Sample records for costus speciosus koen

  1. Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Aerial Parts of Costus speciosus Koen

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165

  2. In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Costus speciosus (Koen) J.E. Sm.

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jeetendra; Bhatia, Manish; Narkhede, Minal

    2010-01-01

    Costus speciosus (Koen) J.E. Sm. plant and its extracts are used for treatment of fever, snake bites, jaundice, and as a purgative, astringent and antibacterial agent. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of this plant by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, ion chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and its correlation with total phenolic content. PMID:24363737

  3. Flavonol glycosides from flowers of Crocus speciosus and C. antalyensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rikke Nřrbćk; Tadao Kondo

    1999-01-01

    From the flower extracts of Crocus speciosus and C. antalyensis nine flavonol glycosides have been isolated. One of these products is a new flavonol glycoside identified as kaempferol 3-O-?-(2,3-di-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl)rhamnopyranoside by UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy.

  4. A review on Insulin plant (Costus igneus Nak)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Prakash K.; Rao, Harini A.; Rao, Prasanna N.

    2014-01-01

    Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date. PMID:24600198

  5. Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

    2002-10-01

    The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

  6. A Novel Hemagglutinin with Antiproliferative Activity against Tumor Cells from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Boletus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31?kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100?mM NaOH and 25?mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25?mM?Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7??M and 7.0??M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1??M. PMID:24977148

  7. A novel hemagglutinin with antiproliferative activity against tumor cells from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31 kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100 mM NaOH and 25 mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25 mM?Hg(2+) and slightly inhibited by Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Pb(2+). None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7 ? M and 7.0 ? M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1 ? M. PMID:24977148

  8. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  9. Photosynthetic activity and growth analysis of the plant {Costus spicatus} cultivated under different light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, V. M.; Pasin, L. A. A. P.; Barja, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the photosynthetic activity rate of plants submitted to different light intensity regimes. The results obtained show that plants maintained under low light intensity levels (25% of sunlight) presented higher height, leaf area and number of leaves, while plants grown under full sunlight presented higher radicular length. PA measurements indicated higher photosynthetic rate for plants grown under 50% of full sunlight, but plants developed under 25% of full sunlight (75% shading) presented the fastest response to light incidence (photosynthetic induction).

  10. Pogo, a Middleware for Mobile Phone Sensing Niels Brouwers and Koen Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    of Technology {n.brouwers,k.g.langendoen}@tudelft.nl Abstract. The smartphone revolution has brought ubiquitous-scale mobile phone testbed is required to unlock the potential of this new technology. We aim to facilitatePogo, a Middleware for Mobile Phone Sensing Niels Brouwers and Koen Langendoen Delft University

  11. Historical effects on local variation in walnut-feeding behavior by the Japanese wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Reina; Hayashi, Fumio

    2012-02-01

    The Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus eats large, hard-walled walnuts of Juglans ailanthifolia immediately after finding or after hoarding them. However, not all individuals can efficiently eat the nuts. In this study, to examine local variation in the ability to eat walnuts, feeding behavior was compared among nine wood mouse populations, four from mainland Honshu, where the walnut tree is distributed, and five from the Izu Islands (30-100 km south of Honshu), which lack the tree species. To avoid the effects of pre-capture experience with walnuts, mice from areas lacking the walnut trees were used for testing, even in the Honshu sites. Most mice from Honshu were able to eat walnuts after a 14-day training period, whereas most insular mice could not, with the exception of mice on Kouzushima Island. An analysis of the population genetic structures of these mice based on sequences of the mitochondrial control (D-loop) region revealed that the four insular populations are genetically distinct from the mainland populations, whereas the Kouzushima population remains genetically similar to the mainland populations. The relatively recent colonization of Kouzushima may explain why mice from this island were able to feed on walnuts despite the lack of walnut trees on the island. Thus, walnut-feeding ability appears to have some innate basis in the Japanese wood mouse, and this trait would be selected for in a walnut-available environment as it would better enable mice to survive during food shortages. PMID:22303846

  12. Geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia, Muridae), from the Izu Island Group, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Mariko; Motokawa, Masaharu; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2009-04-01

    We investigated geographic variation in morphological traits of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) from the Izu Island Group, Japan. There was sexual dimorphism in external characters and cranial measurements; hence, these were considered in subsequent analyses. There was geographic divergence in morphometric characters among populations of the Izu Island Group and Honshu. Mice from the Miyakejima Island and Niijima-Shikinejima Islands differed from those of other populations and from each other; Oshima Island mice also differed, but to a lesser degree. Mice from three populations from Honshu were similar to one another, and mice from Kozushima Island were more similar to those from Honshu populations than those from Izu Island Group populations. These results suggest that A. speciosus populations in the Izu Island Group may have had multiple origins. One possible hypothesis to explain these patterns of variation is that the Miyakejima, Niijima, and Shikinejima populations may share a relatively longer history of overseas dispersal, whereas the Kozushima populations may have experienced a recent invasion from Honshu via human activities. PMID:19798920

  13. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ? 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney. PMID:25161323

  14. Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

  15. Costus productus (Cultivated ) 2 

    E-print Network

    David C. Reed

    2011-08-10

    in Oven Before Testing Properties of Asphalt Concrete with 0. 5% Group 2 and Group 3 Dried Cow Manure by Weight Added Extra. Specimens Heated in Oven Before Testing 26 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figures Page 4. 3 4. 4 4. 6 Properties of Asphalt... Added Extra and Heated in Oven Before Testing Specimens with Group 2 and Group 3 Cow Manure Added Extra and Heated in Water Bath Before Testing Other Test Results of Specimens with Group 2 and Group 3 Cow Manure Specimens for Water Susceptibility...

  16. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952

  17. An Engineer's Quest for Billy V. Koen

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    MERCEDES #12;14 Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Justice Beauty Good Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Good Plato's Engineer's #12;18 The Engineering Method (Design) Use of heuristics to cause the best

  18. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  19. Contrasting stress responses of two co-occurring chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A

    2015-01-15

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808

  20. STATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dniel Margcsy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Justified and Hermetic Order of little men who think they can reap the secrets of the ancients for a couple emphasized the necessary openness of science in 1956 to argue against McCarthyist obsessions with government

  1. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora. PMID:19930582

  2. Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…

  3. In4073 Lab Assignment 2013-2014 Koen Langendoen (course instructor)

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    father) Embedded Software group Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science). · The application is contemporary. Today's low-cost RC (radio controlled) model-UAVs (such as quad rotors

  4. Income Distribution and Social Security in an OECD Perspective Koen Caminada and Kees Goudswaard

    E-print Network

    Galis, Frietson

    .l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl k.p.goudswaard@law.leidenuniv.nl Leiden University Public Finance Department P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA of Economics at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Research areas: social Security at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and Crown

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV(RI)c photometry of HIP red stars (Koen+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, C.; Kilkenny, D.; van Wyk, F.; Cooper, D.; Marang, F.

    2002-09-01

    We present homogeneous and standardized UBV(RI)c photomet nearly 550 M stars selected from the Hipparcos satellite data base (Cat. ) using the following selection criteria: lack of obvious variability (no Hipparcos variability flag); {delta}<+10{deg}, (V-I)>1.7; and V magnitude fainter than about 7.6. Comparisons are made between the current photometry, other ground-based data sets and Hipparcos photometry. We use linear discriminant analysis to determine a luminosity segregation criterion for late-type stars, and principal component analysis to study the statistical structure of the colour indices and to calibrate absolute magnitude in terms of (V-I) for the dwarf stars. Various methods are used to determine the mean absolute magnitude of the giant stars. We find 10 dwarf stars, apparently previously unrecognized (prior to Hipparcos) as being within 25pc, including five within 20pc. (3 data files).

  6. FPGA area allocation for parallel C applications Vlad-Mihai Sima, Elena Moscu Panainte, Koen Bertels

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    systems have grown to be significantly com- plex and demanding for the system architects, hard- ware a microphone array to amplify the signal from one source while suppressing signals from others - process called

  7. Short-term effects of fire and forest thinning on truffle abundance and consumption by Neotamias speciosus in the Sierra Nevada of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt

    2005-01-01

    In many western North American forests, prescribed burning and mechanical thinning are widely used to re- duce fuels and restore stand conditions after a century of fire suppression. Few studies have followed the relative im- pacts of these treatments on the production and consumption of truffles in forest ecosystems, particularly in the Sierra Nevada of California. Using a full-factorial completely

  8. Segmentation of image ensembles via latent atlases Tammy Riklin-Raviv a,*, Koen Van Leemput a,c,d

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    human adult anatomy are widespread, reliable manual segmentations of newborn brains or of different body and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA c Department of Radiology, MGH, Harvard Medical School subcortical and cor- tical structures in a multi-subject study and extracting brain tumors in a single

  9. A QUANTITATIVE PREDICTION MODEL FOR HARDWARE/SOFTWARE PARTITIONING Roel Meeuws, Yana Yankova, Koen Bertels, Georgi Gaydadjiev, Stamatis Vassiliadis

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    linear regression on software complexity metrics (SCM), that predicts characteristics as area and delay predictions to prune the design space and support the partitioning process. The model is based on Software Complexity Metrics, which capture important as- pects of functions as control intensity, data intensity

  10. Vermeir, Koen. 2007. "Athanasius Kircher's Magical Instruments: An Essay on Science, Religion and Applied Metaphysics (16021680)." Studies in History and Philosophy of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Peter in the midst of the waters, and the cats locked into a catoptric chest, still turn our categories (2002), Rowland (2001a), Sardo (2001) and 2 halshs-00641624,version1-16Nov2011 #12;In this paper, I try

  11. 2010 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 3001-1435 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    in the Mid-Atlantic Region Pat Phipps, Professor of Plant Pathology, Tidewater AREC* ; Steve Koenning, Extension Plant Pathologist, North Carolina State University; Steve Rideout, Extension Plant Pathologist

  12. 77 FR 4036 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...improve the quality of healthcare, reduce its cost...using mobile phone technologies. The project will...performance of AHRQ healthcare research and healthcare information dissemination...forms of information technology. Comments...

  13. 76 FR 70723 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...improve the quality of healthcare, reduce its cost...using mobile phone technologies. The project will...performance of AHRQ healthcare research and healthcare information dissemination...forms of information technology. Comments...

  14. Signalling pathway in appressorium formation in Magnaporthe grisea

    E-print Network

    Filippi, Marta Cristina

    2004-11-15

    Muhly B. inermis smooth brome Musa sapientum French plantain B. sitchensis Alaska brome Oplismenus undulatifolius wavyleaf basketgrass Canna indica Indian shot Panicum miliaceum Chikushichloa aquatica P. ramosum signalgrass Costus...

  15. The chromosomes of some North American chipmunks (sciuridae) belonging to the genera tamias and eutamias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Nadler; Matthew H. Block

    1962-01-01

    The somatic chromosomes of T. striatus lysteri, E. minimus operarius, E. speciosus frater, E. quadrivittaius hopiensis and E. umbrinus montanus have been analyzed utilizing a method employing pretreatment with colchicine and hypotonic citrate followed by staining and squashing.

  16. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-19

    E-print Network

    in VDSL DMT based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu and Marc Moonen 2 December 2000 1 This report is available; HPNA mitigation in VDSL DMT based systems Deliverable Alcatel crosstalk project Koen Vanbleu, Marc. The interference rejection of HPNA based Home LANs is a major challenge in VDSL DMT based system design. We

  17. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-10a

    E-print Network

    between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert AND PER-TONE EQUALIZERS FOR DMT-BASED SYSTEMS Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc Moonen K-tone equalizer design for DMT transmission. It is shown that they can all be formulated ei- ther as a constrained

  18. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-117

    E-print Network

    Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc-- A time-domain equalizer (TEQ) is inserted in dis- crete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel

  19. Pattern formation in crystal growth under parabolic shear flow. II Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    the surface of icicles or inclined plane. In a previous paper [K. Ueno, Phys. Rev. E 68, 021603 (2003)], we be experimentally produced during ice growth by continu- ously supplying a proper water Q ml/h on an inclined plane with mean velocity VŻ from an undercooled thin liquid flowing down an inclined plane under the action

  20. Vladimir Klebanov Bernhard Beckert

    E-print Network

    Biere, Armin

    , Germany Email: beckert@kit.edu Armin Biere Institute for Formal Models and Verification Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Vinay Chaudhri SRI International, USA Koen Claessen Chalmers

  1. Promoting Self Directed Learning 1 Running head: PROMOTING SELF DIRECTED LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for discovery learning based on an "opportunistic" learning model that takes the current hypothesis Directed Learning in Simulation Based Discovery Learning Environments through Intelligent Support Koen-Directed Learning in Simulation Based Discovery Learning Environments Through Intelligent Support. Interactive

  2. Publications Publications

    E-print Network

    Seybold, Steven J.

    Society, 56(3): 229-394. 1983 Karban, Richard. Induced responses of cherry trees to periodical cicadaJournals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Publications Publications Richard Karban 1977 Karban, Richard. Growth form and interleaf shading by Costus lima in a Costa Rican rainforest. Biotropica

  3. Tamias umbrinus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) JANET K. BRAUN, AUBREY A. JOHNSON, AND MICHAEL A. MARES

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    umbrinus sedulus White, 1953b:573. Type locality ``from Mount Ellen, Henry Mountains, Garfield Coun- ty:53, 62. Name combination. Eutamias umbrinus umbrinus: White, 1953b:571. Name combination. Eutamias speciosus inyoensis Merriam, 1897:194, 202, 208. Type locality ``from White Mts., Inyo Co.,'' California

  4. Cache site selection by chipmunks ( Tamias spp.) and its influence on the effectiveness of seed dispersal in Jeffrey pine ( Pinus jeffreyi )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Vander Wall

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) seed dispersal performed by seed-caching yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and lodgepole chipmunks (Tamias speciosus) was compared to that of wind dispersal in the Sierra Nevada of western Nevada. Wind-dispersed seeds typically fall under or near the parent tree. Chipmunks removed 90 and 97% of 1064 radioactive seeds from each of two simulated

  5. 412 Florida Entomologist 93(3) September 2010 SIZE-SPECIFIC PROVISIONING BY CICADA KILLERS, SPHECIUS

    E-print Network

    Long, Andy

    412 Florida Entomologist 93(3) September 2010 SIZE-SPECIFIC PROVISIONING BY CICADA KILLERS killer wasps (Sphecius speciosus Drury) mass-provision underground nest burrows with cicadas they capture and paralyze in nearby trees. We studied provisioning by female cicada killers at 2 aggregations in north

  6. Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt

    2005-01-01

    The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary gen- eralist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer for- est at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999

  7. The search for new odorants: synthesis of animalic fragrant and musky/ambery compounds.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the recent research which allowed us to discover novel animalic odorants is presented. The new derivatives were prepared from readily available starting materials via easy reaction steps in good yields. They possess very different structures, such as bicyclic pentanols, glycolates, or tricyclic ketones, and all show interesting notes in the animalic fragrant family: from costus, leathery to ambery and musky scents, making them all attractive for different purposes. PMID:25329782

  8. Synchrony and Scaling in Dynamics of Voles and Mice in Northern Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottar N. Bjornstad; Nils Chr. Stensetii; Takashi Saitoh

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-six time series of the Japanese wood mouse (Apo- demus speciosus) and 185 time series of the grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus) spanning 31 years (1962-1992) were studied with respect to synchrony and spatial cor- relation in population dynamics. The time series were collected at fixed sites as part of the rodent census program of the Japanese Forestry

  9. Embryology and breeding systems in Crocus ( Iridaceae )—a study in causes of chromosome variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula J. Rudall; S. J. Owens; A. Y. Kenton

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of female reproductive structures inCrocus is given, using three different techniques: wax embedding and sectioning, SEM, and observation of cleared ovules by interference contrast microscopy. The results of this examination, and a chromosomal investigation of the intraspecific hybrids obtained by crossing specimens ofC. speciosus of different karyotypes, are used to test the hypothesis thatCrocus is apomictic. Although

  10. Community assembly of xeric-adapted anurans at multiple spatial scales

    E-print Network

    Dayton, Gage Hart

    2006-04-12

    (verified through literature and/or museum records). Species Maderas del Carmen Ca?on de Santa Elena Big Bend National Park Acris crepitans Morafka, 1977 Schmidt and Owens 1944 Bufo debilis Dayton et al. 2004 Bufo punctatus Dayton and Fitzgerald 2001... Bend National Park Acris crepitans absent absent absent Bufo debilis present absent present Bufo punctatus present present present Bufo speciosus absent present present Bufo valliceps absent absent absent Bufo woodhousii absent absent...

  11. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-01-01

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

  12. Estimation of the cost of using chemical protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwope, A.D.; Renard, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, either directly or through its Superfund contractors, is a major user of chemical protective clothing. The purpose of the study was to develop estimates for the cost of using this clothing. These estimates can be used to guide purchase decisions and use practices. For example, economic guidelines would assist in decisions pertinent to single-use versus reusable clothing. Eight cost elements were considered: (1) purchase cost, (2) the number of times an item is used, (3) the number of items used per day, (4) cost of decontamination, (5) cost of inspection, (6) cost of maintenance, (7) cost of storage, and (8) cost of disposal. Estimates or assumed inputs for each of these elements were developed based on labor costs, fixed costs, and recurring costs. The cost elements were combined into an economic (mathematical) model having the single output of cost/use. By comparing cost/use for various use scenarios, conclusions are readily reached as to the optimum economics for purchase, use, and reuse of the clothing. In general, clothing should be considered disposable if its purchase cost is less than its average cost/use per use for the anticipated number of times it will be reused.

  13. Epistasis increases power 1 Epistasis: Obstacle or advantage for mapping complex traits?

    E-print Network

    Casella, George

    Epistasis increases power 1 Epistasis: Obstacle or advantage for mapping complex traits? Koen J, or epistasis, are a crucial component of the genetic architecture of biologically relevant traits. However, epistasis is often viewed as a nuisance factor that reduces power for locus detection. Counter

  14. Spring 2014 Pedal power

    E-print Network

    Koen Lamberts #12;University highlights 4 International students give 4 York top vote The Killing.york.ac.uk/magazine spotlight Pedal power ­ 14 York velodrome opens The Ukrainian crisis ­ 16 an academic's experience Human 22 Staff news 23 11 17 20 13 9 Humans of York Voices of the voiceless The award-winning artist rose

  15. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2001) 50:122127 DOI 10.1007/s002650100345

    E-print Network

    Chase, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    receipt on the number of sperm stored by once-mated snails, Helix aspersa. Snails that were hit by darts 1996; Koene and Chase 1998a). We selected the helicid snail Helix aspersa as a model organism of Helix to be consistent with the existing behavioral literature. Communicated by L. Simmons D.W. Rogers

  16. All Vehicles are Cars: Subclass Preferences in Container Concepts

    E-print Network

    Smeulders, Arnold

    All Vehicles are Cars: Subclass Preferences in Container Concepts Daan T. J. Vreeswijk Koen E. A the way humans do, then cars and buses may be the only correct results. Categories and Subject Descriptors fail. A "horse on a beach" is likely to depict something different from a "horse with a plough". A "car

  17. Microwave Measurement System for Breast Cancer Imaging

    E-print Network

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    at Space Physics Research who helped me fabricate and test the experimental hardware. My fel- low graduate, including Maha Ali, Steven Clarkson, Xueyang Duan, Adel Elsherbini, Mario Fabiilli, Yuriy Goykhman, Mark, and Koen iii #12;provided daily reminders of my priorities. As for my parents, their gift of an unburdened

  18. Res. Nondestr. Eval. 12/1, 31-42, 2000 Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) techniques to discern material damage.

    E-print Network

    to discern material damage. Part II: Single Mode Nonlinear Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy. Koen E-A. Van Den-brittle materials causes significant second order and nonlinear effects on the acoustic wave propagation for non-destructive material testing has been developed and applied in the field of damage detection

  19. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SCD/SISTA/TR 2004-244

    E-print Network

    -symbol windowing for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers2 , Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Marc tone (DMT) uses an inverse discrete fourier transform (IDFT) to modulate data on the carriers. The high frequency bands. Applying a window function within the DMT symbol can alleviate this. However, window

  20. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-20

    E-print Network

    equalization for DMT-based transmission over IIR channels 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Leus and Marc Moonen 2 November-Bell Antwerp. The scienti#12;c responsibility is assumed by its authors. #12; Per Tone Equalization for DMT was presented for discrete multitone (DMT)­based systems. The traditional structure con­ sisting of a (real

  1. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-02

    E-print Network

    between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING 1 On Time-Domain And Frequency-Domain MMSE-Based TEQ Design For DMT maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ) and per-tone equal- izer design (PTEQ) for DMT transmission and cast them in a common

  2. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-118

    E-print Network

    Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 52, NO. 6, JUNE 2004 871 Bitrate-Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT) is inserted in discrete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel shortening. Many al- gorithms have been

  3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2003-190

    E-print Network

    for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers 2 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert and Marc Moonen March- MEFISTO-666 and the Research Project FWO nr.G.0196.02. #12;Abstract Discrete multi tone (DMT) uses a window function within the DMT symbol alleviates this, but introduces distortions that are generally

  4. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS). — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).

  5. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    May 2009 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike inter the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test Kenneth Neil Mertens a, , Koen Verhoeven a , Thomas Verleye

  6. LAJAM 8(1-2): 179-181, December 2010 e-ISSN 2236-1057 / ISSN 1676-7497 Centro Mamferos Aquticos, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa & Conservao de Mamferos Aquticos, ICMBio, Rod. Maurcio Sirotsky

    E-print Network

    Simőes-Lopes, Paulo César

    * Corresponding author, e-mail: paulo.flores@icmbio.gov.br, flores.p@terra.com.br 20 `Dolphin' in Dutch http. AZEVEDO13 , ANA C. O. MEIRELLES14 , LEONARDO FLACH15 , HECTOR BARRIOS-GARRIDO16 , PAULO C. SIMŐES-LOPES17 , HAYDÉE A. CUNHA18 AND KOEN VAN WAEREBEEK19 Dolphins of the genus Sotalia (Delphinidae) occur along

  7. Embedded Hardware Description Languages: Exploring the Design Space

    E-print Network

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Embedded Hardware Description Languages: Exploring the Design Space (Presentation Abstract) Koen some ele- ments of the design space that one faces when designing and implementing an embedded hardware) as well as traversable (i.e. we can generate netlists, call model checkers, or transform circuits

  8. International Journal of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Dec. 2012, Vol. 2 Iss. 4, PP. 23-32 Local Features in APICAS

    E-print Network

    Stanchev, Peter

    , including images of art. Current search engines headed by Google are paving the way in our information ageInternational Journal of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Dec. 2012, Vol. 2 Iss. 4, PP, d , Koen Vanhoof4, e , Benoit Depaire4, f , Rajkumar Kannan5, g 1 Institute of Mathematics

  9. Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499.

    E-print Network

    Galis, Frietson

    Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499. DOES A FLAT RATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl and Kees Goudswaard Leiden University, Public Finance Department, P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA Leiden REDUCE TAX PROGRESSIVITY? A SIMULATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS Koen Caminada Leiden University, Public

  10. Total football in innovation policy Discussion paper on the evaluation of innovation policy

    E-print Network

    1 Total football in innovation policy Discussion paper on the evaluation of innovation policy Koen Schoots, Bert Daniëls, Rodrigo Rivera ECN Policy Studies The innovation climate in the Netherlands is characterized by a strong position in research, but many innovations get lost on the way to commercialization

  11. DCCPS: BRP: BBPSB: Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Behavioral and Psychological Influences on Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pages S126-S134 Andrew Schrepf, Lauren Clevenger, Desire Christensen, Koen DeGeest, David Bender, Amina Ahmed, Michael J. Goodheart, Laila Dahmoush, Frank Penedo, Joseph A. Lucci III, Parvin Ganjei-Azar, Luis Mendez, Kristian Markon, David M. Lubaroff, Premal H. Thaker, George M. Slavich, Anil K. Sood, Susan K.

  12. Cerebral Cortex V 14 N 4 Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved Cerebral Cortex April 2004;14:353363; DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhh001 FEATURE ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    color-biased columns were found in many cortical visual areas, whereas luminance-biased activity 2004;14:353­363; DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhh001 FEATURE ARTICLE Search for Color `Center(s)' in Macaque Visual Cortex Roger B.H. Tootell1, Koen Nelissen2, Wim Vanduffel1,2 and Guy A. Orban2 1Nuclear Magnetic

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER OF HIGH PRANDTL NUMBER FLUID FLOW UNDER STRONG MAGNETIC FIELD

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    . Morley2 , M. A. Abdou2 1 Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan, yokomine@ence.kyushu-u.ac.jp 2 University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, 44-114 Eng. IV, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 3 Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 Japan 4 Kyoto University

  14. the Embedded Software Group prof.dr. K.G. Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    Smart Phone Sensing· IN4254 Smart Phone Sensing · IN4343 Real-Time Systems · IN4390 Quantitative Research focus 1. Wireless Sensor Networks Contact: Koen Langendoen k.g.langendoen@tudelft.nl 2. Cyber algorithms software development framework 13 | 24 #12;Research theme 2 : Cyber physical systemsy p y y 15

  15. Angular CMA: A modified Constant Modulus Algorithm providing steering angle updates

    E-print Network

    Angular CMA: A modified Constant Modulus Algorithm providing steering angle updates Koen C. H. Blom conditions and directions. This paper presents Angular CMA, a blind beamforming method that calculates steering angle updates (instead of weight vector updates) to keep track of the desired signal. Angular CMA

  16. The Design and Implementation of Feldspar an Embedded Language for Digital Signal Processing

    E-print Network

    Svenningsson, Josef

    Chalmers University of Technology {emax,koen,ms,josefs,anders.persson}@chalmers.se 2 Ericsson david.engdal@ericsson and of a mask with each integer in the range 0 to n. 3 The Feldspar project was initiated by Ericsson. Feldspar

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 677 Automated Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Model Outlier Detection Koen Van Leemput*, Frederik Maes, Dirk Vandermeulen for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions from multispec- tral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method measurements. Index Terms--Digital brain atlas, MRI, multiple sclerosis, tissue classification. I. INTRODUCTION

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Fall incidents unraveled: a series of 26 video-based

    E-print Network

    - tures [4,5]. Additionally, falls have serious psychological consequences (e.g. fear of falling increases the risk of negative outcomes, such as dehydration, hypothermia, pressure ulcers, bronchopneumonia and death [8,9]. * Correspondence: koen.milisen@med.kuleuven.be ^Deceased 1 Center for Health Services

  19. Strategic Planning at Brisbane Airport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Paul; Eva De Groot

    2010-01-01

    The CEO of Brisbane Airport Corporation (BAC), Koen Rooijmans, and his airport planning executive manager, Mark Willey, were preparing strategic plan for BAC's required development projects to facilitate the forecasted future demand of aircraft traffic movements at Brisbane Airport. This forecast, estimated an 80% increase in the total number of passengers who will use the airport by 2012–13. As a

  20. A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth Bjoern H. Menze1,2 , Koen Van tumor patients to monitor the state of the disease and to evaluate therapeutic options. A large number points. In this work we propose a joint generative model of tumor growth and of image observation

  1. The poison warrant: A powerful poison pill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Van Hulle; Koen Geens

    1993-01-01

    Following the hostile bid for Société Générale in Belgium, companies have adopted 'poison' warrants as a means of deterring raiders. They appear to circumvent many important rules of Belgian takeover legislation. Cynthia Van Hulle and Koen Geens demonstrate that poison warrants would mainly benefit larger shareholders in companies subject to attack.

  2. Human Babesiosis in Japan: Epizootiologic Survey of Rodent Reservoir and Isolation of New Type of Babesia microti-Like Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Zamoto, Aya; Morita, Chiharu; Arai, Satoru; Shiota, Tsunezo; Fujimagari, Masato; Itagaki, Asao; Fujita, Hiromi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838

  3. Phytotherapeutic profile of Nigerian herbs. I: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents.

    PubMed

    Iwu, M M; Anyanwu, B N

    1982-11-01

    From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695

  4. Anti-inflammation activity and chemical composition of flower essential oil from Hedychium coronarium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lu; C. X. Zhong; L. Wang; C. Lu; X. L. Li; P. J. Wang

    Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used in folk medicine for many conditions, such as contusion inflammation, anti-rheumatic and so on. In this study, chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory activity of this flowers' essential oil were investigated for the first time. Followed by GC-MS analysis, a total

  5. Development of SCAR marker linked to a root-knot nematode resistant gene in peanut

    E-print Network

    Yang, Hee Jeong

    2004-11-15

    ). Estimated annual peanut yield losses caused by M. arenaria are 8 %, 5.5 %, and 3 % for Alabama, Georgia, and Texas, respectively (Koenning et al., 1999; Minton and Baujard, 1990). The three major species attacking peanut are M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M.... javanica. Meloidogyne arenaria is the most prevalent species in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Texas (Ingram, 1980; Motsinger et al., 1976; Wheeler and Starr, 1987). The life cycle of the root-knot nematode consists of the egg, four juvenile stages...

  6. Über die korrelative Erhaltung entspreiteter Blattstiele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Dostál

    1962-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  Morfologickými pokusy na Syringa vulgaris, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Philadelphus coronarius, Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer negundo\\u000a a Bryophyllum crenatum je v této práci sledována závislost udržování bez?epelních ?apík? na korela?ních vlivech jiných ?ástí\\u000a rostliny a zkoušena možnost napodobit tyto korelace pomocí syntetických r?stových látek. Ukazuje se, že celistvost rostliny,\\u000a zajišt?ná hlavn? regula?ními vlivy ko?en? a list?, vyniká jasn?ji z chování bez?epelních ?apík? než

  7. Retrieval of urban thermophysical properties using surface temperature observed by METEOSAT-SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, K.; Pandey, P.; Casanova, G.; Bertrand, C.; Lefebvre, W.; Vliegen, J.

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, mesoscale meteorological models are used in applications in which urban agglomerations are spatially well resolved, employing grid cells with a horizontal extent of the order of a kilometer. Yet, large uncertainties regarding certain urban surface properties at these scales remain. In particular, the thermal roughness length and thermal admittance (or thermal inertia) are poorly known parameters. In the ESA/BELSPO project MUSTI ("Measuring Urban Surfaces' Thermal Inertia"), we derived thermal roughness length and thermal admittance for Paris by comparing the diurnal surface temperature profile simulated with the mesoscale meteorological model ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) against values measured by the SEVIRI sensor onboard the METEOSAT geostationary platform. In this simulation, the ARPS model was extended with "urbanized" land surface physics, and nested in output fields of the ECMWF model. Several tens of simulations were performed with the ARPS model, using slightly different values for the parameters of interest, and finally identifying the "best" values for these parameters as those that yielded the best match between simulated and observed surface temperature. As a main result, we found that Paris is characterised by a thermal roughness length value as provided by the Zilitinkevich parameterization for kB-1, together with a thermal admittance value of approximately 2200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. Corresponding author address: Koen De Ridder, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400, Mol, Belgium. E-mail: koen.deridder@vito.be

  8. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  9. Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

    2009-04-01

    The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  11. Some South African Rubiaceae Tree Leaf Extracts Have Antimycobacterial Activity Against Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium Species.

    PubMed

    Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant species contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of trees in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several species of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 tree species from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04?mg/mL against M.?smegmatis and M.?tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M.?aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis (correlation coefficient?=?0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25857273

  12. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  14. Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

  15. Phylogeny estimation of the radiation of western North American chipmunks (Tamias) in the face of introgression using reproductive protein genes.

    PubMed

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R; Sullivan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

  16. Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

  17. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  18. Household health care-seeking costs: experiences from a randomized, controlled trial of community-based malaria and pneumonia treatment among under-fives in eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to which community-based care reduces healthcare-seeking costs at the household level in rural and urban settings. This paper assesses the rural–urban differences in direct and indirect costs of seeking care from formal health facilities compared to community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods Exit interviews were conducted for 282 (159 rural and 123 urban) caregivers of children below five years who had received treatment for fever-related illnesses at selected health centres in Iganga and Mayuge districts. Data on the direct and indirect costs incurred while seeking care at the health centre visited were obtained. Using another tool, household level direct and indirect costs of seeking care from CMDs were collected from a total of 470 caregivers (304 rural and 166 urban). Costs incurred at health facilities were then compared with costs of seeking care from CMDs. Results Household direct costs of seeking care from health facilities were significantly higher for urban-based caregivers than the rural (median cost?=?US$0.42 for urban and zero for rural; p?

  19. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing. PMID:20796273

  20. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 ?Gy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after the accident. This dose rate exceeds 0.1-1 mGy d(-1) derived consideration reference level for Reference rat proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). PMID:25666988

  1. Estimators for the exponent and upper limit, and goodness-of-fit tests for (truncated) power-law distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschberger, Thomas; Kroupa, Pavel

    2009-05-01

    Many objects studied in astronomy follow a power-law distribution function (DF), for example the masses of stars or star clusters. A still used method by which such data is analysed is to generate a histogram and fit a straight line to it. The parameters obtained in this way can be severely biased, and the properties of the underlying DF, such as its shape or a possible upper limit, are difficult to extract. In this work, we review techniques available in the literature and present newly developed (effectively) bias-free estimators for the exponent and the upper limit. Furthermore, we discuss various graphical representations of the data and powerful goodness-of-fit tests to assess the validity of a power law for describing the distribution of data. As an example, we apply the presented methods to the data set of massive stars in R136 and the young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. For R136 we confirm the result of Koen of a truncated power law with a bias-free estimate for the exponent of 2.20 +/- 0.78/2.87 +/- 0.98 (where the Salpeter-Massey value is 2.35) and for the upper limit of 143 +/- 9/163 +/- 9Msolar, depending on the stellar models used. The star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (with ages up to 107.5yr) follow a truncated power-law distribution with exponent 1.62 +/- 0.06 and upper limit 68 +/- 12 × 103Msolar. Using the graphical data representation, a significant change in the form of the mass function below 102.5Msolar can be detected, which is likely caused by incompleteness in the data.

  2. [Relevance of pharmacoeconomic analyses to price and reimbursement decisions in Austria].

    PubMed

    Führlinger, Susanne

    2006-12-01

    Since the social sick funds have only limited amounts of money at their disposal, whereas the pharmaceutical market is constantly growing, thorough evaluations have to be undertaken how contributions are to be spent to get adequate value for money and especially to gain utmost benefit for the patients. When deciding on whether a pharmaceutical is listed in the Code of Reimbursement or not, pharmacoeconomic studies are obligatory in two cases: for real innovations with substantial therapeutic benefit and for applications for inclusion in the Yellow Box, when there are no alternatives listed in the Yellow Box. On the basis of the pharmacoeconomic study a comprehensible and justifiable cost/use relation of the pharmaceutical applied for should be proven in comparison with therapeutic alternatives in Austria. However, a pharmacoeconomic study is always only one aspect among others deciding on reimbursement and price. Even though the pharmaceutical applied for is not included in the Code of Reimbursement, reimbursement is possible in special cases if there is no adequate pharmaceutical listed in the Code of Reimbursement and the pharmaceutical is absolutely needed for therapeutic reasons. In these cases prior approval from a chief medical officer is required. Pharmacoeconomic studies for the purpose of section sign 25 of the Rules of Procedure for publishing the Code of Reimbursement (VO-EKO) must meet the following requirements: From a methodical point of view both cost-effectiveness analyses and--in justified cases--cost-utility analyses may be used. Due to required accuracy and traceability incremental analyses are preferred. Medical and economic data underlying the pharmacoeconomic study have to show a high degree of validity and evidence. The perspective to be taken is that of the Austrian Health Insurance. When determining the therapeutic alternatives, the most frequent indication, the most purposeful medical dosage and the main group of affected patients have to be considered. Hereby the order "Green Box-Yellow Box-Red Box" has to be taken into account. The direct costs of the obligatory benefits of the social insurance institutions of medical treatment (medical assistance, drugs, substitute assistance), institutional care (based on LKF points) and the medical measures of rehabilitation are to be set. Due to required transparency and traceability quantity and cost structure have to be listed separately. Prices of single items and resource usage in form of units of measurement have to be stated. Studies performed in other countries than Austria may be subject to different health care systems, general conditions, therapeutic alternatives and costs and have therefore to be adapted to Austrian conditions. It must not be disregarded that pharmacoeconomics as any other science comprises different opinions and basic approaches and that pharmacoeconomics is making progress all the time. However, considering their limitations with regard to the interpretation of the results, pharmacoeconomic studies are a key factor for assessing new pharmaceuticals and represent an important contribution to reimbursement and price decisions in Austria. PMID:17211765