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Karyological changes in the callus tissue ofCostusspeciosus (Koen.) Sm. at different ages have been analysed both by counting chromosome number and quantitating DNA content through cytophotometry. The cultures had been established from the tuber and maintained in modified Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473–497, 1962) supplemented with 2,4-D, NAA and BAP. Abnormality in chromosome behaviour leading
In the present study, methanol extracts of CostusspeciosusKoen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costusspeciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costusspeciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costusspeciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.
The effect of alcoholic extracts of Costusspeciosus rhizomes and Wedelia chinensis leaves were evaluated on stress induced changes in brain neurotransmitters and enzyme monoamine oxidase levels in albino rats. The extracts were found to possess normalizing activity against cold immobilization stress induced changes in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5- HIAA), and enzyme
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costusspeciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species.
Costusspeciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24?h and 48?h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200??g/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100??g/mL methanol leaf extract for 24?h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ? 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer.
Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha
Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date.
Hegde, Prakash K.; Rao, Harini A.; Rao, Prasanna N.
Introduction. The nephroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Costus afer leaves was evaluated in male albino Wistar rats with gentamicin-induced kidney injury. Materials and Methods. In a 2-phase study, 30 weight-matched male Albino Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 animals to receive gentamicin, 90 mg/kg/d (except for the control group) for 7 days in the first phase to induce kidney injury. The second phase was treatment of rats with 375 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Costus afer leaves. One group received Silymarin only. Body weight, daily fluid and feed intakes, and serum levels of creatinine, urea, and electrolytes were monitored on a weekly basis, and renal histology was evaluated at the end of the study. Results. The aqueous extract of Costus afer significantly increased the feed intake and fluid intake in a dose dependent manner when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Low and medium doses of the extract reversed the deleterious effect of gentamicin on the kidney. The extract also significantly decreased the absolute kidney weight and relative kidney weight when compared with the corresponding weights in the gentamicin-treated group. Costus afer significantly decreased serum sodium, blood urea, and serum creatinine levels and significantly increased serum potassium level in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Conclusions. Aqueous extract of Costus afer leaves may attenuate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:25001137
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the photosynthetic activity rate
. \\u000a The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of \\u000a different radiance levels (25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) in \\u000a growth (height, leaf area, number of leaves) and photosynthetic activity of \\u000a the plant Costus spicatus, popularly known in Brazil as Caninha do Brejo. Photoacoustic \\u000a (PA) measurements were performed in order to evaluate comparatively the \\u000a photosynthetic activity
Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31?kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100?mM NaOH and 25?mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25?mM?Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7??M and 7.0??M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1??M.
We examined the gene sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) in two Japanese wood mouse species, Apodemus speciosus (n = 89) and A. argenteus (n = 46), which are distributed on the four main islands of Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu) and on the small islands surrounding them. Apodemus speciosus, the larger of the two species, showed substantial genetic variation, with a maximum of 3% sequence divergence, and remarkable phylogenetic subdivision with two major clades. One clade represents haplotypes from a central region, including Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and their adjacent islands; the other clade includes haplotypes from Hokkaido and the peripheral islands, forming four subclades: a) Hokkaido, b) Sado Island, c) Satsunan Islands, and d) the Izu Islands. Sequence divergence among the four subclades was 1.0 to 1.5%, implying that A. speciosus colonized these geographic regions 0.2 to 0.3 million years ago, assuming a substitution rate of 2.4% per million years. The population on the Izu Islands has preserved haplotypes that are distinct from those in any other region, providing good evidence for the natural colonization of the volcanic islands of the Izu Islands. The cyt b sequence variation had no relation to the karyotypic dimorphism for the eastern (2n = 48) and western (2n = 46) geographic groups, between which a strict border exists at central Honshu. On the other hand, Apodemus argenteus, the smaller of the two species, showed a similar level of sequence divergence (maximum of 3%) but no substantial geographic differentiation: populations in Hokkaido, Sado, and Yakushima shared similar haplotypes with each of the central populations, suggesting that genetic exchanges occurred among the localities in the last 0.15 million years. The apparent genetic structure of the mitochondrial DNA found in the A. speciosus population might be caused solely by long-term existence in insular regions, presumably due to ecological superiority relative to A. argenteus. PMID:15329497
Aim of the study Costus spicatus Sw. (Costaceae) is a prominent medicinal herb used by Dominicans in the Dominican Republic and the United States for the treatment of diabetes, a growing epidemic in the Hispanic community. An ethnobotanical survey of the Dominican community in New York City revealed the popular use of a tea from the insulina plant to treat hyperglycemia. Insulina was identified as Costus spicatus. We tested the ability of a tea made from the leaves of Costus spicatus to alter glucose homeostasis in C57BLKS/J (KS) db/db mice, a model of obesity-induced hyperglycemia with progressive beta cell depletion. Materials and methods From 6 to 16 weeks of age, Experimental and Control animals (n = 6/5) were given ad lib access to Costus spicatus tea or water, respectively. Results Weight gain and progression of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia between the Experimental and Control groups were statistically indistinguishable. There was no difference between groups in average fed or fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Intraperitoneal (IP) insulin tolerance testing after the 10-week study period showed that Costus spicatus tea consumption did not alter insulin sensitivity. Conclusions These data suggest that at the dose given, tea made from Costus spicatus leaves had no efficacy in the treatment of obesity-induced hyperglycemia. More investigation is needed to more fully explore dosages and the possible utility and biological activity of this common Dominican herbal remedy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keller, Amy C.; Vandebroek, Ina; Liu, Youping; Balick, Michael J.; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J.; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.
The wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) serves as a wildlife reservoir for Lyme disease spirochetes in Hokkaido, Japan. To isolate Borrelia species, we captured 34 wood mice in an area where Borrelia species are endemic during October 1993. The earlobes (right and left), heart, spleen, and urinary bladder from each mouse were used as culture sources. As a result of culture 73 isolates from 21 mice were classified by rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ribotype groups III (Borrelia afzelii) and IV (unknown species) were detected among those isolates. Thirty-one (77.5%) of 40 earlobe isolates were classified as group IV. In contrast, 6 (40.0%) of 15 heart isolates, 5 (50.0%) of 10 spleen isolates, and 7 (87.5%) of 8 urinary bladder isolates were B. afzelii. Seven mice showed mixed infection with B. afzelii and group IV. The data indicate that different Borrelia species can coexist in a reservoir host that is suitable for them.
The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Wild rodents are naturally infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium; thus, they are potential reservoirs of the parasites. Mice are common rodents frequently found in agricultural areas and have many opportunities to contact other wild animals, livestock, and humans. Irrespective of the potential risk, there are few epidemiologic studies of Cryptosporidium in wild mice because of their low economic importance and the difficulty in conducting surveys. Hence, the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in wild mice living around various areas remain unclear. We investigated the species and genotype distribution and prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in an agricultural site in Osaki, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. In total, 15 mice were captured and examined in this study. By microscopic analysis, only one mouse (JFM 3) was determined to be Cryptosporidium-positive, while the parasite were detected in four mice (JFM 3, 6, 10, and 15) by a molecular approach using partial SSU rRNA gene sequences. Based on nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. ubiquitum (from JFM 10) and C. muris (from JFM 3 and 6). In contrast, the Cryptosporidium in JFM 15 was not identified as a known species or genotype and is therefore proposed as a novel genotype; the Naruko genotype. More molecular data are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic identity of this novel Cryptosporidium genotype. The C. muris Japanese field mouse genotypes showed marked divergence compared to that in a previous report. The large Japanese field mouse might thus represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium spp. PMID:23601844
Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…
Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger
The Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus eats large, hard-walled walnuts of Juglans ailanthifolia immediately after finding or after hoarding them. However, not all individuals can efficiently eat the nuts. In this study, to examine local variation in the ability to eat walnuts, feeding behavior was compared among nine wood mouse populations, four from mainland Honshu, where the walnut tree is distributed, and five from the Izu Islands (30-100 km south of Honshu), which lack the tree species. To avoid the effects of pre-capture experience with walnuts, mice from areas lacking the walnut trees were used for testing, even in the Honshu sites. Most mice from Honshu were able to eat walnuts after a 14-day training period, whereas most insular mice could not, with the exception of mice on Kouzushima Island. An analysis of the population genetic structures of these mice based on sequences of the mitochondrial control (D-loop) region revealed that the four insular populations are genetically distinct from the mainland populations, whereas the Kouzushima population remains genetically similar to the mainland populations. The relatively recent colonization of Kouzushima may explain why mice from this island were able to feed on walnuts despite the lack of walnut trees on the island. Thus, walnut-feeding ability appears to have some innate basis in the Japanese wood mouse, and this trait would be selected for in a walnut-available environment as it would better enable mice to survive during food shortages. PMID:22303846
Dendrobates speciosus is a small red or orange frog that occupies a small geographic range in the highlands of western Panama, where it occurs abundantly in some cloud forest habitats. Gc-ms analysis indicated the presence of at least 30 alkaloids in MeOH skin extracts from population samples at the extreme eastern end of the known geographic range. Eleven alkaloids were isolated by cc in quantities sufficient for 2D-nmr spectral analysis, which in some cases confirmed their identity with alkaloids known from other species and in other cases led to assignment of structures. Pumiliotoxin 251D, pumiliotoxin A [307A], pumiliotoxin B [323A], and allopumiliotoxin 267A were identified as major constituents. N-Oxides of 323A and 267A were also isolated. Indolizidines 195B and 223AB with 3-butyl-5-methyl and 3-butyl-5-propyl substituents, respectively, were identified. The 5-substituents of the 8-methyl-indolizidines 207A and 235B' were assigned as -(CH2)3CH = CH2 and -(CH2)5CH = CH2, respectively; indolizidine 235B' from D. speciosus is, thus, a positional double-bond isomer of indolizidine 235B previously isolated from a closely related poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. A piperidine 241D was isolated and assigned the structure cis-cis-2-methyl-6-nonyl-4-hydroxypiperidine. PMID:3236011
The proceedings has 10 papers on photovoltaic power systems, 9 on characteristics of solar cells, 5 on residential use photovoltaic power systems, 3 on solar cars, 6 on solar hybrids, 9 on solar energy storage, 5 on passive solar energy, 4 on power genera...
The study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal property of the alcohol extract of Butea frondosa leaf on mice and rats. Studies revealed that at a dose of 25 and 75 mg/kg a considerable reduction in the extent of diarrhoea was observed but at a dose of 100 mg/kg the animals appeared completely constipated when subjected to castor oil induced diarrhoea and intestinal motility model. Therefore, Butea frondosa can be regarded as an effective antidiarrhoeal.
Banji, D.; Banji, Otilia; Shanthmurthy, M.; Singh, M.
The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…
Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costusspeciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora.
A photovoltaic power system was built in FY1994, on a trial basis, in Mawaki Ruins Park in Noto-machi, Ishikawa Pref., and the field tests have been conducted under commercial loads for an extended period, to produce various data, and to demonstrate its v...
In this volume, part 1, reports are included on protection of communication equipment for power supply against thunderbolt, status quo of thunderbolt observation, etc. in the field of 'Protection of information communication equipment against thunderbolt ...
The proceedings of the conference include the results of research and development of the photovoltaic power generation system, the wind power generation and biomass. As for the photovoltaic power generation system, reports are made on the following: power...
Examination of 131 wood mice (Apodemus spp.) representing 2 species and 6 subspecies collected from the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Tsushima showed that 70 mice (53%) had coccidian oocysts in their feces. These included 21 of 42 (50%) Apodemus argenteus argenteus; 7 of 14 (50%) Apodemus argenteus hokkaidi; 2 of 3 (67%) Apodemus argenteus sagax; 3 of 9 (33%) Apodemus speciosus ainu; 36 of 61 (59%) Apodemus speciosusspeciosus; and 1 of 2 (50%) Apodemus speciosus tusimaensis. Four distinct coccidians were identified: Eimeria argenteus n. sp. from A. a. argenteus, A. a. hokkaidi, A. a. sagax, and A. s. speciosus; Eimeria inuyamensis n. sp. from A. a. argenteus, A. s. speciosus, and A. s. tusimaensis; Eimeria montgomeryae Lewis and Ball, 1983, from A. a. argenteus, A. a. hokkaidi, A. a. sagax, A. s. ainu, and A. s. speciosus; and Eimeria uptoni Lewis and Ball, 1983, from A. a. argenteus, A. a. hokkaidi, and A. s. speciosus. Standard karyotypes were prepared from selected specimens of each host subspecies. All 3 subspecies of A. argenteus and A. s. tusimaensis have a 2n = 46; A. s. ainu, from Hokkaido, has a 2n = 48; and A. s. speciosus has at least 2 chromosomal races, 1 on northern (2n = 48) and 1 on southern (2n = 46) Honshu. Both chromosomal races of A. s. speciosus, as well as the other subspecies of Apodemus examined, shared their coccidian parasites freely. PMID:4093813
As for the environmental problem, reported are prediction of depletion of fossil resources and CO2 emissions, and the global permit trade and reduction of CO2 emission, etc. As to natural gas, notice is taken of its inorganic origin and deep gas. Concerni...
\\u000a Souhrn Byl sledován vliv rüzných koncentrací kyseliny giberelové (GA) na klí?ní rostliny pšenice, salátu a ovsa. Kultivace byla provedena\\u000a v klimatisa?ní komo?e na Petriho miskách v Knopov? živném roztoku s p?idáním GA. V pokusech byla hodnocena ?erstvá váha a\\u000a sušina nadzemních ?ástí a ko?en? a biometricky zpracovány údaje o jejich délce. Byla rovn?ž sledována dynamika délky p?ír?stk?\\u000a nadzemních ?ástí a ko?en?,
The ratio of flowers/butterfly (Erigeron speciosus to Speyeria mormonia) in year t is a good predictor of the change in the size of the Mormon fritillary butterfly population from year t to the next year (measured here by number of males). Years having few flowers per butterfly result in a population decline the following year. In contrast, population growth is higher when many flowers are available for each butterfly. Thus, food availability (lots of Erigeron speciosus flowers) in a given year affects the number of butterflies in the following year. (Graph modified from Boggs and Inouye 2012, Ecology Letters)
Koen and Yonelinas (2010) contrasted the recollection and encoding variability accounts of the finding that old items are associated with more variable memory strength than new items. The study indicated that (a) increasing encoding variability did not lead to increased measures of old item variance, and (b) old item variance was directly related…
On August 13th 1985 1h04m00sUT an extremely bright sporadic fireball was photographed by DMS observers Klaas Jobse and Koen Miskotte, working with a double station set of cameras near the village of Puimichel in southern France. Orbital and trajectory data are presented here.
Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).
This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658
Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I
In Japan, the cat was added to the list of natural host for Paragonimus sadoensis, and it was experimentally revealed that the Japanese vole, Microtus montebelli and the woods mouse, Apodemus speciosus can be the final host of the same lung fluke. In Mala...
Six flying fox species, genus Pteropus (four from the Philippines) were investigated using complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1140 bp) to infer their evolutionary relationships. The DNA sequences generated via polymerase chain reaction were analyzed using the neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. We estimated that the first evolutionary event among these Pteropus species occurred approximately 13.90 +/- 1.49 MYA. Within this short period of evolutionary time we further hypothesized that the ancestors of the flying foxes found in the Philippines experienced a subsequent diversification forming two clusters in the topology. The first cluster is composed of P. pumilus (Philippine endemic), P. speciosus (restricted in western Mindanao) with P. scapulatus, while the second one comprised P. vampyrus and P. dasymallus species based on the analysis from first and second codon positions. Consistently, all phylogenetic analyses divulged close association of P. dasymallus with P. vampyrus contradicting the previous report categorizing P. dasymallus under subniger species group with P. pumilus. P. speciosus, and P. hypomelanus. The Philippine endemic species (P. pumilus) is closely linked with P. speciosus. The representative samples of P. vampyrus showed a large genetic distance of 1.87%. The large genetic distance between P. dasymallus and P. hypomelanus, P. pumilus and P. speciosus denotes a distinct species group. PMID:12017505
Bastian, S T; Tanaka, K; Anunciado, R V P; Natural, N G; Sumalde, A C; Namikawa, T
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures.
Two new farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh rhizome of Hedychium coronarium KOEN. cultivated in Japan. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of isolated constituents on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells were examined, and hedychilactone A and coronarin D were found to show the inhibitory activity. PMID:12192135
Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635
We investigated the seed dispersal of glabrous filbert (Corylus heterophylla) and pilose filbert (Corylus mandshurica), two large-seeded shrub species in a temperate forest, northeast China, September 2006. Small mammals such as Apodemus speciosus, Clethrlonomys rufocanus, and Eutamias sibiricus, were regarded as the main dispersal agents. More seeds were harvested by small mammals in pilose filbert (98%) than in glabrous\\u000a filbert
The cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Fitolacaceae, Compositae, Moraceae, Zingiberaceae, Martiniaceae, Mirtaceae, Verbenaceae and Annonaceae was assessed. The Kubas microbiologic method and the fungus Ascomiceto Neurospora crassa were used in the assessment. The fungus growth was measured in millimeters. Inhibition percentages for every case regarding control are reported. The best results were obtained from Annona muricata, Costus spiralis, Cecropia peltata, Xanthium chinense and Pluchea adorata extracts. PMID:161407
Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A
Summary This paper records with brief notes new records and localities for the occurrence of the following flowering plants from Saurashtra\\u000a coast and neighbouring islands:Merremia quinquefolia (L.) Hall. f.,Euphorbia heterophylla L.,Kedrostis rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn.,Portulaca tuberosa Roxb.,Grewia villosa Willd.,Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv.,Delonix elata (L.) Gamble,Psilostachys sericea (Koen. ex Roxb.) Hook. f.,Maerua arenaria Hook. f. and Thoms. var.scabra Hook. f. and Thoms.,Vogelia
\\u000a Abstract Morfologickými pokusy na Syringa vulgaris, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Philadelphus coronarius, Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer negundo\\u000a a Bryophyllum crenatum je v této práci sledována závislost udržování bez?epelních ?apík? na korela?ních vlivech jiných ?ástí\\u000a rostliny a zkoušena možnost napodobit tyto korelace pomocí syntetických r?stových látek. Ukazuje se, že celistvost rostliny,\\u000a zajišt?ná hlavn? regula?ními vlivy ko?en? a list?, vyniká jasn?ji z chování bez?epelních ?apík? než
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838
Tsuji, M; Wei, Q; Zamoto, A; Morita, C; Arai, S; Shiota, T; Fujimagari, M; Itagaki, A; Fujita, H; Ishihara, C
Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection.
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island.
Spirochetes isolated from three species of wild mice, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Eothenomys smithi, which were caught on Honshu, Japan, were characterized on the bases of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and DNA homology values. All the isolates reacted with MAb O1441b, which is specific for Borrelia japonica, but not with MAb P62, which is specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii. The DNA relatedness of four representatives isolates to strain HO14, a type strain of B. japonica, was 83 to 88%. From these findings, the spirochetes were identified as B. japonica.
Increasingly, mesoscale meteorological models are used in applications in which urban agglomerations are spatially well resolved, employing grid cells with a horizontal extent of the order of a kilometer. Yet, large uncertainties regarding certain urban surface properties at these scales remain. In particular, the thermal roughness length and thermal admittance (or thermal inertia) are poorly known parameters. In the ESA/BELSPO project MUSTI ("Measuring Urban Surfaces' Thermal Inertia"), we derived thermal roughness length and thermal admittance for Paris by comparing the diurnal surface temperature profile simulated with the mesoscale meteorological model ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) against values measured by the SEVIRI sensor onboard the METEOSAT geostationary platform. In this simulation, the ARPS model was extended with "urbanized" land surface physics, and nested in output fields of the ECMWF model. Several tens of simulations were performed with the ARPS model, using slightly different values for the parameters of interest, and finally identifying the "best" values for these parameters as those that yielded the best match between simulated and observed surface temperature. As a main result, we found that Paris is characterised by a thermal roughness length value as provided by the Zilitinkevich parameterization for kB-1, together with a thermal admittance value of approximately 2200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. Corresponding author address: Koen De Ridder, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400, Mol, Belgium. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
De Ridder, K.; Pandey, P.; Casanova, G.; Bertrand, C.; Lefebvre, W.; Vliegen, J.
From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695
Ethanolic extracts of Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam) Small showed activity against Bacillus subtilis grown in a chemically defined medium but not in a complex natural medium. The active principle was isolated as a colorless crystalline solid. A study of its properties and mass spectral fragmentation pattern showed that it was costic acid, a sesquiterpenic acid previously isolated from Costus root oil. The observed inactivity of costic acid against B. subtilis in a complex medium was shown to be due to the presence in the medium of glutamic acid, which is capable of reversing 90% of the activity of costic acid. PMID:6790676
Genetic characteristics of 12 Borrelia isolates from the tick, Ixodes ovatus, I. persulcatus, and the rodent, Apodemus speciosus ainu, in Japan were compared to members of the three genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and group VS461. The methods used in this study were the quantitative microplate DNA hybridization assay and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the flagellin structural genes and the 16S rRNA genes. The six isolates from I. persulcatus and A. speciosus ainu were identified as genospecies B. garinii using RFLP analysis of the flagellin and 16S rRNA genes. In contrast, RFLP analysis of the six isolates from I. ovatus indicated that they were different from the three reported genospecies. DNA homology studies confirmed the RFLP results. The six isolates from I. ovatus had DNA homologies ranging from 85 to 99%, whereas DNA relatedness of the I. ovatus isolate with strains belonging to the three genospecies was 50 to 64%. These results suggest that the strains isolated from I. ovatus in Japan differ from the three genospecies and should be classified as a new genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We propose that strains isolated from I. ovatus should be classified as B. japonica sp. nov. PMID:7905183
Mammalian herbivores adopt various countermeasures against dietary tannins, which are among the most widespread plant secondary metabolites. The large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus produces proline-rich salivary tannin-binding proteins in response to tannins. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) react with tannins to form stable complexes that are excreted in the feces. Here, we developed a new method for estimating the tannin intake of free-living small rodents, by measuring fecal proline content, and applied the method to a field investigation. A feeding experiment with artificial diets containing various levels of tannic acid revealed that fecal proline content was clearly related to dietary tannin content in three species (A. speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Myodes rufocanus). We then used fecal proline content to estimate the tannin intakes of these three forest-dwelling species in a forest in Hokkaido. In the autumn, estimated tannin intakes increased significantly in the Apodemus species, but not in M. rufocanus. We speculated that an increase in tannin intake during autumn may result from consumption of tannin-rich acorns. This hypothesis was consistent with population fluctuation patterns of the three species, which were well-synchronized with acorn abundance for the Apodemus species but not for M. rufocanus. PMID:22161223
A typical pulsating subdwarf B star of the EC 14026 class, PB8783 has been a target of two observing runs. The discovery run (Koen et al. 1997) identified six low amplitude periodicities between 120 and 135 seconds. It was a target of multi-site campaign (O'Donoghue et al. 1998) that revealed eleven periodicities in the range of 94-136 seconds. We present 25 hours of "fresh" time series photometry of PB8783 obtained during a two week observing run at the Erwin W. Fick Observatory in November 2003. Several periodicities have been identified in the light curve over the same range as seen in earlier data. While some frequencies are the same in both epochs and appear at similar amplitudes, some puzzling differences have emerged.
Vu?kovi?, M.; Hostler, S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Behera, B.
Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide.
Monoclonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia japonica isolated from tick, Ixodes ovatus and long-tailed shrew, Sorex unguiculatus in Japan and Borrelia related to Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) were prepared and characterized. All isolates belonging to B. japonica and isolates from I. dentatus and cottontail rabbit in North America reacted with MAb O1441b against flagellin which was prepared from immunized mice with strain HO14, type strain of B. japonica, but isolates from I. persulcatus, patient, and wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus ainu, in Japan, and isolates belonging to B. burgdorferi, B. garinii and B. afzelii from North America and Europe did not. Strains used in this study reacted with MAb P62 against common antigen which was prepared from immunized mice with strain NT24 isolated from I. persulcatus in Japan, but B. japonica did not. These MAbs are useful for identification and differentiation of B. japonica and B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Japan. PMID:7935066
Masuzawa, T; Kawabata, H; Beppu, Y; Miyamoto, K; Nakao, M; Sato, N; Muramatsu, K; Sato, N; Johnson, R C; Yanagihara, Y
To determine the source of infection for the Japanese index case of human babesiosis, we analyzed blood samples from an asymptomatic individual whose blood had been transfused into the patient. In addition, we surveyed rodents collected from near the donor's residence. Examination by microscopy and PCR failed to detect the parasite in the donor's blood obtained 8 months after the donation of the blood that was transfused. However, we were able to isolate Babesia parasites by inoculating the blood sample into SCID mice whose circulating red blood cells (RBCs) had been replaced with human RBCs. A Babesia parasite capable of propagating in human RBCs was also isolated from a field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) captured near the donor's residential area. Follow-up surveys over a 1-year period revealed that the donor continued to be asymptomatic but had consistently high immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in serum and low levels of parasitemia which were microscopically undetectable yet which were repeatedly demonstrable by inoculation into animals. The index case patient's sera contained high titers of IgM and, subsequently, rising titers of IgG antibodies, both of which gradually diminished with the disappearance of the parasitemia. Analysis of the parasite's rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence and immunodominant antigens revealed the similarity between donor and patient isolates. The rodent isolate also had an rDNA sequence that was identical to that of the human isolates but that differed slightly from that of the human isolates by Western blot analysis. We conclude that the index case patient acquired infection by transfusion from a donor who became infected in Japan, that parasitemia in an asymptomatic carrier can persist for more than a year, and that A. speciosus serves as a reservoir of an agent of human babesiosis in Japan. PMID:11376054
Wei, Q; Tsuji, M; Zamoto, A; Kohsaki, M; Matsui, T; Shiota, T; Telford, S R; Ishihara, C
Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor.
A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young - rolled - leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581
Zr-doped mesoporous silica with a diameter of approximately 3.8 nm was synthesized via an evaporation-induced self-assembly process, and the adsorption-desorption isotherms of water vapor were measured in the temperature range of 263-298 K. The measured adsorption-desorption isotherms below 273 K indicated that water confined in the mesopores did not freeze at any relative pressure. All isotherms had a steep curve, resulting from capillary condensation/evaporation, and a pronounced hysteresis. The hysteresis loop, which is associated with a delayed adsorption process, increased with a decrease in temperature. Furthermore, the curvature radius where capillary evaporation/condensation occurs was evaluated by the combined Kelvin and Gibbs-Tolman-Koening-Buff (GTKB) equations for the modification of the interfacial tension due to the interfacial curvature. The thickness of the water adsorption layer for capillary condensation was slightly larger, whereas that for capillary evaporation was slightly smaller than 0.7 nm. PMID:22041197
A total of 59 strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were isolated from patients (24 isolates), Apodemus speciosus mice (30 isolates), and unfed larvae of Leptotrombidium scutellare (2 isolates) and Leptotrombidium pallidum (3 isolates) in the Gotenba-Oyama District, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. All these isolates were classified into the three serotypes Karp, Kawasaki, and Kuroki based on reactivity with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies. Kawasaki- and Karp-type rickettsiae were isolated from L. scutellare and L. pallidum, respectively, and the geographic distribution of patients and rodents infected with these two types of rickettsiae coincided with the areas densely populated by the respective chiggers. From these results, we conclude that Kawasaki-type rickettsiae are transmitted by L. scutellare and Karp-type ones are transmitted by L. pallidum. Kawasaki-type rickettsial infections were prevalent in early autumn, and Karp-type infections showed a peak of occurrence in the late autumn, reflecting the seasonal fluctuations of L. scutellare and L. pallidum. Isolates of Kuroki-type rickettsiae were obtained only from four patients in October and November, and the relationship between this type of rickettsia and its vector species could not be fully defined. PMID:1452653
Kawamori, F; Akiyama, M; Sugieda, M; Kanda, T; Akahane, S; Uchikawa, K; Yamada, Y; Kumada, N; Furuya, Y; Yoshida, Y
Epiphyllous bryophytes on tropical rainforest plants acquire nutrients from throughfall and free-living N2-fixing organisms, but may also depend directly on host leaf leachates. By contrast, after drying events bryophytes lose significant quantities of nutrients through leaching that can be taken up by host leaves. To assess a potential nutritional interdependency, nitrogen fluxes between epiphyllous liverworts and their host leaves (Carludovica drudei, Costus laevis, Dieffenbachia concinna, Pentagonia wendlandii) were quantified by in situ15N-labelling techniques in a lowland rainforest, Piedras Blancas National Park, Costa Rica. Depending on host species, epiphyllous bryophytes met between 1 and 57% of their N demand from host leaf leachates. Externally supplied 15N was taken up both by epiphylls and host leaves, but N from epiphyll leachates accounted for < 2.5% of host leaf N after 14 d. Long-term observations (180 d) demonstrated the highly dynamic nature of phyllosphere N of the investigated tropical rainforest understorey and an intermittent sink capacity of epiphyllous bryophytes. PMID:15819919
Leaf surfaces (phyllospheres) have been shown to provide appropriate conditions for colonization by microorganisms including diazotrophic bacteria that are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)). In this study, we determined leaf-associated N(2) fixation of a range of rainforest plants in Costa Rica, under different environmental conditions, by tracing biomass N incorporation from (15)N(2). N(2)-fixing bacterial communities of the plant species Carludovica drudei, Grias cauliflora and Costus laevis were investigated in more detail by analysis of the nifH gene and leaf-associated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. N(2) fixation rates varied among plant species, their growth sites (different microclimatic conditions) and light exposure. Leaf-associated diazotrophic bacterial communities detected on C. drudei and C. laevis were mainly composed of cyanobacteria (Nostoc spp.), whereas on the leaves of G. cauliflora gamma-proteobacteria were dominant in addition to cyanobacteria. The complexity of diazotrophic communities on leaves was not correlated with N(2) fixation activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested the presence of complex microbial communities in association with leaves, however, cyanobacteria showed only low abundance. Our findings suggest that cyanobacteria as well as gamma-proteobacteria associated with leaf-colonizing epiphytes may provide significant nitrogen input into this rainforest ecosystem. PMID:18273066
Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.
This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.
Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann
1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Ĺrhem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flĺm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.
The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion.
Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466
We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins. PMID:16770711
Phylogenetic relationships among 15 species of wood mice (genus Apodemus) were reconstructed to explore some long-standing taxonomic problems. The results provided support for the monophyly of the genus Apodemus, but could not reject the hypothesis of paraphyly for this genus. Our data divided the 15 species into four major groups: (1) the Sylvaemus group (A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, A. alpicola, and A. uralensis), (2) the Apodemus group (A. peninsulae, A. chevreri, A. agrarius, A. speciosus, A. draco, A. ilex, A. semotus, A. latronum, and A. mystacinus), (3) A. argenteus, and (4) A. gurkha. Our results also suggested that orestes should be a valid subspecies of A. draco rather than an independent species; in contrast, A. ilex from Yunnan may be regarded as a separate species rather than a synonym of orestes or draco. The species level status of A. latronum, tscherga as synonyms of A. uralensis, and A. chevrieri as a valid species and the closest sibling species of A. agrarius were further corroborated by our data. Applying a molecular clock with the divergences of Mus and Rattus set at 12 million years ago (Mya) as a calibration point, it was estimated that five old lineages (A. mystacinus and four major groups above) diverged in the late Miocene (7.82-12.74 Mya). Then the Apodemus group (excluding A. mystacinus) split into two subgroups: agrarius and draco, at about 7.17-9.95 Mya. Four species of the Sylvaemus group were estimated to diverge at about 2.92-5.21 Mya. The Hengduan Mountains Region was hypothesized to have played important roles in Apodemus evolutionary histories since the Pleistocene. PMID:15324834
The traditional Chinese medicine component dehydrocostuslactone (DHC) isolated from Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, has been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Angiogenesis is an essential process in the growth and progression of cancer. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, the anti-angiogenic mechanism of action of DHC to be via the induction of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase due to abrogation of the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?)/cyclin D1 and mTOR signaling pathway. First, we demonstrated that DHC has an anti-angiogenic effect in the matrigel-plug nude mice model and an inhibitory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary-like tube formation in vitro. DHC caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, leading to the suppression of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cyclin A and cdk2 expression. With respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying the DHC-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation, this study demonstrated that DHC significantly inhibits Akt expression, resulting in the suppression of GSK-3? phosphorylation and mTOR expression. These effects are capable of regulating cyclin D1 degradation, but they were significantly reversed by constitutively active myristoylated (myr)-Akt. Furthermore, the abrogation of tube formation induced by DHC was also reversed by overexpression of Akt. And the co-treatment with LiCl and DHC significantly reversed the growth inhibition induced by DHC. Taken together, our study has identified Akt/GSK-3? and mTOR as important targets of DHC and has thus highlighted its potential application in angiogenesis-related diseases, such as cancer.
Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590
Otero, R; Núńez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A
Empirical estimates of the relative importance of different barriers to gene flow between recently diverged species are important for understanding processes of speciation. I investigated the factors contributing to reproductive isolation between Costus pulverulentus and C. scaber (Costaceae), two closely related hummingbird-pollinated understory Neotropical herbs. I studied broad-scale geographic isolation, microhabitat isolation, flowering phenology, overlap in pollinator assemblages, floral constancy by pollinators, mechanical floral isolation, pollen-pistil interactions, seed set in interspecific crosses, and postzygotic isolation (hybrid seed germination, greenhouse survival to flowering, and pollen fertility). Aside from substantial geographic isolation, I found evidence for several factors contributing to reproductive isolation in the sympatric portion of their geographic ranges, but the identity and relative strength of these factors varied depending on the direction of potential gene flow. For C. pulverulentus as the maternal parent, mechanical floral isolation was the most important factor, acting as a complete block to interspecific pollen deposition. For C. scaber as the maternal parent, microhabitat isolation, pollinator assemblage, mechanical floral isolation, and postpollination pollen-pistil incompatibility were important. Overall, prezygotic barriers were found to be strong, resulting in 100% reproductive isolation for C. pulverulentus as the maternal parent and 99.0% reproductive isolation for C. scaber as the maternal parent. Some postzygotic isolation also was identified in the F1 generation, increasing total isolation for C. scaber to 99.4%. The results suggest that ecological factors, including habitat use and plant-pollinator interactions, contributed to speciation in this system and evolved before extensive intrinsic postzygotic isolation. PMID:16637499
This is all just one example of how computer and appropriate analytical software routines can improve the fiscal and physical efficiency of the hospital materials management department. Together, they can provide logical, unemotional guidelines for purchase quantities, reorder points and safety stocks. Once a computer based materials management tool is in place and the materials manager has appropriate software at his or her disposal, a whole array of other possibilities can open up. For example, with appropriate analytical software and about six months of data, materials managers can estimate the performance of a current inventory system, comparing it to the expected results of upgrading current software. In effect, you can predetermine the cost-effectiveness of embedding economic order quantities, reorder points and service level policy routines before committing to such a course. Another valuable tool for materials management is "cost/use variance" software, which can pinpoint quickly and by line item whether inventory costs are rising due to higher vendor costs or to expanded use of products, and what percent each represents. A natural extension of this is an ABC analysis to identify groups of line items deserving more or less intense management. Continuous vendor performance tracking is another candidate for analytical software. The cost consequences of partial, late or missed deliveries can be severe, and delivery documentation becomes critical if the hospital has a performance liability agreement with the vendor. Other analytical software may permit dramatic improvement in storeroom labor efficiency through logical stock location schemes. In short, the basic formulas for scientific inventory management are only the beginning of a complex materials management story. PMID:10303552
Two bacterial strains, Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T), were isolated from the blood of the small Japanese field mouse (Apodemus argenteus) and the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), respectively, specimens of which were captured in the forest of Mount Fuji, Japan. Phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (40.1 mol% for strain Fuji 18-1(T) and 40.4 mol% for strain Fuji 23-1(T)) and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that both strains were members of the genus Bartonella. Using rpoB and gltA sequencing analysis, the highest sequence similarities between strains Fuji 18-1(T), Fuji 23-1(T) and other recognized species of the genus Bartonella showed values considerably lower than 91.4 % and 89.9 % in the rpoB gene and 89.1 % and 90.4 % in the gltA gene, respectively. It is known that similarities of 95.4 % for the rpoB gene and 96.0 % for the gltA gene can be applied as cut-off values for the designation of novel species of the genus Bartonella. In a phylogenetic tree based on the merged set of concatenated sequences of seven loci [16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC and rpoB genes and the intergenic spacer region (ITS)], strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) formed a distinct clade from other recognized species of the genus Bartonella. These data support the classification of strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) as novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. The type strains of Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are Fuji 18-1(T) (=JCM 15567(T)=CIP 109861(T)) and Fuji 23-1(T) (=JCM 15566(T)=CIP 109862(T)), respectively. PMID:19656930
Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Shiratori, Hatsumi; Ueda, Kenji; Kosoy, Michael Y; Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Maruyama, Soichi
The timing of life history traits is central to lifetime fitness and nowhere is this more evident or well studied as in the phenology of flowering in governing plant reproductive success. Recent changes in the timing of environmental events attributable to climate change, such as the date of snowmelt at high altitudes, which initiates the growing season, have had important repercussions for some common perennial herbaceous wildflower species. The phenology of flowering at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado, USA) is strongly influenced by date of snowmelt, which makes this site ideal for examining phenological responses to climate change. Flower buds of Delphinium barbeyi, Erigeron speciosus, and Helianthella quinquenervis are sensitive to frost, and the earlier beginning of the growing season in recent years has exposed them to more frequent mid-June frost kills. From 1992 to 1998, on average 36.1% of Helianthella buds were frosted, but for 1999-2006 the mean is 73.9%; in only one year since 1998 have plants escaped all frost damage. For all three of these perennial species, there is a significant relationship between the date of snowmelt and the abundance of flowering that summer. Greater snowpack results in later snowmelt, later beginning of the growing season, and less frost mortality of buds. Microhabitat differences in snow accumulation, snowmelt patterns, and cold air drainage during frost events can be significant; an elevation difference of only 12 m between two plots resulted in a temperature difference of almost 2 degrees C in 2006 and a difference of 37% in frost damage to buds. The loss of flowers and therefore seeds can reduce recruitment in these plant populations, and affect pollinators, herbivores, and seed predators that previously relied on them. Other plant species in this environment are similarly susceptible to frost damage so the negative effects for recruitment and for consumers dependent on flowers and seeds could be widespread. These findings point out the paradox of increased frost damage in the face of global warming, provide important insights into the adaptive significance of phenology, and have general implications for flowering plants throughout the region and anywhere climate change is having similar impacts. PMID:18409425
Background and Aims It is an enduring question as to the mechanisms leading to the high diversity and the processes producing endemics with unusual morphologies in the Himalayan alpine region. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships and origins of three such endemic genera were analysed, Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus, all in the tribe Cardueae of Asteraceae. Methods The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnL-F and psbA-trnH regions of these three genera were sequenced. The same regions for other related genera in Cardueae were also sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined data sets of the three types of sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The phylogenetic tree obtained allowed earlier hypotheses concerning the relationships of these three endemic genera based on gross morphology to be rejected. Frolovia and Saussurea costus were deeply nested within Dolomiaea, and the strong statistical support for the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade suggested that circumscription of Dolomiaea should be more broadly redefined. Diplazoptilon was resolved as sister to Himalaiella, and these two together are sister to Lipschitziella. The clade comprising these three genera is sister to Jurinea, and together these four genera are sister to the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade. Xanthopappus, previously hypothesized to be closely related to Carduus, was found to be nested within a well-supported but not fully resolved Onopordum group with Alfredia, Ancathia, Lamyropappus, Olgaea, Synurus and Syreitschikovia, rather than the Carduus group. The crude dating based on ITS sequence divergence revealed that the divergence time of Dolomiaea–Frolovia from its sister group probably occurred 13·6–12·2 million years ago (Ma), and the divergence times of the other two genera, Xanthopappus and Diplazoptilon, from their close relatives around 5·7–4·7 Ma and 2·0–1·6 Ma, respectively. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the intergeneric relationships in Cardueae. The crude calibration of lineages indicates that the uplifts of the Qiinghai–Tibetan Plateau since the Miocene might have served as a continuous stimulus for the production of these morphologically aberrant endemic elements of the Himalayan flora.
Background Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to which community-based care reduces healthcare-seeking costs at the household level in rural and urban settings. This paper assesses the rural–urban differences in direct and indirect costs of seeking care from formal health facilities compared to community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods Exit interviews were conducted for 282 (159 rural and 123 urban) caregivers of children below five years who had received treatment for fever-related illnesses at selected health centres in Iganga and Mayuge districts. Data on the direct and indirect costs incurred while seeking care at the health centre visited were obtained. Using another tool, household level direct and indirect costs of seeking care from CMDs were collected from a total of 470 caregivers (304 rural and 166 urban). Costs incurred at health facilities were then compared with costs of seeking care from CMDs. Results Household direct costs of seeking care from health facilities were significantly higher for urban-based caregivers than the rural (median cost?=?US$0.42 for urban and zero for rural; p?0.0001). The same is true for seeking care from CMDs (p?=?0.0038). Overall, caregivers travelled for an average of 75 min to reach health centres and spent an average of 80 min at the health centre while receiving treatment. However, households in rural areas travelled for a significantly longer time (p?0.001 to reach health care facilities than the urban-based caregivers. Besides travelling longer distances, rural caregivers spent 150 min seeking care from health facilities compared to 30 min from CMDs. Conclusion Time and monetary savings for seeking care from CMDs are significantly larger for rural than urban households. Thus, home and community-based treatment of child febrile illnesses is much more cost-saving for rural poor communities, who would spend more time travelling to health facilities - which time could be re-directed to productive and income-generating activities.
Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing.