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1

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Aerial Parts of Costus speciosus Koen  

PubMed Central

In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165

Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.

2013-01-01

2

Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm  

PubMed Central

Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm (Costaceae) is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin) from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 ?g/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. ?g/ml against T. simii, 31.25 ?g/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 ?g/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 ?g/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 ?g/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 ?g/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 ?g/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 ?g/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity. PMID:22397713

2012-01-01

3

Costus loangensis from Gabon 11 Costus loangensis, an exciting new species  

E-print Network

of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas Africa, Gabon, Costaceae, Costus, Zingiberales, spiral ginger Introduction The plant family Costaceae

4

Ricerche Sullo Sviluppo Embriologico Di Erigeron Speciosus DC. (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theembryological development of Erigeron speciosus DC. — The Author refers on the embryology of Erigeron speciosus DC. listing the most important characteristics of the development of this gametophytea) a pluricellular archesporium is formed, with fertile and sterile cells.b) several mother cells develop inside a single nucellus leading to the formation more than one gametophyte;c) at the end of the meiotic

Sara Ferri

1961-01-01

5

A review on Insulin plant (Costus igneus Nak)  

PubMed Central

Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date. PMID:24600198

Hegde, Prakash K.; Rao, Harini A.; Rao, Prasanna N.

2014-01-01

6

Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.  

PubMed

The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

2002-10-01

7

LART: flexible, low-power building blocks for wearable computers Jan-Derk Bakker Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

LART: flexible, low-power building blocks for wearable computers Jan-Derk Bakker Koen Langendoen bakker@mmc.et.tudelft.nl {koen,sips}@ubicom.tudelft.nl Abstract To ease the implementation of different

Kuzmanov, Georgi

8

Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. Objective: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Material and Methods: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), ?-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. Conclusion: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea. PMID:23901213

Gwari, Garima; Bhandari, Ujjwal; Andola, Harish Chandra; Lohani, Hema; Chauhan, Nirpendra

2013-01-01

9

Effects of acorn abundance on density dependence in a Japanese wood mouse ( Apodemus speciosus ) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the effects of Quercus crispula acorn abundance on the density dependence of the large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus using time series data (1992–2007). The data were obtained in a forest in northern Hokkaido, Japan, by live-trapping rodents\\u000a and directly counting acorns on the ground. Acorn abundance in one year clearly influenced the abundance of wood mice in the

Takashi Saitoh; Jon Olav Vik; Nils Chr. Stenseth; Toshikazu Takanishi; Shintaro Hayakashi; Nobuo Ishida; Masaaki Ohmori; Toshio Morita; Shigeru Uemura; Masahiko Kadomatsu; Jun Osawa; Koji Maekawa

2008-01-01

10

Anti-inflammatory potential of ?-amyrin, a triterpenoid isolated from Costus igneus.  

PubMed

Costus igneus, common name Fiery Costus or Spiral Flag, is a species of herbaceous plant in the Costaceae family. It is cultivated in India for its use in traditional medicine especially for diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of ?-amyrin isolated from the leaves of Costus igneus (C. igneus) using carrageenan-induced rat model and LPS-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in vitro model. The differential fractionation of leaves of Costus igneus showed maximum percentage inhibition of paw edema at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in methanolic extract (MEC). MEC elicited significant anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in monocytes when compared to carrageenan control. The effect of MEC was more pronounced than standard drug Diclofenac (20 mg/kg body weight). After fractionation of MEC using various solvents such as chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of chloroform extract (CEC) of MEC was evaluated since it showed maximum beneficial effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW Treatment of carrageenan-induced rats with CEC exerted significantly decreased COX-2, MPO, and NOS activities when compared to carrageenan-induced rats. By the partial purification of CEC by liquid-liquid partition chromatography, TLC, mass, IR and NMR spectroscopy, the active component ?-amyrin was isolated. Significant decrease in edema was observed by the administration of ?-amyrin in a dose-dependent manner and 100 µg of ?-amyrin showed 97 % in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Treatment with ?-amyrin significantly inhibited PGE2, IL-6 secretion, and NF-?B activation in a concentration-dependent manner on LPS-induced hPBMCs. Thus, ?-amyrin, an active component isolated from C. igneus, serves as a promising and expanding platform for treatment of various inflammatory disorders. PMID:25300965

Krishnan, Kripa; Mathew, Limi Elizabeth; Vijayalakshmi, N R; Helen, A

2014-12-01

11

A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear- able augmented-reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic) and augmented reality (user-interface). Wireless communication is obvi- ously required to obtain services

Kuzmanov, Georgi

12

Pharmacological evaluation for anticancer and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost.  

PubMed

The fungal polysaccharides have been revealed to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation activities. In the present study, the immune and anticancer activities of a novel polysaccharide, BSF-A, isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost was investigated. The inhibitory rate of S180 tumors in mice treated with 40 mg/kg BSF-A reached 62.449%, which was the highest rate from the three doses administered; this may be comparable to mannatide. The antitumor activity of BSF-A is commonly considered to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, as it may significantly promote the macrophage cells in the dose range of 100-400 µg/ml in vitro. The levels of the cytokines, IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-?, and nitric oxide, induced by BSF-A treatment at varying concentrations in the macrophage cells were similar to the levels in the cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. There was weak expression of the TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the untreated macrophages, but this increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the BSF-A-treated cells. BSF-A also had a time- and dose-dependent effect on the growth inhibition of the Hep-2 cells, with the concentration of 400 µg/ml having the highest inhibitory rate. A quantitative PCR array analysis of the gene expression profiles indicated that BSF-A had anticancer activities that affected cell apoptosis in the Hep-2 cells. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the purified polysaccharide of Boletus speciosus Frost is a potential source of natural anticancer substances. PMID:24566673

Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Song, Bo; Wang, Ting; Wang, Fang; Li, Jian; Zeng, Yichun; Zhong, Jie; Xu, Ting; Zhu, Hongqing

2014-04-01

13

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF LUPEOL AND STIGMASTEROL IN COSTUS IGNEUS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present work, simultaneous quantitative estimation of two biologically active triterpenoid compound Lupeol and a steroid compound Stigmasterol, in Costus igneus stems was performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica-gel 60 F254(20 cm × 10 cm) were used with a mobile phase of n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate (80:20v\\/v) for lupeol, Toluene: Acetone: Acetic acid (8.9: 0.9: 0.2 v\\/v\\/v) for stigmasterol and densitometric

K. Manjula; K. Rajendran; T. Eevera; S. Kumaran

2012-01-01

14

Huddling facilitates expression of daily torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus.  

PubMed

Small endotherms employ multiple adaptations to maintain energy balance in winter, including spontaneous daily torpor and simultaneous huddling. The relationships between these adaptations have been discussed in several previous studies, but it has not been well-established if huddling actually affects the expression of torpor in small endotherms. We examine whether and how huddling affects the expression of torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus, which is known to become torpid under artificial winter conditions. The mice were found to adjust expression of torpor in response to the number of cage mates. Torpor frequency and minimum torpid body temperature were both significantly elevated when the number of cage mates was increased, but there was no significant change in torpor bout length. Rewarming rate on arousal was lower when the number of cage mates was increased, suggesting reduction in endogenous rewarming due to exogenous passive rewarming. Food consumption per mouse decreased significantly with increasing number of cage mates. Thus, our study demonstrates that social thermoregulatory behaviors such as huddling can facilitate expression of spontaneous daily torpor in small rodents. These findings suggest that energy constraints, such as ambient temperature and food availability may not be the only modulating factors on the expression of daily torpor. PMID:24813827

Eto, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kashimura, Atsushi; Morita, Tetsuo

2014-06-22

15

Segmentation of image ensembles via latent atlases Tammy Riklin-Raviv a,*, Koen Van Leemput a,c,d  

E-print Network

Segmentation of image ensembles via latent atlases Tammy Riklin-Raviv a,*, Koen Van Leemput a Article history: Available online 4 June 2010 Keywords: Latent atlas Segmentation MRI Level-sets a b s t r a c t Spatial priors, such as probabilistic atlases, play an important role in MRI segmentation

Golland, Polina

16

Freezing singularities in water drops Oscar R. Enrquez, lvaro G. Marn, Koen G. Winkels, and Jacco H. Snoeijer  

E-print Network

on the glass using a syringe pump. To increase contrast and observe the freezing front, red food dye was addedFreezing singularities in water drops Oscar R. Enríquez, Álvaro G. Marín, Koen G. Winkels://pof.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 24, 091102 (2012) (a) (c) (b) (d) FIG. 1. Four snapshots of the freezing process

Snoeijer, Jacco

17

Changes in foraging behavior of two species of field mice, Apodemus speciosus Temminck and A. argenteus Temminck (Rodentia: Muridae), in the response to artificial illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation hazard is one of the most important factors that affect foraging behavior. Light intensity is an indirect measure\\u000a of a predation hazard for nocturnal rodents. In 1988 and 1989, I conducted laboratory experiments to reveal the effects of\\u000a the predation hazard on foraging behavior of two species of field mice,Apodemus speciosus Temminck andA. argenteus Temminck (Rodentia: Muridae), which co-exist

Koichi Sone

2002-01-01

18

Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

19

Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ? 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney. PMID:25161323

Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2013-01-01

20

Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.  

PubMed

Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952

Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2014-08-01

21

Camenae n 8 -dcembre 2010 Koen VEIRMEIR  

E-print Network

'IMAGINATION ANALYSE DES PREMIERS TRAITES SUR LES VAMPIRES (1659-1755) INTRODUCTION Dernièrement, un anthropologue spécialisé en médecine légale a découvert les restes d'une « vampire ». Le squelette a été retrouvé dans une pestiférés, situé au nord- est de Venise. La femme fut identifiée comme vampire parce qu'elle avait été

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

An Engineer's Quest for Billy V. Koen  

E-print Network

(Design) Use of heuristics to cause the best change in an uncertain situation within the available... The Engineering Method (Design) Use of heuristics to cause the best change in an uncertain situation within Engineering, Technology, and Culture Lecture Series University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Universal Method

Ben-Yakar, Adela

23

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

2014-01-01

24

MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS KOEN LANGENDOEN  

E-print Network

unobtrusive habitat monitoring of wildlife, ad-hoc deployments for disaster management, precision agriculture the increase in complexity depends on the particular application Delft University of Technology

Kuzmanov, Georgi

25

Scientific Coordination Prof. dr. ir. Koen De Bosschere  

E-print Network

University Post-academic course #12;ICT in Continuing Education: the IVPV success story By the end scale international ICT course organised by the Institute of Continuing Education at Ghent University in databases Module 5: Practical database management Module 6: Advanced techniques ICT Software & Data

26

Agent based Local Ad Hoc Grids Tariq Abdullah, Koen Bertels  

E-print Network

infrastructure of distributed computing for scientists and engineers in a more advanced scope. The name was inspired by the electrical power energy because of its pervasiveness, ease of use and reliability[6]. I. WHY DO WE NEED LOCAL AD HOC GRID? The adoption of the grid by the commercial sector can be compared

Kuzmanov, Georgi

27

Connective field modeling Koen V. Haak a,b,c,  

E-print Network

, The Netherlands c Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States d Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States e Helmholtz Institute, Experimental Psychology processing pathways. For example, stimulus-referred measurements in cortex show that visu- al space

Dumoulin, Serge O.

28

[Studies of cost-effectiveness and cost-usefulness in radiology].  

PubMed

In the current context of significant increase of health care costs over the last decades, and in a system of global budget for health care, the concept of cost-effectiveness is one of the leading elements in the political decision making process for a given strategy. Therefore, it is important for the physician to be able to understand and critically interpret cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses. This article tries to illustrate comprehensively some of their key concepts. The perspective and the time horizon of the study should be clearly specified. The cost-effectiveness ratio is a synthetic summary based on a micro-costing approach in order to determine the true costs (numerator), and on an effectiveness (utility) assessment which should take into account the preferences of the community (denominator) in order to allow comparisons between interventions of different natures. Advances in the development of decision analysis softwares and in the standardization of the methodology of these studies have yielded considerable improvement in the reliability of their results. Several persisting methodological problems are the scope of current research, such as the discounting rate and the calculation of the minimal sample size required to reach a statistically significant threshold. PMID:11917633

Janne d'Othée, B; Bettmann, M A; Pirard, S; Zhuang, Z; Black, W C

2001-12-01

29

Ecology, 85(9), 2004, pp. 25702581 2004 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

: Artemisia tridentata; CO2; Erigeron speciosus; climate change; global warming; Helianthella quinquenervis- eron speciosus, Potentilla gracilis, Potentilla hippiana, and Lathyrus leucanthus). We found

Oregon, University of

30

Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…

Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.

2012-01-01

31

Koen De Bosschere, Ghent University ARCS 2012 Keynote February 29, 2012  

E-print Network

player image © J A S P E R@flickr iPhone image © K!T@flickr 16 #12;Market forces 17 Big data meets energy Business trendsMarket Technology Europe 4 #12;Energy Transport and mobility Health Aging population connected physical world Application pull Business trendsMarket Technology Europe 6 #12;Market forces 7 Big

Stamatakis, Alexandros

32

A Novel Logic Element for Power Reduction in Thomas Marconi, Koen Bertels, Georgi Gaydadjiev  

E-print Network

connect it to the clock input of the FF. Transistor-level circuit simulations on MCNC benchmark circuits (LE) has been used by researchers of FPDs since it was patented by Birkaner and Chua in 1978 [1]. Al

Kuzmanov, Georgi

33

Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

E-print Network

, Laura Mickes, and John T. Wixted University of California, San Diego The slope of the z, the zROC slope is less than one (e.g., Egan, 1958; Glanzer, Kim, Hilford, & Adams, 1999; Ratcliff, Sheu-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory exper- iments is usually less than 1, which

Wixted, John T.

34

Garbage Collection Hints Dries Buytaert, Kris Venstermans, Lieven Eeckhout, and Koen De Bosschere  

E-print Network

time can be reduced by more than 10%. 1 Introduction Garbage collection (GC) is an important subject of research as many of todays programming language systems employ automated memory management. Pop- ular two flavors of generational copying collectors, namely GenMS and GenCopy from JMTk [3]. GenMS collects

Eeckhout, Lieven

35

Fault Tolerance on Multicore Processors using Deterministic Multithreading Hamid Mushtaq, Zaid Al-Ars, Koen Bertels  

E-print Network

Fault Tolerance on Multicore Processors using Deterministic Multithreading Hamid Mushtaq, Zaid Al.L.M.Bertels}@tudelft.nl Abstract--This paper describes a software based fault toler- ance approach for multithreaded programs running on multi- core processors. Redundant multithreaded processes are used to detect soft errors

Kuzmanov, Georgi

36

Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering Alejandro F. Frangi, Wiro J. Niessen, Koen L. Vincken, Max A. Viergever  

E-print Network

A. Viergever Image Sciences Institute, University Hospital Utrecht Room E.01.334, Heidelberglaan 100 local structure of an image (Hessian) is ex- amined with the purpose of developing a vessel is tested on two dimensional DSA and three dimensional aortoiliac and cerebral MRA data. Its clinical

Frangi, Alejandro

37

Income Distribution and Social Security in an OECD Perspective Koen Caminada and Kees Goudswaard  

E-print Network

.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl k.p.goudswaard@law.leidenuniv.nl Leiden University Public Finance Department P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA of Economics at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Research areas: social Security at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and Crown

Galis, Frietson

38

Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora. PMID:19930582

2009-01-01

39

Australian Sea Levels Trends, Regional Variability and Influencing Factors Neil J. White, Ivan D. Haigh, John A. Church, Terry Koen, Christopher  

E-print Network

and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Neil.White@csiro.au, John.Church@csiro.au, Kathleen.Watson@environment.nsw.gov.au 5 School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 76 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. 7001

Tregoning, Paul

40

Vermeir, Koen. 2008. "Imagination between Physick and Philosophy. On the Central Role of the Imagination in the Work of Henry More (1614-1687)." Intellectual History Review 18  

E-print Network

More. First, physiological descriptions of melancholy and imagination were at the heart of his attack discredit upon her. Amid all this agitation, to the astonishment of all, the ghost of the shoemaker appeared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Vermeir, Koen. 2007. "Athanasius Kircher's Magical Instruments: An Essay on Science, Religion and Applied Metaphysics (16021680)." Studies in History and Philosophy of  

E-print Network

. Today, instruments and artefacts are almost exclusively seen in the light of a narrow economic, thanks to giant balloons sent to great Altitudes, Mirrors of para- (not to mention dia-) bolickal Peter in the midst of the waters, and the cats locked into a catoptric chest, still turn our categories

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

An exceptionally well-preserved short-snouted bandicoot (Marsupialia; Peramelemorphia) from Riversleigh's Oligo-Miocene deposits, northwestern Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Galadi speciosus, gen. et sp nov., the second peramelemorphian (Yarala burchfieldi being the first) to be described from Oligo-Miocene deposits of Riversleigh World Heritage Property, northwestern Queensland. G. speciosus is represented by relatively complete craniodental material, including an exceptionally well-preserved skull. This taxon exhibits several apomorphies that clearly place it in the order Peramelemorphia, but it appears to

K. J. TRAVOUILLON; Y. GUROVICH; R. M. D. BECK; J. MUIRHEAD

2010-01-01

43

Brain MRI Segmentation Using an Expectation-Maximization  

E-print Network

A probabilistic brain atlas Modeling MR bias fields Multiple Sclerosis lesion segmentation Partial volumeBrain MRI Segmentation Using an Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Koen Van Leemput koen-dimensional (3-D) High soft tissue contrast High spatial resolution Possibly multi-spectral Non

44

Science Series Technical Report no. 145  

E-print Network

: evidence to support the selection of candidate SACs Roger Coggan, Markus Diesing & Koen Vanstaen #12 to support the selection of candidate SACs Roger Coggan, Markus Diesing & Koen Vanstaen #12;Origin of aggregate resources and the designation of SACs relating to Annex 1 reef habitats'. The work is a piece

45

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-19  

E-print Network

in VDSL DMT based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu and Marc Moonen 2 December 2000 1 This report is available; HPNA mitigation in VDSL DMT based systems Deliverable Alcatel crosstalk project Koen Vanbleu, Marc. The interference rejection of HPNA based Home LANs is a major challenge in VDSL DMT based system design. We

46

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2003-168  

E-print Network

Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers 1 Adaptive Bitrate Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems Koen Vanbleu*, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING I. INTRODUCTION Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation and orthogonal frequency

47

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-10a  

E-print Network

between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert AND PER-TONE EQUALIZERS FOR DMT-BASED SYSTEMS Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc Moonen K-tone equalizer design for DMT transmission. It is shown that they can all be formulated ei- ther as a constrained

48

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-117  

E-print Network

Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers, Marc-- A time-domain equalizer (TEQ) is inserted in dis- crete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel

49

Physical modelling of Nikon Coolpix camera RGB responses for application in non-destructive leaf chlorophyll imaging  

E-print Network

chlorophyll imaging Frank Veroustraetea,* , Willem W. Verstraetenb , Koen Hufkens c , Bert Gielen c and Filip- and Vegetation Ecology. Universiteitsplein 1, 2600 Wilrijk, Belgium. - koen.hufkens@ua.ac.be ABSTRACT Chlorophyll and the scaling up from leaf to canopy level. Leaf colour is an indicator of chlorophyll content, closely coupled

50

Vermeir, Koen. 2005. "The `physical prophet' and the powers of the imagination. Part II: a case-study on dowsing and the naturalisation of the moral, 1685-1710." Studies in history and  

E-print Network

for water with his divining-rod, and when he felt his rod turn strongly, he was sure that he was standing where she had once lived. He directed his rod in turn upon each person there, and it moved when he will show that four causes (God, demons, hidden natural principles and human deceit) were invoked to explain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Abiotic and biotic factors affecting nonrandom distributions of Chihuahuan Desert anurans  

E-print Network

Distributions of Texas toad (Bufo speciosus), Couch's spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus couchii), narrow mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea), red spotted toad (Bufo punctatus), and western green toad (Bufo debilis) are nonrandomly distributed across...

Dayton, Gage Hart

2012-06-07

52

The chromosomes of some North American chipmunks (sciuridae) belonging to the genera tamias and eutamias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The somatic chromosomes of T. striatus lysteri, E. minimus operarius, E. speciosus frater, E. quadrivittaius hopiensis and E. umbrinus montanus have been analyzed utilizing a method employing pretreatment with colchicine and hypotonic citrate followed by staining and squashing.

Charles F. Nadler; Matthew H. Block

1962-01-01

53

THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE  

E-print Network

THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE by KOEN STEIN* , COLIN PALMER been limited. Here, we provide a thorough aerodynamic analysis of both genera of British kuehneosaur words: Kuehneosauridae, Diapsida, Late Triassic, glid- ing, aerodynamics. The Kuehneosauridae

Benton, Michael

54

Agenda for VIIIth CMSN Meeting October 2-3 Golden Colorado  

E-print Network

University Battaile, Corbett, Sandia National Lab Depperschmidt, Andy, Colorado School of Mines Fellinger, Mike, Colorado School of Mines Foiles, Stephen, Sandia National Lab Haxhimali, Tomorr, Northeastern University Hoyt, Jeff, Sandia National Lab Janssens, Koen, Sandia National Laboratory Karma, Alain

Rollett, Anthony D.

55

Vrije Universiteit Brussel Programming Technology Laboratory  

E-print Network

a topic I am really passionate about, and to nally produce this dissertation. Another person that I am, Carine Lucas, Mark Willems, Koen De Hondt, Kim Mens, Tom Mens, Tom Lenaerts, Tom Tourw e, Werner Van

De Volder, Kris

56

Total football in innovation policy Discussion paper on the evaluation of innovation policy  

E-print Network

1 Total football in innovation policy Discussion paper on the evaluation of innovation policy Koen. The Netherlands has a long history in this area. As a heritage of these activities Dutch research in wind energy

57

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 22 of 22  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ratio of flowers/butterfly (Erigeron speciosus to Speyeria mormonia) in year t is a good predictor of the change in the size of the Mormon fritillary butterfly population from year t to the next year (measured here by number of males). Years having few flowers per butterfly result in a population decline the following year. In contrast, population growth is higher when many flowers are available for each butterfly. Thus, food availability (lots of Erigeron speciosus flowers) in a given year affects the number of butterflies in the following year. (Graph modified from Boggs and Inouye 2012, Ecology Letters)

Inouye, David

2012-02-28

58

Changes in water relations for leaves exposed to a climate-warming manipulation in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative water content (RWC) and water potential were compared for leaves of several plant species exposed to a warming manipulation at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, near Crested Butte, Colorado, USA, to test the hypothesis that species-specific changes in water relations parameters will occur in response to future increases in planetary air temperatures. Leaves of Artemisia tridentata, Erigeron speciosus, Festuca

Michael E. Loik; John Harte

1997-01-01

59

Cache site selection by chipmunks ( Tamias spp.) and its influence on the effectiveness of seed dispersal in Jeffrey pine ( Pinus jeffreyi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) seed dispersal performed by seed-caching yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and lodgepole chipmunks (Tamias speciosus) was compared to that of wind dispersal in the Sierra Nevada of western Nevada. Wind-dispersed seeds typically fall under or near the parent tree. Chipmunks removed 90 and 97% of 1064 radioactive seeds from each of two simulated

Stephen B. Vander Wall

1993-01-01

60

Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary gen- eralist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer for- est at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999

Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt

2005-01-01

61

12 CFR 1291.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...owner-occupants, including overnight and emergency shelters, transitional...advance to a member at an interest rate reduced below the Bank's cost...used to write down the interest rate on a loan extended by a member...the lender's market interest rate; or (2) The net...

2010-01-01

62

KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN FACULTEIT TOEGEPASTE WETENSCHAPPEN  

E-print Network

. dr. ir. M. Engels Prof. dr. ir. M. Moeneclaey (U. Gent) Prof. dr. ir. L. Vandendorpe (U.C.L.) Prof Bultheel, Prof. Marc Engels, Prof. Marc Moeneclaey en Prof. Joos Vandewalle, te bedanken voor het nalezen, Geert L, Geert R, Geert VM, Geert Y, Gert, Hilde, Imad, Jan S, Jan V, Katleen, Koen E, Narendra, Olivier

63

Efficient Code Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks Niels Reijers  

E-print Network

. These include intrusion detection, wildlife habi- tat monitoring [7], disaster management, and many military ap.Reijers@its.tudelft.nl Koen Langendoen K.G.Langendoen@its.tudelft.nl Faculty of Information Technology and Systems Delft University of Technology The Netherlands ABSTRACT The need to reprogramme a wireless sensor network may arise

Kuzmanov, Georgi

64

Delft University of Technology Parallel and Distributed Systems Report Series  

E-print Network

, wildlife habitat monitoring, climate control, and disaster management. The underlying technologyDelft University of Technology Parallel and Distributed Systems Report Series Distributed of Information Technology and Systems Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands koen@pds.twi.tudelft.nl N

Langendoen, Koen

65

An Embedded Language Approach to Teaching Hardware Compilation  

E-print Network

to students can be quite problematic. As in teaching compilation techniques, one has to choose between one synthesis techniques is to get across how code is compiled -- di#erent techniques for optimisation and otherAn Embedded Language Approach to Teaching Hardware Compilation Koen Claessen 1 and Gordon J. Pace 2

Pace, Gordon J.

66

An Embedded Language Approach to Teaching Hardware Compilation  

E-print Network

to students can be quite problematic. As in teaching compilation techniques, one has to choose between one synthesis techniques is to get across how code is compiled ­ different techniques for optimisation and otherAn Embedded Language Approach to Teaching Hardware Compilation Koen Claessen1 and Gordon J. Pace2 1

Pace, Gordon J.

67

Why the traditional liberal arts are still relevant to engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows. “Everyone in society should develop, learn, discover, create, and invent the most effective and beneficial [problem solving techniques]. In the end, the engineering method is related in fundamental ways to human problem solving at its best.” Thus Billy Vaughn Koen, arguing that everyone is at least potentially an engineer. Without denying this claim-or the

P. T. Durbin

1997-01-01

68

Model-Based Brain and Tumor Segmentation Nathan Moon, 2  

E-print Network

1 Model-Based Brain and Tumor Segmentation 1 Nathan Moon, 2 Elizabeth Bullitt, 4 Koen van Leemput Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium email: gerig@cs.unc.edu Abstract-- Combining image segmentation based, however, prevents segmentation of structures that are not part of the model. In practical applications, we

Gerig, Guido

69

A Cautionary Analysis of STAPLE Using Direct Inference of Segmentation Truth  

E-print Network

by different human expert raters, to fusing registration-based automatic segmentations in multi-atlas labelA Cautionary Analysis of STAPLE Using Direct Inference of Segmentation Truth Koen Van Leemput1 the average of the input segmentations. We further show that when the number of raters is small, the STAPLE re

70

A Generative Model for Brain Tumor Segmentation in Multi-Modal Images  

E-print Network

A Generative Model for Brain Tumor Segmentation in Multi-Modal Images Bjoern H. Menze1,2 , Koen Van automated method for channel-specific tumor segmentation in such multi- dimensional images. Generative the same shape and extend of pathology in all modalities, the standard multi-channel segmentation may i

Golland, Polina

71

Evolution: Don't Be So Butch, Dear! Simultaneous hermaphrodites are both male and female, which could lead to  

E-print Network

,6,7]. A new study by Yumi Nakadera, Joris Koene and colleagues [8], published in this issue of Current Biology animals, such as earthworms [9,10], land snails [11,12] and flatworms [13], only in this freshwater snail

Schärer, Lukas

72

Leiden Law School Department of Economics Research Memorandum 2011.03  

E-print Network

reform and income inequality among the elderly in 15 European countries Olaf van Vliet, Jim Been, Koen of pension plans has led to higher levels of income inequality among the elderly. Existing empirical-series for a single country. This study contributes to the income inequality and pension literature by empirically

Galis, Frietson

73

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 2328 PII: S0957-4484(02)25285-X  

E-print Network

-4484(02)25285-X A simulator for quantum computer hardware Kristel Michielsen1 , Hans De Raedt1,3 and Koen De Raedt examples of the use of the quantum computer (QC) emulator. For educational purposes we describe. Introduction Quantum computers (QCs) have recently become of great interest, primarily due to their potential

74

Transnasal Endoscopic Surgery for Skull-Based Tumors  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... bleeding as well. And we're using -- 00:17:24 RAN VIJAI SINGH, MD: Up by half. 00:17:28 JOSEPH K. HAN, MD: And so you ... of the sphenoid sinus, or the planum. 00:17:53 JOSEPH L. KOEN, MD: Dr. Han, we ...

75

pH-dependent Conformational Flexibility of the SARS-CoV Main Proteinase (Mpro  

E-print Network

pH-dependent Conformational Flexibility of the SARS-CoV Main Proteinase (Mpro ) Dimer: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Multiple X-ray Structure Analyses Jinzhi Tan1,2 , Koen H. G. Verschueren2 100101 China The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (Mpro ) is a key enzyme in the processing of the viral

Lübeck, Universität zu

76

Modelling Interacting Epidemics in Overlapping Populations  

E-print Network

Modelling Interacting Epidemics in Overlapping Populations Marily Nika1 , Dieter Fiems2 , Koen de-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent, Belgium Email: {dieter.fiems,kdeturck}@telin.ugent.be Abstract. Epidemic modelling-syndemic effects. In this paper we model the dynamics of two types of epidemics with syndemic and counter

Knottenbelt, William J.

77

Automatic Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: Towards a Machine Learning Approach  

E-print Network

Automatic Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: Towards a Machine Learning Approach Koen Smets and Bart autonomous bots are, or have been, running on Wikipedia to keep the encyclopedia free from vandalism of using machine learning techniques to build an autonomous system capable to distinguish vandalism from

Antwerpen, Universiteit

78

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, SPECIAL ISSUE ON EXPRESSIVE SPEECH SYNTHESIS 1 Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling  

E-print Network

Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications Mari¨et Theune, Koen Meijs, Dirk Heylen. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for storytelling applications and more in general, for applications aimed at children. Based on an analysis

Theune, Mariët

79

JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Volume 14, Number 8, 2007  

E-print Network

. In this work, HIV partial pol sequences obtained for drug resistance testing purposes are analyzed using Editing to HIV Evolution In Vivo KOEN DEFORCHE,1 RICARDO CAMACHO,2 KRISTEL VAN LAETHEM,1 BETH SHAPIRO,3 immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a genome that is rich in adenine, and its rapid evolution shows an observed bias

Shapiro, Beth

80

Testing and Tracing Lazy Functional Programs using QuickCheck and Hat  

E-print Network

of earlier sections, and explains some techniques for testing and tracing more complex programs. Sec- tion 6Testing and Tracing Lazy Functional Programs using QuickCheck and Hat Koen Claessen1 , Colin functional programmers with tools for testing and tracing programs. In broad terms, testing means first

Kent, University of

81

The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS). — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).

82

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2003-190  

E-print Network

for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers 2 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert and Marc Moonen March- MEFISTO-666 and the Research Project FWO nr.G.0196.02. #12;Abstract Discrete multi tone (DMT) uses a window function within the DMT symbol alleviates this, but introduces distortions that are generally

83

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2004-02  

E-print Network

between time-domain equalizers and per-tone equalizers for DMT-based systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING 1 On Time-Domain And Frequency-Domain MMSE-Based TEQ Design For DMT maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ) and per-tone equal- izer design (PTEQ) for DMT transmission and cast them in a common

84

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SCD/SISTA/TR 2004-244  

E-print Network

-symbol windowing for egress reduction in DMT transmitters1 Gert Cuypers2 , Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Marc tone (DMT) uses an inverse discrete fourier transform (IDFT) to modulate data on the carriers. The high frequency bands. Applying a window function within the DMT symbol can alleviate this. However, window

85

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2001-20  

E-print Network

equalization for DMT-based transmission over IIR channels 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Leus and Marc Moonen 2 November-Bell Antwerp. The scienti#12;c responsibility is assumed by its authors. #12; Per Tone Equalization for DMT was presented for discrete multitone (DMT)­based systems. The traditional structure con­ sisting of a (real

86

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-SISTA/TR 2002-118  

E-print Network

Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT-based Systems 1 Koen Vanbleu, Geert Ysebaert, Gert Cuypers ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 52, NO. 6, JUNE 2004 871 Bitrate-Maximizing Time-Domain Equalizer Design for DMT) is inserted in discrete multitone (DMT) receivers to impose channel shortening. Many al- gorithms have been

87

Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test  

E-print Network

May 2009 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike inter the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test Kenneth Neil Mertens a, , Koen Verhoeven a , Thomas Verleye

Long, Bernard

88

J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 39: 3548 An Ecosystem-Structured Research Program For Capelin  

E-print Network

Centre, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, P.O. Box 5667, St. John's, NL, A1C 5X1 Canada S. Garthe Research from vessel-based and moored hydroacoustics (Acoustic Dop- pler Current Profilers) and biological, N. Record, B. deYoung, C. Rose-Taylor, T. Bell, J.T. Anderson, M. Koen-Alonso, and S. Garthe

deYoung, Brad

89

Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499.  

E-print Network

Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499. DOES A FLAT RATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl and Kees Goudswaard Leiden University, Public Finance Department, P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA Leiden REDUCE TAX PROGRESSIVITY? A SIMULATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS Koen Caminada Leiden University, Public

Galis, Frietson

90

Source: K. Caminada and K.P. Goudswaard (2010), `How well is social expenditure targeted to the poor?, in: P. Saunders and R. Sainsbury (eds.), Social Security, Poverty and Social Exclusion in Rich and  

E-print Network

to the poor?, in: P. Saunders and R. Sainsbury (eds.), Social Security, Poverty and Social Exclusion in Rich. 97-112. HOW WELL IS SOCIAL EXPENDITURE TARGETED TO THE POOR? KOEN CAMINADA Leiden Law School-mail: c.l.j.caminada@law.leidenuniv.nl Professor of Empirical analysis of tax and social policy KEES

Galis, Frietson

91

European Taxation, vol. 41, no.2., February 2001, Article NETHERLANDS  

E-print Network

1 European Taxation, vol. 41, no.2., February 2001, Article NETHERLANDS: The Final Tax Reform? Effects of a Flat Rate Individual Income Tax Koen Caminada* and Kees Goudswaard* * Taxation and Economics, introduces tax credits and makes a fundamental change in capital taxation. Remarkably enough, when the plans

Galis, Frietson

92

Version 6/3/2010 1 Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination  

E-print Network

Version 6/3/2010 1 Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination Theories of Body, Soul and Imagination in Early Modern Vampire Tracts (1659-1755) Koen Vermeir CNRS (UMR 7219, SPHERE); Univ Paris Diderot anthropologist from the University of Florence, found the remains of a female `vampire'. The skeleton was found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

An Operational Semantics for the Single Agent Core of AGENT0  

E-print Network

the mental states of agents change over time. In the programming language so-called commitment rules are usedAn Operational Semantics for the Single Agent Core of AGENT0 Koen V. Hindriks, Frank S. de Boer.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands fkoenh,frankb,wiebe,jjg@cs.uu.nl Abstract AGENT0 is an agent

Utrecht, Universiteit

94

The taxonomy of some Poecilacanthoidea (Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranchs off the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Specimens of elasmobranchs, collected in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, were parasitized with Poecilacanthoidea trypanorhynch cestodes. Sharks of the species Prionace glauca harboured Callitetrarhynchus gracilis and Floriceps saccatus, and those of the species Sphyrna zygaena were infected with Callitetrarhynchus speciosus. Details of the proglottids of F. saccatus, provided by bright-field, and/or scanning electron microscopy, are described. Adults of F. saccatus are reported for the first time in the Brazilian coast. PMID:16923274

Pinto, R M; Knoff, M; São Clemente, S C; Lanfredi, R M; Gomes, D C

2006-09-01

95

R. Arun kumar * et al. /International Journal Of Pharmacy&Technology Available Online through ISSN: 0975-766X Research Article www.ijptonline.com COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS OF C. IGNEUS (OR C. PICTUS) FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY IN  

E-print Network

Aims: To compare the possible therapeutic effects of C. igneus methanolic and aqueous extracts against hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and pancreas histology as well as phytochemical investigations were estimated after administration of the both extracts at dose level of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were comparable to that of glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg). Result: All studies in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Costus igneus have shown better effect on end of 30 th day. The significantly reduce type 2 diabetes in rats and regulation of insulin secretion, islet protection as well as produce higher antidiabetic compounds by methanolic extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the Costus igneus methanolic extract anti-diabetic activity is slightly higher to the aqueous extract and good agreement with the folk medicinal use of this plant.

Panagal Mani; R. Arun Kumar; T. M. M. John Bastin; S. Jenifer; Muthuvel Arumugam

96

Development of SCAR marker linked to a root-knot nematode resistant gene in peanut  

E-print Network

). Estimated annual peanut yield losses caused by M. arenaria are 8 %, 5.5 %, and 3 % for Alabama, Georgia, and Texas, respectively (Koenning et al., 1999; Minton and Baujard, 1990). The three major species attacking peanut are M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M.... javanica. Meloidogyne arenaria is the most prevalent species in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Texas (Ingram, 1980; Motsinger et al., 1976; Wheeler and Starr, 1987). The life cycle of the root-knot nematode consists of the egg, four juvenile stages...

Yang, Hee Jeong

2004-11-15

97

Optimizing Student Use and Experiences in Industrial Assessments  

E-print Network

not have time to reflect. As a result, both are lulled into inattention by enforced passivity (Kolb, 1984; Felder, 1993). In addition, lectures do not adequately take into account varied student learning styles (Mestre, 1991; Koen, 1994). Many... engineers are actually 'active, visual learners', much better served by active, visual and tactile teaching methods (Felder and Silvennan, 1988; Svinicki and Dixon, 1991; Myers and Jones, 1993; and Wankat and Oreovicz, 1994).. Further, one...

Ogot, M. M.; Muller, M. R.; Kasten, D. J.

98

Anti-inflammation activity and chemical composition of flower essential oil from Hedychium coronarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used in folk medicine for many conditions, such as contusion inflammation, anti-rheumatic and so on. In this study, chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory activity of this flowers' essential oil were investigated for the first time. Followed by GC-MS analysis, a total

Y. Lu; C. X. Zhong; L. Wang; C. Lu; X. L. Li; P. J. Wang

99

Human Babesiosis in Japan: Epizootiologic Survey of Rodent Reservoir and Isolation of New Type of Babesia microti-Like Parasite  

PubMed Central

We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838

Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Zamoto, Aya; Morita, Chiharu; Arai, Satoru; Shiota, Tsunezo; Fujimagari, Masato; Itagaki, Asao; Fujita, Hiromi; Ishihara, Chiaki

2001-01-01

100

Antimalarial chemotherapy with natural products and chemically defined molecules.  

PubMed

In the present work we have described the in vivo antimalarial activity of six different plants. Two of them (Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum) were tested in a randomic approach among 273 crude extracts from plants; four (Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus and Tachia guianensis) were selected after screening 22 crude extracts from different medicinal plants used in Brazil against fever and/or malaria. We also studied chemically defined molecules and some of them showed antimalarial activity in vitro. Some aspects of recent research with natural products aiming to produce drugs are discussed. PMID:1841997

Carvalho, L H; Krettli, A U

1991-01-01

101

Über die korrelative Erhaltung entspreiteter Blattstiele  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Morfologickými pokusy na Syringa vulgaris, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Philadelphus coronarius, Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer negundo\\u000a a Bryophyllum crenatum je v této práci sledována závislost udržování bez?epelních ?apík? na korela?ních vlivech jiných ?ástí\\u000a rostliny a zkoušena možnost napodobit tyto korelace pomocí syntetických r?stových látek. Ukazuje se, že celistvost rostliny,\\u000a zajišt?ná hlavn? regula?ními vlivy ko?en? a list?, vyniká jasn?ji z chování bez?epelních ?apík? než

Rudolf Dostál

1962-01-01

102

Developmental and morphological characteristics of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) in Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and Rattus norvegicus from different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species. PMID:8195949

Iwaki, T; Nonaka, N; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1994-06-01

103

Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of hygienic importance infecting the king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

From February to October 2007, thirty specimens of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829) were purchased from markets in the municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro. The fishes were measured, filleted and further had their organs investigated for helminths. Ten out of the thirty fish specimens were parasitized with anisakid nematodes represented by Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp. with prevalence of 1% and 16%, mean intensity of 2 and 3.31 and mean abundance of 0.02 and 0.53, respectively. The infection range with Contracaecum sp. was 1-9. The sites of infection were the stomach serosa and mesentery. Seventeen fish specimens (53%) out of the 30 investigated were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha metacestodes, identified as Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Pterobothrium crassicole, Callitetrarhynchus speciosus and Tentacularia coryphaenae in the mesentery, with prevalence of 26, 20, 6, 3%, intensity and mean intensity of 3.25, 3.5, 1, 2 and mean abundance of 0.86, 0.7, 0.06 and 0.06, respectively. The infection range due to C. gracilis and P. crassicole were of 1-5 and 1-20, respectively. Anisakis sp., C. speciosus and P. crassicole are reported in S. cavalla for the first time. Considerations on the zoonotic potential of the parasites and their rules in sanitary inspection are presented. PMID:21115292

Dias, F J E; São Clemente, S C; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Knoff, Marcelo

2011-02-10

104

Lizards in the ecology of salmonellosis in Panama.  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic bacteria was isolated from 131 of 447 (29.4%) neotropical Panamanian lizards belonging to 34 species of seven families. Overall, 147 strains of bacteria were isolated comprising 26 Salmonella and 10 Arizona serotypes. Gymnopthalmus speciosus had the highest infection rate, 12 of 13 individuals (92.3%), whereas Gonatodes fuscus exhibited the lowest, 1 of 18 (5.6%). The highest infection was detected in lizards whose behavioral patterns were secretive (42.0%) and terrestrial (42.6%), whereas the lowest infection was among the scansorial lizards (17.5%). Rates were highest during the dry season, from January through April. Many neotropical Panamanian lizards were multiply infected by Salmonella an Arizona strains representing representing a wide range of serotypes. Infected lizards were distributed in areas varying from remote rural and forested regions to urban developments, offering a potentially important reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria known to cause infection in man and domestic animals. PMID:7259156

Kourany, M; Telford, S R

1981-01-01

105

Human Babesiosis in Japan: Isolation of Babesia microti-Like Parasites from an Asymptomatic Transfusion Donor and from a Rodent from an Area Where Babesiosis Is Endemic  

PubMed Central

To determine the source of infection for the Japanese index case of human babesiosis, we analyzed blood samples from an asymptomatic individual whose blood had been transfused into the patient. In addition, we surveyed rodents collected from near the donor's residence. Examination by microscopy and PCR failed to detect the parasite in the donor's blood obtained 8 months after the donation of the blood that was transfused. However, we were able to isolate Babesia parasites by inoculating the blood sample into SCID mice whose circulating red blood cells (RBCs) had been replaced with human RBCs. A Babesia parasite capable of propagating in human RBCs was also isolated from a field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) captured near the donor's residential area. Follow-up surveys over a 1-year period revealed that the donor continued to be asymptomatic but had consistently high immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in serum and low levels of parasitemia which were microscopically undetectable yet which were repeatedly demonstrable by inoculation into animals. The index case patient's sera contained high titers of IgM and, subsequently, rising titers of IgG antibodies, both of which gradually diminished with the disappearance of the parasitemia. Analysis of the parasite's rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence and immunodominant antigens revealed the similarity between donor and patient isolates. The rodent isolate also had an rDNA sequence that was identical to that of the human isolates but that differed slightly from that of the human isolates by Western blot analysis. We conclude that the index case patient acquired infection by transfusion from a donor who became infected in Japan, that parasitemia in an asymptomatic carrier can persist for more than a year, and that A. speciosus serves as a reservoir of an agent of human babesiosis in Japan. PMID:11376054

Wei, Qiang; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Zamoto, Aya; Kohsaki, Masatoshi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Shiota, Tsunezo; Telford, Sam R.; Ishihara, Chiaki

2001-01-01

106

Comparison of Ehrlichia muris Strains Isolated from Wild Mice and Ticks and Serologic Survey of Humans and Animals with E. muris as Antigen  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan. PMID:10074536

Kawahara, Makoto; Ito, Tadahiko; Suto, Chiharu; Shibata, Shinichiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Hata, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Katsuya

1999-01-01

107

Reproductive and physiological responses to simulated climate warming for four subalpine species.  

PubMed

* The carbon costs of reproduction were examined in four subalpine herbaceous plant species for which number and size of flowers respond differently under a long-term infrared warming experiment. * Instantaneous measurements of gas exchange and an integrative model were used to calculate whole-plant carbon budgets and reproductive effort (RE). * Of the two species for which flowering was reduced, only one (Delphinium nuttallianum) exhibited higher RE under warming. The other species (Erythronium grandiflorum) flowers earlier when freezing events under warming treatment could have damaged floral buds. Of the two species for which flowering rates were not reduced, one (Helianthella quinquenervis) had higher RE, while RE was unaffected for the other (Erigeron speciosus). Each of these different responses was the result of a different combination of changes in organ size and physiological rates in each of the species. * Results show that the magnitude and direction of responses to warming differ greatly among species. Such results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple species to understand the complex interactions among physiological and reproductive responses to climate change. PMID:17176399

Lambrecht, Susan C; Loik, Michael E; Inouye, David W; Harte, John

2007-01-01

108

Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from Brazilian plants studied in vivo in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum in culture.  

PubMed

1. Ninety-five crude extracts obtained with either organic solvents or water from 48 Brazilian plants or parts of plants were evaluated experimentally as blood schizontocides. Seventy-three extracts were obtained from 33 plants randomly collected using an empirical approach, and 22 from 15 "medicinal" plants. 2. The crude extracts were screened in vivo at up to 1.0 g/kg, po, for 4 days in mice infected with blood forms of Plasmodium berghei and parasitemia was determined on the fifth day. 3. Six plants, 2 randomly collected, Vernonia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum, and 4 "medicinal" plants, Acanthospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus speciosus, and Tachia guianensis, were partly active against the rodent malaria, i.e., they showed 40-50% inhibition of P. berghei multiplication. Forty-two plants whose extracts presented no antimalarial activity are reported. 4. Four extracts with antimalarial activity were also tested in vitro using P. falciparum cultures and two of them, V. brasiliana and A. australe, were active. Extracts of V. brasiliana caused about 50% inhibition of parasite multiplication at relatively low doses (40 ng/ml) as compared to chloroquine (30 ng/ml) and quinine (50 ng/ml). 5. The relatively high percentage of positive results obtained here for "medicinal" plants vs randomly chosen plants demonstrates the effectiveness of the ethnopharmacological approach to drug testing. PMID:1823001

Carvalho, L H; Brandão, M G; Santos-Filho, D; Lopes, J L; Krettli, A U

1991-01-01

109

Genetic and Biological Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolated from Wild Rodents in Southern Hokkaido, Japan in 2008  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. A recent epizootiological survey indicated that endemic foci of TBEV have been maintained in the southern part of Hokkaido until recently. In this study, we sought to isolate TBEV from wild rodents in the area. One virus, designated Oshima 08-As, was isolated from an Apodemus speciosus captured in Hokuto in 2008. Oshima 08-As was classified as the Far Eastern subtype of TBEV and formed a cluster with the other strains isolated in Hokkaido from 1995 to 1996. Thirty-six nucleotide differences resulted in 12 amino acid changes between Oshima 08-As and Oshima 5–10 isolated in 1995. Oshima 08-As caused high mortality and morbidity in a mouse model compared with Oshima 5–10. Although similar transient viral multiplication in the spleen was observed in the mice infected with Oshima 08-As and Oshima 5–10, greater viral multiplication with an inflammatory response was noted in the brains of mice infected with Oshima 08-As than those infected with Oshima 5–10. These data indicate that a few naturally occurring mutations affect the pathogenicity of the Oshima strains endemic in the southern part of Hokkaido. PMID:23590320

Yamazaki, Shoko; Mottate, Keita; Nagata, Noriyo; Seto, Takahiro; Sanada, Takashiro; Sakai, Mizuki; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo

2013-01-01

110

Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-02-01

111

Investigation of reservoir animals of Leptospira in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture.  

PubMed

We surveyed reservoir animals of leptospires in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture, where a cluster of human leptospirosis had occurred during the summer of 2006. Leptospira was isolated from 6 of 57 large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus). The serogroups of the isolates were Autumnalis (5 strains) and Hebdomadis (1 strain) and the partial nucleotide sequences of their flaB genes suggested that the isolates belonged to L. interrogans. The human patient sera reacted specifically with the Leptospira strain isolated from the mice captured around the area where each patient occurred, suggesting that mice are the source of human infection. We also detected leptospiral DNAs by flaB-polymerase chain reaction in the kidneys of large feral animals; wild boars (positive ratio 10.3%; 4 of 39) and deer (19.2%; 10 of 52). The Leptospira spp. harbored by these animals were deduced to be L. interrogans (in 5 animals) and L. borgpetersenii (in 9 animals) by the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were also detected among symptomatic hound dogs. These results suggest that these feral animals may cause leptospirosis and pose a potential risk to hunters and workers in the meat processing industry. PMID:19050356

Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Baba, Yoshitaka; Kudo, Momotoshi; Tamae, Yoshinobu; Shimomura, Koji; Takatori, Ichiro; Iwakiri, Akira; Ishikawa, Koji; Soma, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

2008-11-01

112

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-04-01

113

Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.  

PubMed

The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

2009-04-01

114

Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

2001-01-01

115

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-05-11

116

Dioxin pollution disrupts reproduction in male Japanese field mice.  

PubMed

Dioxins cause various adverse effects in animals including teratogenesis, induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, tumor promotion, and endocrine disruption. Above all, endocrine disruption is known to disturb reproduction in adult animals and may, also seriously impact their offspring. However, most previous studies have quantified the species-specific accumulation of dioxins, whereas few studies have addressed the physiological impacts of dioxins on wildlife, such as reduced reproductive function. Here we clarify an effect of endocrine disruption caused by dioxins on the Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Japanese field mice collected from various sites polluted with dioxins accumulated high concentrations of dioxins in their livers. Some dioxin congeners, especially, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro biphenyl, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which showed high biota-soil accumulation factors, contributed to concentration of dioxins in mouse livers with an increase of accumulation of total dioxins. As for physiological effects on the Japanese field mouse, high levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA, a drug metabolizing enzyme induced by dioxins, were found in the livers of mice captured at polluted sites. Furthermore, at such sites polluted with dioxins, increased CYP1A1 expression coincided with reduced numbers of active spermatozoa in mice. Thus, disruption in gametogenesis observed in these mice suggests that dioxins not only negatively impact reproduction among Japanese field mice, but might also act as a kind of selection pressure in a chemically polluted environment. PMID:24026525

Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Sakai, Mizuki; Tohma, Shimon; Matsuki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Yukio; Kajiwara, Hideo; Sekijima, Tsuneo

2013-11-01

117

Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.  

PubMed

Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

2014-09-01

118

Phylogeny estimation of the radiation of western North American chipmunks (Tamias) in the face of introgression using reproductive protein genes.  

PubMed

The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R; Sullivan, Jack

2012-01-01

119

Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes  

PubMed Central

The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

2012-01-01

120

Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers.  

PubMed

The timing of life history traits is central to lifetime fitness and nowhere is this more evident or well studied as in the phenology of flowering in governing plant reproductive success. Recent changes in the timing of environmental events attributable to climate change, such as the date of snowmelt at high altitudes, which initiates the growing season, have had important repercussions for some common perennial herbaceous wildflower species. The phenology of flowering at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado, USA) is strongly influenced by date of snowmelt, which makes this site ideal for examining phenological responses to climate change. Flower buds of Delphinium barbeyi, Erigeron speciosus, and Helianthella quinquenervis are sensitive to frost, and the earlier beginning of the growing season in recent years has exposed them to more frequent mid-June frost kills. From 1992 to 1998, on average 36.1% of Helianthella buds were frosted, but for 1999-2006 the mean is 73.9%; in only one year since 1998 have plants escaped all frost damage. For all three of these perennial species, there is a significant relationship between the date of snowmelt and the abundance of flowering that summer. Greater snowpack results in later snowmelt, later beginning of the growing season, and less frost mortality of buds. Microhabitat differences in snow accumulation, snowmelt patterns, and cold air drainage during frost events can be significant; an elevation difference of only 12 m between two plots resulted in a temperature difference of almost 2 degrees C in 2006 and a difference of 37% in frost damage to buds. The loss of flowers and therefore seeds can reduce recruitment in these plant populations, and affect pollinators, herbivores, and seed predators that previously relied on them. Other plant species in this environment are similarly susceptible to frost damage so the negative effects for recruitment and for consumers dependent on flowers and seeds could be widespread. These findings point out the paradox of increased frost damage in the face of global warming, provide important insights into the adaptive significance of phenology, and have general implications for flowering plants throughout the region and anywhere climate change is having similar impacts. PMID:18409425

Inouye, David W

2008-02-01

121

Household health care-seeking costs: experiences from a randomized, controlled trial of community-based malaria and pneumonia treatment among under-fives in eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to which community-based care reduces healthcare-seeking costs at the household level in rural and urban settings. This paper assesses the rural–urban differences in direct and indirect costs of seeking care from formal health facilities compared to community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods Exit interviews were conducted for 282 (159 rural and 123 urban) caregivers of children below five years who had received treatment for fever-related illnesses at selected health centres in Iganga and Mayuge districts. Data on the direct and indirect costs incurred while seeking care at the health centre visited were obtained. Using another tool, household level direct and indirect costs of seeking care from CMDs were collected from a total of 470 caregivers (304 rural and 166 urban). Costs incurred at health facilities were then compared with costs of seeking care from CMDs. Results Household direct costs of seeking care from health facilities were significantly higher for urban-based caregivers than the rural (median cost?=?US$0.42 for urban and zero for rural; p?

2014-01-01

122

Phylogenetic Origins of the Himalayan Endemic Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus (Asteraceae: Cardueae) Based on Three DNA Regions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is an enduring question as to the mechanisms leading to the high diversity and the processes producing endemics with unusual morphologies in the Himalayan alpine region. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships and origins of three such endemic genera were analysed, Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus, all in the tribe Cardueae of Asteraceae. Methods The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnL-F and psbA-trnH regions of these three genera were sequenced. The same regions for other related genera in Cardueae were also sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined data sets of the three types of sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The phylogenetic tree obtained allowed earlier hypotheses concerning the relationships of these three endemic genera based on gross morphology to be rejected. Frolovia and Saussurea costus were deeply nested within Dolomiaea, and the strong statistical support for the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade suggested that circumscription of Dolomiaea should be more broadly redefined. Diplazoptilon was resolved as sister to Himalaiella, and these two together are sister to Lipschitziella. The clade comprising these three genera is sister to Jurinea, and together these four genera are sister to the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade. Xanthopappus, previously hypothesized to be closely related to Carduus, was found to be nested within a well-supported but not fully resolved Onopordum group with Alfredia, Ancathia, Lamyropappus, Olgaea, Synurus and Syreitschikovia, rather than the Carduus group. The crude dating based on ITS sequence divergence revealed that the divergence time of Dolomiaea–Frolovia from its sister group probably occurred 13·6–12·2 million years ago (Ma), and the divergence times of the other two genera, Xanthopappus and Diplazoptilon, from their close relatives around 5·7–4·7 Ma and 2·0–1·6 Ma, respectively. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the intergeneric relationships in Cardueae. The crude calibration of lineages indicates that the uplifts of the Qiinghai–Tibetan Plateau since the Miocene might have served as a continuous stimulus for the production of these morphologically aberrant endemic elements of the Himalayan flora. PMID:17218340

Wang, Yu-Jin; Liu, Jian-Quan; Miehe, Georg

2007-01-01

123

[Relevance of pharmacoeconomic analyses to price and reimbursement decisions in Austria].  

PubMed

Since the social sick funds have only limited amounts of money at their disposal, whereas the pharmaceutical market is constantly growing, thorough evaluations have to be undertaken how contributions are to be spent to get adequate value for money and especially to gain utmost benefit for the patients. When deciding on whether a pharmaceutical is listed in the Code of Reimbursement or not, pharmacoeconomic studies are obligatory in two cases: for real innovations with substantial therapeutic benefit and for applications for inclusion in the Yellow Box, when there are no alternatives listed in the Yellow Box. On the basis of the pharmacoeconomic study a comprehensible and justifiable cost/use relation of the pharmaceutical applied for should be proven in comparison with therapeutic alternatives in Austria. However, a pharmacoeconomic study is always only one aspect among others deciding on reimbursement and price. Even though the pharmaceutical applied for is not included in the Code of Reimbursement, reimbursement is possible in special cases if there is no adequate pharmaceutical listed in the Code of Reimbursement and the pharmaceutical is absolutely needed for therapeutic reasons. In these cases prior approval from a chief medical officer is required. Pharmacoeconomic studies for the purpose of section sign 25 of the Rules of Procedure for publishing the Code of Reimbursement (VO-EKO) must meet the following requirements: From a methodical point of view both cost-effectiveness analyses and--in justified cases--cost-utility analyses may be used. Due to required accuracy and traceability incremental analyses are preferred. Medical and economic data underlying the pharmacoeconomic study have to show a high degree of validity and evidence. The perspective to be taken is that of the Austrian Health Insurance. When determining the therapeutic alternatives, the most frequent indication, the most purposeful medical dosage and the main group of affected patients have to be considered. Hereby the order "Green Box-Yellow Box-Red Box" has to be taken into account. The direct costs of the obligatory benefits of the social insurance institutions of medical treatment (medical assistance, drugs, substitute assistance), institutional care (based on LKF points) and the medical measures of rehabilitation are to be set. Due to required transparency and traceability quantity and cost structure have to be listed separately. Prices of single items and resource usage in form of units of measurement have to be stated. Studies performed in other countries than Austria may be subject to different health care systems, general conditions, therapeutic alternatives and costs and have therefore to be adapted to Austrian conditions. It must not be disregarded that pharmacoeconomics as any other science comprises different opinions and basic approaches and that pharmacoeconomics is making progress all the time. However, considering their limitations with regard to the interpretation of the results, pharmacoeconomic studies are a key factor for assessing new pharmaceuticals and represent an important contribution to reimbursement and price decisions in Austria. PMID:17211765

Führlinger, Susanne

2006-12-01