Note: This page contains sample records for the topic costus speciosus koen from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
In the present study, methanol extracts of CostusspeciosusKoen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costusspeciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costusspeciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing's caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costusspeciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165
Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P; Jha, K K; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S; Khosa, R L
In the present study, methanol extracts of CostusspeciosusKoen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costusspeciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costusspeciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costusspeciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.
A new species of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas is found in the coastal region on white sand soils under a tropical rain forest canopy. It is morphologically distinct from all other African species of Costus but shows some similarities in floral form with the savanna-inhabiting Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K. Schum. and similarities in vegetative form with Costus ligularis Baker. Only one population of the new species is documented. Photographs of the new species are included as is a preliminary phylogeny indicating its position within the African Costaceae. PMID:23730190
de Kamer, Hiltje Maas-van; Maas, Paul J M; Specht, Chelsea D
Abstract A new species of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas is found in the coastal region on white sand soils under a tropical rain forest canopy. It is morphologically distinct from all other African species of Costus but shows some similarities in floral form with the savanna-inhabiting Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K. Schum. and similarities in vegetative form with Costus ligularis Baker. Only one population of the new species is documented. Photographs of the new species are included as is a preliminary phylogeny indicating its position within the African Costaceae.
de Kamer, Hiltje Maas-van; Maas, Paul J. M.; Specht, Chelsea D.
Antinutritional effects of acorns and tannic acid on the Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus were examined in the laboratory. The first feeding experiment was conducted for 15 days using three types of diet: control\\u000a diet (laboratory chow for mice), acorns of Quercus serrata (QS), and acorns of Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata (QM), which differ in tannin content (control, tannin free;
We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series o...
Background: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. Objective: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Material and Methods: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), ?-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. Conclusion: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea.
A new species of palaemonid shrimp, Periclimenes speciosus sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of 20 specimens collected from warm-temperate and subtropical waters of southern Japan. Periclimenes speciosus belongs to the "P. aesopius species group", and is associated with sea anemones and a scleractinian coral as well as behaving as a fish cleaner. Morphologically, the new species appears closest to P. holthuisi Bruce, 1969, but can be distinguished from P. holthuisi by the form and armature of the cutting edges of dactylus and fixed finger of the second pereiopod. The coloration in life of both species clearly discriminates one species from the other. The taxonomic status of some specimens previously reported as P. holthuisi is briefly discussed. PMID:15334000
We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series of lineages basal to a monophyletic neotropical species radiation. The neotropical species have large, showy flowers visited by either euglossine bees or hummingbirds. The hummingbird pollination syndrome is supported as a derived character state from the bee pollination syndrome, and we estimate that it has evolved independently seven or more times in the neotropics. A molecular clock approach suggests that diversification of the neotropical clade has been recent and rapid and that it coincides with dramatic climatic and geologic changes, Andean orogeny, and the closing of the Panama isthmus that occurred in the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. We propose a scenario for the diversification of Costus, in which rapid floral adaptation in geographic isolation and range shifts in response to environmental changes contribute to reproductive isolation among close relatives. We suggest that these processes may be common in other recently diversified plant lineages centered in Central America or the Northern Andean phytogeographic region. PMID:21646107
Kay, Kathleen M; Reeves, Patrick A; Olmstead, Richard G; Schemske, Douglas W
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the photosynthetic activity rate
Costus igneus, commonly known as insulin plant in India, belongs to the family Costaceae. Consumption of the leaves are believed to lower blood glucose levels, and diabetics who consumed the leaves of this plant did report a fall in their blood glucose levels. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of the leaves of Costus igeus on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in male Wistar rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6) were treated with 10 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone subcutaneously for 20 days. From day 11 to day 20, different groups received 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day of powdered leaves of Costus igeus in distilled water orally or Glibenclamide 500 µg/kg orally. On the 20th day, after overnight fasting, a retro-orbital puncture was performed for obtaining blood samples to estimate the fasting blood glucose level, and the same procedure was followed on the other eye 1 hour after a glucose load of 2.5 g/kg orally for estimation of post-glucose load blood glucose levels. Fasting blood sugar and postglucose load blood sugar levels were raised in the group that received dexamethasone when compared to normal controls (P < 0.001), whereas 250 and 500 mg/kg powdered leaf of Costus igeus and Glibenclamide 500 µg/kg decreased the dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). The leaves of Costus igeus reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them towards normal, in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in rats.
. \\u000a The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of \\u000a different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in \\u000a growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of \\u000a the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic \\u000a (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the \\u000a photosynthetic activity
The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the different items on a list receive different increments in memory strength during study (the "encoding variability" hypothesis). In a test of that interpretation, Koen and Yonelinas (2010) attempted to further increase encoding variability to see whether it would further decrease the slope of the zROC. To do so, they presented items on a list for 2 different durations and then mixed the weak and strong targets together. After performing 3 tests on the mixed-strength data, Koen and Yonelinas concluded that encoding variability does not explain why the slope of the zROC is typically less than 1. However, we show that their tests have no bearing on the encoding variability account. Instead, they bear on the mixture-unequal-variance signal-detection (UVSD) model that corresponds to their experimental design. On the surface, the results reported by Koen and Yonelinas appear to be inconsistent with the predictions of the mixture-UVSD model (though they were taken to be inconsistent with the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis). However, all 3 of the tests they performed contained errors. When those errors are corrected, the same 3 tests show that their data support, rather than contradict, the mixture-UVSD model (but they still have no bearing on the encoding variability hypothesis). PMID:22390323
The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Wild rodents are naturally infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium; thus, they are potential reservoirs of the parasites. Mice are common rodents frequently found in agricultural areas and have many opportunities to contact other wild animals, livestock, and humans. Irrespective of the potential risk, there are few epidemiologic studies of Cryptosporidium in wild mice because of their low economic importance and the difficulty in conducting surveys. Hence, the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in wild mice living around various areas remain unclear. We investigated the species and genotype distribution and prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in an agricultural site in Osaki, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. In total, 15 mice were captured and examined in this study. By microscopic analysis, only one mouse (JFM 3) was determined to be Cryptosporidium-positive, while the parasite were detected in four mice (JFM 3, 6, 10, and 15) by a molecular approach using partial SSU rRNA gene sequences. Based on nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. ubiquitum (from JFM 10) and C. muris (from JFM 3 and 6). In contrast, the Cryptosporidium in JFM 15 was not identified as a known species or genotype and is therefore proposed as a novel genotype; the Naruko genotype. More molecular data are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic identity of this novel Cryptosporidium genotype. The C. muris Japanese field mouse genotypes showed marked divergence compared to that in a previous report. The large Japanese field mouse might thus represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium spp. PMID:23601844
Aim of the study Costus spicatus Sw. (Costaceae) is a prominent medicinal herb used by Dominicans in the Dominican Republic and the United States for the treatment of diabetes, a growing epidemic in the Hispanic community. An ethnobotanical survey of the Dominican community in New York City revealed the popular use of a tea from the insulina plant to treat hyperglycemia. Insulina was identified as Costus spicatus. We tested the ability of a tea made from the leaves of Costus spicatus to alter glucose homeostasis in C57BLKS/J (KS) db/db mice, a model of obesity-induced hyperglycemia with progressive beta cell depletion. Materials and methods From 6 to 16 weeks of age, Experimental and Control animals (n = 6/5) were given ad lib access to Costus spicatus tea or water, respectively. Results Weight gain and progression of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia between the Experimental and Control groups were statistically indistinguishable. There was no difference between groups in average fed or fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Intraperitoneal (IP) insulin tolerance testing after the 10-week study period showed that Costus spicatus tea consumption did not alter insulin sensitivity. Conclusions These data suggest that at the dose given, tea made from Costus spicatus leaves had no efficacy in the treatment of obesity-induced hyperglycemia. More investigation is needed to more fully explore dosages and the possible utility and biological activity of this common Dominican herbal remedy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keller, Amy C.; Vandebroek, Ina; Liu, Youping; Balick, Michael J.; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J.; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the photosynthetic activity rate of plants submitted to different light intensity regimes. The results obtained show that plants maintained under low light intensity levels (25% of sunlight) presented higher height, leaf area and number of leaves, while plants grown under full sunlight presented higher radicular length. PA measurements indicated higher photosynthetic rate for plants grown under 50% of full sunlight, but plants developed under 25% of full sunlight (75% shading) presented the fastest response to light incidence (photosynthetic induction).
The methanol extract of Costus pictus (C. pictus )D.DON (Family: Zingiberaceae) leaf was investigated for its anti-diabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of single doses of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg\\/kg, i.p.). The methanol extract of C. pictus (MECP) at a dose of 120 mg\\/kg, p.o. was administered as single dose per day
|Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…
Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger
The Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus eats large, hard-walled walnuts of Juglans ailanthifolia immediately after finding or after hoarding them. However, not all individuals can efficiently eat the nuts. In this study, to examine local variation in the ability to eat walnuts, feeding behavior was compared among nine wood mouse populations, four from mainland Honshu, where the walnut tree is distributed, and five from the Izu Islands (30-100 km south of Honshu), which lack the tree species. To avoid the effects of pre-capture experience with walnuts, mice from areas lacking the walnut trees were used for testing, even in the Honshu sites. Most mice from Honshu were able to eat walnuts after a 14-day training period, whereas most insular mice could not, with the exception of mice on Kouzushima Island. An analysis of the population genetic structures of these mice based on sequences of the mitochondrial control (D-loop) region revealed that the four insular populations are genetically distinct from the mainland populations, whereas the Kouzushima population remains genetically similar to the mainland populations. The relatively recent colonization of Kouzushima may explain why mice from this island were able to feed on walnuts despite the lack of walnut trees on the island. Thus, walnut-feeding ability appears to have some innate basis in the Japanese wood mouse, and this trait would be selected for in a walnut-available environment as it would better enable mice to survive during food shortages. PMID:22303846
Dendrobates speciosus is a small red or orange frog that occupies a small geographic range in the highlands of western Panama, where it occurs abundantly in some cloud forest habitats. Gc-ms analysis indicated the presence of at least 30 alkaloids in MeOH skin extracts from population samples at the extreme eastern end of the known geographic range. Eleven alkaloids were isolated by cc in quantities sufficient for 2D-nmr spectral analysis, which in some cases confirmed their identity with alkaloids known from other species and in other cases led to assignment of structures. Pumiliotoxin 251D, pumiliotoxin A [307A], pumiliotoxin B [323A], and allopumiliotoxin 267A were identified as major constituents. N-Oxides of 323A and 267A were also isolated. Indolizidines 195B and 223AB with 3-butyl-5-methyl and 3-butyl-5-propyl substituents, respectively, were identified. The 5-substituents of the 8-methyl-indolizidines 207A and 235B' were assigned as -(CH2)3CH = CH2 and -(CH2)5CH = CH2, respectively; indolizidine 235B' from D. speciosus is, thus, a positional double-bond isomer of indolizidine 235B previously isolated from a closely related poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. A piperidine 241D was isolated and assigned the structure cis-cis-2-methyl-6-nonyl-4-hydroxypiperidine. PMID:3236011
|The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…
The proceedings has 10 papers on photovoltaic power systems, 9 on characteristics of solar cells, 5 on residential use photovoltaic power systems, 3 on solar cars, 6 on solar hybrids, 9 on solar energy storage, 5 on passive solar energy, 4 on power genera...
This paper collects lectures given at Clean Coal Day Hokkaido Seminar 1993. Clean coal combustion technologies include electric dust collection, catalytic denitrification, and stack gas desulfurization (collectively the three item set), and low-NOx combus...
Proceedings of the 80th SEGJ conference were reported. On the seismic surveys; P- and S- wave measurements using air gun, seismic and resistivity tomography analysis, offset VSP and so on were useful in an estimation of subsurface structure. Concerning th...
From presented articles of the National convention, I. E. E. Japan opened in April, 1989, the articles of the electric power system section are recorded. The section includes 203 articles: Load frequency control by compensation-limited type controller. Ro...
In many western North American forests, prescribed burning and mechanical thinning are widely used to re- duce fuels and restore stand conditions after a century of fire suppression. Few studies have followed the relative im- pacts of these treatments on the production and consumption of truffles in forest ecosystems, particularly in the Sierra Nevada of California. Using a full-factorial completely
The 91st SEGJ Conference was held at Akita University during October 3-5, 1994, and a total of 67 papers were reported. As for logging/well logging, the paper reports cement bond logging using full-wave form data, and evaluation of borehole imaging tools ...
Included are 61 study reports of a 1990fy joint conference by JSES and JWEA. As for solar energy, a lot of studies are reported on photochemistry, solar cells, passive solar, biotechnology, solar radiation (center dot) weather (center dot) environment, so...
The proceedings of the conference include the results of research and development of the photovoltaic power generation system, the wind power generation and biomass. As for the photovoltaic power generation system, reports are made on the following: power...
We describe Galadi speciosus, gen. et sp nov., the second peramelemorphian (Yarala burchfieldi being the first) to be described from Oligo-Miocene deposits of Riversleigh World Heritage Property, northwestern Queensland. G. speciosus is represented by relatively complete craniodental material, including an exceptionally well-preserved skull. This taxon exhibits several apomorphies that clearly place it in the order Peramelemorphia, but it appears to
K. J. TRAVOUILLON; Y. GUROVICH; R. M. D. BECK; J. MUIRHEAD
The present proceedings consist of three invited lectures of the 57th Conference of The Fuel Society of Japan and seven presentations of the 89th Special Symposium on Coke, which were held at Mizushima area in October, 1990. Invited lectures include ' Rec...
This is a proceedings of the Spring Meeting of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan made public on May 15 and 16, 1996. In the basic research, the following are included: Basic studies on computer aided concurrent engineering for hull structure design...
|Possible alternate methods of preparing college level biology teachers are explored and related conferences held by the Commission on Undergraduate Education in Biological Sciences described. Koen contributes some ideas for preparation programs and describes the University of Michigan College Teacher Training Program. Alternatives to the Ph.D.…
Summary form only given as follows. “Everyone in society should develop, learn, discover, create, and invent the most effective and beneficial [problem solving techniques]. In the end, the engineering method is related in fundamental ways to human problem solving at its best.” Thus Billy Vaughn Koen, arguing that everyone is at least potentially an engineer. Without denying this claim-or the
Two species of wood mouse, Apodemus argenteus and A. speciosus, were observed consuming and hoarding acorns of Quercus serrata and Castanopsis cuspidata. When each species of acorn was supplied individually, both species of mice used each species of acorn for eating and hoarding. When both species of acorn were supplied, A. argenteus consumed or hoarded only C. cuspidata, whereas A.
The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary gen- eralist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer for- est at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures.
Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used in folk medicine for many conditions, such as contusion inflammation, anti-rheumatic and so on. In this study, chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory activity of this flowers' essential oil were investigated for the first time. Followed by GC-MS analysis, a total
Y. Lu; C. X. Zhong; L. Wang; C. Lu; X. L. Li; P. J. Wang
Analysis of variation in nucleotide sequences in mitochondrial DNA genes among species of Gymnophthalmus supports three major conclusions. First, samples of G. underwoodi, a unisexual species of hybrid origin, have identical nucleotide sequences, supporting the hypothesis that all individuals from localities in the Guianan Region of South America and the Lesser Antilles descended from a single hybridization event. Second, G. underwoodi and G. cryptus share derived similarities in nucleotide sequences of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, suggesting that the female participant in the hybridization event that produced the hybrid species was either G. cryptus or most closely related to it. Last, phylogenetic analyses recovered historical structure among population samples of G. speciosus supporting previous claims that there is unrecognized diversity under that binomial, and some analyses suggest that G. speciosus does not comprise a natural group. PMID:10196080
Seeds of the Japanese walnut, Juglans ailanthifolia, are usually scatter-hoarded by two rodent species, the Japanese squirrel Sciurus lis and the field mouse Apodemus speciosus, but only by the latter in several areas where S. lis is absent. We examined seed-size-mediated interactions of these three species across a wide geographic range. Field tracking\\u000a of walnuts with miniature radio-transmitters revealed that
The phylogenetic relationships of Costaceae, a tropical monocotyledonous family sister to the gingers (Zingiberaceae), were investigated with a combination of two chloroplast loci (the trnL-F locus, including the trnL intron, the 3'trnL exon, and the trnL-F intergenic spacer, and the trnK locus, including the trnK intron and the matK coding region) and one nuclear locus (ITS1-5.8s-ITS2). The resulting parsimony analysis of selected taxa that demonstrate the range of floral morphological variation in the family shows that the Cadalvena-type [corrected] floral morphology is ancestral to the group and that both Tapeinochilos species and a Monocostus + Dimerocostus clade represent recent divergences. The genus Costus is broadly paraphyletic but Costus subgenus Eucostus K. Schum. represents a large monophyletic radiation that is poorly resolved. Within this clade, secondary analyses suggest that pollination syndrome, traditionally used for taxonomic and classification purposes within the genus Costus, is a relatively plastic trait of limited phylogenetic utility. This represents the first detailed investigation into intrageneric and interspecific evolutionary relationships within the family Costaceae and presents some novel evolutionary trends with respect to floral morphology and biogeography. PMID:11741377
Specht, C D; Kress, W J; Stevenson, D W; DeSalle, R
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838
Tsuji, M; Wei, Q; Zamoto, A; Morita, C; Arai, S; Shiota, T; Fujimagari, M; Itagaki, A; Fujita, H; Ishihara, C
In the present work we have described the in vivo antimalarial activity of six different plants. Two of them (Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum) were tested in a randomic approach among 273 crude extracts from plants; four (Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus and Tachia guianensis) were selected after screening 22 crude extracts from different medicinal plants used in Brazil against fever and/or malaria. We also studied chemically defined molecules and some of them showed antimalarial activity in vitro. Some aspects of recent research with natural products aiming to produce drugs are discussed. PMID:1841997
Eight species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are reported from Panamanian lizards. –Eimeria randolphi n. sp. is a biliary parasite of –Gymnopthalmus speciosus (Gymnopthalmidae) with cylindrical oöcysts, 29.1 × 16.8 m (25.0–31.5 × 15.0–18.5), an oöcyst length\\/width index (shape-index, SI) of 1.73 (1.46–2.07) and no polar granule or oöcyst residuum. Ovoidal sporocysts are 9.5 × 7.8 m (9.0–10.5 × 7.0–8.5), with
Three hundred twenty-five amphibians (80 salamanders, 245 frogs and toads) from Arkansas and Texas, representing 28 species within 9 families (Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, Salamandridae, Sirenidae, Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodacytlidae, Microhylidae, Ranidae) were examined for gall bladder myxosporeans. Of these, 32 (10%) were found to harbor Myxidium serotinum Kudo and Sprague, 1940, including 3 (4%) of the salamanders and 29 (12%) of the frogs and toads. This report documents 6 new host records for M. serotinum in Ambystoma opacum, Bufo americanus charlesmithi, Bufo speciosus, Acris crepitans blanchardi, Gastrophryne olivacea, and Pseudacris streckeri illinoensis. In addition, the Great Plains narrowmouth toad G. olivacea represents the first microhylid host of Myxidium spp. worldwide. PMID:7776139
Increasing documentation of changes in the distribution of species provides evidence of climate change impacts, yet surprisingly little empirical work has endeavoured to quantify how such recent and rapid changes impact genetic diversity. Here we compare modern and historical specimens spanning a century to quantify the population genetic effects of a climate-driven elevational range contraction in the alpine chipmunk, Tamias alpinus, in Yosemite National Park, USA. Previous work showed that T. alpinus responded to warming in the park by retracting its lower elevational limit upslope by more than 500m, whereas the closely related chipmunk T. speciosus remained stable. Consistent with a reduced and more fragmented range, we found a decline in overall genetic diversity and increased genetic subdivision in T. alpinus. In contrast, there were no significant genetic changes in T. speciosus over the same time period. This study demonstrates genetic erosion accompanying a climate-induced range reduction and points to decreasing size and increasing fragmentation of montane populations as a result of global warming.
Rubidge, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Lim, Marisa; Burton, A. Cole; Brashares, Justin S.; Moritz, Craig
One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345
Dias, Fátima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Knoff, Marcelo
Speciation involves the evolution of traits and genetic differences that contribute to reproductive isolation and the cessation of gene flow, and studying closely related species and divergent populations gives insight into how these phenomena proceed. Here, we document patterns of gene flow within and between two members of a rapid Neotropical species radiation, Costus pulverulentus and Costus scaber (Costaceae). These species co-occur in the tropical rainforest and share pollinators, but are reproductively isolated by a series of prezygotic barriers, some of which show evidence of reinforcement at sympatric sites. Here, we genotype microsatellite markers in plants from eight sites that span the geographical range of both species, including four sympatric sites. We also genotype putative hybrids found at two sympatric sites. We find high levels of genetic isolation among populations within each species and low but detectable levels of introgression between species at sympatric sites. Putative hybrids identified by morphology are consistent with F1 or more advanced hybrids. Our results highlight the effectiveness of prezygotic isolating mechanisms at maintaining species boundaries in young radiations and provide empirical data on levels of gene flow consistent with reinforcement. PMID:23952304
Standard O-C (Observed-Computed) analysis assumes that the residual deviations of observed times from linearity are independent random variables. As Koen and Lombard (1993) point out, when a star's period is not constant but fluctuates about a constant mean value, this assumption leads to false confirmation that the period is changing. They supply an alternate test, CUSUM (CUmulative SUMs), which amounts to a series of scaled comparisons of "before" and "after" series averages. It can be extended by computing a separate scale factor for each individual (CUSUM, yielding the SCUSUM test. This can be further extended to the SCUSUM+ test by including the effect of lag-1 correlation of the data.
A typical pulsating subdwarf B star of the EC 14026 class, PB8783 has been a target of two observing runs. The discovery run (Koen et al. 1997) identified six low amplitude periodicities between 120 and 135 seconds. It was a target of multi-site campaign (O'Donoghue et al. 1998) that revealed eleven periodicities in the range of 94-136 seconds. We present 25 hours of "fresh" time series photometry of PB8783 obtained during a two week observing run at the Erwin W. Fick Observatory in November 2003. Several periodicities have been identified in the light curve over the same range as seen in earlier data. While some frequencies are the same in both epochs and appear at similar amplitudes, some puzzling differences have emerged.
Vu?kovi?, M.; Hostler, S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Behera, B.
To identify the vector species for Shimokoshi type Orientia tsutsugamushi, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan from April to May 2012. In all, 2889 larval trombiculid mites were obtained from 21 Apodemus speciosus rodent hosts, 2600 of which were morphologically classified into eight species in three genera. After screening of O. tsutsugamushi DNA in individual larval trombiculid mites using real-time PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, serotype-specific nested PCRs targeting the 56 kDa protein gene were performed, followed by sequencing analysis. As a result, Shimokoshi type O. tsutsugamushi DNA was identified from 3 (1.9%) of 157 Leptotrombidium palpale. This is the first study to identify Shimokoshi type O. tsutsugamushi DNA in L. palpale. The results indicate that L. palpale is a possible vector for Shimokoshi type O. tsutsugamushi. PMID:23253042
Enteropathogenic bacteria was isolated from 131 of 447 (29.4%) neotropical Panamanian lizards belonging to 34 species of seven families. Overall, 147 strains of bacteria were isolated comprising 26 Salmonella and 10 Arizona serotypes. Gymnopthalmus speciosus had the highest infection rate, 12 of 13 individuals (92.3%), whereas Gonatodes fuscus exhibited the lowest, 1 of 18 (5.6%). The highest infection was detected in lizards whose behavioral patterns were secretive (42.0%) and terrestrial (42.6%), whereas the lowest infection was among the scansorial lizards (17.5%). Rates were highest during the dry season, from January through April. Many neotropical Panamanian lizards were multiply infected by Salmonella an Arizona strains representing representing a wide range of serotypes. Infected lizards were distributed in areas varying from remote rural and forested regions to urban developments, offering a potentially important reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria known to cause infection in man and domestic animals.
To determine the source of infection for the Japanese index case of human babesiosis, we analyzed blood samples from an asymptomatic individual whose blood had been transfused into the patient. In addition, we surveyed rodents collected from near the donor's residence. Examination by microscopy and PCR failed to detect the parasite in the donor's blood obtained 8 months after the donation of the blood that was transfused. However, we were able to isolate Babesia parasites by inoculating the blood sample into SCID mice whose circulating red blood cells (RBCs) had been replaced with human RBCs. A Babesia parasite capable of propagating in human RBCs was also isolated from a field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) captured near the donor's residential area. Follow-up surveys over a 1-year period revealed that the donor continued to be asymptomatic but had consistently high immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in serum and low levels of parasitemia which were microscopically undetectable yet which were repeatedly demonstrable by inoculation into animals. The index case patient's sera contained high titers of IgM and, subsequently, rising titers of IgG antibodies, both of which gradually diminished with the disappearance of the parasitemia. Analysis of the parasite's rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence and immunodominant antigens revealed the similarity between donor and patient isolates. The rodent isolate also had an rDNA sequence that was identical to that of the human isolates but that differed slightly from that of the human isolates by Western blot analysis. We conclude that the index case patient acquired infection by transfusion from a donor who became infected in Japan, that parasitemia in an asymptomatic carrier can persist for more than a year, and that A. speciosus serves as a reservoir of an agent of human babesiosis in Japan.
Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor.
A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young - rolled - leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581
Dr. Genryo Torafumi Okuyama, the second son of Dr. Genchu Okuyama of the Kaminoyama clan, was born on Dec. 4th, 1847. His elder brother Dr. Toraakira Okuyama was promoted to Dai Ikan (Senior Captain), the highest rank of medical officer in the Japanese Navy, and rendered distinguished services in the establishment of the naval medical systematization in the early Meiji era. Dr. Trafumi Okuyama, who was appointed as medical officer of the Yokohama army Hospital and transferred to Daibyoin in Edo, was engaged in medical treatment of injured soldiers during the Boshin-war in 1868. He went to Kagoshima with William Willis and as one of the founders of the Kagoshima Medical school, gave students education there. He resigned his naval position in 1874, when he was Dai Gun I (Senior Leutenant) and died at the age of 41 in April 16th 1887. Dr. Torafumi Okuyama compiled A medical vocabulary in English and Japanese ("Igo Ruizyu") and Deutsch-Japanisches Hand-Wörterbuch für Medizin ("Dokuwa Igaku Ziten) and published "Koen Hikki", the translation of the lectures by Dr. Edwin Wheeler. PMID:11618875
Koen and Yonelinas (2010) contrasted the recollection and encoding variability accounts of the finding that old items are associated with more variable memory strength than new items. The study indicated that (a) increasing encoding variability did not lead to increased measures of old item variance, and (b) old item variance was directly related to the contribution of recollection. Jang, Mickes, and Wixted (2012) and Starns, Rotello, and Ratcliff (2012) wrote responses that, on the surface, appear to challenge those results. However, the issues raised about our first finding turn out to have no theoretical or empirical support. In addition, although Jang et al. replicated our second finding, they contested our conclusions on the basis of a perceived problem with the analyses (i.e., we used 5 rather than 2 points to calculate predicted zROC slopes). However, their concern was misplaced because the pattern of results is the same regardless of the number of points used in the analysis. They also conducted a simulation that, at first glance, appeared to suggest that our second finding was biased to favor the recollection account of the dual process model. We show that this conclusion arose because Jang et al. mistakenly built the contested correlation pattern into the simulated data. Overall, the 2 response articles serve to strengthen the main conclusions of our initial article by reiterating that there is no evidence in support of the encoding variability account, and the replication study by Jang et al. adds to the evidence favoring the recollection account. PMID:23339375
The goal of asteroseismology is to discern the physical conditions of stars by comparing observed pulsations with models. To obtain this goal, the observed pulsation periods and the spherical harmonics (n, l, and m) need to match the theoretical model. Typically the most difficult part in this process is the identification of the pulsation modes in the observations. Multicolour photometry is one method that has proven useful for identifying pulsation modes. By observing stars through various wavebands, and comparing the amplitudes and phases, it is possible to determine the spherical harmonics. This contribution will emphasize the work of Watson (1988), which has since been applied to many different types of variable stars including ? Scuti (Garrido et al., 1990), ? Doradus (Breger et al., 1997), ? Cepheid (Cugier et al., 1994), and EC 14026 (Koen, 1998) stars. I will also discuss the technique of summing spectra (especially UV) into various wavebands which are then used to identify modes as pioneered by Robinson, Kepler, and Nather (1982) and applied to white dwarf stars (Kepler et al., 2000).
1. Ninety-five crude extracts obtained with either organic solvents or water from 48 Brazilian plants or parts of plants were evaluated experimentally as blood schizontocides. Seventy-three extracts were obtained from 33 plants randomly collected using an empirical approach, and 22 from 15 "medicinal" plants. 2. The crude extracts were screened in vivo at up to 1.0 g/kg, po, for 4 days in mice infected with blood forms of Plasmodium berghei and parasitemia was determined on the fifth day. 3. Six plants, 2 randomly collected, Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum, and 4 "medicinal" plants, Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus, and Tachia guianensis, were partly active against the rodent malaria, i.e., they showed 40-50% inhibition of P. berghei multiplication. Forty-two plants whose extracts presented no antimalarial activity are reported. 4. Four extracts with antimalarial activity were also tested in vitro using P. falciparum cultures and two of them, V. brasiliana and A. australe, were active. Extracts of V. brasiliana caused about 50% inhibition of parasite multiplication at relatively low doses (40 ng/ml) as compared to chloroquine (30 ng/ml) and quinine (50 ng/ml). 5. The relatively high percentage of positive results obtained here for "medicinal" plants vs randomly chosen plants demonstrates the effectiveness of the ethnopharmacological approach to drug testing. PMID:1823001
Carvalho, L H; Brandão, M G; Santos-Filho, D; Lopes, J L; Krettli, A U
Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)
A total of 59 strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were isolated from patients (24 isolates), Apodemus speciosus mice (30 isolates), and unfed larvae of Leptotrombidium scutellare (2 isolates) and Leptotrombidium pallidum (3 isolates) in the Gotenba-Oyama District, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. All these isolates were classified into the three serotypes Karp, Kawasaki, and Kuroki based on reactivity with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. Kawasaki- and Karp-type rickettsiae were isolated from L. scutellare and L. pallidum, respectively, and the geographic distribution of patients and rodents infected with these two types of rickettsiae coincided with the areas densely populated by the respective chiggers. From these results, we conclude that Kawasaki-type rickettsiae are transmitted by L. scutellare and Karp-type ones are transmitted by L. pallidum. Kawasaki-type rickettsial infections were prevalent in early autumn, and Karp-type infections showed a peak of occurrence in the late autumn, reflecting the seasonal fluctuations of L. scutellare and L. pallidum. Isolates of Kuroki-type rickettsiae were obtained only from four patients in October and November, and the relationship between this type of rickettsia and its vector species could not be fully defined.
Kawamori, F; Akiyama, M; Sugieda, M; Kanda, T; Akahane, S; Uchikawa, K; Yamada, Y; Kumada, N; Furuya, Y; Yoshida, Y
A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming bacterium, strain ASB1(T), able to degrade tannin, was isolated from faeces of the Japanese large wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain could be assigned as a member of the genus Lactobacillus. The nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Lactobacillus animalis DSM 20602(T) (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus murinus ASF 361 (98.9 %). Subsequent polyphasic analysis, including automated ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, confirmed that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain is 38.5 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan is of type A4alpha L-lys-D-asp. The type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 16634(T)=CIP 108913(T)). PMID:16825652
This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.
Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann
This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.
Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann
Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. In order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae) were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP), Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae) showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae) showed good antioxidant activity (48%); in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae) showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. PMID:22017115
Niño, Jaime; Correa, Yaned Milena; Cardona, Germán David; Mosquera, Oscar Marino
Leaf surfaces (phyllospheres) have been shown to provide appropriate conditions for colonization by microorganisms including diazotrophic bacteria that are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)). In this study, we determined leaf-associated N(2) fixation of a range of rainforest plants in Costa Rica, under different environmental conditions, by tracing biomass N incorporation from (15)N(2). N(2)-fixing bacterial communities of the plant species Carludovica drudei, Grias cauliflora and Costus laevis were investigated in more detail by analysis of the nifH gene and leaf-associated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. N(2) fixation rates varied among plant species, their growth sites (different microclimatic conditions) and light exposure. Leaf-associated diazotrophic bacterial communities detected on C. drudei and C. laevis were mainly composed of cyanobacteria (Nostoc spp.), whereas on the leaves of G. cauliflora gamma-proteobacteria were dominant in addition to cyanobacteria. The complexity of diazotrophic communities on leaves was not correlated with N(2) fixation activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested the presence of complex microbial communities in association with leaves, however, cyanobacteria showed only low abundance. Our findings suggest that cyanobacteria as well as gamma-proteobacteria associated with leaf-colonizing epiphytes may provide significant nitrogen input into this rainforest ecosystem. PMID:18273066
1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.
Dioxins cause various adverse effects in animals including teratogenesis, induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, tumor promotion, and endocrine disruption. Above all, endocrine disruption is known to disturb reproduction in adult animals and may, also seriously impact their offspring. However, most previous studies have quantified the species-specific accumulation of dioxins, whereas few studies have addressed the physiological impacts of dioxins on wildlife, such as reduced reproductive function. Here we clarify an effect of endocrine disruption caused by dioxins on the Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Japanese field mice collected from various sites polluted with dioxins accumulated high concentrations of dioxins in their livers. Some dioxin congeners, especially, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro biphenyl, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which showed high biota-soil accumulation factors, contributed to concentration of dioxins in mouse livers with an increase of accumulation of total dioxins. As for physiological effects on the Japanese field mouse, high levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA, a drug metabolizing enzyme induced by dioxins, were found in the livers of mice captured at polluted sites. Furthermore, at such sites polluted with dioxins, increased CYP1A1 expression coincided with reduced numbers of active spermatozoa in mice. Thus, disruption in gametogenesis observed in these mice suggests that dioxins not only negatively impact reproduction among Japanese field mice, but might also act as a kind of selection pressure in a chemically polluted environment. PMID:24026525
We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins. PMID:16770711
Of 247 rodents comprising 5 genera and 7 species collected at 17 sites throughout Japan from 2003 to 2005, Babesia microti was detected microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 36 rodents comprising 2 genera and 3 species from 12 sites. Based on the analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) sequences, the Kobe-type, the etiological type of the first Japanese case of human infection was found in Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus in Aomori, the northernmost prefecture of the Japanese mainland, while the U.S.-type was found on Hokkaido Island and the Otsu-type was widely distributed. In addition, a new Otsu-related type was detected exclusively in Eothenomys andersoni in Nagano, a prefecture in central Japan. The sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 (ITS1/2) of the present Kobe- and Otsu-types were almost identical to those of the same types previously identified. The ITS1/2 sequence of the U.S.-type identified in Hokkaido in this survey was somewhat different from that of the U.S.-type strain originating from the U.S.A., with approximately 95% identity. This value was similar to the 94% identity found between the ITS1/2 sequences of the Otsu-type and the new Otsu-related type. The new Otsu-related type of B. microti was isolated as the Nagano strain, which was serologically differentiated from the other type strains of B. microti. The divergence and distribution of genotypes are important factors in investigating the epidemiology of human B. microti infection in Japan. PMID:17237595
Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590
Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A
Background and Aims It is an enduring question as to the mechanisms leading to the high diversity and the processes producing endemics with unusual morphologies in the Himalayan alpine region. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships and origins of three such endemic genera were analysed, Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus, all in the tribe Cardueae of Asteraceae. Methods The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnL-F and psbA-trnH regions of these three genera were sequenced. The same regions for other related genera in Cardueae were also sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined data sets of the three types of sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The phylogenetic tree obtained allowed earlier hypotheses concerning the relationships of these three endemic genera based on gross morphology to be rejected. Frolovia and Saussurea costus were deeply nested within Dolomiaea, and the strong statistical support for the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade suggested that circumscription of Dolomiaea should be more broadly redefined. Diplazoptilon was resolved as sister to Himalaiella, and these two together are sister to Lipschitziella. The clade comprising these three genera is sister to Jurinea, and together these four genera are sister to the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade. Xanthopappus, previously hypothesized to be closely related to Carduus, was found to be nested within a well-supported but not fully resolved Onopordum group with Alfredia, Ancathia, Lamyropappus, Olgaea, Synurus and Syreitschikovia, rather than the Carduus group. The crude dating based on ITS sequence divergence revealed that the divergence time of Dolomiaea–Frolovia from its sister group probably occurred 13·6–12·2 million years ago (Ma), and the divergence times of the other two genera, Xanthopappus and Diplazoptilon, from their close relatives around 5·7–4·7 Ma and 2·0–1·6 Ma, respectively. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the intergeneric relationships in Cardueae. The crude calibration of lineages indicates that the uplifts of the Qiinghai–Tibetan Plateau since the Miocene might have served as a continuous stimulus for the production of these morphologically aberrant endemic elements of the Himalayan flora.
Objective Prospective studies show a 10% incidence of sternal wound infection (SWI) after 90?days of follow?up, compared with infection rates of 5% reported by the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System after only 30?days of follow?up. This incidence increases 2–3 times in high?risk patients. Design Prospective randomised double?blind controlled clinical trial. Setting Cardiothoracic centre, UK. Patients Patients were eligible if they were undergoing median sternotomy for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, with at least one internal thoracic artery used for coronary grafting and having one or more of the following three risk factors: (1) obesity, defined as body mass index 30?kg/m2; (2) diabetes mellitus; or (3) bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts (ie, the use of the other internal thoracic artery). Interventions The study group received a single dose of gentamicin 2?mg/kg, rifampicin 600?mg and vancomycin 15?mg/kg, with three further doses of 7.5?mg/kg at 12?hour intervals. The control group received cefuroxime 1.5?g at induction and three further doses of 750?mg at 8?hour intervals. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the incidence of SWI at 90?days. The secondary end point was the antibiotic and hospital costs. Results During the study period, 486 patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with a 30?day SWI of 7.6%. 186 high?risk patients were recruited and analysed: 87 in the study group and 99 in the control group. 90?day SWI was significantly reduced in 8 patients in the study group (9.2%; 95% CI 3.5% to 15.3%) compared with 25 patients in the control group (25.2%; 95% CI 19.5% to 39.4%; p?=?0.004). The study group had a significantly lower cost of antibiotics (21.2% reduction—US$96/patient; p<0.001), and a significantly lower hospital cost (20.4% reduction in cost—US$3800/patient; p?=?0.04). Conclusions Longer and broader?spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduces the incidence of SWI in high?risk patients, with a significant economic benefit in costs of antibiotics as well as hospital costs.
Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing.
Raman spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive method for the characterization of carbons . These show two features: the G and D peaks, around 1580 and 1350cm-1 respectively. The G peak corresponds to the doubly degenerate E2g phonon at the Brillouin zone centre. The D peak is due to the breathing modes of sp^2 atoms and requires a defect for its activation [1-5]. It is common for as-prepared graphene not to have enough structural defects for the D peak to be seen [4,6], so that it can only be detected at the edges . The most prominent feature in graphene is the second order 2D peak . This is always seen, since no defects are required for its activation. Its shape distinguishes single and multi-layers . Raman spectroscopy also monitors doping [7-9]. We report the evolution of the Raman spectra of single [7,8] and bi-layer  graphene as a function of doping. A Fermi level shift is induced either by applying a bottom gate , or by a polymeric top gate [8,9], or naturally happens as a result of charged impurities . This induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak for both hole and electron doping . This is explained including dynamic corrections to the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation . The phonon renormalization of bilayer graphene has characteristic features compared to single layer. This allows a direct estimation of the interlayer coupling [7-9]. We then consider the effects strain. Uniaxial strain lifts the E2g degeneracy and splits the G peak in two: G^+ and G^-. The peaks downshift as a function of strain allows a direct measurement of the Gruneisen parameter . The polarization dependence of the G^+/G^- modes is a probe of the crystallographic orientation of the sample . Finally, we consider the effect of disorder [3,4,11] and show how to discriminate between disorder, strain and doping . We will also discuss how the D peak is a signature of ? electron localisation, and, thus, of gap opening in chemically modified graphene. [4pt] 1. A. C. Ferrari, J. Robertson (eds), Raman spectroscopy in carbons: from nanotubes to diamond, Theme Issue, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 362, 2267 (2004). 2. F. Tuinstra, J.L. Koening, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1126(1970). 3. A. C. Ferrari, J. Robertson Phys Rev B 61, 14095 (2000); 64, 075414 (2001) 4. A. C. Ferrari Solid State Comm.143, 47 (2007) 5. S. Piscanec et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 185503 (2004) 6. A. C. Ferrari et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006) 7. S. Pisana et al. Nature Mater. 6, 198 (2007) 8. A. Das et al, Nature Nano 3, 210 (2008). 9. A. Das et al., arXiv:0807.1631v1 (2008) 10. A. C. Ferrari et al. submitted (2008) 11. C. Casiraghi et al. Appl. Phys Lett. 91, 233108 (2007) 12. Elias et al. arXiv:0810.4706 (2008)
A list of 54 copepod species (Crustacea) in 23 families is presented for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Identifications are from zooplankton samples of the Victor Hensen Expedition during December 1993 and February 1994. Samples were taken with a Bongo net (0.60 m net opening, 2.50 m net length) with 200 microns mesh size. Oblique hauls were done from the surface to the ground at a towing speed of aprox. 1 knot. 37 species (68.5%) were found in the Gulf of Nicoya, 36 in Golfo Dulce (66.6%) and 17 (31.4%) species were common to both gulfs, while only twelve species (22.2%) were found in Coronado Bay. Four species (7.4%) were distributed along the coast and were common to the three regions: Paracalanus parvus, Euchaeta sp., Oithona plumifera and O. similis. Eleven species of calanoids found normally in the Costa Rica Dome show the influence of typical oceanic waters principally at the mouth of Gulf of Nicoya. Differences were observed in the composition and presence of the copepod species when the inner and outer (upper and lower) parts of both gulfs were compared. Gulf of Nicoya was dominated in its upper part by typical neritic estuarine species like Acartia lilljenborgii, Paracalanus parvus and, Hemyciclops thalassius as well as species of Pseudodiaptomus. On the other hand a more oceanic composition of copepods was observed in the lower part of the gulf. Both small species, like Oncaea venusta, as well as larger species, such as Pleuromamma robusta, Eucalanus attenuatus, E. elongatus and Rhincalanus nasutus, were typical of these waters. Oithona plumifera and O. similis were found in the lower part too; and both species are typical from oceanic water. Coronado Bay was characterized by the presence of typical oceanic species like Neocalanus gracilis, Euchaeta longicornis, Eucalanus attenuatus and Haloptilus ornatus with more transitional species like Clausocalanus pergens and C. furcatus near the coast. In the Golfo Dulce differences in copepod composition were also observed, but the separation of the species was not so evident. Outer stations were represented by oceanic species like Paracalanus aculeatus, Pleuromamma gracilis, Lucicutia ovalis, Candacia catula, Euchaeta wolfendeni and Oncaea mediterranea, while the inner station, located at the upper part of the Gulf, was more characterized by a mixed copepod group, with both neritic species like Pseudodiaptomus wrigthi, Acartia danae, A. clausi, Canthocalanus pauper as well as oceanic species like Scolicithricella marginata, Saphirina nicromaculata or Oncaea conifera. Two species of Coryceaus, C. flaccus and C. speciosus, were identified in the outer stations of Golfo Dulce, while C. brehmi was found in inner stations of Gulf of Nicoya. The majority of copepods found are typical of the east Pacific. This paper constitutes an additional work about the copepods in the Gulf of Nicoya and the first report of copepod species for Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce. PMID:9393648