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1

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Aerial Parts of Costus speciosus Koen  

PubMed Central

In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165

Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.

2013-01-01

2

Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm  

PubMed Central

Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm (Costaceae) is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin) from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 ?g/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. ?g/ml against T. simii, 31.25 ?g/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 ?g/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 ?g/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 ?g/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 ?g/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 ?g/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 ?g/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity. PMID:22397713

2012-01-01

3

Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus  

PubMed Central

Objective: Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger), an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS) in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm). Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. Conclusion: The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties. PMID:23326092

Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, Keshri K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, Sourabh; Khosa, Ratan L.

2012-01-01

4

Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.  

PubMed

The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

2002-10-01

5

NUMEROS CROMOSOMICOS DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE COSTUS (COSTACEAE), UNA DE CALATHEA, UNA DE MARANTA Y UNA DE STROMANTHE (MARANTACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome counts of the following species were done: Costus pictus, C. scaber and C. pulverulentus all have 2n = 18; Costus dirzoi 2n = 27, 28; Calathea ovandensis 2n = 25; Maranta gibba 2n = 40 and Stromanthe macrochlamys 2n = ca. 60, ca. 63. Observations on Costus lead us to consider the probable existence of a polyploid series, with

ANDREW P. VOVIDES; MAITE LASCURAIN

1995-01-01

6

Agent Programming with Temporally Extended Goals Koen V. Hindriks  

E-print Network

as the traditional notion of achievement goal does, and provide for more variety in the types of goals allowed, while in most earlier approaches the focus was on achievement goals (goals to reach a certain state137 Agent Programming with Temporally Extended Goals Koen V. Hindriks Delft University

van der Hoek, Wiebe

7

Scientific Coordination Prof. dr. ir. Koen De Bosschere  

E-print Network

Scientific Coordination Prof. dr. ir. Koen De Bosschere Department of Electronics, Parallel Information Systems Group, Ghent University Prof. dr. ir. Bart Dhoedt Department of Information Technology Module 4: Software quality improvement Part III: Databases Module 1: Databases, data models and database

8

STATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dniel Margcsy  

E-print Network

of commercial and state secrets in scientific practice. Despite some qualifications about the practical needSTATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dániel Margócsy to appear in the British and Justified and Hermetic Order of little men who think they can reap the secrets of the ancients for a couple

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

A Novel Hemagglutinin with Antiproliferative Activity against Tumor Cells from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Boletus speciosus  

PubMed Central

Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31?kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100?mM NaOH and 25?mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25?mM?Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7??M and 7.0??M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1??M. PMID:24977148

Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

2014-01-01

10

A novel hemagglutinin with antiproliferative activity against tumor cells from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus.  

PubMed

Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31 kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100 mM NaOH and 25 mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25 mM?Hg(2+) and slightly inhibited by Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Pb(2+). None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7 ? M and 7.0 ? M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1 ? M. PMID:24977148

Sun, Jian; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

2014-01-01

11

Anti-inflammatory potential of ?-amyrin, a triterpenoid isolated from Costus igneus.  

PubMed

Costus igneus, common name Fiery Costus or Spiral Flag, is a species of herbaceous plant in the Costaceae family. It is cultivated in India for its use in traditional medicine especially for diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of ?-amyrin isolated from the leaves of Costus igneus (C. igneus) using carrageenan-induced rat model and LPS-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in vitro model. The differential fractionation of leaves of Costus igneus showed maximum percentage inhibition of paw edema at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in methanolic extract (MEC). MEC elicited significant anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in monocytes when compared to carrageenan control. The effect of MEC was more pronounced than standard drug Diclofenac (20 mg/kg body weight). After fractionation of MEC using various solvents such as chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of chloroform extract (CEC) of MEC was evaluated since it showed maximum beneficial effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW Treatment of carrageenan-induced rats with CEC exerted significantly decreased COX-2, MPO, and NOS activities when compared to carrageenan-induced rats. By the partial purification of CEC by liquid-liquid partition chromatography, TLC, mass, IR and NMR spectroscopy, the active component ?-amyrin was isolated. Significant decrease in edema was observed by the administration of ?-amyrin in a dose-dependent manner and 100 µg of ?-amyrin showed 97 % in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Treatment with ?-amyrin significantly inhibited PGE2, IL-6 secretion, and NF-?B activation in a concentration-dependent manner on LPS-induced hPBMCs. Thus, ?-amyrin, an active component isolated from C. igneus, serves as a promising and expanding platform for treatment of various inflammatory disorders. PMID:25300965

Krishnan, Kripa; Mathew, Limi Elizabeth; Vijayalakshmi, N R; Helen, A

2014-12-01

12

Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

13

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF LUPEOL AND STIGMASTEROL IN COSTUS IGNEUS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present work, simultaneous quantitative estimation of two biologically active triterpenoid compound Lupeol and a steroid compound Stigmasterol, in Costus igneus stems was performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica-gel 60 F254(20 cm × 10 cm) were used with a mobile phase of n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate (80:20v\\/v) for lupeol, Toluene: Acetone: Acetic acid (8.9: 0.9: 0.2 v\\/v\\/v) for stigmasterol and densitometric

K. Manjula; K. Rajendran; T. Eevera; S. Kumaran

2012-01-01

14

Resource Discovery with Dynamic Matchmakers in Ad Hoc Grid Tariq Abdullah, Lotfi Mhamdi, Behnaz Pourebrahimi, Koen Bertels  

E-print Network

Resource Discovery with Dynamic Matchmakers in Ad Hoc Grid Tariq Abdullah, Lotfi Mhamdi, Behnaz, The Netherlands {tariq, lotfi, behnaz, koen}@ce.et.tudelft.nl Abstract Nodes in an ad hoc grid are characterized

Kuzmanov, Georgi

15

The acute and subchronic toxicity studies of aqueous leaf and stem bark extract of Costus afer ker (Zingiberaceae) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of aqeous stem bark and leaf extract of Costus afer ker (Zingiberaceae). This plant is used extensively for food, economic, and medicinal purposes in Nigeria. Acute oral toxicity\\u000a studies in male and female mice did not produce any sign of acute toxicity or death even at the dose of 4,000 mg\\/kg. Thirty-six

Samuel Chukwuneke Udem; Chukwunonso K. Ezeasor

2010-01-01

16

Cytological and biochemical studies during the progression of alloxan-induced diabetes and possible protection of an aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer.  

PubMed

Some plants have proven efficacy in the management of diabetes mellitus, of which Costus afer is one. This study was designed to evaluate the cytological and biochemical properties, and comparative ameliorating effects, of an aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl. (Costaceae) leaf and glibenclamide (GBM), in liver, kidney, and pancreatic injury induced by alloxan. Thirty male albino rats were divided into six weight-matched groups. Group one served as the negative control (non-induced and non-treated, control), while groups 2-6 were alloxan-induced diabetic groups. Group 2 served as a positive control (induced and non-treated, IC), groups 3-5 were treated with different doses of the extract (375, 750, and 1 125 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight, absolute and relative organ weights, food and fluid intake, levels of serum glucose and liver enzymes and kidney parameters were calculated and compared. Hepatocytes, renal tubules, and pancreatic cells of diabetic rats, in diabetic non-treated and treated rats were harvested and examined histopathologically. There was dose dependent amelioration on the injuries induced by alloxan on both hepatocytes, renal tubules, and pancreatic cells after treatment with Costus afer. The glucose level was reduced significantly in the Costus afer treated diabetic rats compared with the non-treated diabetic group. Costus afer leaves seem to be effective against diabetic cell injury induced in rat liver, kidney, and pancreas. PMID:25443367

Ezejiofor, Anthoneth Ndidi; Orish, Chinna Nneka; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2014-10-01

17

Geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia, Muridae), from the Izu Island Group, Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) from the Izu Island Group, Japan. There was sexual dimorphism in external characters and cranial measurements; hence, these were considered in subsequent analyses. There was geographic divergence in morphometric characters among populations of the Izu Island Group and Honshu. Mice from the Miyakejima Island and Niijima-Shikinejima Islands differed from those of other populations and from each other; Oshima Island mice also differed, but to a lesser degree. Mice from three populations from Honshu were similar to one another, and mice from Kozushima Island were more similar to those from Honshu populations than those from Izu Island Group populations. These results suggest that A. speciosus populations in the Izu Island Group may have had multiple origins. One possible hypothesis to explain these patterns of variation is that the Miyakejima, Niijima, and Shikinejima populations may share a relatively longer history of overseas dispersal, whereas the Kozushima populations may have experienced a recent invasion from Honshu via human activities. PMID:19798920

Kageyama, Mariko; Motokawa, Masaharu; Hikida, Tsutomu

2009-04-01

18

Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)  

PubMed Central

Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500??g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125??g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 ?g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5??g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125??g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

2014-01-01

19

Probing key targets in insulin signaling and adipogenesis using a methanolic extract of Costus pictus and its bioactive molecule, methyl tetracosanoate.  

PubMed

A methanolic extract of Costus pictus (CPME) showed optimum anti-diabetic activity at 100 ng/ml. Bioactivity-guided purification of CPME led to the isolation of methyl tetracosanoate (MT) which showed an optimum glucose uptake at 1 ng/ml. CPME at 10 mug/ml inhibited adipogenesis whereas fully differentiated adipocytes exhibited a 3-fold increase in lipid accumulation compared to pre-adipocytes. Gene and protein expression of key targets in insulin signaling and adipogenesis pathway revealed that CPME exhibited anti-diabetic activity along with anti-adipogenic activity whereas MT demonstrated only anti-diabetic activity. PMID:19693444

Shilpa, Kusampudi; Sangeetha, Kadapakkam Nandabalan; Muthusamy, Velusamy Shanmuganathan; Sujatha, Sundaresan; Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subadhra

2009-12-01

20

Modulation of superconductivity by a magnetic template in Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids Zhaorong Yang,* Koen Vervaeke, and Victor V. Moshchalkov  

E-print Network

Modulation of superconductivity by a magnetic template in Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids Zhaorong Yang,* Koen create a magnetic template for superconducting condensate in the Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids. Depending on the field and tempera- ture, the magnetic template guides superconductivity to nucleate in different areas

Moshchalkov, Victor V.

21

Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

22

Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ? 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney. PMID:25161323

Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2013-01-01

23

Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties  

PubMed Central

Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as “Insulin Plant” in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties through the secondary metabolite pathway annotations are reported. The data provided will be of immense help to researchers working in the treatment of DM using herbal therapies. PMID:23176672

2012-01-01

24

An Engineer's Quest for Billy V. Koen  

E-print Network

MERCEDES #12;14 Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Justice Beauty Good Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Good Plato's Engineer's #12;18 The Engineering Method (Design) Use of heuristics to cause the best

Ben-Yakar, Adela

25

IN4316 Wireless Sensor Networks Koen Langendoen  

E-print Network

computers (nodes) equipped with sensors, a microcontroller, a radio, and a power supply (bat- tery Programming Seminar 7 Systems Seminar See Blackboard for the exact schedule (time, place, location). 1 #12 themselves with each topic by reading two classic articles (see Blackboard for the exact reading list

Langendoen, Koen

26

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

2014-01-01

27

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates-RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

2014-01-01

28

Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora. PMID:19930582

2009-01-01

29

Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…

Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.

2012-01-01

30

Income Distribution and Social Security in an OECD Perspective Koen Caminada and Kees Goudswaard  

E-print Network

.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl k.p.goudswaard@law.leidenuniv.nl Leiden University Public Finance Department P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA of Economics at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Research areas: social Security at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and Crown

Galis, Frietson

31

Koen Van Waerebeek Centro Peruano de Estudios Ceto/6gicos (CEPEC)  

E-print Network

, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, was studied based on 37 standard cranial measurements and meristic variables and 28 non Africa suture is the most reliable J cranial criterion of sexual maturity: distal fusion in premaxillary and maxillary cannot be used. Sexual

32

In4073 Lab Assignment 2013-2014 Koen Langendoen (course instructor)  

E-print Network

). · The application is contemporary. Today's low-cost RC (radio controlled) model-UAVs (such as quad rotors. Professional aerial vehicles such as helicopters, most airline and fighter jets totally rely on ES

Langendoen, Koen

33

868 MHz: a noiseless environment, but no free lunch for protocol design Matthias Woehrle Martin Bor Koen Langendoen  

E-print Network

spectrum and considerable external interference, e. g., from WiFi, Bluetooth and even microwave ovens. We), Bluetooth (802.15.1) and 802.15.4 devices as well as noise from other devices such as microwave ovens868 MHz: a noiseless environment, but no free lunch for protocol design Matthias Woehrle Martin Bor

Kuzmanov, Georgi

34

LART: flexible, low-power building blocks for wearable computers Jan-Derk Bakker Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

and ubiquity of mobile phones with the com- putational capacity and flexibility of general-purpose com- puters, or futuristic augmented reality glasses)? What infrastructure will telecom operators provide (proprietary augmented reality terminals displaying visual information projected over and properly integrated

Kuzmanov, Georgi

35

Ecology, 85(9), 2004, pp. 25702581 2004 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

and herbivores on six of the most common plant species (Artemisia tridentata, Helianthella quinquenervis, Erig: Artemisia tridentata; CO2; Erigeron speciosus; climate change; global warming; Helianthella quinquenervis

Oregon, University of

36

Abiotic and biotic factors affecting nonrandom distributions of Chihuahuan Desert anurans.  

E-print Network

??Distributions of Texas toad (Bufo speciosus), Couch's spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus couchii), narrow mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea), red spotted toad (Bufo punctatus), and western green toad… (more)

Dayton, Gage Hart

2012-01-01

37

Australian Sea Levels Trends, Regional Variability and Influencing Factors Neil J. White, Ivan D. Haigh, John A. Church, Terry Koen, Christopher  

E-print Network

and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Neil.White@csiro.au, John.Church@csiro.au, Kathleen.Watson@environment.nsw.gov.au 5 School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 76 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. 7001

Tregoning, Paul

38

The influence of dikegulac sodium on growth of Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly'  

E-print Network

shown increased branching after application of dikegulac include Aeschynanthus hildebrandii, A. speciosus (Adriansen and Andersen, 1983a and 1983b) and Columnea microphylla (Lyons and Hale, 1987). Shoots developing after dikegulac treatment usually...

Womack, William Michael

2012-06-07

39

Pattern formation in crystal growth under parabolic shear flow. II Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan  

E-print Network

the surface of icicles or inclined plane. In a previous paper [K. Ueno, Phys. Rev. E 68, 021603 (2003)], we be experimentally produced during ice growth by continu- ously supplying a proper water Q ml/h on an inclined plane with mean velocity V¯ from an undercooled thin liquid flowing down an inclined plane under the action

Goldstein, Raymond E.

40

Vladimir Klebanov Bernhard Beckert  

E-print Network

, Germany Email: beckert@kit.edu Armin Biere Institute for Formal Models and Verification Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Vinay Chaudhri SRI International, USA Koen Claessen Chalmers

Biere, Armin

41

IEEE PES GENERAL MEETING 2012 1 Dynamic Pricing by Scalable Energy  

E-print Network

, Pamela MacDougall, Olaf van Pruissen, Gerben Venekamp, Ren´e Kamphuis, Member, IEEE, Joost Laarakkers and Management Group of TNO, The Netherlands, email: koen.kok@tno.nl. B. Roossien is with Energy

Tesfatsion, Leigh

42

Notes on Elation Generalized Quadrangles  

E-print Network

Notes on Elation Generalized Quadrangles #3; Stanley E. Payne and Koen Thas Abstract Let S be a #12. Payne and J. A. Thas [9] is to determine just when the set of elations about the point (1) is a group

Payne, Stanley E.

43

Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary gen- eralist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer for- est at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999

Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt

2005-01-01

44

Cache site selection by chipmunks ( Tamias spp.) and its influence on the effectiveness of seed dispersal in Jeffrey pine ( Pinus jeffreyi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) seed dispersal performed by seed-caching yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and lodgepole chipmunks (Tamias speciosus) was compared to that of wind dispersal in the Sierra Nevada of western Nevada. Wind-dispersed seeds typically fall under or near the parent tree. Chipmunks removed 90 and 97% of 1064 radioactive seeds from each of two simulated

Stephen B. Vander Wall

1993-01-01

45

Evolutionary relationships of flying foxes (genus Pteropus) in the Philippines inferred from DNA sequences of cytochrome b gene.  

PubMed

Six flying fox species, genus Pteropus (four from the Philippines) were investigated using complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1140 bp) to infer their evolutionary relationships. The DNA sequences generated via polymerase chain reaction were analyzed using the neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. We estimated that the first evolutionary event among these Pteropus species occurred approximately 13.90 +/- 1.49 MYA. Within this short period of evolutionary time we further hypothesized that the ancestors of the flying foxes found in the Philippines experienced a subsequent diversification forming two clusters in the topology. The first cluster is composed of P. pumilus (Philippine endemic), P. speciosus (restricted in western Mindanao) with P. scapulatus, while the second one comprised P. vampyrus and P. dasymallus species based on the analysis from first and second codon positions. Consistently, all phylogenetic analyses divulged close association of P. dasymallus with P. vampyrus contradicting the previous report categorizing P. dasymallus under subniger species group with P. pumilus. P. speciosus, and P. hypomelanus. The Philippine endemic species (P. pumilus) is closely linked with P. speciosus. The representative samples of P. vampyrus showed a large genetic distance of 1.87%. The large genetic distance between P. dasymallus and P. hypomelanus, P. pumilus and P. speciosus denotes a distinct species group. PMID:12017505

Bastian, S T; Tanaka, K; Anunciado, R V P; Natural, N G; Sumalde, A C; Namikawa, T

2002-04-01

46

A new sesquiterpene lactone from the roots of Saussurea lappa: Structure–anticancer activity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dried roots of Saussurea lappa, called costus roots, are used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of cancer. In our investigation for the anticancer constituents from the hexane extract of this plant, a new sesquiterpene (1) was isolated along with the known compounds costunolide (2), ?-cyclocostunolide (3), dihydro costunolide (4) and dehydro costuslactone (5). Their structures

A. Robinson; T. Vijay Kumar; E. Sreedhar; V. G. M. Naidu; Sistla Rama Krishna; K. Suresh Babu; P. V. Srinivas; J. Madhusudana Rao

2008-01-01

47

DCCPS: BRP: BBPSB: Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Behavioral and Psychological Influences on Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Pages S126-S134 Andrew Schrepf, Lauren Clevenger, Desire Christensen, Koen DeGeest, David Bender, Amina Ahmed, Michael J. Goodheart, Laila Dahmoush, Frank Penedo, Joseph A. Lucci III, Parvin Ganjei-Azar, Luis Mendez, Kristian Markon, David M. Lubaroff, Premal H. Thaker, George M. Slavich, Anil K. Sood, Susan K.

48

Semantics of Communicating Agents Based on Deduction and Abduction  

E-print Network

Semantics of Communicating Agents Based on Deduction and Abduction Koen V. Hindriks, Frank S. de Boer, Wiebe van der Hoek and John­Jules Ch. Meyer University Utrecht, Department of Computer Science P and goals which make up their mental state. In this paper, we integrate communication at the agent level

Utrecht, Universiteit

49

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 677 Automated Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Model Outlier Detection Koen Van Leemput*, Frederik Maes, Dirk Vandermeulen for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions from multispec- tral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method measurements. Index Terms--Digital brain atlas, MRI, multiple sclerosis, tissue classification. I. INTRODUCTION

50

Bulletin of the SeismologicalSociety of America, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 1079-1084, August 1998 Magnitude of Nonlinear Sediment Response in Los Angeles Basin  

E-print Network

Magnitude of Nonlinear Sediment Response in Los Angeles Basin during the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake by Igor A. Beresnev, Edward H. Field, Koen Van Den Abeele, and Paul A. Johnson Abstract The study other competing effects. We chose a sedimentary site LF6 in Los Angeles basin that (1) has the closest

51

Computer Physics Communications 132 (2000) 120 www.elsevier.nl/locate/cpc  

E-print Network

Emulator Hans De Raedt a,, Anthony H. Hams a, Kristel Michielsen b, Koen De Raedt c a Institute. Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: deraedt@phys.rug.nl (H. De Raedt), A.H.Hams@phys.rug.nl (A.H. Hams), K

52

Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499.  

E-print Network

Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499. DOES A FLAT RATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl and Kees Goudswaard Leiden University, Public Finance Department, P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA Leiden REDUCE TAX PROGRESSIVITY? A SIMULATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS Koen Caminada Leiden University, Public

Galis, Frietson

53

Will Agroforests Vanish? The Case of Damar Agroforests in Indonesia  

E-print Network

Will Agroforests Vanish? The Case of Damar Agroforests in Indonesia Koen Kusters & Manuel Ruiz agroforestry in the Krui area of Sumatra in Indonesia is presented as an environmentally friendly, income will be established. Keywords Conservation . Development . Agroforests . Land-use change . Sumatra . Indonesia

Vermont, University of

54

Evolution: Don't Be So Butch, Dear! Simultaneous hermaphrodites are both male and female, which could lead to  

E-print Network

,6,7]. A new study by Yumi Nakadera, Joris Koene and colleagues [8], published in this issue of Current Biology animals, such as earthworms [9,10], land snails [11,12] and flatworms [13], only in this freshwater snail

Schärer, Lukas

55

A EX: Data and Sensitivity Analysis Title: The relationship between alternative measures of social spending and poverty rates  

E-print Network

of social spending and poverty rates Koen Caminada & Kees Goudswaard DATA Our research hypothesis is that the level of public social expenditure and poverty across countries are negatively correlated, while private social expenditure may have a non-negative anti-poverty effect. To analyze this hypothesis we include

Galis, Frietson

56

Improved Inference in Bayesian Segmentation Using Monte Carlo Sampling: Application to Hippocampal Subfield Volumetry  

E-print Network

and Flusser, Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Subfield Volumetry Juan Eugenio Iglesiasa , Mert Rory Sabuncua , Koen Van Leemputa,b,c , for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative aMartinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital

57

Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 22 au 28 octobre 2012  

E-print Network

Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 22 au 28 octobre 2012 Time ­ October 22, 2012 World The Cocaine ­ even when you're still moving, sweating, and there's blood pumping around your body. Death: Why we: human brains in different materials (By Randal A. Koene) : Could we build a machine that emulates

Rennes, Université de

58

Optimising Obsidian Programs Through Derivations  

E-print Network

Obsidian is an embedded language for data-parallel programming. In Obsidian data-parallel programs are written in a style similar to the one used in Lava [2]. Lava is an embedded language for hardware description and verification developed by Mary Sheeran and Koen Claessen at Chalmers and

Joel Svensson

2008-01-01

59

Microwave Measurement System for Breast Cancer Imaging  

E-print Network

at Space Physics Research who helped me fabricate and test the experimental hardware. My fel- low graduate, including Maha Ali, Steven Clarkson, Xueyang Duan, Adel Elsherbini, Mario Fabiilli, Yuriy Goykhman, Mark, and Koen iii #12;provided daily reminders of my priorities. As for my parents, their gift of an unburdened

Sarabandi, Kamal

60

Oviposition in land snails requires the successful completion of several metabolically costly processes, including oogenesis,  

E-print Network

processes, including oogenesis, albumen production, egg calcification and nest excavation (Tompa, 1984, with reported means ranging from 59 (Koene and Chase, 1998) to 108 (Daguzan, 1981). Obviously, as clutch size in Helix pomatia; Pollard, 1975), nest excavation and the generation of hydrostatic pressure to expel

Chase, Ronald

61

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 2328 PII: S0957-4484(02)25285-X  

E-print Network

-4484(02)25285-X A simulator for quantum computer hardware Kristel Michielsen1 , Hans De Raedt1,3 and Koen De Raedt examples of the use of the quantum computer (QC) emulator. For educational purposes we describe. Introduction Quantum computers (QCs) have recently become of great interest, primarily due to their potential

62

The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS). — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).

63

Pseudoseeds: Investigating Long-Distance, Ocean Seed Dispersal with Wireless Sensors  

E-print Network

theoretical research has shown that ocean currents and wind interact to disperse seeds over long distancesPseudoseeds: Investigating Long-Distance, Ocean Seed Dispersal with Wireless Sensors Ryan N. Smith, Peter Prentis, Koen Langendoen and Peter Corke Abstract-- Recent theoretical research has shown

Kuzmanov, Georgi

64

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 letters to nature  

E-print Network

of the pituitary gland. Toxicol. Pathol. 17, 250­255 (1989). 2. Koening, J. I. Pituitary gland: neurotransmitters cells per well in 12-well tissue culture microplates for 2 days13 . Anterior pituitary cells prepared of pituitary hormones were determined with assay kits (follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid

Mecham, Robert

65

Version 6/3/2010 1 Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination  

E-print Network

Version 6/3/2010 1 Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination Theories of Body, Soul and Imagination in Early Modern Vampire Tracts (1659-1755) Koen Vermeir CNRS (UMR 7219, SPHERE); Univ Paris Diderot anthropologist from the University of Florence, found the remains of a female `vampire'. The skeleton was found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Isolation of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus Mice in Japan.  

PubMed

Abstract Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture. PMID:25380368

Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi

2015-01-01

67

A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.  

PubMed

Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

2014-01-01

68

Metabolism and thermoregulation in three species of rodent from Northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic rate, body temperature, and thermal conductance were determined in the gray red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) at a temperature range of 5–32.5°C. Oxygen consumption was measured by using a closed circuit respirometer. The thermal neutral zone of gray red-backed vole, large Japanese field mouse and striped field mouse

Jin-Song Liu; De-Hua Wang; Ru-Yong Sun

2004-01-01

69

Human Babesiosis in Japan: Epizootiologic Survey of Rodent Reservoir and Isolation of New Type of Babesia microti-Like Parasite  

PubMed Central

We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838

Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Zamoto, Aya; Morita, Chiharu; Arai, Satoru; Shiota, Tsunezo; Fujimagari, Masato; Itagaki, Asao; Fujita, Hiromi; Ishihara, Chiaki

2001-01-01

70

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection. PMID:18606803

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki

2008-01-01

71

Human babesiosis in Japan: epizootiologic survey of rodent reservoir and isolation of new type of Babesia microti-like parasite.  

PubMed

We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838

Tsuji, M; Wei, Q; Zamoto, A; Morita, C; Arai, S; Shiota, T; Fujimagari, M; Itagaki, A; Fujita, H; Ishihara, C

2001-12-01

72

U.S.-type Babesia microti isolated from small wild mammals in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

Our previous report demonstrated that small wild rodents in Japan harbored two types of novel Babesia microti-like parasites (Kobe and Hobetsu types), but not the type widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of North American and Eurasian Continents (U.S. type). In this study, we surveyed small wild mammals collected at various places in the northern part of Japan, seeking for U.S.-type B. microti. A total of 197 small mammals comprising 10 species, Apodemus speciosus, A. argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys andersoni, Microtus montebelli, Tamias sibiricus, Sorex unguiculatus, S. caecutiens, and Urotrichus talpoides, were examined. Babesia parasites were detected in A. speciosus, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, M. montebelli, S. unguiculatus, and S. caecutiens by microscopy of blood smears and by PCR targeting babesial nuclear small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) and beta-tubulin genes. Inoculation of their bloods into experimental animals gave rise to 23 parasite isolates, which included 16 from A. speciosus, 4 from C. rufocanus, and 1 each from C. rutilus, M. montebelli and S. unguiculatus. Sequencing analyses of their rDNA and beta-tubulin genes revealed that, of the 23 isolates, 20 and 3 were of Hobetsu and U.S. types, respectively. The U.S.-type B. microti strains isolated in Japan, however, were distinguishable from the isolates in the United States when their beta-tubulin gene sequences and antigen profiles in Western blots were compared. We conclude that U.S.-type B. microti exists in Japan although it has been genetically and antigenically diversified from that distributed in the United States. The results also suggest that not only rodents, but also some insectivores may serve as reservoirs for the agent of human babesiosis. PMID:15353841

Zamoto, Aya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kawabuchi, Takako; Wei, Qiang; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

2004-08-01

73

Four new species of hangingflies (Insecta, Mecoptera, Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Mongolbittacus Petrulevi?ius, Huang & Ren, 2007, Mongolbittacus speciosus sp. n. and Mongolbittacus oligophlebius sp. n., and two new species of Exilibittacus Yang, Ren & Shih, 2012, Exilibittacus foliaceus sp. n. and Exilibittacus plagioneurus sp. n., in the family Bittacidae, are described and illustrated based on five well-preserved fossil specimens. These specimens were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These new findings enhance our understanding of the morphological characters of early hangingflies and highlight the diversity of bittacids in the Mid Mesozoic ecosystems. PMID:25610337

Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

2014-01-01

74

Antimalarial chemotherapy with natural products and chemically defined molecules.  

PubMed

In the present work we have described the in vivo antimalarial activity of six different plants. Two of them (Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum) were tested in a randomic approach among 273 crude extracts from plants; four (Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus and Tachia guianensis) were selected after screening 22 crude extracts from different medicinal plants used in Brazil against fever and/or malaria. We also studied chemically defined molecules and some of them showed antimalarial activity in vitro. Some aspects of recent research with natural products aiming to produce drugs are discussed. PMID:1841997

Carvalho, L H; Krettli, A U

1991-01-01

75

Über die korrelative Erhaltung entspreiteter Blattstiele  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Morfologickými pokusy na Syringa vulgaris, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Philadelphus coronarius, Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer negundo\\u000a a Bryophyllum crenatum je v této práci sledována závislost udržování bez?epelních ?apík? na korela?ních vlivech jiných ?ástí\\u000a rostliny a zkoušena možnost napodobit tyto korelace pomocí syntetických r?stových látek. Ukazuje se, že celistvost rostliny,\\u000a zajišt?ná hlavn? regula?ními vlivy ko?en? a list?, vyniká jasn?ji z chování bez?epelních ?apík? než

Rudolf Dostál

1962-01-01

76

T H E S T R U C T U R E O F G A U G E T H E O R I E S I N A L M O S T C O M M U TAT I V E G E O M E T R I E S  

E-print Network

T H E S T R U C T U R E O F G A U G E T H E O R I E S I N A L M O S T C O M M U TAT I V E G E O M E T R I E S koen van den dungen January 2011 Supervisors: Dr. W.D. van Suijlekom Prof. dr. R.H.P. Kleiss 14, 2011. #12;A B S T R A C T Within the framework of noncommutative geometry, the concept of almost

van Suijlekom, Walter

77

The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB) – a web-accessible resource  

E-print Network

ral ssBioMed CentBMC Bioinformatics Open AcceDatabase The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB) – a web-accessible resource Robert P Hanzlik*1, Yakov M Koen1, Bhargav Theertham2, Yinghua Dong2 and Jianwen Fang2 Address: 1Department...@ku.edu; Yinghua Dong - yinghua@ku.edu; Jianwen Fang - jwfang@ku.edu * Corresponding author Abstract Background: The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Koen, Yakov M.; Theertham, Bhargav; Dong, Yinghua; Fang, Jianwen

2007-03-16

78

Detection of Babesia microti-like parasite in filter paper-absorbed blood of wild rodents.  

PubMed

The first case of human babesiosis was reported in Japan. The epidemiology of this disease in Japanese nature remains unclear. In this study, 97 common field mice captured in Hokkaido, Japan, were examined. Blood specimens absorbed onto filter papers were eluted and tested by nested PCR using specific primers for the B. microti nuclear small subunit rRNA genome. Twenty-three percent (11/47) of Apodemus speciosus and four percent (2/50) of Clethrionomys rufocanus were positive. The 159-bp primary sequences of PCR products tested exhibited 97.5% and 96.8% homology with those of the human isolate in Japan and of U.S. strains of B. microti, respectively. PMID:11913551

Okabayashi, Tamaki; Hagiya, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Morita, Chiharu

2002-02-01

79

Nine New Species of Aleiodes Wesmael Reared at Yanayacu Biological Station (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) in Eastern Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide. PMID:19619013

Townsend, Andrew C.; Shaw, Scott R.

2009-01-01

80

Nine new species of Aleiodes Wesmael reared at Yanayacu Biological Station (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) in eastern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide. PMID:19619013

Townsend, Andrew C; Shaw, Scott R

2009-01-01

81

Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1  

PubMed Central

Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581

Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

2013-01-01

82

Wine of Calvoro  

E-print Network

crnotion, but one }?nir of v'"Jry koen ayes noticed tho nlmost imp~rceptible hesitn.ti;)u as he took his sent? for that r('H;,SOn Pl.cCoy schooled hiG voice to gentlenoss before he c':ul:l bring himself -1;0 B.sk, "Cim you find hiEl, Spock?" "I do... whi~b. tho t,:;o friends sottled dOVlll with n bottle of thc lll(3:rchant t s finest \\'-line to roc all old times and bring eo.ch othor up""to-dnto ;Nith whnt h2d been happoning in the years since tbey had last lJot. "I hoard th .. :.:y g8V0 you...

Piacentini, Valerie

1978-01-01

83

Reproductive and physiological responses to simulated climate warming for four subalpine species.  

PubMed

* The carbon costs of reproduction were examined in four subalpine herbaceous plant species for which number and size of flowers respond differently under a long-term infrared warming experiment. * Instantaneous measurements of gas exchange and an integrative model were used to calculate whole-plant carbon budgets and reproductive effort (RE). * Of the two species for which flowering was reduced, only one (Delphinium nuttallianum) exhibited higher RE under warming. The other species (Erythronium grandiflorum) flowers earlier when freezing events under warming treatment could have damaged floral buds. Of the two species for which flowering rates were not reduced, one (Helianthella quinquenervis) had higher RE, while RE was unaffected for the other (Erigeron speciosus). Each of these different responses was the result of a different combination of changes in organ size and physiological rates in each of the species. * Results show that the magnitude and direction of responses to warming differ greatly among species. Such results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple species to understand the complex interactions among physiological and reproductive responses to climate change. PMID:17176399

Lambrecht, Susan C; Loik, Michael E; Inouye, David W; Harte, John

2007-01-01

84

Genetic and biological characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolated from wild rodents in southern Hokkaido, Japan in 2008.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. A recent epizootiological survey indicated that endemic foci of TBEV have been maintained in the southern part of Hokkaido until recently. In this study, we sought to isolate TBEV from wild rodents in the area. One virus, designated Oshima 08-As, was isolated from an Apodemus speciosus captured in Hokuto in 2008. Oshima 08-As was classified as the Far Eastern subtype of TBEV and formed a cluster with the other strains isolated in Hokkaido from 1995 to 1996. Thirty-six nucleotide differences resulted in 12 amino acid changes between Oshima 08-As and Oshima 5-10 isolated in 1995. Oshima 08-As caused high mortality and morbidity in a mouse model compared with Oshima 5-10. Although similar transient viral multiplication in the spleen was observed in the mice infected with Oshima 08-As and Oshima 5-10, greater viral multiplication with an inflammatory response was noted in the brains of mice infected with Oshima 08-As than those infected with Oshima 5-10. These data indicate that a few naturally occurring mutations affect the pathogenicity of the Oshima strains endemic in the southern part of Hokkaido. PMID:23590320

Kentaro, Yoshii; Yamazaki, Shoko; Mottate, Keita; Nagata, Noriyo; Seto, Takahiro; Sanada, Takashiro; Sakai, Mizuki; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo

2013-06-01

85

New palynological data from Karoo sediments, Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).

d'Engelbronner, E. R.

1996-07-01

86

Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-02-01

87

Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from Brazilian plants studied in vivo in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum in culture.  

PubMed

1. Ninety-five crude extracts obtained with either organic solvents or water from 48 Brazilian plants or parts of plants were evaluated experimentally as blood schizontocides. Seventy-three extracts were obtained from 33 plants randomly collected using an empirical approach, and 22 from 15 "medicinal" plants. 2. The crude extracts were screened in vivo at up to 1.0 g/kg, po, for 4 days in mice infected with blood forms of Plasmodium berghei and parasitemia was determined on the fifth day. 3. Six plants, 2 randomly collected, Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum, and 4 "medicinal" plants, Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus, and Tachia guianensis, were partly active against the rodent malaria, i.e., they showed 40-50% inhibition of P. berghei multiplication. Forty-two plants whose extracts presented no antimalarial activity are reported. 4. Four extracts with antimalarial activity were also tested in vitro using P. falciparum cultures and two of them, V. brasiliana and A. australe, were active. Extracts of V. brasiliana caused about 50% inhibition of parasite multiplication at relatively low doses (40 ng/ml) as compared to chloroquine (30 ng/ml) and quinine (50 ng/ml). 5. The relatively high percentage of positive results obtained here for "medicinal" plants vs randomly chosen plants demonstrates the effectiveness of the ethnopharmacological approach to drug testing. PMID:1823001

Carvalho, L H; Brandão, M G; Santos-Filho, D; Lopes, J L; Krettli, A U

1991-01-01

88

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-05-11

89

Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

2001-01-01

90

Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.  

PubMed

The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

2009-04-01

91

Survey of Babesia microti infection in field rodents in Japan: records of the Kobe-type in new foci and findings of a new type related to the Otsu-type.  

PubMed

Of 247 rodents comprising 5 genera and 7 species collected at 17 sites throughout Japan from 2003 to 2005, Babesia microti was detected microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 36 rodents comprising 2 genera and 3 species from 12 sites. Based on the analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) sequences, the Kobe-type, the etiological type of the first Japanese case of human infection was found in Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus in Aomori, the northernmost prefecture of the Japanese mainland, while the U.S.-type was found on Hokkaido Island and the Otsu-type was widely distributed. In addition, a new Otsu-related type was detected exclusively in Eothenomys andersoni in Nagano, a prefecture in central Japan. The sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 (ITS1/2) of the present Kobe- and Otsu-types were almost identical to those of the same types previously identified. The ITS1/2 sequence of the U.S.-type identified in Hokkaido in this survey was somewhat different from that of the U.S.-type strain originating from the U.S.A., with approximately 95% identity. This value was similar to the 94% identity found between the ITS1/2 sequences of the Otsu-type and the new Otsu-related type. The new Otsu-related type of B. microti was isolated as the Nagano strain, which was serologically differentiated from the other type strains of B. microti. The divergence and distribution of genotypes are important factors in investigating the epidemiology of human B. microti infection in Japan. PMID:17237595

Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Kasahara, Midori; Kasai, Masatoshi; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Kawai, Atsuko; Fujita, Hiromi; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro

2007-01-01

92

Dioxin pollution disrupts reproduction in male Japanese field mice.  

PubMed

Dioxins cause various adverse effects in animals including teratogenesis, induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, tumor promotion, and endocrine disruption. Above all, endocrine disruption is known to disturb reproduction in adult animals and may, also seriously impact their offspring. However, most previous studies have quantified the species-specific accumulation of dioxins, whereas few studies have addressed the physiological impacts of dioxins on wildlife, such as reduced reproductive function. Here we clarify an effect of endocrine disruption caused by dioxins on the Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Japanese field mice collected from various sites polluted with dioxins accumulated high concentrations of dioxins in their livers. Some dioxin congeners, especially, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro biphenyl, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which showed high biota-soil accumulation factors, contributed to concentration of dioxins in mouse livers with an increase of accumulation of total dioxins. As for physiological effects on the Japanese field mouse, high levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA, a drug metabolizing enzyme induced by dioxins, were found in the livers of mice captured at polluted sites. Furthermore, at such sites polluted with dioxins, increased CYP1A1 expression coincided with reduced numbers of active spermatozoa in mice. Thus, disruption in gametogenesis observed in these mice suggests that dioxins not only negatively impact reproduction among Japanese field mice, but might also act as a kind of selection pressure in a chemically polluted environment. PMID:24026525

Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Sakai, Mizuki; Tohma, Shimon; Matsuki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Yukio; Kajiwara, Hideo; Sekijima, Tsuneo

2013-11-01

93

Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of wood mice (genus Apodemus Kaup, 1829) based on complete mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, with emphasis on Chinese species.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among 15 species of wood mice (genus Apodemus) were reconstructed to explore some long-standing taxonomic problems. The results provided support for the monophyly of the genus Apodemus, but could not reject the hypothesis of paraphyly for this genus. Our data divided the 15 species into four major groups: (1) the Sylvaemus group (A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, A. alpicola, and A. uralensis), (2) the Apodemus group (A. peninsulae, A. chevreri, A. agrarius, A. speciosus, A. draco, A. ilex, A. semotus, A. latronum, and A. mystacinus), (3) A. argenteus, and (4) A. gurkha. Our results also suggested that orestes should be a valid subspecies of A. draco rather than an independent species; in contrast, A. ilex from Yunnan may be regarded as a separate species rather than a synonym of orestes or draco. The species level status of A. latronum, tscherga as synonyms of A. uralensis, and A. chevrieri as a valid species and the closest sibling species of A. agrarius were further corroborated by our data. Applying a molecular clock with the divergences of Mus and Rattus set at 12 million years ago (Mya) as a calibration point, it was estimated that five old lineages (A. mystacinus and four major groups above) diverged in the late Miocene (7.82-12.74 Mya). Then the Apodemus group (excluding A. mystacinus) split into two subgroups: agrarius and draco, at about 7.17-9.95 Mya. Four species of the Sylvaemus group were estimated to diverge at about 2.92-5.21 Mya. The Hengduan Mountains Region was hypothesized to have played important roles in Apodemus evolutionary histories since the Pleistocene. PMID:15324834

Liu, Xiaoming; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Ming; Jiang, Xuelong; Feng, Zuojian; Hu, Jinchu

2004-10-01

94

Phylogeny estimation of the radiation of western North American chipmunks (Tamias) in the face of introgression using reproductive protein genes.  

PubMed

The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R; Sullivan, Jack

2012-01-01

95

Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.  

PubMed

Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

2014-09-01

96

Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.  

PubMed

Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

2014-06-01

97

Magnitude of food overabundance affects expression of daily torpor.  

PubMed

Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very plentiful, it is unclear whether torpor expression is affected by temporal changes in the extent of food overabundance. Moreover, the relationship between daily torpor and excess food availability has not been clearly established. The large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus caches food for use as a winter energy resource and exhibits daily torpor under artificial winter conditions. The present study examined whether individuals exposed to different magnitudes of overabundant food exhibited differences in expression of daily torpor, and secondly whether torpor expression varied in response to changes in the overall quantity of overabundant food. It was observed that while absolute quantities of overabundant food did not appear to affect daily torpor expression, the mice did respond to changes in food availability, even when food remained overabundant. This suggests that the mice respond to fluctuations in food availability, even where these changes do not place any constraint on energy budgets. Thus recognition of changing food availability cannot be a purely physiological response to shortage or plenty, and may contribute to predictions of future energy availability. The expression of torpor was inhibited in response to increasing food availability, and the mice used shallower torpor when food availability increased to superabundance. These findings suggest that daily torpor may be regulated not only physiologically in response to energy constraints but also psychologically, via recognition of food availability. PMID:25483213

Eto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rintaroh; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Kashimura, Atsushi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Morita, Tetsuo

2015-02-01

98

Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.  

PubMed

Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590

Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A

2000-08-01

99

Dehydrocostuslactone Suppresses Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Inhibition of Akt/GSK-3? and mTOR Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

The traditional Chinese medicine component dehydrocostuslactone (DHC) isolated from Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, has been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Angiogenesis is an essential process in the growth and progression of cancer. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, the anti-angiogenic mechanism of action of DHC to be via the induction of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase due to abrogation of the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?)/cyclin D1 and mTOR signaling pathway. First, we demonstrated that DHC has an anti-angiogenic effect in the matrigel-plug nude mice model and an inhibitory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary-like tube formation in vitro. DHC caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, leading to the suppression of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cyclin A and cdk2 expression. With respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying the DHC-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation, this study demonstrated that DHC significantly inhibits Akt expression, resulting in the suppression of GSK-3? phosphorylation and mTOR expression. These effects are capable of regulating cyclin D1 degradation, but they were significantly reversed by constitutively active myristoylated (myr)-Akt. Furthermore, the abrogation of tube formation induced by DHC was also reversed by overexpression of Akt. And the co-treatment with LiCl and DHC significantly reversed the growth inhibition induced by DHC. Taken together, our study has identified Akt/GSK-3? and mTOR as important targets of DHC and has thus highlighted its potential application in angiogenesis-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:22359572

Wang, Chih-Ya; Tsai, An-Chi; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2012-01-01

100

Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ?8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2010-01-01

101

Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers.  

PubMed

The timing of life history traits is central to lifetime fitness and nowhere is this more evident or well studied as in the phenology of flowering in governing plant reproductive success. Recent changes in the timing of environmental events attributable to climate change, such as the date of snowmelt at high altitudes, which initiates the growing season, have had important repercussions for some common perennial herbaceous wildflower species. The phenology of flowering at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado, USA) is strongly influenced by date of snowmelt, which makes this site ideal for examining phenological responses to climate change. Flower buds of Delphinium barbeyi, Erigeron speciosus, and Helianthella quinquenervis are sensitive to frost, and the earlier beginning of the growing season in recent years has exposed them to more frequent mid-June frost kills. From 1992 to 1998, on average 36.1% of Helianthella buds were frosted, but for 1999-2006 the mean is 73.9%; in only one year since 1998 have plants escaped all frost damage. For all three of these perennial species, there is a significant relationship between the date of snowmelt and the abundance of flowering that summer. Greater snowpack results in later snowmelt, later beginning of the growing season, and less frost mortality of buds. Microhabitat differences in snow accumulation, snowmelt patterns, and cold air drainage during frost events can be significant; an elevation difference of only 12 m between two plots resulted in a temperature difference of almost 2 degrees C in 2006 and a difference of 37% in frost damage to buds. The loss of flowers and therefore seeds can reduce recruitment in these plant populations, and affect pollinators, herbivores, and seed predators that previously relied on them. Other plant species in this environment are similarly susceptible to frost damage so the negative effects for recruitment and for consumers dependent on flowers and seeds could be widespread. These findings point out the paradox of increased frost damage in the face of global warming, provide important insights into the adaptive significance of phenology, and have general implications for flowering plants throughout the region and anywhere climate change is having similar impacts. PMID:18409425

Inouye, David W

2008-02-01

102

Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China  

PubMed Central

Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing. PMID:20796273

2010-01-01

103

Phylogenetic Origins of the Himalayan Endemic Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus (Asteraceae: Cardueae) Based on Three DNA Regions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is an enduring question as to the mechanisms leading to the high diversity and the processes producing endemics with unusual morphologies in the Himalayan alpine region. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships and origins of three such endemic genera were analysed, Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus, all in the tribe Cardueae of Asteraceae. Methods The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnL-F and psbA-trnH regions of these three genera were sequenced. The same regions for other related genera in Cardueae were also sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined data sets of the three types of sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The phylogenetic tree obtained allowed earlier hypotheses concerning the relationships of these three endemic genera based on gross morphology to be rejected. Frolovia and Saussurea costus were deeply nested within Dolomiaea, and the strong statistical support for the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade suggested that circumscription of Dolomiaea should be more broadly redefined. Diplazoptilon was resolved as sister to Himalaiella, and these two together are sister to Lipschitziella. The clade comprising these three genera is sister to Jurinea, and together these four genera are sister to the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade. Xanthopappus, previously hypothesized to be closely related to Carduus, was found to be nested within a well-supported but not fully resolved Onopordum group with Alfredia, Ancathia, Lamyropappus, Olgaea, Synurus and Syreitschikovia, rather than the Carduus group. The crude dating based on ITS sequence divergence revealed that the divergence time of Dolomiaea–Frolovia from its sister group probably occurred 13·6–12·2 million years ago (Ma), and the divergence times of the other two genera, Xanthopappus and Diplazoptilon, from their close relatives around 5·7–4·7 Ma and 2·0–1·6 Ma, respectively. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the intergeneric relationships in Cardueae. The crude calibration of lineages indicates that the uplifts of the Qiinghai–Tibetan Plateau since the Miocene might have served as a continuous stimulus for the production of these morphologically aberrant endemic elements of the Himalayan flora. PMID:17218340

Wang, Yu-Jin; Liu, Jian-Quan; Miehe, Georg

2007-01-01

104

Household health care-seeking costs: experiences from a randomized, controlled trial of community-based malaria and pneumonia treatment among under-fives in eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to which community-based care reduces healthcare-seeking costs at the household level in rural and urban settings. This paper assesses the rural–urban differences in direct and indirect costs of seeking care from formal health facilities compared to community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods Exit interviews were conducted for 282 (159 rural and 123 urban) caregivers of children below five years who had received treatment for fever-related illnesses at selected health centres in Iganga and Mayuge districts. Data on the direct and indirect costs incurred while seeking care at the health centre visited were obtained. Using another tool, household level direct and indirect costs of seeking care from CMDs were collected from a total of 470 caregivers (304 rural and 166 urban). Costs incurred at health facilities were then compared with costs of seeking care from CMDs. Results Household direct costs of seeking care from health facilities were significantly higher for urban-based caregivers than the rural (median cost?=?US$0.42 for urban and zero for rural; p?

2014-01-01

105

Confirmation of eclipses in KPD 0422+5421, a binary containing a white dwarf and a subdwarf B star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report additional photometric CCD observations of KPD 0422+5421, a binary with an orbital period of 2.16h which contains a subdwarf B star (sdB) and a white dwarf. There are two main results of this work. First, the light curve of KPD 0422+5421 contains two distinct periodic signals, the 2.16-h ellipsoidal modulation discovered by Koen, Orosz & Wade and an additional modulation at 7.8h. This 7.8-h modulation is clearly not sinusoidal: the rise time is about 0.25 in phase, whereas the decay time is 0.75 in phase. Its amplitude is roughly half of the amplitude of the ellipsoidal modulation. Secondly, after the 7.8-h modulation is removed, the light curve folded on the orbital period clearly shows the signature of the transit of the white dwarf across the face of the sdB star and the signature of the occultation of the white dwarf by the sdB star. We have used the Wilson-Devinney code to model the light curve to obtain the inclination, the mass ratio and the ? potentials, and a Monte Carlo code to compute confidence limits on interesting system parameters. We find component masses of MsdB0.36-0.16+0.37Msolar and MWD0.47-0.16+0.18Msolar (Mtotal 0.86-0.35+0.52Msolar, 68 per cent confidence limits). If we impose an additional constraint and require the computed mass and radius of the white dwarf to be consistent with a theoretical mass-radius relation, we find MsdB0.511-0.050+0.047Msolar and MWD0.526-0.030+0.033Msolar (68 per cent confidence limits). In this case the total mass of the system is less than 1.4Msolar at the 99.99 per cent confidence level. We briefly discuss possible interpretations of the 7.8-h modulation and the importance of KPD 0422+5421 as a member of a rare class of evolved binaries.

Orosz, Jerome A.; Wade, Richard A.

1999-12-01