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Sample records for costus speciosus koen

  1. Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Aerial Parts of Costus speciosus Koen

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165

  2. Micromonospora costi sp. nov., isolated from a leaf of Costus speciosus.

    PubMed

    Thawai, Chitti

    2015-05-01

    An endophytic actinobacterial strain, CS1-12(T), was isolated from a leaf of Costus speciosus. Single spores were observed directly on the substrate mycelia. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of this strain exhibited meso-diaminopimelic acid and 3-OH-meso-diaminopimelic acid. Arabinose, glucose, ribose, xylose and rhamnose were detected as whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids of this strain were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8), MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4). The main components of the cellular fatty acids (>10%) were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis data showed that strain CS1-12(T) should be classified in the genus Micromonospora and that it is closely related to Micromonospora fulviviridis DSM 43906(T) (99.3%). The physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties, including the DNA-DNA hybridization results, indicated that strain CS1-12(T) could be judged a novel species of the genus Micromonospora , for which the name Micromonospora costi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS1-12(T) (?=BCC 58124(T)?=NBRC 109518(T)). PMID:25687348

  3. Evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454

  4. Pharmacognostical study and establishment of quality parameters of aerial parts of Costus speciosus-a well known tropical folklore medicine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri Kishor; Srivastava, Sourabh; Sangeeta; Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Tahseen, Mohd Adil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costus speciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species. PMID:25182951

  5. Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24?h and 48?h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200??g/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100??g/mL methanol leaf extract for 24?h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ? 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148

  6. Cytotoxic Impact of Costunolide Isolated from Costus speciosus on Breast Cancer via Differential Regulation of Cell Cycle-An In-vitro and In-silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anita; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a biologically active molecule found in most of the medicinally valuable plants. The present study aims to evaluate the anticancer property of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Costunolide effectively reduced the viability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines at an IC50 value of 40??M. Flow cytometric analysis revealed costunolide mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in both the cell types. Western blotting results confirmed the alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1, D3, CDK-4, CDK-6, p18 INK4c, p21 CIP1/Waf-1 and p27 KIP1) and apoptosis inducers (caspase-3 and caspase-9) upon costunolide treatment in comparison with their expressions in normal breast cell line (MCF-10A). Costunolide mediated downregulation of positive cell cycle regulators and upregulation of negative cell cycle regulators were related to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The above results were validated with in-silico results that predicted stable interactions between costunolide and cancer targets. Thus costunolide effectively induced breast cancer cell apoptosis targeting cell cycle regulation, and the compound can be used as an effective herbal therapeutic molecule to treat breast cancer with further explorations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26178525

  7. Costus loangensis from Gabon 11 Costus loangensis, an exciting new species

    E-print Network

    of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas Africa, Gabon, Costaceae, Costus, Zingiberales, spiral ginger Introduction The plant family Costaceae

  8. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): Evidence from NRDNA ITS and STA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series o...

  9. Taxonomic revision of the Dichotomius speciosus (Waterhouse, 1891) species group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Maldaner, Maria E; Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2015-01-01

    The Dichotomius speciosus species group, endemic to the highlands of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and included in the subgenus Luederwaldtinia is taxonomically revised. Dichotomius alvarengai new species and D. malyi new species are described. Dichotomius bucki is here considered to be a new synonym of D. opalescens, for which a lectotype is designated. The group, as well as its species, is diagnosed. A taxonomic key, illustrations and discussions on systematics and conservation of the group are provided. PMID:26250207

  10. A Novel Hemagglutinin with Antiproliferative Activity against Tumor Cells from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Boletus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31?kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100?mM NaOH and 25?mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25?mM?Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7??M and 7.0??M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1??M. PMID:24977148

  11. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  12. Huddling facilitates expression of daily torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus.

    PubMed

    Eto, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kashimura, Atsushi; Morita, Tetsuo

    2014-06-22

    Small endotherms employ multiple adaptations to maintain energy balance in winter, including spontaneous daily torpor and simultaneous huddling. The relationships between these adaptations have been discussed in several previous studies, but it has not been well-established if huddling actually affects the expression of torpor in small endotherms. We examine whether and how huddling affects the expression of torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus, which is known to become torpid under artificial winter conditions. The mice were found to adjust expression of torpor in response to the number of cage mates. Torpor frequency and minimum torpid body temperature were both significantly elevated when the number of cage mates was increased, but there was no significant change in torpor bout length. Rewarming rate on arousal was lower when the number of cage mates was increased, suggesting reduction in endogenous rewarming due to exogenous passive rewarming. Food consumption per mouse decreased significantly with increasing number of cage mates. Thus, our study demonstrates that social thermoregulatory behaviors such as huddling can facilitate expression of spontaneous daily torpor in small rodents. These findings suggest that energy constraints, such as ambient temperature and food availability may not be the only modulating factors on the expression of daily torpor. PMID:24813827

  13. Refined Statistic-based Localisation for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks Tom Parker Koen Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Refined Statistic-based Localisation for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks Tom Parker Koen Langendoen Faculty-ordinate system based purely on the existing topology of the nodes, which provides the nodes with a location to integrate it with other co-ordinate systems (e.g. latitude/longitude). We are concentrating on anchor- based

  14. A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear- able augmented-reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic) and augmented reality (user-interface). Wireless communication is obvi- ously required to obtain services

  15. A Feasible LowPower AugmentedReality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    A Feasible Low­Power Augmented­Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse #3; Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear­ able augmented­reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic (wearability) and augmented reality (user­interface). Wireless communication is obvi­ ously required to obtain

  16. Freezing singularities in water drops Oscar R. Enrquez, lvaro G. Marn, Koen G. Winkels, and Jacco H. Snoeijer

    E-print Network

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    Freezing singularities in water drops Oscar R. Enríquez, Álvaro G. Marín, Koen G. Winkels of a drop of water on a cold plate (T = -20 C). The freezing front travels from bottom to top in about 18 s.1063/1.4747185.1]. Freezing singularities in water drops Oscar R. Enr´iquez,a) ´Alvaro G. Mar´in, Koen G. Winkels, and Jacco H

  17. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99?mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5?mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  18. Ecological differentiation and local adaptation in two sister species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace F; Schemske, Douglas W

    2015-02-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments have often provided evidence of local adaptation in temperate plants, but few such studies have been conducted in the tropics. To enhance our knowledge of local adaptation in tropical plants, we studied natural populations of two recently diverged Neotropical plant species, Costus allenii and C. villosissimus, in central Panama. We found that these species display a parapatric distribution that reflects local environmental differences on a fine geographic scale: C. allenii is found along ravines in the understory of primary forest, while C. villosissimus is found along forest edges. Light availability was lower in C. allenii habitats, while precipitation and soil moisture were lower in C. villosissimus habitats. We carried out reciprocal transplant experiments with seeds and clones of mature plants to test the hypothesis that the parapatric distribution of these species is due to divergent adaptation to their local habitats. We found strong evidence of local adaptation, i.e., when grown in their "home" sites, each species outperformed the species from an "away" site. Our finding that C. allenii and C. villosissimus are mainly isolated by their microhabitats provides a first step toward understanding the mechanisms of adaptation and speciation in the tropics. PMID:26240865

  19. A molecular dynamics simulation study of the Gibbs-Tolman-Koening-Buff equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Sun, Haimei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2015-09-01

    The applicability of the Gibbs-Tolman-Koening-Buff (GTKB) equation has been a concern. A scheme is designed to test the GTKB equation. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for argon liquid of different systems containing different numbers of atoms with a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential at a temperature of 78 K. The Tolman length and the surface tension are calculated. Based on the analysis, we conclude the GTKB equation is tenable for R*s > 8.

  20. Balancing function of the masticatory muscles during incisal biting in two murid rodents, Apodemus speciosus and Clethrionomys rufocanus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, K

    1998-04-01

    The functional significance of masticatory muscle direction was estimated using a mechanical model in two murid rodents: the Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and the gray red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus). Theoretical analyses of the data suggest that a balancing mechanism among the muscle forces occurs during incisal power stroke. The activation of the large deep masseter in both murids results in marked tensile separation of two hemimandibles at the flexible mandibular symphysis. Activation of the internal pterygoid decreases this large tensile force at the symphysis more efficiently than other muscles. The lines of action of the deep masseter and internal pterygoid are aligned to produce such a balancing function in both species studied here. The resultant force generated by the deep masseter on both sides is opposite in direction to the reaction force at the lower incisor tip. Therefore, the large deep masseter forms an effective mandibular support mechanism when the reaction forces during biting push the mandible downward. Because of the area of insertion and the line of action, the posterior temporalis appears to have an important role in stabilizing the position of the mandibular condyle in the glenoid fossa during incisal biting. PMID:9503662

  1. Redescription of Metabronema magnum (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a swimbladder parasite of the carangid fish Gnathanodon speciosus off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2007-11-01

    The cystidicolid nematode Metabronema magnum (Taylor, 1925) is redescribed from specimens collected from the swimbladder of the fish (golden trevally) Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae, Perciformes) off New Caledonia, South Pacific (a new geographical record). The light and scanning electron microscopical examination made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known species. Its pseudolabia were found to possess distinct anterior protrusions (protuberances), sublabia are absent, only four cephalic papillae are present, deirids are bifurcated, and the male possesses six pairs of postanal papillae. By its morphology, M. magnum seems to be most similar to species of Salvelinema Trofimenko, 1962, also from the swimbladder of fishes, differing from them mainly in the presence of median wedge-shaped outgrowths in the mouth, lateral alae, the longer spicule on the right side, and a fewer number of pairs of preanal papillae in the male. Since the morphology of M. magnum considerably differs from that of other representatives of the Cystidicolidae, Metabronema in Rasheed's (1966) conception is considered a valid genus. PMID:18303771

  2. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

    2014-01-01

    Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500??g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125??g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 ?g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5??g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125??g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

  3. Proximate composition, mineral content and in vitro antioxidant activity of leaf and stem of Costus afer (Ginger lily)

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, G. N.; Onajobi, F. D.; Osilesi, O.; Adebawo, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to determine the proximate composition and mineral content of Costus afer leaf and stem, as well as to identify the most active antioxidant fraction. Materials and Methods: The proximate composition and mineral analysis of C. afer leaf and stem were performed using the standard methods described by Pearson and Association of Official Analytical Chemist while the 1,1 diphenyl 2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Results: Proximate analysis revealed that the carbohydrate content was highest in the leaf (55.83 ± 3.71%) and stem (50.38 ± 1.27%) while crude fat content was lowest in the leaf (1.83 ± 0.43%) and stem (1.75 ± 0.48%). The minerals detected in appreciable quantity in both the leaf and stem samples were calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and copper. Further study showed that the aqueous leaf fraction exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) high DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 259.07 µg/ml) and TAC (7.95 ± 0.37 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) compared with the other test fractions while the aqueous stem fraction had the highest TBARS scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.37 µg/ml) and inhibition of LPO (IC50 = 41.15 µg/ml) compared with the other test fractions. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that C. afer could serve as a source of nutrient and minerals for animal nutrition and human metabolism. It also showed that the aqueous fractions of C. afer leaf and stem possess high antioxidant activity than the other fractions. In addition, this study may also explain the folkloric use of crude C. afer leaf or stem extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress associated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic disorder. PMID:26401361

  4. Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

  5. Costus productus (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    David C. Reed

    2011-08-10

    steps: calibrate interpolation coefficients and interpolate the whole k-space . . . . . . 19 2.7 (a) The target excitation logo pattern (b) the spiral-in trajectory and (c) the designed pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2..., the accelerated must be performed along the array direction no matter which original full sampling scheme is used. This makes it difficult to be used in trajectories such as spiral and radial. Finally, similar to the SENSE method, the receive sensitivities...

  6. Morphological and molecular aspects of Ceratomyxa mehlhorni n. sp., a parasite of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus in the Arabian Gulf off the Saudi Arabian coast, with data on its seasonal prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-10-01

    During a survey of the myxosporean fauna of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus from the Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia, a species of Ceratomyxa that did not conform to any known species was recorded. The infection was detected as a large number of mature spores free-floating in the bile. Mature spores were hat- or helm-like in the frontal view with two short and unequal valves. The spores measured 8 (7-9)?×?12 (10-14). The two polar capsules were spherical, equal in size and measured 3 (2-4) in diameter with three filament turns. Sporoplasm was binucleated and filled the whole extracapsular space. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species did not match any available sequences in GenBank. The lowest genetic distance was 0.017, observed with Ceratomyxa moseri infecting Pomacentrus wardi from Australia's Great Barrier Reef. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed a close association between the new species and a variety of ceratomyxid species, including Ceratomyxa arabica reported from the Arabian Gulf. Given the morphological and molecular differences between this species and other Ceratomyxa spp., we proposed the present form was a new species and the name Ceratomyxa mehlhorni sp. n. for this parasite from the gallbladder of G. speciosus. PMID:26163134

  7. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952

  8. Classification of the spermatogenic cycle, seasonal changes of seminiferous tubule morphology and estimation of the breeding season of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in Toyama and Aomori prefectures, Japan

    PubMed Central

    OKANO, Tsukasa; ONUMA, Manabu; ISHINIWA, Hiroko; AZUMA, Noriko; TAMAOKI, Masanori; NAKAJIMA, Nobuyoshi; SHINDO, Junji; YOKOHATA, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    The large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, is a potential indicator of environmental stress, but this function has not been confirmed by histological studies. Since environmental stress affects the reproductive function of mice, we determined the reproductive characteristics of this species at two locations: Toyama (36°35?N, 137°24?E) and Aomori (40°35?N, 140°57?E). Mice were captured during May–November (n=119) and July–November (n=146) at these locations, respectively. We classified the breeding season from the numbers of pregnant females and young, in addition to the spermatogenic cycle and seasonal changes in seminiferous tubule morphology of males. Testicular weight was measured, and seminiferous tubule morphology was examined histologically. Fourteen stages were found in the seminiferous epithelium cycle based on acrosome formation and spermatid head morphology. At both locations, the breeding season peaked from late summer to early autumn and possibly in spring. Spermatogenic activity was classified into 4 periods from June to November: resting around June and October–November; resumptive around July; active around August; and degenerative around September. During the resting period, the seminiferous tubules consisted of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Spermatogenesis began during the resumptive period, and spermatids were observed. During the active period, active spermatogenesis and a broad lumen were observed. During the degenerative period, spermatogenesis ended, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and degenerating exfoliated round spermatids were observed. This study provides scientific information about the testicular histopathological evaluations of the large Japanese field mouse for its use as an index species of environmental pollution. PMID:25754934

  9. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  10. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS KOEN LANGENDOEN

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    out of energy; radio communication may be distorted by external interference; and low-cost sensors may unobtrusive habitat monitoring of wildlife, ad-hoc deployments for disaster management, precision agriculture is not an option. Second, also from a cost perspective, sensor networks must function autonomously without (much

  11. Connective field modeling Koen V. Haak a,b,c,

    E-print Network

    Dumoulin, Serge O.

    , The Netherlands c Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States d Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States e Helmholtz Institute, Experimental Psychology (location, contrast, color, motion) that are most effective at driving a neural response. Stimulus

  12. Improving SIFT accuracy with use of perspective transforms Koen Griffioen

    E-print Network

    Lew, Michael S.

    of the project of last year. OpenCV actually has an example project2 where exactly that is done aforementioned al- gorithms is because these three are all implemented in OpenCV 2.3.1, the version is already implemented in openCV3 . I started off with the implementation of the perspective transforms. When

  13. Contrasting stress responses of two co-occurring chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A

    2015-01-15

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808

  14. Use of household ingredients as complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Senadhira, Danusha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study on 220 diabetic patients using herbal remedies for perceived glycemic benefit. Results: All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%). Conclusion: The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored about their hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26401401

  15. Pogo, a Middleware for Mobile Phone Sensing Niels Brouwers and Koen Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    of Technology {n.brouwers,k.g.langendoen}@tudelft.nl Abstract. The smartphone revolution has brought ubiquitous and fea- tures fine-grained user-level control to guard the privacy of the volunteer smart-phone users Test Beds. 1 Introduction Modern smartphones are rapidly becoming ubiquitous and are even supplanting

  16. ForwardLooking BenefitBased Resource Allocation Nanno Langstraat, Koen Langendoen, and Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    group is developing an augmented­reality device that has high computational demands for 3D rendering economic theory stating that humans, when faced with a resource allo­ cation choice, evaluate a list

  17. APPLICATION OF ARC IN SYSTEM DESIGN Hylke van Dijk Koen Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    programme for mobile visual augmented reality. Ubicom considers so-called context-aware systems for mobile). Ubicom is at the high end of the class of context-aware systems. Augmented-reality supports applications, which complicates system-wide Quality of Service optimisation. In this paper we consider system

  18. APPLICATION OF ARC IN SYSTEM DESIGN Hylke van Dijk Koen Langendoen

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    programme for mobile visual augmented reality. Ubicom considers so­called context­aware systems for mobile). Ubicom is at the high end of the class of context­aware systems. Augmented­reality supports applications, which complicates system­wide Quality of Service optimisation. In this paper we consider system

  19. POWERAWARE VIDEO DECODING Johan Pouwelse \\Lambda Koen Langendoen Inald Lagendijk Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    is estimated using a simple frame length ­ decoding time correlation obtained from statistics gathered systems can temporarily stall the processor and put it into sleep­mode dissipating \\Lambda Supported controls the transition to and from sleep­mode. Figure 1 shows the power consumption of an example sequence

  20. POWER-AWARE VIDEO DECODING Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Inald Lagendijk Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    is estimated using a simple frame length - decoding time correlation obtained from statistics gathered the processor and put it into sleep-mode dissipating Supported by the Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific (15 fps). almost no power. Typically, the operating system controls the transition to and from sleep

  1. American Journal of Botany 92(11): 18991910. 2005. RAPID SPECIATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF

    E-print Network

    Olmstead, Richard

    OF HUMMINGBIRD POLLINATION IN NEOTROPICAL COSTUS SUBGENUS COSTUS (COSTACEAE): EVIDENCE FROM NRDNA ITS AND ETS euglossine bees or hummingbirds. The hummingbird pollination syndrome is supported as a derived character: Costaceae; ETS; euglossine bees; hummingbirds; ITS; neotropics; pollination syndromes; speciation

  2. LART: flexible, low-power building blocks for wearable computers Jan-Derk Bakker Koen Langendoen Henk Sips

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    , or futuristic augmented reality glasses)? What infrastructure will telecom operators provide (proprietary augmented reality terminals displaying visual information projected over and properly integrated will offer context aware services to users. A straightforward example is location awareness for tourist

  3. Book Reviews

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

    or in the entrails of other animals, camphor, coriander seed, olive. black aloewood, bitter re-skon, red sandalwood, white sandalwood, saffron, blue water lily, aquatic insect, medicinal climber, costus specious, justicia ganderussa, gold flower, bitumen...

  4. 78 FR 13566 - Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting and Availability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...Analysis B. Markups To Determine Prices C. Energy Use Analysis D. Life-Cycle...markups to determine equipment price; (3) energy use; (4) life-cycle cost...use by incorporating projected energy prices and installed stock in each...

  5. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 1999-80

    E-print Network

    /Frequency{Domain Adaptive Systems 1 Koen Eneman, Marc Moonen 2 Published in Signal Processing vol. 81(1), pp. 117{2001) : Modeling, Identi#12;cation, Simulation and Control of Complex Systems, Concerted Research Action MIPS authors. #12; Hybrid Subband/Frequency{Domain Adaptive Systems Koen Eneman Marc Moonen ESAT { Katholieke

  6. Physical modelling of Nikon Coolpix camera RGB responses for application in non-destructive leaf chlorophyll imaging

    E-print Network

    chlorophyll imaging Frank Veroustraetea,* , Willem W. Verstraetenb , Koen Hufkens c , Bert Gielen c and Filip- and Vegetation Ecology. Universiteitsplein 1, 2600 Wilrijk, Belgium. - koen.hufkens@ua.ac.be ABSTRACT Chlorophyll and the scaling up from leaf to canopy level. Leaf colour is an indicator of chlorophyll content, closely coupled

  7. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-117

    E-print Network

    Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc-- A time-domain equalizer (TEQ) is inserted in dis- crete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel

  8. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2003-168

    E-print Network

    Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers 1 Adaptive Bitrate Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems Koen Vanbleu*, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING I. INTRODUCTION Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation and orthogonal frequency

  9. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-19

    E-print Network

    in VDSL DMT based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu and Marc Moonen 2 December 2000 1 This report is available; HPNA mitigation in VDSL DMT based systems Deliverable Alcatel crosstalk project Koen Vanbleu, Marc. The interference rejection of HPNA based Home LANs is a major challenge in VDSL DMT based system design. We

  10. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-10a

    E-print Network

    between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert AND PER-TONE EQUALIZERS FOR DMT-BASED SYSTEMS Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc Moonen K-tone equalizer design for DMT transmission. It is shown that they can all be formulated ei- ther as a constrained

  11. THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE by KOEN STEIN* , COLIN PALMER been limited. Here, we provide a thorough aerodynamic analysis of both genera of British kuehneosaur words: Kuehneosauridae, Diapsida, Late Triassic, glid- ing, aerodynamics. The Kuehneosauridae

  12. Detailed project description: Astrophysical turbulence and dynamo action

    E-print Network

    Brandenburg, Axel

    Jabbari (PhD student) Mr Simon Candelaresi (Phil Lic) Mr Fabio Del Sordo (Phil Lic) Mr Koen Kemel (Phil Lic) Mr J¨orn Warnecke (Phil Lic) Dr Ebru Devlen (Postdoctoral fellow) Dr Oliver Gressel (Nordita

  13. Vladimir Klebanov Bernhard Beckert

    E-print Network

    Biere, Armin

    , Germany Email: beckert@kit.edu Armin Biere Institute for Formal Models and Verification Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Vinay Chaudhri SRI International, USA Koen Claessen Chalmers

  14. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Ontology Learning and Population, pages 3340, Sydney, July 2006. c 2006 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    Tiensestraat 41, 3000 Leuven, Belgium koen.deschacht@law.kuleuven.ac.be Marie-Francine Moens Interdisciplinary is closely related to both named entity recognition (NER), which tra- ditionally assigns nouns to a small

  15. 412 Florida Entomologist 93(3) September 2010 SIZE-SPECIFIC PROVISIONING BY CICADA KILLERS, SPHECIUS

    E-print Network

    Long, Andy

    412 Florida Entomologist 93(3) September 2010 SIZE-SPECIFIC PROVISIONING BY CICADA KILLERS killer wasps (Sphecius speciosus Drury) mass-provision underground nest burrows with cicadas they capture and paralyze in nearby trees. We studied provisioning by female cicada killers at 2 aggregations in north

  16. Dynamic nectar replenishment in flowers of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria Clara; Wilson, Paul; Thomson, James D

    2002-01-01

    Plants that experience variation in pollinator visitation rates or fluctuations in weather conditions may be expected to have evolved homeostatic mechanisms that regulate their nectar offerings, thereby providing a more constant reward to the pollinators. A limited degree of such nectar homeostasis is reported here for Penstemon. First, nectar removal stimulates replenishment: when nectar was removed hourly for 6 h from P. speciosus, twice as much nectar was secreted cumulatively as when nectar was removed only at the beginning and end of the same 6-h period. Second, replacing artificial nectar in the nectaries of P. speciosus prevents replenishment. Third, the hummingbird-adapted P. barbatus made more nectar before leveling off than the bee-adapted P. strictus. Our work and previous studies with other plants imply mechanisms for dynamic regulation of nectar offerings, at least within broad limits. We speculate about the proximate physiology underlying this behavior and its evolutionary significance. PMID:21669718

  17. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-01-01

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

  18. The search for new odorants: synthesis of animalic fragrant and musky/ambery compounds.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the recent research which allowed us to discover novel animalic odorants is presented. The new derivatives were prepared from readily available starting materials via easy reaction steps in good yields. They possess very different structures, such as bicyclic pentanols, glycolates, or tricyclic ketones, and all show interesting notes in the animalic fragrant family: from costus, leathery to ambery and musky scents, making them all attractive for different purposes. PMID:25329782

  19. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics Vol. 5, No. 1 (2008) 324

    E-print Network

    Ude, Ales

    2008-01-01

    the common focus of attention. A com- mon form of nonverbal communication is to capture the others' attention,, , ANSGAR KOENE,, and GORDON CHENG,, Knowledge Creating Communication Research Center, NICT, 2-2-2 Hikaridai-level system will capture and guide the focus of attention appropriately. Human communication implicitly

  20. Identification of cis-regulatory sequences that activate transcription in the suspensor of

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    embryos Tomokazu Kawashima, Xingjun Wang1 , Kelli F. Henry, Yuping Bi1 , Koen Weterings2 , and Robert B) Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that the G564 upstream region has a block

  1. Resource Allocation in Market-based Grids Using a History-based Pricing Mechanism

    E-print Network

    Bertels, Koen

    Resource Allocation in Market-based Grids Using a History-based Pricing Mechanism Behnaz of Technology Delft, The Netherlands {behnaz, arash, koen}@ce.et.tudelft.nl Abstract-In an ad-hoc Grid and producers determine their bid and ask prices using a sophisticated history-based dynamic pricing strategy

  2. A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth Bjoern H. Menze1,2 , Koen Van tumor patients to monitor the state of the disease and to evaluate therapeutic options. A large number points. In this work we propose a joint generative model of tumor growth and of image observation

  3. Still No Evidence for the Encoding Variability Hypothesis: A Reply to Jang, Mickes, and Wixted (2012) and Starns, Rotello, and Ratcliff (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Koen and Yonelinas (2010) contrasted the recollection and encoding variability accounts of the finding that old items are associated with more variable memory strength than new items. The study indicated that (a) increasing encoding variability did not lead to increased measures of old item variance, and (b) old item variance was directly related…

  4. NCI Relapse Workshop November 2009

    Cancer.gov

    Committee members Name Institue email Porter, David (co-chair) University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center david.porter@uphs.upenn.edu van Besien, Koen (co-chair) University of Chicago kvbesien@uchicago.edu Alyea, Ted Dana-Farber edwin_alyea@dfci.ha

  5. Detecting Wedge Shaped Defects in Polarimetric Images of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer.

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Detecting Wedge Shaped Defects in Polarimetric Images of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer. Koen detection of wedge shaped defects in Scanning Laser Polarimetry images of the retinal nerve fiber layer. A (a) (b) Fig. 1. Retardation images. (a) Healthy eye. (b) Wedge shaped defect, marked by white arrows

  6. Tolerance of resting cells of freshwater and terrestrial benthic diatoms to experimental desiccation and freezing is habitat-dependent

    E-print Network

    desiccation and freezing is habitat-dependent CAROLINE SOUFFREAU, PIETER VANORMELINGEN, KOEN SABBE AND WIM of freshwater and terrestrial benthic diatoms to experimental desiccation and freezing is habitat stages is tuned to the habitat in which they occur. We assessed the tolerance of vegetative and resting

  7. Contact Person: Razvan Nane

    E-print Network

    Bertels, Koen

    Scheduler: fplib loads FP and IP cores from an external library file, e.g. FP_ADD hwconfig sets platform for Scheduling Custom IP Blocks Razvan Nane, Vlad Mihai Sima, Hans van Someren and Koen Bertels The library approach can be used for coarse grained, previously developed or third party IP blocks. However

  8. Progression Detection of Glaucoma from Polarimetric Images

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Progression Detection of Glaucoma from Polarimetric Images K.A. Vermeer1,2 , N.J. Reus1 , F.M. Vos2, The Netherlands koen@ph.tn.tudelft.nl Abstract. Detecting glaucoma progression is crucial for assessing to outline suspect areas that show NFL reduction. 1 Introduction Glaucoma is a common eye disease wherein

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 25, NO. 5, MAY 2006 517 Modeling of Scanning Laser Polarimetry Images of

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Polarimetry Images of the Human Retina for Progression Detection of Glaucoma Koen A. Vermeer* , Frans M. Vos is with the Glaucoma Service, Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Schiedamsevest 180, NL-3011 BH Rotterdam, The Netherlands.lo@meditec.zeiss.com; q.zhou@meditec.zeiss.com). H. G. Lemij is with the Glaucoma Service, Rotterdam Eye Hospital, NL-3011

  10. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESATSISTA/TR 199951

    E-print Network

    /Frequency--Domain Adaptive Systems for Acoustic Echo Cancellation 1 Koen Eneman, Marc Moonen 2 July 1999 Published--2001) ('Modeling, Identification, Simulation and Control of Complex Systems'). The scientific responsibility is assumed by its authors. #12; HYBRID SUBBAND/FREQUENCY--DOMAIN ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS FOR ACOUSTIC ECHO

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 677 Automated Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Model Outlier Detection Koen Van Leemput*, Frederik Maes, Dirk Vandermeulen for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions from multispec- tral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method measurements. Index Terms--Digital brain atlas, MRI, multiple sclerosis, tissue classification. I. INTRODUCTION

  12. A forward model and conjugate gradient inversion technique for low-frequency ultrasonic imaging

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    A forward model and conjugate gradient inversion technique for low-frequency ultrasonic imaging Koen W. A. van Dongena and William M. D. Wrightb Ultrasonics Research Group, Department of Electrical noninvasive temperature monitoring, and ultrasonic techniques show promise in this regard. Various tomographic

  13. DCCPS: BRP: BBPSB: Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Behavioral and Psychological Influences on Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pages S126-S134 Andrew Schrepf, Lauren Clevenger, Desire Christensen, Koen DeGeest, David Bender, Amina Ahmed, Michael J. Goodheart, Laila Dahmoush, Frank Penedo, Joseph A. Lucci III, Parvin Ganjei-Azar, Luis Mendez, Kristian Markon, David M. Lubaroff, Premal H. Thaker, George M. Slavich, Anil K. Sood, Susan K.

  14. Will Agroforests Vanish? The Case of Damar Agroforests in Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Will Agroforests Vanish? The Case of Damar Agroforests in Indonesia Koen Kusters & Manuel Ruiz agroforestry in the Krui area of Sumatra in Indonesia is presented as an environmentally friendly, income will be established. Keywords Conservation . Development . Agroforests . Land-use change . Sumatra . Indonesia

  15. Delft University of Technology Master's Thesis in Embedded Systems

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands Embedded Software Group Department of Software Technology Faculty EEMCS, Delft University of Technology Delft, the Netherlands www.es.ewi.tudelft.nl © 2011 Bas desCV available to the public. You guys and girls did a wonderful job. Lastly I'd like to thank Koen Langendoen

  16. A three-dimensional imaging technique for a directional borehole radar

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    A three-dimensional imaging technique for a directional borehole radar Koen W.A. van Dongen, Peter M. van den Berg and Jacob T. Fokkema T&A RADAR, Badhuisweg 3, PO Box 37060, 1030 AB Amsterdam, The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper we describe a directional borehole radar system. We first present

  17. Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers: A Search for a Better Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Donald S.

    Possible alternate methods of preparing college level biology teachers are explored and related conferences held by the Commission on Undergraduate Education in Biological Sciences described. Koen contributes some ideas for preparation programs and describes the University of Michigan College Teacher Training Program. Alternatives to the Ph.D.…

  18. A Novel HDL Coding Style for Power Reduction Thomas Marconi, Dimitris Theodoropoulos,

    E-print Network

    Bertels, Koen

    A Novel HDL Coding Style for Power Reduction in FPGAs Thomas Marconi, Dimitris Theodoropoulos, Koen consumption. To avoid this, a new HDL coding style to reduce power consumption for reconfig- urable devices (HDL) coding style can affect performance, area and power consumption. We observe that almost all

  19. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-20

    E-print Network

    equalization for DMT-based transmission over IIR channels 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Leus and Marc Moonen 2 November-Bell Antwerp. The scienti#12;c responsibility is assumed by its authors. #12; Per Tone Equalization for DMT was presented for discrete multitone (DMT)­based systems. The traditional structure con­ sisting of a (real

  20. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2003-190

    E-print Network

    for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers 2 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert and Marc Moonen March- MEFISTO-666 and the Research Project FWO nr.G.0196.02. #12;Abstract Discrete multi tone (DMT) uses a window function within the DMT symbol alleviates this, but introduces distortions that are generally

  1. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SCD/SISTA/TR 2004-244

    E-print Network

    -symbol windowing for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers2 , Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Marc tone (DMT) uses an inverse discrete fourier transform (IDFT) to modulate data on the carriers. The high frequency bands. Applying a window function within the DMT symbol can alleviate this. However, window

  2. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-118

    E-print Network

    Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 52, NO. 6, JUNE 2004 871 Bitrate-Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT) is inserted in discrete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel shortening. Many al- gorithms have been

  3. IEEE Benelux Signal Processing Symposium (SPS-2002), Leuven, Belgium, March 2122, 2002 COMBINING PER TONE EQUALIZATION AND WINDOWING IN DMT RECEIVERS

    E-print Network

    COMBINING PER TONE EQUALIZATION AND WINDOWING IN DMT RECEIVERS Gert Cuypers, Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert multitone (DMT) based modems is proposed which incorporates receiver win- dowing operations. The method subscriber line (DSL). The high side- lobe level of the DFT filters present in classical DMT re- ceivers

  4. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-02

    E-print Network

    between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING 1 On Time-Domain And Frequency-Domain MMSE-Based TEQ Design For DMT maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ) and per-tone equal- izer design (PTEQ) for DMT transmission and cast them in a common

  5. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS). — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).

  6. Exp Fluids (2015) 56:97 DOI 10.1007/s00348-015-1961-3

    E-print Network

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    lowReynolds number locomotion in a kinematicdependent manner Francisco A. Godínez1 · Lyndon Koens2 mechanics of swimming microorganisms has been one of the most successful areas of biophysics, and precise on the relationship between the deformation kinematics of an organism and its resulting swimming speed in a Newto

  7. Three new species of the genus Trachelas (Araneae: Trachelidae) from an oak forest inside the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Quiroz, F Andrés; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the spider genus Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 are described and included in the speciosus group based on the following features: embolus as a separate sclerite from the tegulum with no basal coils, legs with a conspicuous fringe of long trichobothria and narrow copulatory ducts coiled irregularly. The new species described are: T. crassus sp. n., T. ductonuda sp. n. and T. odoreus sp. n. A total of 46 specimens were collected in an oak forest near Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico. Most individuals were collected on low vegetation using beating trays and direct collecting at night. Additional images are available at www.unamfcaracnolab.com. PMID:26250328

  8. Polymeric Separation Media: Binding of a§ unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds to Insoluble Resins through Michael Additions or Chelation of Derivatives

    E-print Network

    Fré chet, Jean M. J.; Hagen, Anna J.; Benezra, Claude; Cheminat, Annie

    1982-01-01

    —methylene-.'y--butyrolactones such as those shown in structures (I), (II) or (III), which are found in some plant extracts used in the perfume or cosmetics industry. For example, costus oil which is extracted from a plant of the widespread Compositae family, Saussurea lappa C., contains up... on other characteristics (e.g. fragrance properties) of he oils and did not allow the isolation of the pure allergenic substances for dermatological or pharmacological studies. In contrast, the approach we have designed can effect the complete removal...

  9. [Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Fátima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Knoff, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345

  10. Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Ito, T; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Rikihisa, Y; Hata, K; Hirai, K

    1999-04-01

    In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan. PMID:10074536

  11. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581

  12. Some South African Rubiaceae Tree Leaf Extracts Have Antimycobacterial Activity Against Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium Species.

    PubMed

    Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant species contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of trees in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several species of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 tree species from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04?mg/mL against M.?smegmatis and M.?tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M.?aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis (correlation coefficient?=?0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. PMID:25857273

  13. New palynological data from Karoo sediments, Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Engelbronner, E. R.

    1996-07-01

    The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).

  14. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G.; Kartavtseva, I.V.; Zagorodnyuk, I.V.; Belyanin, A.N.; Lyapunova, E.A.

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. New record of two genera of Trypanorhynch cestodes infecting Red Sea fishes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Nahed El-Sayed; Palm, Harry W

    2008-04-01

    Callitetrarhynchus and Floriceps (Lacistorhynchidae: Trypanorhyncha) belong to the less host specific genera with a wide host range. The present study reported plerocerci of Callitetrarhynchus speciosus Linton, 1897 from Conger cinereus, Longfine African Conger (Family: Congridae) and C. gracilis Pintner, 1931 (Family: Lacistorhynchidae) from five new teleost hosts of 2 different families: Lethrinus mehsena, Sky emperor and L. variegatus, Variegated Emperor (Lethrinidae); Cephalopholis miniata, Coral grouper, Epinepheus polyphekadion, Small toothed grouper or camouflage grouper and Epinephelus summana, Summana grouper (Serranidae). C. gracilis is characterized by an elongated scolex, 2 bothria, lacking a pars post bulbosa, elongated bulbs, a poeciloacanthous atypical metabasal armature with 7 principal hooks, and a chainette. Tegumental surface is covered with polymorphic microtriches: palmate (tetra, penta, hexadigitate), tricuspidate, bifurcate and filiform. For the first time, tufts of filamentous microtriches surrounding a cilium are recorded from C. gracilis proximal bothrial surface obtained from L. variegatus. Seven new host are recorded for the related lacistorhynchid Floriceps minacanthus, Lethrinus nebulosus Spangled Emperor, Lutjanus bohar 2 red spots Snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma Dory snapper, Epinephelus polyphekadion Small toothed grouper, E. summana Summana grouper, Variola louti Lunartail grouper, and Spharaena qenie Blackfine Barracuda. PMID:19143138

  16. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  17. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M. R.; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2015-01-01

    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies.

  18. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-01

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis. PMID:17825510

  20. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

  1. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. PMID:26296603

  2. Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

  3. Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

  4. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Castus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, Godswill Nduka; Funmilayo, Onajobi; Odutola, Osilesi; Olugbenga, Adebawo; Oboutor, Efere Martins

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the bioactive compounds in Costus afer Ker Gawl, an indigenous African medicinal plant whose leaf and stem extracts are used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatism and arthritis. Materials and Methods: The bioactive compounds present in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem were identified using qualitative phytochemical evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical method, comparing the mass spectra of the identified compounds with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database library. Results: Qualitative analysis detected alkaloids, saponins, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterol, phlobatannins, and tannins in both n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Phenols were detected in leaves alone while flavonoids were present in stem alone. GC/MS data showed that the bioactive compounds in n-butanol fraction of C. afer leaf were indolizine, 2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, phytol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecanoic acid-methyl ester, eicosane, cis-vaccenic acid and oleic acid while n-butanol fraction of C. afer stem contain benzofuran,2,3-dihydro,2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, campesterol, stigmasterol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:26401352

  5. Visual search for singleton targets redundantly defined in two feature dimensions: Coactive processing of color-motion targets?

    PubMed

    Krummenacher, Joseph; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-10-01

    In 2 visual search experiments, the role of feature contrast/saliency signals in generating detection responses to singleton feature targets in visual search was investigated using the redundant-target paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that coactive integration of dimensional signals is not restricted to targets defined on the color and orientation dimensions; rather, targets involving any of the combinations of color, orientation, and motion, are integrated coactively, as evidenced by violations of Miller's (1982) race model inequality. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for color-motion targets, with the target items' luminance adjusted, individually for each observer, to that of the distractors. The evidence for coactive processing of motion (saliency) with color and, respectively, orientation (saliency) signals suggests that, at variance with a recent suggestion by Li (2002; Koene & Zhaoping, 2007), signal integration in feature search tasks occurs at a stage following initial feature coding in primary visual cortex (V1), even though feature contrast computations in V1 may well contribute to saliency coding. In sum, the results suggest that detection responses were based on an integrated, overall-saliency representation indicating the presence of an odd-one-out item in the display, consistent with the dimension-weighting account of visual search (Müller et al., 1995, 2003). PMID:25089576

  6. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  7. Analysis of Ten Years of uvby Photometry of the Unique Cepheid V473 Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. A.; Dukes, R. J.; Fitch, W. S.

    2003-05-01

    The peculiar Cepheid V473 Lyrae (HR7308) has a very short period of 1.49 days with a pulsation amplitude which varies significantly with an approximately 1200 day period. We have been observing this star with the Four College Consortium Automatic Photometric Telescope since 1991. In this paper we compare our data with the various explanations suggested for the cause of the variation. These suggestions have included the beating of two or more close frequencies, one is radial and one is non-radial, as well as, an amplitude modulation of a single frequency, and others. Recently Koen (2001, MNRAS, 322, 97) has suggested that this star is analogous to a Blazhko effect RR Lyrae variable with the amplitude variation being explained by a frequency triplet. We suggest that an alternative explanation of a harmonic expansion of a single short period together with one long period provides a better fit to our data. We investigate a model for this modulation of a pulsating star due to a companion in a 1200 day orbit. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France and has been funded by NSF Grants #AST86-16362, #AST91-15114, #AST95-28906, and #AST-0071260 all to the College of Charleston. KAD acknowledges support of the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium: Undergraduate Research Program.

  8. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 ?Gy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after the accident. This dose rate exceeds 0.1-1 mGy d(-1) derived consideration reference level for Reference rat proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). PMID:25666988

  9. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770bp and 382bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688

  10. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasi?ska, Gra?yna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0–10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can deliver relatively high doses of Hg to consumers, but that rates can differ widely because of large variability in mercury concentrations between species and locations. PMID:26606425

  11. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing. PMID:20796273

  12. Micro, meso, macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljenström, Hans; Svedin, Uno

    1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.

  13. Potential of native Thai aromatic plant extracts in antiwrinkle body creams.

    PubMed

    Leelapornpisid, Pimporn; Wickett, R Randall; Chansakaow, Sunee; Wongwattananukul, Nitima

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of 10 essential oils and 10 absolutes extracted from Thai aromatic plants were evaluated and compared to thyme oil, trolox, quercetin, and kaempferol by two independent assays: the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging assay and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation. We found that four essential oils including ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Wan-sao-long leaf oil (Amomum uliginosum Koen), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus), holy basil oil (Ocimum sanctum L.), and the absolute of dwarf ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson var. fruticosa (Craib) J. Sinclair] exhibited high antioxidant activity in both DPPH and TBARS assays and possessed satisfactory fragrance properties. These were then combined into an essential oil blend (EOB) and retested for antioxidant activity. The EOB also exhibited high antioxidant activity in the above assays. It was then incorporated into a stable cream base as EOB body cream. The EOB body cream was found to be best able under storage in stress conditions and presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than its' cream base both before and after stability testing. The effect of EOB body cream on skin surface topography was evaluated in 29 healthy volunteers using the Skin Visiometer (SV 600 FW, CK Electronic GmbH, Germany). Three parameters, Ra, Rz (roughness), and surface, were analyzed. After 4 weeks of application, the EOB body cream showed significant reductions in surface and Rz compared with before treatment (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and with untreated and placebo treatment (p < 0.05, Duncan test). These results indicate that the essential oils and absolutes from Thai plants may serve as potential sources of natural antioxidants for spa and cosmetic products designed to prevent or treat signs of skin aging. PMID:26665978