to pairing mechanism and entanglement in many body physics.

  13. Shape phase transitions and critical points

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei and INFN, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-05-04

    We investigate different aspects connected with shape phase transitions in nuclei and the possible occurrence of dynamical symmetries at the critical points. We discuss in particular the behaviour of the neighbour odd nuclei at the vicinity of the critical points in the even nuclei. We consider both the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the gamma-unstable deformation (characterized within the collective Bohr hamiltonian by the E(5) critical point symmetry) and the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation (characterized by the X(5) symmetry). The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2, a set of orbitals that is known to lead to possible supersymmetric cases. The coupling of the odd particle to the Bohr hamiltonian does lead in fact in the former case at the critical point to the E(5/12) boson-fermion dynamical symmetry. An alternative approach to the two shape transitions is based on the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. In this case suitably parametrized boson-fermion hamiltonians can describe the evolution of the odd system along the shape transitions. At the critical points both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions were found to display characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The behaviour of the odd nuclei can therefore be seen as necessary complementary signatures of the occurrence of the phase transitions.

  14. Simplified lattice model for polypeptide fibrillar transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xuhui; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2014-10-01

    Polypeptide fibrillar transitions are studied using a simplified lattice model, modified from the three-state Potts model, where uniform residues as spins, placed on a cubic lattice, can interact with neighbors to form coil, helical, sheet, or fibrillar structure. Using the transfer matrix method and numerical calculations, we analyzed the partition function and construct phase diagrams. The model manifests phase transitions among coil, helix, sheet, and fibril through parameterizing bond coupling energy ?h,?s,?f, structural entropies sh,ss,sf of helical, sheet, and fibrillar states, and number density ?. The phase diagrams show the transition sequence is basically governed by ?h, ?s, and ?f, while the transition temperature is determined by the competition among ?h, ?s, and ?f, as well as sh, ss, sf, and ?. Furthermore, the fibrillation is accompanied with an abrupt phase transition from coil, helix, or sheet to fibril even for short polypeptide length, resembling the feature of nucleation-growth process. The finite-size effect in specific heat at transitions for the nonfibrillation case can be described by the scaling form of lattice model. With rich phase-transition properties, our model provides a useful reference for protein aggregation experiments and modeling.

  15. Overview of escalator applications in rail transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G.; Rubenstein, L.

    1980-01-01

    The difference in operating environment and in construction between escalators in transit and nontransit use, the impact of recent escalator innovations, and areas which could benefit from urban mass transportation administration sponsored research and development are determined. Several factors causing a more severe transit escalator operating environment are identified. There are no significant design differences between transit and nontransit escalators. Recent innovations that have affected performance and cost include outdoor escalators, extra flat steps at both landings, and modular escalators. Data were collected by interviews at transit agencies. Long term, unscheduled, escalator maintenance records were available for analysis from one property. A description of escalator operating principles is provided. Transit represents less than 5% of the U.S. escalator market. Transit agencies have limited leverage on escalator industry practices. A substantial impact on transit escalator cost and performance can be achieved by research identifying when and how to apply and specify several of the more recent innovations. Purchase of escalators under long term (25 year) maintenance contracts is one method that has been used to promote escalators manufactured for minimum life cycle cost.

  16. An Institutional Approach to Understanding Energy Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Auriane Magdalena

    Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will contribute to our understanding of how energy transitions at different scales can be accomplished in developing countries and what it takes for innovation to spread in a society.

  17. Declarative Memory, Awareness, and Transitive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic usually attributed to declarative memory is that what is learned is accessible to awareness. Recently, the relationship between awareness and declarative (hippocampus-dependent) memory has been questioned on the basis of findings from transitive inference tasks. In transitive inference, participants are first trained on overlapping pairs of items (e.g., A+B?, B+C?, C+D?, and D+E?, where + and ? indicate correct and incorrect choices). Later, participants who choose B over D when presented with the novel pair BD are said to demonstrate transitive inference. The ability to exhibit transitive inference is thought to depend on the fact that participants have represented the stimulus elements hierarchically (i.e., A>B>C>D>E). We found that performance on five-item and six-item transitive inference tasks was closely related to awareness of the hierarchical relationship among the elements of the training pairs. Participants who were aware of the hierarchy performed near 100% correct on all tests of transitivity, but participants who were unaware of the hierarchy performed poorly (e.g., on transitive pair BD in the five-item problem; on transitive pairs BD, BE, and CE in the six-item problem). When the five-item task was administered to memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region, the patients were impaired at learning the training pairs. All patients were unaware of the hierarchy and, like unaware controls, performed poorly on the BD pair. The findings indicate that awareness is critical for robust performance on tests of transitive inference and support the view that awareness of what is learned is a fundamental characteristic of declarative memory. PMID:16267221

  18. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51.1268 Agriculture...Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other...

  19. Matrix to Identify Candidate Rural Transit Livability Measures Performance Measure

    E-print Network

    Matrix to Identify Candidate Rural Transit Livability Measures Performance Measure Restated? Ease of Calculation? Transit Can Influence Measure Directly? Helps Identify Deficiencies In Level Of Transit Service? Measure With Existing Planning Tools? Includes Needs Of Aging And Disabled Rural

  20. 19 CFR 123.31 - Merchandise in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Merchandise in transit. 123.31 Section 123.31 Customs...WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.31 Merchandise in transit. (a) From one contiguous...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51.1268 Agriculture...Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51.1268 Agriculture...Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other...

  3. 49 CFR 1.51 - Delegations to Federal Transit Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Delegations to Federal Transit Administrator. 1.51 Section 1.51 ...Delegations § 1.51 Delegations to Federal Transit Administrator. The Federal Transit Administrator is delegated authority to...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51.1309 Agriculture...Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other...

  5. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...

  6. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...

  7. 49 CFR 1.90 - The Federal Transit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false The Federal Transit Administration. 1.90 Section 1...Administrations § 1.90 The Federal Transit Administration. Is responsible for...encouraging domestic manufacturing on transit projects through the enforcement of...

  8. 9 CFR 104.6 - Products for transit shipment only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Products for transit shipment only. 104.6 Section 104...BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.6 Products for transit shipment only. An application for a permit for Transit Shipment Only shall be required...

  9. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...

  10. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...

  11. 9 CFR 104.6 - Products for transit shipment only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Products for transit shipment only. 104.6 Section 104...BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.6 Products for transit shipment only. An application for a permit for Transit Shipment Only shall be required...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51.1309 Agriculture...Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other...

  13. 19 CFR 123.31 - Merchandise in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Merchandise in transit. 123.31 Section 123.31 Customs...WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.31 Merchandise in transit. (a) From one contiguous...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51.1309 Agriculture...Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other...

  15. 49 CFR 1.90 - The Federal Transit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false The Federal Transit Administration. 1.90 Section 1...Administrations § 1.90 The Federal Transit Administration. Is responsible for...encouraging domestic manufacturing on transit projects through the enforcement of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51.1268 Agriculture...Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51.1309 Agriculture...Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other...

  18. 9 CFR 104.6 - Products for transit shipment only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Products for transit shipment only. 104.6 Section 104...BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.6 Products for transit shipment only. An application for a permit for Transit Shipment Only shall be required...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51.1309 Agriculture...Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other...

  20. 7 CFR 322.24 - Packaging of transit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322...BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit of Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...