Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.
In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddys hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewers yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhings caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165
An endophytic actinobacterial strain, CS1-12(T), was isolated from a leaf of Costus speciosus. Single spores were observed directly on the substrate mycelia. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of this strain exhibited meso-diaminopimelic acid and 3-OH-meso-diaminopimelic acid. Arabinose, glucose, ribose, xylose and rhamnose were detected as whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids of this strain were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8), MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4). The main components of the cellular fatty acids (>10%) were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis data showed that strain CS1-12(T) should be classified in the genus Micromonospora and that it is closely related to Micromonospora fulviviridis DSM 43906(T) (99.3%). The physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties, including the DNA-DNA hybridization results, indicated that strain CS1-12(T) could be judged a novel species of the genus Micromonospora , for which the name Micromonospora costi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS1-12(T) (?=BCC 58124(T)?=NBRC 109518(T)). PMID:25687348
Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.
Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454
Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri Kishor; Srivastava, Sourabh; Sangeeta; Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Tahseen, Mohd Adil
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costus speciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species. PMID:25182951
Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha
Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24?h and 48?h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200??g/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100??g/mL methanol leaf extract for 24?h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ? 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148
Nair, Sandhya V G; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha
Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 ?g/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 ?g/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ? 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148
Roy, Anita; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi
Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a biologically active molecule found in most of the medicinally valuable plants. The present study aims to evaluate the anticancer property of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Costunolide effectively reduced the viability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines at an IC50 value of 40??M. Flow cytometric analysis revealed costunolide mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in both the cell types. Western blotting results confirmed the alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1, D3, CDK-4, CDK-6, p18 INK4c, p21 CIP1/Waf-1 and p27 KIP1) and apoptosis inducers (caspase-3 and caspase-9) upon costunolide treatment in comparison with their expressions in normal breast cell line (MCF-10A). Costunolide mediated downregulation of positive cell cycle regulators and upregulation of negative cell cycle regulators were related to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The above results were validated with in-silico results that predicted stable interactions between costunolide and cancer targets. Thus costunolide effectively induced breast cancer cell apoptosis targeting cell cycle regulation, and the compound can be used as an effective herbal therapeutic molecule to treat breast cancer with further explorations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26178525
We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18Sâ26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series o...
Yan, Hong; Sun, Haimei; Zhou, Xiaofang
The applicability of the Gibbs-Tolman-Koening-Buff (GTKB) equation has been a concern. A scheme is designed to test the GTKB equation. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for argon liquid of different systems containing different numbers of atoms with a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential at a temperature of 78 K. The Tolman length and the surface tension are calculated. Based on the analysis, we conclude the GTKB equation is tenable for R*s > 8.
Maldaner, Maria E; Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z
The Dichotomius speciosus species group, endemic to the highlands of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and included in the subgenus Luederwaldtinia is taxonomically revised. Dichotomius alvarengai new species and D. malyi new species are described. Dichotomius bucki is here considered to be a new synonym of D. opalescens, for which a lectotype is designated. The group, as well as its species, is diagnosed. A taxonomic key, illustrations and discussions on systematics and conservation of the group are provided. PMID:26250207
Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing
Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31âkDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60Â°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70Â°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100âmM NaOH and 25âmM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25âmMâHg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7âÎ¼M and 7.0âÎ¼M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1âÎ¼M. PMID:24977148
Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil
Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...
Hikosaka, Kenji; Nakai, Yutaka
Cryptosporidium muris-like oocysts were isolated from large Japanese field mice, Apodemus speciosus. Morphologically, these oocysts resembled those obtained from a C. andersoni Kawatabi isolate but were smaller in size than those from a C.muris isolate. Following oral inoculation of the oocysts into large Japanese field mice and SCID mice, developing stages were found in the stomach epithelium. The infectivity of the isolate to wild and laboratory mice was slightly different from that of C.muris. DNA sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolate were not identical to those of any known Cryptosporidium spp.; however, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate was a member of the C.muris cluster. Differences between the isolate and C. muris are not significant at this point; therefore, we propose that this isolate is a novel genotype of C.muris and denote it as C. muris Japanese field mouse genotype. PMID:16151744
Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K
The wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) serves as a wildlife reservoir for Lyme disease spirochetes in Hokkaido, Japan. To isolate Borrelia species, we captured 34 wood mice in an area where Borrelia species are endemic during October 1993. The earlobes (right and left), heart, spleen, and urinary bladder from each mouse were used as culture sources. As a result of culture 73 isolates from 21 mice were classified by rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ribotype groups III (Borrelia afzelii) and IV (unknown species) were detected among those isolates. Thirty-one (77.5%) of 40 earlobe isolates were classified as group IV. In contrast, 6 (40.0%) of 15 heart isolates, 5 (50.0%) of 10 spleen isolates, and 7 (87.5%) of 8 urinary bladder isolates were B. afzelii. Seven mice showed mixed infection with B. afzelii and group IV. The data indicate that different Borrelia species can coexist in a reservoir host that is suitable for them. PMID:7536218
Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger
Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which
Murakoshi, Fumi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Ryuma; Kato, Yuuki; Sato, Rintaro; Sasaki, Takako; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka
The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Wild rodents are naturally infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium; thus, they are potential reservoirs of the parasites. Mice are common rodents frequently found in agricultural areas and have many opportunities to contact other wild animals, livestock, and humans. Irrespective of the potential risk, there are few epidemiologic studies of Cryptosporidium in wild mice because of their low economic importance and the difficulty in conducting surveys. Hence, the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in wild mice living around various areas remain unclear. We investigated the species and genotype distribution and prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in an agricultural site in Osaki, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. In total, 15 mice were captured and examined in this study. By microscopic analysis, only one mouse (JFM 3) was determined to be Cryptosporidium-positive, while the parasite were detected in four mice (JFM 3, 6, 10, and 15) by a molecular approach using partial SSU rRNA gene sequences. Based on nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. ubiquitum (from JFM 10) and C. muris (from JFM 3 and 6). In contrast, the Cryptosporidium in JFM 15 was not identified as a known species or genotype and is therefore proposed as a novel genotype; the Naruko genotype. More molecular data are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic identity of this novel Cryptosporidium genotype. The C. muris Japanese field mouse genotypes showed marked divergence compared to that in a previous report. The large Japanese field mouse might thus represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium spp. PMID:23601844
Tchamgoue, Armelle D; Tchokouaha, Lauve R Y; Tarkang, Protus A; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for Î±-amylase and Î±-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited Î±-amylase and Î±-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against Î±-amylase and Î±-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99âmg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5âmg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844
Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Fei; Bligh, S W Annie; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Shunchun
A homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharide APS-W1, (2â1)-Î²-d-fructofuranosan, with an average molecular weight of 3.9kDa, was isolated and characterized from the roots of Saussurea costus. Five sulfated derivatives of APS-W1 with different degrees of sulfation were prepared and they showed strong inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classical pathway (CP50: 2.2-18.9Î¼g/mL; 8.3Î¼g/mL for heparin) and alternative pathway (AP50: 11.4-115.8Î¼g/mL; 89.2Î¼g/mL for heparin). Mechanism studies by using complement-depleted sera indicated that sulfated derivatives with different positions of sulfation targeted to different complement proteins. Meanwhile the sulfated derivatives have limited anticoagulant effect based on re-calcification time and thrombin time. These results suggested that the sulfated derivatives prepared from APS-W1 could be promising potential complement inhibitors for the treatment of diseases caused by an over-activated complement system. PMID:24708964
Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99?mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5?mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844
Chen, Grace F; Schemske, Douglas W
Reciprocal transplant experiments have often provided evidence of local adaptation in temperate plants, but few such studies have been conducted in the tropics. To enhance our knowledge of local adaptation in tropical plants, we studied natural populations of two recently diverged Neotropical plant species, Costus allenii and C. villosissimus, in central Panama. We found that these species display a parapatric distribution that reflects local environmental differences on a fine geographic scale: C. allenii is found along ravines in the understory of primary forest, while C. villosissimus is found along forest edges. Light availability was lower in C. allenii habitats, while precipitation and soil moisture were lower in C. villosissimus habitats. We carried out reciprocal transplant experiments with seeds and clones of mature plants to test the hypothesis that the parapatric distribution of these species is due to divergent adaptation to their local habitats. We found strong evidence of local adaptation, i.e., when grown in their "home" sites, each species outperformed the species from an "away" site. Our finding that C. allenii and C. villosissimus are mainly isolated by their microhabitats provides a first step toward understanding the mechanisms of adaptation and speciation in the tropics. PMID:26240865
Hardikar, Manasi R; Varma, Mokshada E; Kulkarni, Anjali A; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Joshi, Bimba N
We have reported earlier, an orally active insulin-like protein (ILP) from Costus igneus having potent hypoglycemic property in STZ-induced diabetic Swiss mice. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly within two hours after feeding ILP orally in an oral glucose tolerance test. The present study elucidates the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic action of ILP. Mechanism of action of ILP was studied in differentiated L6 myotubes. 2-NBDG uptake stimulated by ILP was studied in differentiated L6 myotubes under normoglycemic, hyperglycemic and induced insulin resistant conditions. ILP treatment significantly increased 2-NBDG uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes. The levels of insulin signaling molecules IRS-1 and GLUT-4 were assessed in ILP treated L6 myotubes by immunoblot analysis of cytoplasmic and plasma membrane fractions respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed an increase in cytoplasmic IRS-1 with a concomitant increase in GLUT-4 translocation to the plasma membrane in a time dependent manner. Toxicity studies of ILP were performed on normal as well as diabetic Swiss albino mice. ILP did not show any toxicity in the acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in normal as well as diabetic Swiss albino mice. Mass spectrometry was carried out to identify ILP. MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis of ILP revealed sequence homology with the predicted protein from Physcomitrella patens. Our study reveals that ILP acts via insulin signaling pathway and can be used as oral insulin mimetic. PMID:26854130
Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000âBq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima. PMID:27005329
Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000âBq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima. PMID:27005329
Marson AscÃªncio, Poliana Guerino; AscÃªncio, SÃ©rgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio
Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500âÎ¼g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125âÎ¼g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 Î¼g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5âÎ¼g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125âÎ¼g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339
Das, Akan; Das, Purabi; Kalita, Mohan C; Mondal, Tapan K
Insulin plant (Costus pictus D. Don) is an economically important medicinal plant for the content of its high value secondary metabolites, bioactive compounds, and remarkable flowering features. MicroRNAs are a class of short (â¼21 nucleotides), endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules that play a vital role in regulating gene expression. Here, we used a computer-based homology approach to identify conserved miRNAs in Transcribed Sequence Assemblies (TSA) of C. pictus. It led us to identify 42 miRNAs of 13 different families in C. pictus for the first time. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, we further confirmed the expression of 8 miRNAs (miR394, miR159b, miR166k, miR172, miR159f, miR166, miR144, and miR858) in young and mature leaf tissues. A total of 109 potential target genes of the identified miRNAs were subsequently predicted in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome. The target genes encode transcription factors, enzymes, and various functional proteins involved in the regulation of several metabolic pathways. The findings in the present study lay the foundation for further research on miRNAs and miRNA-mediated gene regulation in this important medicinal plant. PMID:26490377
Salzman, Shayla; Driscoll, Heather E.; Renner, Tanya; André, Thiago; Shen, Stacy; Specht, Chelsea D.
Rapid radiations are notoriously difficult to resolve, yet understanding phylogenetic patterns in such lineages can be useful for investigating evolutionary processes associated with bursts of speciation and morphological diversification. Here we present an expansive molecular phylogeny of Costus L. (Costaceae Nakai) with a focus on the Neotropical species within the clade, sampling 47 of the known 51 Neotropical species and including five molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ETS, rps16, trnL-F, and CaM). We use the phylogenetic results to investigate shifts in pollination syndrome, with the intention of addressing potential mechanisms leading to the rapid radiation documented for this clade. Our ancestral reconstruction of pollination syndrome presents the first evidence in this genus of an evolutionary toggle in pollination morphologies, demonstrating both the multiple independent evolutions of ornithophily (bird pollination) as well as reversals to melittophily (bee pollination). We show that the ornithophilous morphology has evolved at least eight times independently with four potential reversals to melittophilous morphology, and confirm prior work showing that neither pollination syndrome defines a monophyletic lineage. Based on the current distribution for the Neotropical and African species, we reconstruct the ancestral distribution of the Neotropical clade as the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America. Our results indicate an historic dispersal of a bee-pollinated taxon from Africa to the Pacific Coast of Mexico/Central America, with subsequent diversification leading to the evolution of a bird-pollinated floral morphology in multiple derived lineages. PMID:26146450
Anyasor, G. N.; Onajobi, F. D.; Osilesi, O.; Adebawo, O.
Aim: This study was designed to determine the proximate composition and mineral content of Costus afer leaf and stem, as well as to identify the most active antioxidant fraction. Materials and Methods: The proximate composition and mineral analysis of C. afer leaf and stem were performed using the standard methods described by Pearson and Association of Official Analytical Chemist while the 1,1 diphenyl 2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Results: Proximate analysis revealed that the carbohydrate content was highest in the leaf (55.83 ± 3.71%) and stem (50.38 ± 1.27%) while crude fat content was lowest in the leaf (1.83 ± 0.43%) and stem (1.75 ± 0.48%). The minerals detected in appreciable quantity in both the leaf and stem samples were calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and copper. Further study showed that the aqueous leaf fraction exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) high DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 259.07 µg/ml) and TAC (7.95 ± 0.37 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) compared with the other test fractions while the aqueous stem fraction had the highest TBARS scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.37 µg/ml) and inhibition of LPO (IC50 = 41.15 µg/ml) compared with the other test fractions. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that C. afer could serve as a source of nutrient and minerals for animal nutrition and human metabolism. It also showed that the aqueous fractions of C. afer leaf and stem possess high antioxidant activity than the other fractions. In addition, this study may also explain the folkloric use of crude C. afer leaf or stem extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress associated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic disorder. PMID:26401361
Morphological and molecular aspects of Ceratomyxa mehlhorni n. sp., a parasite of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus in the Arabian Gulf off the Saudi Arabian coast, with data on its seasonal prevalence.
Mansour, Lamjed; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh
During a survey of the myxosporean fauna of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus from the Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia, a species of Ceratomyxa that did not conform to any known species was recorded. The infection was detected as a large number of mature spores free-floating in the bile. Mature spores were hat- or helm-like in the frontal view with two short and unequal valves. The spores measured 8 (7-9)âÃâ12 (10-14). The two polar capsules were spherical, equal in size and measured 3 (2-4) in diameter with three filament turns. Sporoplasm was binucleated and filled the whole extracapsular space. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species did not match any available sequences in GenBank. The lowest genetic distance was 0.017, observed with Ceratomyxa moseri infecting Pomacentrus wardi from Australia's Great Barrier Reef. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed a close association between the new species and a variety of ceratomyxid species, including Ceratomyxa arabica reported from the Arabian Gulf. Given the morphological and molecular differences between this species and other Ceratomyxa spp., we proposed the present form was a new species and the name Ceratomyxa mehlhorni sp. n. for this parasite from the gallbladder of G. speciosus. PMID:26163134
Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as âInsulin Plantâ in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties through the secondary metabolite pathway annotations are reported. The data provided will be of immense help to researchers working in the treatment of DM using herbal therapies. PMID:23176672
Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.
Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi
Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952
Classification of the spermatogenic cycle, seasonal changes of seminiferous tubule morphology and estimation of the breeding season of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in Toyama and Aomori prefectures, Japan
OKANO, Tsukasa; ONUMA, Manabu; ISHINIWA, Hiroko; AZUMA, Noriko; TAMAOKI, Masanori; NAKAJIMA, Nobuyoshi; SHINDO, Junji; YOKOHATA, Yasushi
The large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, is a potential indicator of environmental stress, but this function has not been confirmed by histological studies. Since environmental stress affects the reproductive function of mice, we determined the reproductive characteristics of this species at two locations: Toyama (36Â°35Ê¹N, 137Â°24Ê¹E) and Aomori (40Â°35Ê¹N, 140Â°57Ê¹E). Mice were captured during MayâNovember (n=119) and JulyâNovember (n=146) at these locations, respectively. We classified the breeding season from the numbers of pregnant females and young, in addition to the spermatogenic cycle and seasonal changes in seminiferous tubule morphology of males. Testicular weight was measured, and seminiferous tubule morphology was examined histologically. Fourteen stages were found in the seminiferous epithelium cycle based on acrosome formation and spermatid head morphology. At both locations, the breeding season peaked from late summer to early autumn and possibly in spring. Spermatogenic activity was classified into 4 periods from June to November: resting around June and OctoberâNovember; resumptive around July; active around August; and degenerative around September. During the resting period, the seminiferous tubules consisted of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Spermatogenesis began during the resumptive period, and spermatids were observed. During the active period, active spermatogenesis and a broad lumen were observed. During the degenerative period, spermatogenesis ended, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and degenerating exfoliated round spermatids were observed. This study provides scientific information about the testicular histopathological evaluations of the large Japanese field mouse for its use as an index species of environmental pollution. PMID:25754934
Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna
Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511
Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha
Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substratesRBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152
Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808
Banji, D.; Banji, Otilia; Shanthmurthy, M.; Singh, M.
The study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal property of the alcohol extract of Butea frondosa leaf on mice and rats. Studies revealed that at a dose of 25 and 75 mg/kg a considerable reduction in the extent of diarrhoea was observed but at a dose of 100 mg/kg the animals appeared completely constipated when subjected to castor oil induced diarrhoea and intestinal motility model. Therefore, Butea frondosa can be regarded as an effective antidiarrhoeal. PMID:20838531
Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.
The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the
Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora. PMID:19930582
Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Senadhira, Danusha
Background: Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study on 220 diabetic patients using herbal remedies for perceived glycemic benefit. Results: All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%). Conclusion: The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored about their hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26401401
Habsah, M; Amran, M; Mackeen, M M; Lajis, N H; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N; Rahman, A A; Ghafar; Ali, A M
Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 13 Zingiberaceae species from the Alpinia, Costus and Zingiber genera were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity of most of the extracts was antibacterial with only the methanol extract of Costus discolor showing very potent antifungal activity against only Aspergillus ochraceous (MID, 15.6 microg per disc). All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable with or higher that of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:10996279
Committee members Name Institue email Porter, David (co-chair) University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center email@example.com van Besien, Koen (co-chair) University of Chicago firstname.lastname@example.org Alyea, Ted Dana-Farber email@example.com
Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.
Koen and Yonelinas (2010) contrasted the recollection and encoding variability accounts of the finding that old items are associated with more variable memory strength than new items. The study indicated that (a) increasing encoding variability did not lead to increased measures of old item variance, and (b) old item variance was directly related
Dean, Donald S.
Possible alternate methods of preparing college level biology teachers are explored and related conferences held by the Commission on Undergraduate Education in Biological Sciences described. Koen contributes some ideas for preparation programs and describes the University of Michigan College Teacher Training Program. Alternatives to the Ph.D.
Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, AurÃ©lie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE HÃ©nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, JÃ¶rg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I
This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R.Â pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658
A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger ZingiberÂ officinaleÂ Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.
Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D
Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (ZingiberÂ officinaleÂ Roscoe) and turmeric (CurcumaÂ longaÂ L.) in southern India is described and illustrated.Â CheilocostusÂ speciosusÂ ( J. Koenig)Â C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635
Dayton, G.H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.
We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.
An overview of the recent research which allowed us to discover novel animalic odorants is presented. The new derivatives were prepared from readily available starting materials via easy reaction steps in good yields. They possess very different structures, such as bicyclic pentanols, glycolates, or tricyclic ketones, and all show interesting notes in the animalic fragrant family: from costus, leathery to ambery and musky scents, making them all attractive for different purposes. PMID:25329782
Schwope, A.D.; Renard, E.R.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, either directly or through its Superfund contractors, is a major user of chemical protective clothing. The purpose of the study was to develop estimates for the cost of using this clothing. These estimates can be used to guide purchase decisions and use practices. For example, economic guidelines would assist in decisions pertinent to single-use versus reusable clothing. Eight cost elements were considered: (1) purchase cost, (2) the number of times an item is used, (3) the number of items used per day, (4) cost of decontamination, (5) cost of inspection, (6) cost of maintenance, (7) cost of storage, and (8) cost of disposal. Estimates or assumed inputs for each of these elements were developed based on labor costs, fixed costs, and recurring costs. The cost elements were combined into an economic (mathematical) model having the single output of cost/use. By comparing cost/use for various use scenarios, conclusions are readily reached as to the optimum economics for purchase, use, and reuse of the clothing. In general, clothing should be considered disposable if its purchase cost is less than its average cost/use per use for the anticipated number of times it will be reused.
Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Zamoto, Aya; Morita, Chiharu; Arai, Satoru; Shiota, Tsunezo; Fujimagari, Masato; Itagaki, Asao; Fujita, Hiromi; Ishihara, Chiaki
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838
Rivera-Quiroz, F AndrÃ©s; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando
Three new species of the spider genus Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 are described and included in the speciosus group based on the following features: embolus as a separate sclerite from the tegulum with no basal coils, legs with a conspicuous fringe of long trichobothria and narrow copulatory ducts coiled irregularly. The new species described are: T. crassus sp. n., T. ductonuda sp. n. and T. odoreus sp. n. A total of 46 specimens were collected in an oak forest near Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico. Most individuals were collected on low vegetation using beating trays and direct collecting at night. Additional images are available at www.unamfcaracnolab.com. PMID:26250328
Dias, FÃ¡tima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, SÃ©rgio Carmona de SÃ£o; Knoff, Marcelo
One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of NiterÃ³i and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345
Rubidge, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Lim, Marisa; Burton, A. Cole; Brashares, Justin S.; Moritz, Craig
Increasing documentation of changes in the distribution of species provides evidence of climate change impacts, yet surprisingly little empirical work has endeavoured to quantify how such recent and rapid changes impact genetic diversity. Here we compare modern and historical specimens spanning a century to quantify the population genetic effects of a climate-driven elevational range contraction in the alpine chipmunk, Tamias alpinus, in Yosemite National Park, USA. Previous work showed that T. alpinus responded to warming in the park by retracting its lower elevational limit upslope by more than 500m, whereas the closely related chipmunk T. speciosus remained stable. Consistent with a reduced and more fragmented range, we found a decline in overall genetic diversity and increased genetic subdivision in T. alpinus. In contrast, there were no significant genetic changes in T. speciosus over the same time period. This study demonstrates genetic erosion accompanying a climate-induced range reduction and points to decreasing size and increasing fragmentation of montane populations as a result of global warming.
Kourany, M; Telford, S R
Enteropathogenic bacteria was isolated from 131 of 447 (29.4%) neotropical Panamanian lizards belonging to 34 species of seven families. Overall, 147 strains of bacteria were isolated comprising 26 Salmonella and 10 Arizona serotypes. Gymnopthalmus speciosus had the highest infection rate, 12 of 13 individuals (92.3%), whereas Gonatodes fuscus exhibited the lowest, 1 of 18 (5.6%). The highest infection was detected in lizards whose behavioral patterns were secretive (42.0%) and terrestrial (42.6%), whereas the lowest infection was among the scansorial lizards (17.5%). Rates were highest during the dry season, from January through April. Many neotropical Panamanian lizards were multiply infected by Salmonella an Arizona strains representing representing a wide range of serotypes. Infected lizards were distributed in areas varying from remote rural and forested regions to urban developments, offering a potentially important reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria known to cause infection in man and domestic animals. PMID:7259156
Kawahara, M; Ito, T; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Rikihisa, Y; Hata, K; Hirai, K
In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan. PMID:10074536
Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike
Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young rolled leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581
Krummenacher, Joseph; Müller, Hermann J
In 2 visual search experiments, the role of feature contrast/saliency signals in generating detection responses to singleton feature targets in visual search was investigated using the redundant-target paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that coactive integration of dimensional signals is not restricted to targets defined on the color and orientation dimensions; rather, targets involving any of the combinations of color, orientation, and motion, are integrated coactively, as evidenced by violations of Miller's (1982) race model inequality. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for color-motion targets, with the target items' luminance adjusted, individually for each observer, to that of the distractors. The evidence for coactive processing of motion (saliency) with color and, respectively, orientation (saliency) signals suggests that, at variance with a recent suggestion by Li (2002; Koene & Zhaoping, 2007), signal integration in feature search tasks occurs at a stage following initial feature coding in primary visual cortex (V1), even though feature contrast computations in V1 may well contribute to saliency coding. In sum, the results suggest that detection responses were based on an integrated, overall-saliency representation indicating the presence of an odd-one-out item in the display, consistent with the dimension-weighting account of visual search (Müller et al., 1995, 2003). PMID:25089576
Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei
Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities. PMID:25420272
Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M
Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem. PMID:22437380
d'Engelbronner, E. R.
The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).
Yamazaki, Shoko; Mottate, Keita; Nagata, Noriyo; Seto, Takahiro; Sanada, Takashiro; Sakai, Mizuki; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo
Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. A recent epizootiological survey indicated that endemic foci of TBEV have been maintained in the southern part of Hokkaido until recently. In this study, we sought to isolate TBEV from wild rodents in the area. One virus, designated Oshima 08-As, was isolated from an Apodemus speciosus captured in Hokuto in 2008. Oshima 08-As was classified as the Far Eastern subtype of TBEV and formed a cluster with the other strains isolated in Hokkaido from 1995 to 1996. Thirty-six nucleotide differences resulted in 12 amino acid changes between Oshima 08-As and Oshima 510 isolated in 1995. Oshima 08-As caused high mortality and morbidity in a mouse model compared with Oshima 510. Although similar transient viral multiplication in the spleen was observed in the mice infected with Oshima 08-As and Oshima 510, greater viral multiplication with an inflammatory response was noted in the brains of mice infected with Oshima 08-As than those infected with Oshima 510. These data indicate that a few naturally occurring mutations affect the pathogenicity of the Oshima strains endemic in the southern part of Hokkaido. PMID:23590320
Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant species contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of trees in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several species of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 tree species from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04?mg/mL against M.?smegmatis and M.?tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M.?aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis (correlation coefficient?=?0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. PMID:25857273
Boeskorov, G.G.; Kartavtseva, I.V.; Zagorodnyuk, I.V.; Belyanin, A.N.; Lyapunova, E.A.
Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M
A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis. PMID:17825510
Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M. R.; Specht, Chelsea D.
The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies. PMID:26734021
Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA
Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937
Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo
Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880
Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U
The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146
Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann
This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.
Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann
This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.
Stinckens, A.; Vereijken, A.; Ons, E.; Konings, P.; Van As, P.; Cuppens, H.; Moreau, Y.; Sakai, R.; Aerts, J.; Goddeeris, B.; Buys, N.; Vanmechelen, K.; Cassiman, J.J.
Abstract The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CCÂ®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a âCosmopolitan Chicken Genomeâ. However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words: PMID:26977265
LiljenstrÃ¶m, Hans; Svedin, Uno
1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans LiljenstrÃ¶m & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Ã rhem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. FlÃ¥m -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans LiljenstrÃ¶m.
Leelapornpisid, Pimporn; Wickett, R Randall; Chansakaow, Sunee; Wongwattananukul, Nitima
Antioxidant activities of 10 essential oils and 10 absolutes extracted from Thai aromatic plants were evaluated and compared to thyme oil, trolox, quercetin, and kaempferol by two independent assays: the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging assay and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation. We found that four essential oils including ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Wan-sao-long leaf oil (Amomum uliginosum Koen), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus), holy basil oil (Ocimum sanctum L.), and the absolute of dwarf ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson var. fruticosa (Craib) J. Sinclair] exhibited high antioxidant activity in both DPPH and TBARS assays and possessed satisfactory fragrance properties. These were then combined into an essential oil blend (EOB) and retested for antioxidant activity. The EOB also exhibited high antioxidant activity in the above assays. It was then incorporated into a stable cream base as EOB body cream. The EOB body cream was found to be best able under storage in stress conditions and presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than its' cream base both before and after stability testing. The effect of EOB body cream on skin surface topography was evaluated in 29 healthy volunteers using the Skin Visiometer (SV 600 FW, CK Electronic GmbH, Germany). Three parameters, Ra, Rz (roughness), and surface, were analyzed. After 4 weeks of application, the EOB body cream showed significant reductions in surface and Rz compared with before treatment (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and with untreated and placebo treatment (p < 0.05, Duncan test). These results indicate that the essential oils and absolutes from Thai plants may serve as potential sources of natural antioxidants for spa and cosmetic products designed to prevent or treat signs of skin aging. PMID:26665978
Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto
Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. PMID:26296603
Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack
The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471
Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Kasahara, Midori; Kasai, Masatoshi; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Kawai, Atsuko; Fujita, Hiromi; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro
Of 247 rodents comprising 5 genera and 7 species collected at 17 sites throughout Japan from 2003 to 2005, Babesia microti was detected microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 36 rodents comprising 2 genera and 3 species from 12 sites. Based on the analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) sequences, the Kobe-type, the etiological type of the first Japanese case of human infection was found in Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus in Aomori, the northernmost prefecture of the Japanese mainland, while the U.S.-type was found on Hokkaido Island and the Otsu-type was widely distributed. In addition, a new Otsu-related type was detected exclusively in Eothenomys andersoni in Nagano, a prefecture in central Japan. The sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 (ITS1/2) of the present Kobe- and Otsu-types were almost identical to those of the same types previously identified. The ITS1/2 sequence of the U.S.-type identified in Hokkaido in this survey was somewhat different from that of the U.S.-type strain originating from the U.S.A., with approximately 95% identity. This value was similar to the 94% identity found between the ITS1/2 sequences of the Otsu-type and the new Otsu-related type. The new Otsu-related type of B. microti was isolated as the Nagano strain, which was serologically differentiated from the other type strains of B. microti. The divergence and distribution of genotypes are important factors in investigating the epidemiology of human B. microti infection in Japan. PMID:17237595
Shimada, Takuya; Saitoh, Takashi; Sasaki, Eiki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Osawa, Ro
We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins. PMID:16770711
Iwasa, M; Kasuya, S; Noda, N; Hioki, A; Ito, A; Ohtomo, H
Investigations of trombiculid mites and Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in wild rodents were made in southern Gifu Prefecture where patients infected with tsutsugamushi disease recently have been found. A total of 16,396 trombiculid mites, consisting of 10 species from three genera, was collected from 170 Apodemus speciosus in two locations. Kani-Sakahogi and Kuze. Leptotrombidium scutellare (Nagayo et al.) (44.0%) was most predominant, followed by L. pallidum (Nagayo et al.) (26.9%); L. fuji (Kuwata et al.) (13.6%); and Gahrliepia saduski Womersley (14.2%). These four species constituted the bulk of the chigger mite fauna. L. scutellare was present from October to February with a remarkably high peak in November, whereas pallidum occurred from November to March with the highest peak in December. L. fuji and G. saduski showed their highest peaks in December and moderate peaks in early summer (April and May). Positive identification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in wild rodents from Kani-Sakahogi were found to be 50 and 58.3% in November 1985 and 1986, respectively, and 38.5% in November 1986 from Kuze. R. tsutsugamushi was isolated from chigger mites of an L. pallidum-rich group, displaying the highest titer to Karp strain. Serological investigation of rodents to R. tsutsugamushi antibodies were calculated as 41.6 and 50% positive in November 1985 and 1986 in Kani-Sakahogi, respectively, and 50% in November 1986 in Kuze. The Karp strain was dominant in specificity to antibodies. These results indicate that the surveyed areas have a high probability of occurrence of tsutsugamushi disease, and L. scutellare and L. pallidum may serve as the vectors in these areas. Particularly, we suggest that L. scutellare is the most important vector which has caused a recent outbreak of this disease in southern Gifu Prefecture. PMID:2117663
Eto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rintaroh; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Kashimura, Atsushi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Morita, Tetsuo
Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very plentiful, it is unclear whether torpor expression is affected by temporal changes in the extent of food overabundance. Moreover, the relationship between daily torpor and excess food availability has not been clearly established. The large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus caches food for use as a winter energy resource and exhibits daily torpor under artificial winter conditions. The present study examined whether individuals exposed to different magnitudes of overabundant food exhibited differences in expression of daily torpor, and secondly whether torpor expression varied in response to changes in the overall quantity of overabundant food. It was observed that while absolute quantities of overabundant food did not appear to affect daily torpor expression, the mice did respond to changes in food availability, even when food remained overabundant. This suggests that the mice respond to fluctuations in food availability, even where these changes do not place any constraint on energy budgets. Thus recognition of changing food availability cannot be a purely physiological response to shortage or plenty, and may contribute to predictions of future energy availability. The expression of torpor was inhibited in response to increasing food availability, and the mice used shallower torpor when food availability increased to superabundance. These findings suggest that daily torpor may be regulated not only physiologically in response to energy constraints but also psychologically, via recognition of food availability. PMID:25483213
Anyasor, Godswill Nduka; Funmilayo, Onajobi; Odutola, Osilesi; Olugbenga, Adebawo; Oboutor, Efere Martins
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the bioactive compounds in Costus afer Ker Gawl, an indigenous African medicinal plant whose leaf and stem extracts are used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatism and arthritis. Materials and Methods: The bioactive compounds present in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem were identified using qualitative phytochemical evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical method, comparing the mass spectra of the identified compounds with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database library. Results: Qualitative analysis detected alkaloids, saponins, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterol, phlobatannins, and tannins in both n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Phenols were detected in leaves alone while flavonoids were present in stem alone. GC/MS data showed that the bioactive compounds in n-butanol fraction of C. afer leaf were indolizine, 2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, phytol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecanoic acid-methyl ester, eicosane, cis-vaccenic acid and oleic acid while n-butanol fraction of C. afer stem contain benzofuran,2,3-dihydro,2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, campesterol, stigmasterol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:26401352
Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A
Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590
Kalailingam, Pazhanichamy; Kannaian, Bhuvaneswari; Tamilmani, Eevera; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran
Costus igneus, has been prescribed for the treatment of diabetic mellitus in India for several years. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of plant derived diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and pancreatic composition through electron microscopical studies of normal and diabetic rats. Diosgenin at a dose of 5 or 10mg/kg per body weight (bw) was orally administered as a single dose per day to diabetic induced rats for a period of 30 days. The effect of diosgenin on blood glucose, HbA1c, PT, APTT, Oxy-LDL, serum lipid profile, electron microscopical studies of pancreas, antioxidant enzymes (in liver, kidney, pancreas) and hepatoprotective enzymes in plasma and liver were measured in normal and diabetic rats. The results showed that fasting blood glucose, PT, APTT, Oxy-LDL, TC, TG, LDL, ALT, AST, ALP, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and LPO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased, whereas HDL, SOD, CAT, GSH and the glycolytic enzyme glucokinase levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the diabetes induced rats and these levels were significantly (p<0.05) reversed back to normal in diabetes induced rats after 30 days of treatment with diosgenin. Electron microscopical studies of the pancreas revealed that the number of beta cells and insulin granules were increased in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats after 30 days of treatment with diosgenin. In conclusion, the data obtained from the present study strongly indicate that diosgenin has potential effects on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion and beta cell regeneration in STZ induced diabetic rats, these results could be useful for new drug development to fight diabetes and its related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24889525
Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; KrasiÅska, GraÅ¼yna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao
For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0â10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can deliver relatively high doses of Hg to consumers, but that rates can differ widely because of large variability in mercury concentrations between species and locations. PMID:26606425
Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasi?ska, Gra?yna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao
For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can deliver relatively high doses of Hg to consumers, but that rates can differ widely because of large variability in mercury concentrations between species and locations. PMID:26606425
Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi
The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 ?Gy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after the accident. This dose rate exceeds 0.1-1 mGy d(-1) derived consideration reference level for Reference rat proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). PMID:25666988
Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W
Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 Î¼g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 Î¼g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 Î¼g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782
Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio
A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688
Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing. PMID:20796273