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Influence of Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. Rhizome Extracts on Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes affects about 4% of the global popula- tion and management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. The present study investigated the possible protec- tive effects of Costus speciosus (Koen. )s m. (C. specio- sus )r hizome extracts on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic Wistar rats. STZ treatment (50mg\\/kg, i.p.

Pitchai Daisy; James Eliza; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu



Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Aerial Parts of Costus speciosus Koen  

PubMed Central

In the present study, methanol extracts of Costus speciosus Koen. aerial parts were assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animals. The antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of Costus speciosus (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot-plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The methanol extract of aerial parts of Costus speciosus in a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory activity (19.36 and 40.05% reduction) at 5 h postmedication. In analgesic models extract treated animals at (400 and 800 mg/kg) inhibited writhing’s caused by acetic acid by 14.24 and 31.90%, respectively, and it also increased the latency period at both high and low doses which showed the mean reaction time at 16.60±0.355 s and 14.12±0.355 s, respectively, when compared to control in hot-plate test. It also reduces the rectal temperature of the animals at low and high doses significantly 37.03±0.108° and 36.63±0.098°, respectively, in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The obtained results of the present investigation revealed that methanol extract of Costus speciosus has significant antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. PMID:23901165

Srivastava, Shruti; Singh, P.; Jha, K. K.; Mishra, Garima; Srivastava, S.; Khosa, R. L.



Propagation of Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. through in vitro rhizome production.  


Rhizomes developed in vitro on shoots of Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. which were initiated from zygotic embryos. The effect of different hormonal and nutritional additions to Schenk and Hildebrandt' s (SH) basal nutrient medium on rhizome development was studied. Rhizomes developed on SH basal salts but formed with increased frequency on medium supplemented with adenine sulfate, casamino acids (CA) and various combinations of cytokinins and auxins. Incubation in light was necessary for rhizome formation. Isolated basal as well as nodal (aerial) rhizomes formed and produced new shoots. In basal medium without any growth additives (control) the average number of shoots produced per inoculum was 3.3 ±0.73 whereas in the best suited medium i.e. supplemented with 250 mg l(-1) CA the number of shoots obtained was 22.7±1.92. There was no dormancy period for rhizomes under the cultural conditions investigated. Rhizome-sprouts were easily transplanted from the in vitro conditions to the field. More than five hundred propagules (i.e. sprouted-rhizomes) were obtained within 5 months and it has been estimated that more than 2.4 × 10(5) propagules could be achieved per year through four subsequent in vitro rhizomes-generation cycles. Thus, a rapid method of propagation has been established. PMID:24221288

Roy, A; Pal, A



Embryo culture of Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. to regenerate variable diosgenin yielding clones.  


Mature embryos of Costus speciosus were excised and cultured on Schenk and Hildebrandt's (1972) nutrient medium containing auxins and cytokinins either alone or in combination. Multiple shoots were obtained when kinetin and indole-3-butyric acid were supplemented each at 0.1 mg 1(-1) concentration. Embryo-derived plantlets were multiplied through propagation of rhizomes and the propagules derived from a single embryo were designated as an embryoclone. Twenty such embryo-clones were maintained in the field. Variations in rhizome biomass yield and diosgenin contents of these embryoclones were noted. Thirty-six percent of the embryo-clones studied were high diosgenin yielding types. Diosgenin contents at the intraclonal level were uniform. The in vitro raised plants were morphologically uniform and indistinguishable from their parent. PMID:24221331

Pal, A; Roy, A



Molecular mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic effects of Costus speciosus extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) root ethanolic extracts (CSREt) by assessing its action on insulin synthesis and glucose catabolic enzyme gene expression and activities in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Methods: This study was carried out at the Biochemical Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt between July and August 2013. Sixty male albino rats (120 ± 20 g weight, and 6 months old) were used and divided into 6 groups (n=10). Two groups served as diabetic and nondiabetic controls. Four groups of STZ diabetic animals were given oral C. speciosus (CSREt) in doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight, and 600 µg/kg body weight of the standard drug glibenclamide for 4 weeks. Results: The CSREt 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight induced a decrease in blood glucose and an increase in serum insulin level, glucokinase (GK), aldolase, pyruvate kinase (PK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and glycogen synthase activities in addition to a higher expression level of insulin, insulin receptor A (IRA), GK, PK, SDH, and glucose transporting protein. Conclusion: The C. speciosus has anti-hyperglycemic activity. It induces insulin secretion and release from cells, as well as stimulates the tissue’s insulin sensitivity leading to an increase of the tissues’ glucose uptake, storage, and oxidation. PMID:25491216

Ali, Haytham A.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Afifi, Mohamed E.



Pharmacognostical study and establishment of quality parameters of aerial parts of Costus speciosus-a well known tropical folklore medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costus speciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species. PMID:25182951

Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri Kishor; Srivastava, Sourabh; Sangeeta; Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Tahseen, Mohd Adil



Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus  

PubMed Central

Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24?h and 48?h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200??g/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100??g/mL methanol leaf extract for 24?h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ? 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148

Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha



Costus loangensis from Gabon 11 Costus loangensis, an exciting new species  

E-print Network

of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas Africa, Gabon, Costaceae, Costus, Zingiberales, spiral ginger Introduction The plant family Costaceae


A review on Insulin plant (Costus igneus Nak)  

PubMed Central

Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date. PMID:24600198

Hegde, Prakash K.; Rao, Harini A.; Rao, Prasanna N.



A Novel Hemagglutinin with Antiproliferative Activity against Tumor Cells from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Boletus speciosus  

PubMed Central

Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31?kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100?mM NaOH and 25?mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25?mM?Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7??M and 7.0??M, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1??M. PMID:24977148

Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing



Effect of the insulin plant (Costus igneus) leaves on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Costus igneus, commonly known as insulin plant in India, belongs to the family Costaceae. Consumption of the leaves are believed to lower blood glucose levels, and diabetics who consumed the leaves of this plant did report a fall in their blood glucose levels. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of the leaves of Costus igeus on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in male Wistar rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6) were treated with 10 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone subcutaneously for 20 days. From day 11 to day 20, different groups received 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day of powdered leaves of Costus igeus in distilled water orally or Glibenclamide 500 µg/kg orally. On the 20th day, after overnight fasting, a retro-orbital puncture was performed for obtaining blood samples to estimate the fasting blood glucose level, and the same procedure was followed on the other eye 1 hour after a glucose load of 2.5 g/kg orally for estimation of post-glucose load blood glucose levels. Fasting blood sugar and postglucose load blood sugar levels were raised in the group that received dexamethasone when compared to normal controls (P < 0.001), whereas 250 and 500 mg/kg powdered leaf of Costus igeus and Glibenclamide 500 µg/kg decreased the dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). The leaves of Costus igeus reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them towards normal, in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in rats. PMID:20814523

Shetty, Akhila J; Choudhury, Divya; Rejeesh; Nair, Vinod; Kuruvilla, Maria; Kotian, Shashidhar



Pharmacological evaluation for anticancer and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost.  


The fungal polysaccharides have been revealed to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation activities. In the present study, the immune and anticancer activities of a novel polysaccharide, BSF-A, isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost was investigated. The inhibitory rate of S180 tumors in mice treated with 40 mg/kg BSF-A reached 62.449%, which was the highest rate from the three doses administered; this may be comparable to mannatide. The antitumor activity of BSF-A is commonly considered to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, as it may significantly promote the macrophage cells in the dose range of 100-400 µg/ml in vitro. The levels of the cytokines, IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-?, and nitric oxide, induced by BSF-A treatment at varying concentrations in the macrophage cells were similar to the levels in the cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. There was weak expression of the TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the untreated macrophages, but this increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the BSF-A-treated cells. BSF-A also had a time- and dose-dependent effect on the growth inhibition of the Hep-2 cells, with the concentration of 400 µg/ml having the highest inhibitory rate. A quantitative PCR array analysis of the gene expression profiles indicated that BSF-A had anticancer activities that affected cell apoptosis in the Hep-2 cells. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the purified polysaccharide of Boletus speciosus Frost is a potential source of natural anticancer substances. PMID:24566673

Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Song, Bo; Wang, Ting; Wang, Fang; Li, Jian; Zeng, Yichun; Zhong, Jie; Xu, Ting; Zhu, Hongqing



Some aspects of the morphology of the ovule and seed of Costus malortieanus (Zingiberaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovules ofCostus malortieanus are typically anatropous and are arranged along two lines on each septum, of the tricarpellary syncarpous inferior ovary.\\u000a The ovular traces develop from the peripheral bundles of the axial vasculature. The ovule has a number of linear, translucent,\\u000a multicellular appendages arising from the base and they are ontogenetically similar to ovular appendages in other Zingiberaceae.\\u000a These

Jose K Mangaly; K Sworrupanandan



Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...


[Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].  


Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now. PMID:25208833

Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong



Epistasis: Obstacle or Advantage for Mapping Complex Koen J. F. Verhoeven1  

E-print Network

Epistasis: Obstacle or Advantage for Mapping Complex Traits? Koen J. F. Verhoeven1 , George Casella evidence that locus interactions, or epistasis, are a crucial component of the genetic architecture of biologically relevant traits. However, epistasis is often viewed as a nuisance factor that reduces power

Casella, George


A Feasible LowPower AugmentedReality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

A Feasible Low­Power Augmented­Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse #3; Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear­ able augmented­reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic (wearability) and augmented reality (user­interface). Wireless communication is obvi­ ously required to obtain

Langendoen, Koen


A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

A Feasible Low-Power Augmented-Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear- able augmented-reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic) and augmented reality (user-interface). Wireless communication is obvi- ously required to obtain services

Kuzmanov, Georgi


A Feasible LowPower AugmentedReality Terminal Johan Pouwelse Koen Langendoen Henk Sips  

E-print Network

A Feasible Low­Power Augmented­Reality Terminal Johan Pouwelse #3; Koen Langendoen Henk Sips Delft the requirements for a truly wear­ able augmented­reality (AR) terminal. The requirements translate into a generic (wearability) and augmented reality (natural user­interface). Wireless communication is obviously required

Pouwelse, Johan


Structure of a homofructosan from Saussurea costus and anti-complementary activity of its sulfated derivatives.  


A homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharide APS-W1, (2?1)-?-d-fructofuranosan, with an average molecular weight of 3.9kDa, was isolated and characterized from the roots of Saussurea costus. Five sulfated derivatives of APS-W1 with different degrees of sulfation were prepared and they showed strong inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classical pathway (CP50: 2.2-18.9?g/mL; 8.3?g/mL for heparin) and alternative pathway (AP50: 11.4-115.8?g/mL; 89.2?g/mL for heparin). Mechanism studies by using complement-depleted sera indicated that sulfated derivatives with different positions of sulfation targeted to different complement proteins. Meanwhile the sulfated derivatives have limited anticoagulant effect based on re-calcification time and thrombin time. These results suggested that the sulfated derivatives prepared from APS-W1 could be promising potential complement inhibitors for the treatment of diseases caused by an over-activated complement system. PMID:24708964

Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Fei; Bligh, S W Annie; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Shunchun



Australian Sea Levels Trends, Regional Variability and Influencing Factors Neil J. White, Ivan D. Haigh, John A. Church, Terry Koen, Christopher  

E-print Network

. White, Ivan D. Haigh, John A. Church, Terry Koen, Christopher S. Watson, Tim R. Pritchard, Phil J. White, 2,3 Ivan D. Haigh, 1 John A. Church, 4 Terry Koen, 5 Christopher S. Watson, 4 Tim R. Pritchard, 4 Received date: 7 October 2013 Accepted date: 17 May 2014 Please cite this article as: White, Neil J., Haigh

Tregoning, Paul


A trend of central versus peripheral structuring in mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences of the Japanese wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus.  


A phylogeographic analysis was performed on Japanese endemic wood mice (Apodemus speciosus) using nuclear interphotoreceptor retinol binding protein (IRBP) gene sequences (1,152 bp), together with previously published mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) data. In the IRBP analysis, 40 haplotypes were recovered from 84 individuals by statistical and subcloning methods. Substantial sequence variation was determined from the IRBP data (pi=0.0047), and no significant evidence of recombination was detected. From the phylogenetic analysis, the 40 haplotypes fell into two major groups with geographic associations, irrespective of the karyotype groups (2n=46 and 2n=48), yielding a trend of central (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Sado) and peripheral (Izu, Oki, Tsushima, and Satsunan Is.) groupings. This geographic pattern is similar to that observed in the cyt b data, with a different insular grouping of Sado, Hokkaido, Izu, and Satsunan islands, and also to that of morphological features. In both gene data sets, nested clade analyses revealed allopatric fragmentation in the "peripheral island clades" and range expansion in the "central island clades." A mismatch analysis using cyt b data also suggested expansion of the central islands clade. Thus, the trend of central vs. peripheral structuring may be attributable to past demographic dynamics in the two distinct haplotype clades, such as range expansion of one clade in the central area of the Japanese Islands, leaving the other clade in the periphery. PMID:18393564

Tomozawa, Morihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi



Aqueous extract of Costus arabicus inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth and adhesion to renal epithelial cells.  


Costus arabicus L. (C. arabicus) is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat urolithiasis; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. The interaction between calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the renal epithelium is important in calculogenesis, and compounds that modulate this process represent candidate therapeutic agents for stone prevention. Therefore, we assessed the inhibitory activity of C. arabicus on CaOx crystallization and the interaction of CaOx crystals with the renal epithelium. A seeded CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystallization system was used to study the effect of C. arabicus on crystal growth. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used to study [(14)C] COM crystal adhesion in the presence and absence of an aqueous extract of C. arabicus. Cytotoxicity was assessed using a tetrazolium (MTS) cell proliferation assay. Aqueous extracts of C. arabicus decreased crystal growth in a concentration-dependent fashion. Precoating crystals with C. arabicus extract prevented their adhesion to MDCK cells, while pretreating cells did not show any effect. The extract was non-cytotoxic in concentrations of at least 1 mg/ml, which is likely above concentrations achievable in the urine following oral ingestion and excretion. No inhibitory activity was found in hexane, methyl chloride, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of an ethanol extract of the herb. An aqueous extract of C. arabicus may disrupt calculogenesis by interacting with CaOx crystal surfaces. Activity was present in the aqueous extract; therefore, this agent may be bioavailable when administered orally. Fractionation results suggest that the active agent might be a polar polysaccharide. Further identification and characterization along these lines may be warranted. PMID:25652357

de Cógáin, Mitra R; Linnes, Michael P; Lee, Hyo Jung; Krambeck, Amy E; de Mendonça Uchôa, Julio Cezar; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lieske, John C



Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)  

PubMed Central

Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500??g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125??g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 ?g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5??g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125??g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio



Mixing Strong and Weak Targets Provides No Evidence against the Unequal-Variance Explanation of zRoc Slope: A Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koen and Yonelinas (2010; K&Y) reported that mixing classes of targets that had short (weak) or long (strong) study times had no impact on zROC slope, contradicting the predictions of the encoding variability hypothesis. We show that they actually derived their predictions from a mixture unequal-variance signal detection (UVSD) model, which…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger



Modulation of superconductivity by a magnetic template in Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids Zhaorong Yang,* Koen Vervaeke, and Victor V. Moshchalkov  

E-print Network

Modulation of superconductivity by a magnetic template in Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids Zhaorong Yang,* Koen create a magnetic template for superconducting condensate in the Nb/BaFe12O19 hybrids. Depending on the field and tempera- ture, the magnetic template guides superconductivity to nucleate in different areas

Moshchalkov, Victor V.


Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties  

PubMed Central

Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as “Insulin Plant” in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties through the secondary metabolite pathway annotations are reported. The data provided will be of immense help to researchers working in the treatment of DM using herbal therapies. PMID:23176672



Camenae n 8 -dcembre 2010 Koen VEIRMEIR  

E-print Network

scoperta di una sepoltura di "vampiro": archeologia e antropologia forense analizzano la genesi di una Antropologia ed Etnologia', Archivio per l'Antropologia e l'Etnologia, 138 (2008), p. 215-217. 2 Ceci peut être

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


An Engineer's Quest for Billy V. Koen  

E-print Network

MERCEDES #12;14 Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Justice Beauty Good Theory of Forms Plato's BEST Circle Good Plato's Engineer's #12;18 The Engineering Method (Design) Use of heuristics to cause the best

Ben-Yakar, Adela


Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha



Contrasting stress responses of two co-occurring chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus).  


Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808

Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A



Behavioral and physiological thermoregulation in male cicada killers ( Sphecius speciosus) during territorial behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Male cicada killers had elevated, apparently regulated, thoracic and head temperatures during territorial perching and patrolling in full sunshine. (2) Dead, dry wasps reached near-lethal temperatures on the bare ground, and were hotter with their bodies perpendicular to the sun's rays, as opposed to parallel. (3) The percentage of males perching on the ground, their perch duration, and the

Joseph R Coelho



Connective field modeling Koen V. Haak a,b,c,  

E-print Network

, The Netherlands c Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States d Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States e Helmholtz Institute, Experimental Psychology of activity in another part of the brain. Connective field modeling opens up a wide range of research

Dumoulin, Serge O.


A Survey of Autonomic Computing Systems Mohammad Reza Nami, Koen Bertels  

E-print Network

, effects on quality factors, their building block architecture and challenges. I. INTRODUCTION Data in configuration, healing, optimization, protection and maintenance. Moreover, IT managers look for ways to improve the Return On Investment (ROI) by reducing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), improving Quality of Services

Kuzmanov, Georgi


Income Distribution and Social Security in an OECD Perspective Koen Caminada and Kees Goudswaard  

E-print Network Leiden University Public Finance Department P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA of Economics at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Research areas: social Security at Public Finance Section, Law School, Leiden University, the Netherlands, and Crown

Galis, Frietson



E-print Network

. We implemented EPS on a StrongARM­based variable voltage platform. Measurements show that EPS reduces. 1. INTRODUCTION In many portable systems the microprocessor consumes a sig­ nificant amount of energy. This is especially true in very small systems (PDAs) without a hard­disk and display back

Langendoen, Koen


Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…

Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.



De eigen woning anders belast 2221 woorden Koen Caminada, Kees Goudswaard en Henk Vording  

E-print Network

-01-1998, blz. 133-143; C.A. de Kam, 'De logica van de hypotheekrente-aftrek', ESB, 29-01-1997, blz. 94-95; R), 1998, blz. 104-109; B.A.W. Snels, M. Streefkerk en C.C.M. Vendrik, 'Eigen huis, eigen vermogen', ESB 4-06-1999, blz. 424-427; L.G.M. Stevens 'Fiscale beleidsnotities 1998', Weekblad Fiscaal Recht, 25-09-1997, blz

Galis, Frietson


Ecology, 85(9), 2004, pp. 25702581 2004 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

and herbivores on six of the most common plant species (Artemisia tridentata, Helianthella quinquenervis, Erig: Artemisia tridentata; CO2; Erigeron speciosus; climate change; global warming; Helianthella quinquenervis

Oregon, University of


Vermeir, Koen. 2007. "Athanasius Kircher's Magical Instruments: An Essay on Science, Religion and Applied Metaphysics (16021680)." Studies in History and Philosophy of  

E-print Network

and Applied Metaphysics (1602­1680)." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (38): 363-400. doi:10' and Applied Metaphysics Abstract In this paper I endeavour to bridge the gap between the history of material culture and the history of ideas. I do this by focussing on the intersection between metaphysics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Word of Welcome Dear participant,  

E-print Network

Nirvana Meratnia #12;Organizers Computer Networks and Distributed Systems group, University of Bern of Twente Local Committee Desislava Dimitrova, University of Twente Koen Blom, University of Twente Nirvana

Al Hanbali, Ahmad


The chromosomes of some North American chipmunks (sciuridae) belonging to the genera tamias and eutamias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The somatic chromosomes of T. striatus lysteri, E. minimus operarius, E. speciosus frater, E. quadrivittaius hopiensis and E. umbrinus montanus have been analyzed utilizing a method employing pretreatment with colchicine and hypotonic citrate followed by staining and squashing.

Charles F. Nadler; Matthew H. Block



75 FR 4356 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Fund for the Improvement of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...34 CFR part 86 apply to institutions of higher education (IHEs) only. II. Award...IHEs and other public and private nonprofit institutions and agencies. 2. Cost...U.S. Department of Education, P.O. Box 22207,...



103:297-321, 2010. First published Nov 4, 2009; doi:10.1152/jn.00783.2009J Neurophysiol Evans, Sara W. Lazar and Randy L. Buckner  

E-print Network

W. Lazar and Randy L. Buckner Koene R. A. Van Dijk, Trey Hedden, Archana Venkataraman, Karleyton C, and Optimization Koene R. A. Van Dijk,1,2,3 Trey Hedden,1,2 Archana Venkataraman,4 Karleyton C. Evans,5 Sara W Submitted 24 August 2009; accepted in final form 26 October 2009 Van Dijk KR, Hedden T, Venkataraman A

Miall, Chris


Vermeir, Koen. 2005. "The `physical prophet' and the powers of the imagination. Part II: a case-study on dowsing and the naturalisation of the moral, 1685-1710." Studies in history and  

E-print Network

; Body; Physiology; Contagion; Magic; Occult; Vapours; Preternatural; Natural philosophy; Moral will show that four causes (God, demons, hidden natural principles and human deceit) were invoked to explain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Vermeir, Koen. 2004. "The `physical prophet' and the powers of the imagination. Part I: a case-study on prophecy, vapours and the imagination (1685 -1710)." Studies in History and  

E-print Network

on the relation between the natural and the moral. Keywords: Prophecy; Divination; Imagination; Pneuma; Physiology and the Decline of Magic (1971) Introduction On the third of February 1688, Isabeau Vincent, a fifteen year old

Boyer, Edmond


Vladimir Klebanov Bernhard Beckert  

E-print Network

, Germany Email: Armin Biere Institute for Formal Models and Verification Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Vinay Chaudhri SRI International, USA Koen Claessen Chalmers

Biere, Armin


Macromolecules 1989,22,4559-4573 4559 (9) Soda, K.; Wada, A. Biophys. Chem. 1984,20, 185.  

E-print Network

. Biopolymers 1981,20, 1147. (13) Fried, M.; Crothers. D. M. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981. 9. 6505. (14) Axelrod, D. (40) Koene, R. S.; Mandel, M. Macromolecules 1983, 16,220. (41) Muller, G. In Physical Optics

Chan, Hue Sun


Bayesian model selection using exact and approximated posterior probabilities with applications to Star Data  

E-print Network

This research consists of two parts. The ?rst part examines the posterior probability integrals for a family of linear models which arises from the work of Hart, Koen and Lombard (2003). Applying Laplace's method to these integrals...

Pokta, Suriani




E-print Network

NATURALIST 88(2) store stand structure to a desired range of con- ditions, and improve habitat for wildlife CHIPMUNKS (NEOTAMIAS SPECIOSUS) IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CALIFORNIA MARC D MEYER USDA Forest Service, Pacific, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 MALCOLM P NORTH USDA Forest Service

North, Malcolm


Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary gen- eralist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer for- est at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi were identified from fecal pellets collected from both species during spring and summer of 1999

Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt



Cache site selection by chipmunks ( Tamias spp.) and its influence on the effectiveness of seed dispersal in Jeffrey pine ( Pinus jeffreyi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) seed dispersal performed by seed-caching yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and lodgepole chipmunks (Tamias speciosus) was compared to that of wind dispersal in the Sierra Nevada of western Nevada. Wind-dispersed seeds typically fall under or near the parent tree. Chipmunks removed 90 and 97% of 1064 radioactive seeds from each of two simulated

Stephen B. Vander Wall



Natural selection reinforces speciation in a radiation of neotropical rainforest plants.  


The importance of reinforcement, that is, natural selection that strengthens reproductive isolation between incipient species, remains controversial. We used two approaches to test for reinforcement in a species radiation of Neotropical gingers in the genus Costus. First, we conducted an intensive study of Costus pulverulentus and Costus scaber, two recently diverged species that co-occur and share hummingbird pollinators. The hummingbird pollinators transfer pollen between these Costus species, but hybrids are rarely found in nature. By performing pollinations between populations of C. pulverulentus and C. scaber from three sites across the species' geographic ranges, we find that pollen-pistil incompatibilities acting prior to fertilization have evolved only between locally sympatric populations, whereas geographically distant populations within the region of sympatry and allopatric populations remain fully interfertile. Second, we conducted a comparative study of isolating mechanisms across the genus. We find lower seed set due to pollen-pistil incompatibility between species pairs that co-occur and experience pollen transfer in nature compared to species pairs that are otherwise isolated, regardless of genetic distance. Taken together, these studies indicate that crossing barriers prevent potentially maladaptive hybridization and effectively reinforce the speciation process. Our results add to mounting evidence for reinforcement from animal studies and show that plant speciation may also involve complex mate recognition systems. Reinforcement may be particularly important in rapidly diverging lineages where ecological factors play a primary role in reproductive isolation, as may often be the case in tropical communities. PMID:18637960

Kay, Kathleen M; Schemske, Douglas W



U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy  

E-print Network

+ Hydrogen) Air Oxygen Jet Fuel, Diesel, Naphtha Syngas Natural Gas +/- Steam About 40% of Capital CostU.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas June 2, 2003 Hydrogen Coordination Meeting Arthur Hartstein Program Manager Natural Gas and Oil Processing/Hydrogen #12


A simulated comparison of the useful energy gain in fixed and tracking flat plate and evacuated tube collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer simulation of the thermodynamic efficiency of fixed, tracking flat plate, and evacuated tube solar collectors was made based on 1977 insolation figures for Kings Point, N.Y. It yielded monthly, seasonal and yearly comparisons for the various devices from which collector cost\\/useful energy gain merit figures can be derived. It is concluded that tracking collectors should be taken advantage

P. Drago



Thermogenic properties in three rodent species from Northeastern China in summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The thermogenic properties of mitochondria in liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and muscle, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) contents in BAT were studied in field-captured gray red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in summer from the Northeastern China.2. The mitochondrial respiration capacities in liver, cytochrome c oxidase activities in

Jin-Song Liu; Ru-Yong Sun; De-Hua Wang



A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.  


Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D



Economic Evaluation of Weight Loss Interventions in Overweight and Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To conduct a clinical and economic evaluation of outpatient weight loss strategies in overweight and obese adult U.S. women.Research Methods and Procedures: This study was a lifetime cost-use analysis from a societal perspective, using a first-order Monte Carlo simulation. Strategies included routine primary care and varying combinations of diet, exercise, behavior modification, and\\/or pharmacotherapy. Primary data were collected to

Larissa Roux; Karen M. Kuntz; Cam Donaldson; Sue J. Goldie



Bioindicators for Ralstonia solanacearum race 4: plants in the Zingiberaceae and Costaceae families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) race 4 causes bacterial wilt of edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and limits crop productioninthetropics.Theuseofbioindicatorplantswasinvestigatedasamethodfordeterminingwhetherornota fieldis contaminatedwithRsrace4beforereplantingwithasusceptiblecrop.Tissue-culturededibleginger(TCG),micro-sizedred ginger (Alpinia purpurata; RG) and micro-sized spiral ginger (Costus barbatus; SG) were evaluated for suitability for detection of Rs race 4. Candidate hosts were planted into the infested medium, and Rs populations in plant tissues, potting medium and drainage water were

M. L. ParetA; A. S. de SilvaA; A. M. AlvarezA



RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Fall incidents unraveled: a series of 26 video-based  

E-print Network

- tures [4,5]. Additionally, falls have serious psychological consequences (e.g. fear of falling increases the risk of negative outcomes, such as dehydration, hypothermia, pressure ulcers, bronchopneumonia and death [8,9]. * Correspondence: ^Deceased 1 Center for Health Services


Role Dates Prior Institution  

E-print Network

post doc 1992-1993 McMaster Univ. conceptual priming faculty, Univ. Zurich Koen Lamberts post doc 1992. exemplar effects In syntactic processing faculty, Bard College Anna Borghi post doc 1995 & 1999 Univ faculty, Univ. Adolfo Ibanez Mojdeh Zamani post doc 1999 Univ. Paris causal reasoning in function tech

Barsalou, Lawrence W.


Radial velocities of pulsating subdwarf B stars: KPD 210914401 and C. Simon Jeffery1w  

E-print Network

8783, is presented. Radial motions are detected with the same frequencies as reported from photometric a powerful new tool for the study of stellar remnants (Kilkenny et al. 1997, hereafter SDBV I, and subsequent papers variously by Kilkenny, Koen, O'Donoghue, Stobie and coauthors). Long time-series photometric

Jeffery, Simon



E-print Network

AN ULTRASONIC STRAIN GAUGE Mathias Kersemans1 , Klaas Allaer1 , Joris Degrieck1 , Koen Van Den. The ultrasonic strain gauge is applicable to any material, though under the restriction that a deterministic strain levels ranging from 2% to 35%. The ultrasonically measured strains have been validated with other

Boyer, Edmond


On Image Contours of Projective Shapes Jean Ponce1  

E-print Network

. This suggests that projective geometry should not be viewed merely as an analytical device for linearizing. This paper revisits Koenderink's question in the more gen- eral setting of projective geometry, where problem in [17], and showed that Koen- derink's results are in fact valid in oriented projective geometry

Boyer, Edmond


Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics  

E-print Network

Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics PIERRE-ALEXANDRE BALLAND*, RON BOSCHMA* and KOEN remained essentially static. A dynamic extension of the proximity framework is proposed that accounts: in revised form January 2014) BALLAND P.-A., BOSCHMA R. and FRENKEN K. Proximity and innovation: from statics

Balland, Pierre-Alexandre


Microwave Measurement System for Breast Cancer Imaging  

E-print Network

at Space Physics Research who helped me fabricate and test the experimental hardware. My fel- low graduate, including Maha Ali, Steven Clarkson, Xueyang Duan, Adel Elsherbini, Mario Fabiilli, Yuriy Goykhman, Mark, and Koen iii #12;provided daily reminders of my priorities. As for my parents, their gift of an unburdened

Sarabandi, Kamal


Enzyme-Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Single-Molecule Biosensors  

E-print Network

Enzyme-Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Single-Molecule Biosensors Koen Besteman, Jeong-O Lee, Frank G. M. The enzyme-coated tube is found to act as a pH sensor with large and reversible changes in conductance upon

Dekker, Cees


Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499.  

E-print Network

Public Finance and Management, 1(4), 2001 pp. 471-499. DOES A FLAT RATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME and Kees Goudswaard Leiden University, Public Finance Department, P.O. Box 9521, 2300 RA Leiden REDUCE TAX PROGRESSIVITY? A SIMULATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS Koen Caminada Leiden University, Public

Galis, Frietson


IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 677 Automated Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Model Outlier Detection Koen Van Leemput*, Frederik Maes, Dirk Vandermeulen for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions from multispec- tral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method measurements. Index Terms--Digital brain atlas, MRI, multiple sclerosis, tissue classification. I. INTRODUCTION


The evolution of the Mira variable R Hydrae Albert A. Zijlstra,1P  

E-print Network

of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 3 American Association of Variable Star Observers, 25 Birch Street of the Mira pulsations (e.g. Sterken, Broens & Koen 1999). In sharp contrast to this rule, however, the period classification requires pulsation stability. The SR class is a mixture of hidden Miras and non-Mira stars

Zijlstra, Albert


Bachelor thesis Computer Science  

E-print Network

party JavaScript on government websites Author: Koen Buitenhuis s4069471 First supervisor/assessor: JaapD on goverment websites has grown to be more and more essen- tial, and there has been an increasing presence of third-party JavaScript on these websites as well. This paper attempts to answer the question: Can third

Hoepman, Jaap-Henk


460 FORCE PRODUCTION ASSAYS [38] [38] Versatile Optical Traps with Feedback Control  

E-print Network

460 FORCE PRODUCTION ASSAYS [38] [38] Versatile Optical Traps with Feedback Control By KOEN an incomplete picture of dynamic processes. A variety of novel physical approaches, including atomic force produce regulated optical forces, but also incorporate detection systems for determining the positions

Block, Steven



E-print Network

* Koen Vanbleu Geert Ysebaert Andrew G. Kleint The Air Force Inst. of Tech. Dept. ofECE WPAFB, OH, 45433 by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The views ex- pressed in this paper are those ofthe authors, and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense

Klein, Andrew G.


INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 2328 PII: S0957-4484(02)25285-X  

E-print Network

-4484(02)25285-X A simulator for quantum computer hardware Kristel Michielsen1 , Hans De Raedt1,3 and Koen De Raedt examples of the use of the quantum computer (QC) emulator. For educational purposes we describe. Introduction Quantum computers (QCs) have recently become of great interest, primarily due to their potential


Epistasis increases power 1 Epistasis: Obstacle or advantage for mapping complex traits?  

E-print Network

Epistasis increases power 1 Epistasis: Obstacle or advantage for mapping complex traits? Koen J, or epistasis, are a crucial component of the genetic architecture of biologically relevant traits. However, epistasis is often viewed as a nuisance factor that reduces power for locus detection. Counter

Casella, George


Spring 2014 Pedal power  

E-print Network

Koen Lamberts #12;University highlights 4 International students give 4 York top vote The Killing rights art project 17 Aero girl unveiled 20 In memoriam Peter Smith 22 University news At the chalk face Wylie ­ and former aero girl exploring the potential of digital games spring watch on campus Cover photo


Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test  

E-print Network

May 2009 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike inter the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test Kenneth Neil Mertens a, , Koen Verhoeven a , Thomas Verleye

Long, Bernard


Food habits of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina  

E-print Network

250 Food habits of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina Mariano Nacional de la Patagonia Boulevard Brown 3600 (9120) Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina E-mail address: koen Patagonia Boulevard Brown 3600 (9120) Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina Manuscript accepted 9 August 1999


Mapping Graphs on the Sphere to the Finite Plane  

E-print Network

Mapping Graphs on the Sphere to the Finite Plane Henk Bekker, Koen De Raedt Institute to the finite plane. The method works by first mapping the graph on the sphere to a tetrahedron. Then the graph on the tetrahedron is mapped to the plane. Using this mapping, arc intersection on the sphere, overlaying

Bekker, Henk


The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS). — Measures of the Food Environment

Walsh JR, Hebert A, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Carey G, Colby S, Brown-Esters ON, Greene G, Hoerr S, Horacek T, Kattelmann K, Kidd T, Koenings M, Phillips B, Shelnutt KP, White AA. The development and preliminary validation of the behavior, environment, and changeability survey (BECS).


Genetic Manipulation of Genes and Cells in the Nervous System of the Fruit Fly  

E-print Network

Neuron Primer Genetic Manipulation of Genes and Cells in the Nervous System of the Fruit Fly Koen J of neurons and neuronally expressed genes. Here, we summarize many of the techniques that help assess neurons and genes are involved in these processes and essen- tially two strategies are now available

Eddy, Sean


arXiv:cs.DB/0112013v111Dec2001 A Data Mining Framework for Optimal  

E-print Network

advantage will no longer be achieved by the mere use of these systems for purposes of inventory manage- ment Supermarket Data: The Generalized PROFSET Model Tom Brijs Bart Goethals Gilbert Swinnen Koen Vanhoof Geert effectively with supermarket data, and no provisions were taken to include retail category man- agement

Antwerpen, Universiteit


Human Babesiosis in Japan: Epizootiologic Survey of Rodent Reservoir and Isolation of New Type of Babesia microti-Like Parasite  

PubMed Central

We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island. PMID:11724838

Tsuji, Masayoshi; Wei, Qiang; Zamoto, Aya; Morita, Chiharu; Arai, Satoru; Shiota, Tsunezo; Fujimagari, Masato; Itagaki, Asao; Fujita, Hiromi; Ishihara, Chiaki



Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella Species Isolated from Wild Rodents in Japan?  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella organisms in wild rodents in Japan. We captured 685 wild rodents throughout Japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated Bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). Those Bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. Sequence analysis of rpoB and gltA revealed that the Bartonella isolates obtained were classified into eight genetic groups, comprising isolates closely related to B. grahamii (A-I group), B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae (B-J group), B. tribocorum and B. rattimassiliensis (C-K group), B. rattimassiliensis (D-L group), B. phoceensis (F-N group), B. taylorii (G-O group), and probably two additional novel Bartonella species groups (E-M and H-P). B. grahamii, which is one of the potential causative agents of human neuroretinitis, was found to be predominant in Japanese rodents. In terms of the relationships between these Bartonella genetic groups and their rodent species, (i) the A-I, E-M, and H-P groups appear to be associated with Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus; (ii) the C-K, D-L, and F-N groups are likely implicated in Rattus rattus; (iii) the B-J group seems to be involved in Apodemus mice and R. rattus; and (iv) the G-O group is probably associated with A. speciosus and Clethrionomys voles. Furthermore, dual infections with two different genetic groups of bartonellae were found in A. speciosus and R. rattus. These findings suggest that the rodent in Japan might serve as a reservoir of zoonotic Bartonella infection. PMID:18606803

Inoue, Kai; Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamada, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Sato, Yukita; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Kadosaka, Teruki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki



Four new species of hangingflies (Insecta, Mecoptera, Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of Mongolbittacus Petrulevi?ius, Huang & Ren, 2007, Mongolbittacus speciosus sp. n. and Mongolbittacus oligophlebius sp. n., and two new species of Exilibittacus Yang, Ren & Shih, 2012, Exilibittacus foliaceus sp. n. and Exilibittacus plagioneurus sp. n., in the family Bittacidae, are described and illustrated based on five well-preserved fossil specimens. These specimens were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These new findings enhance our understanding of the morphological characters of early hangingflies and highlight the diversity of bittacids in the Mid Mesozoic ecosystems. PMID:25610337

Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong



A Review of "Christopher Plantin and Engraved Book Illustrations in Sixteenth-Century Europe" by Karen Bowen and Dirk Imhof  

E-print Network

. 458 pp. 101 ills. $128. Review by larry silver, university of pennsylvania. One of the continuing problems in the early history of prints remains the lack of attention to printed books, partly because they are located in their own special library... the main producer of their projects and subcontracted Plantin. This kind of friendship-based business network resembles the way that Brussels tapestry firms cooperated with associates in the same industry in the next century, as revealed by Koen Brosens...

Silver, Larry



Last Updated 2014/4/1 International Students and  

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Yamamoto, Hirosuke


Climate-induced range contraction drives genetic erosion in an alpine mammal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing documentation of changes in the distribution of species provides evidence of climate change impacts, yet surprisingly little empirical work has endeavoured to quantify how such recent and rapid changes impact genetic diversity. Here we compare modern and historical specimens spanning a century to quantify the population genetic effects of a climate-driven elevational range contraction in the alpine chipmunk, Tamias alpinus, in Yosemite National Park, USA. Previous work showed that T. alpinus responded to warming in the park by retracting its lower elevational limit upslope by more than 500m, whereas the closely related chipmunk T. speciosus remained stable. Consistent with a reduced and more fragmented range, we found a decline in overall genetic diversity and increased genetic subdivision in T. alpinus. In contrast, there were no significant genetic changes in T. speciosus over the same time period. This study demonstrates genetic erosion accompanying a climate-induced range reduction and points to decreasing size and increasing fragmentation of montane populations as a result of global warming.

Rubidge, Emily M.; Patton, James L.; Lim, Marisa; Burton, A. Cole; Brashares, Justin S.; Moritz, Craig



The influence of humus acid on the respiration of plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Souhrn  Kyselina humusová (Humussäure Riedel de Haen AG. Seelze—Hannover) v koncentraci 0.01% zvyšuje intensitu dýchání ko?en? rostlin\\u000a p?stovaných ve vodních kulturách, a to jak spot?ebu O2 tak také produkci CO2, zatím co RQ(CO2: O2) se jejím p?sobením zvyšuje jen nepatrn?. K pokus?m bylo použito rostlin ozimé pšenice Pyšelka (Triticum vulgare\\u000a Vill.), kuku?ice Zají?k?v ?eský ko?ský zub (Zea mays L.) a tykve

Miroslava Šmídová



Lizards in the ecology of salmonellosis in Panama.  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic bacteria was isolated from 131 of 447 (29.4%) neotropical Panamanian lizards belonging to 34 species of seven families. Overall, 147 strains of bacteria were isolated comprising 26 Salmonella and 10 Arizona serotypes. Gymnopthalmus speciosus had the highest infection rate, 12 of 13 individuals (92.3%), whereas Gonatodes fuscus exhibited the lowest, 1 of 18 (5.6%). The highest infection was detected in lizards whose behavioral patterns were secretive (42.0%) and terrestrial (42.6%), whereas the lowest infection was among the scansorial lizards (17.5%). Rates were highest during the dry season, from January through April. Many neotropical Panamanian lizards were multiply infected by Salmonella an Arizona strains representing representing a wide range of serotypes. Infected lizards were distributed in areas varying from remote rural and forested regions to urban developments, offering a potentially important reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria known to cause infection in man and domestic animals. PMID:7259156

Kourany, M; Telford, S R



Nine New Species of Aleiodes Wesmael Reared at Yanayacu Biological Station (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) in Eastern Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide. PMID:19619013

Townsend, Andrew C.; Shaw, Scott R.



Human Babesiosis in Japan: Isolation of Babesia microti-Like Parasites from an Asymptomatic Transfusion Donor and from a Rodent from an Area Where Babesiosis Is Endemic  

PubMed Central

To determine the source of infection for the Japanese index case of human babesiosis, we analyzed blood samples from an asymptomatic individual whose blood had been transfused into the patient. In addition, we surveyed rodents collected from near the donor's residence. Examination by microscopy and PCR failed to detect the parasite in the donor's blood obtained 8 months after the donation of the blood that was transfused. However, we were able to isolate Babesia parasites by inoculating the blood sample into SCID mice whose circulating red blood cells (RBCs) had been replaced with human RBCs. A Babesia parasite capable of propagating in human RBCs was also isolated from a field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) captured near the donor's residential area. Follow-up surveys over a 1-year period revealed that the donor continued to be asymptomatic but had consistently high immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in serum and low levels of parasitemia which were microscopically undetectable yet which were repeatedly demonstrable by inoculation into animals. The index case patient's sera contained high titers of IgM and, subsequently, rising titers of IgG antibodies, both of which gradually diminished with the disappearance of the parasitemia. Analysis of the parasite's rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence and immunodominant antigens revealed the similarity between donor and patient isolates. The rodent isolate also had an rDNA sequence that was identical to that of the human isolates but that differed slightly from that of the human isolates by Western blot analysis. We conclude that the index case patient acquired infection by transfusion from a donor who became infected in Japan, that parasitemia in an asymptomatic carrier can persist for more than a year, and that A. speciosus serves as a reservoir of an agent of human babesiosis in Japan. PMID:11376054

Wei, Qiang; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Zamoto, Aya; Kohsaki, Masatoshi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Shiota, Tsunezo; Telford, Sam R.; Ishihara, Chiaki



Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1  

PubMed Central

Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor. PMID:24163581

Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike



Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)



New palynological data from Karoo sediments, Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).

d'Engelbronner, E. R.



Reproductive and physiological responses to simulated climate warming for four subalpine species.  


* The carbon costs of reproduction were examined in four subalpine herbaceous plant species for which number and size of flowers respond differently under a long-term infrared warming experiment. * Instantaneous measurements of gas exchange and an integrative model were used to calculate whole-plant carbon budgets and reproductive effort (RE). * Of the two species for which flowering was reduced, only one (Delphinium nuttallianum) exhibited higher RE under warming. The other species (Erythronium grandiflorum) flowers earlier when freezing events under warming treatment could have damaged floral buds. Of the two species for which flowering rates were not reduced, one (Helianthella quinquenervis) had higher RE, while RE was unaffected for the other (Erigeron speciosus). Each of these different responses was the result of a different combination of changes in organ size and physiological rates in each of the species. * Results show that the magnitude and direction of responses to warming differ greatly among species. Such results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple species to understand the complex interactions among physiological and reproductive responses to climate change. PMID:17176399

Lambrecht, Susan C; Loik, Michael E; Inouye, David W; Harte, John



Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann



Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park.  


Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. In order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae) were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP), Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae) showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae) showed good antioxidant activity (48%); in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae) showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. PMID:22017115

Niño, Jaime; Correa, Yaned Milena; Cardona, Germán David; Mosquera, Oscar Marino



Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann



Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.  


The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U



Dioxin pollution disrupts reproduction in male Japanese field mice.  


Dioxins cause various adverse effects in animals including teratogenesis, induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, tumor promotion, and endocrine disruption. Above all, endocrine disruption is known to disturb reproduction in adult animals and may, also seriously impact their offspring. However, most previous studies have quantified the species-specific accumulation of dioxins, whereas few studies have addressed the physiological impacts of dioxins on wildlife, such as reduced reproductive function. Here we clarify an effect of endocrine disruption caused by dioxins on the Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Japanese field mice collected from various sites polluted with dioxins accumulated high concentrations of dioxins in their livers. Some dioxin congeners, especially, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro biphenyl, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which showed high biota-soil accumulation factors, contributed to concentration of dioxins in mouse livers with an increase of accumulation of total dioxins. As for physiological effects on the Japanese field mouse, high levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA, a drug metabolizing enzyme induced by dioxins, were found in the livers of mice captured at polluted sites. Furthermore, at such sites polluted with dioxins, increased CYP1A1 expression coincided with reduced numbers of active spermatozoa in mice. Thus, disruption in gametogenesis observed in these mice suggests that dioxins not only negatively impact reproduction among Japanese field mice, but might also act as a kind of selection pressure in a chemically polluted environment. PMID:24026525

Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Sakai, Mizuki; Tohma, Shimon; Matsuki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Yukio; Kajiwara, Hideo; Sekijima, Tsuneo



Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.  


Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao



Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.  


Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W



Phylogeny estimation of the radiation of western North American chipmunks (Tamias) in the face of introgression using reproductive protein genes.  


The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R; Sullivan, Jack



Role of tannin-binding salivary proteins and tannase-producing bacteria in the acclimation of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins.  


We studied the defense mechanisms against the negative effects of tannins in acorns by using the Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and acorns of a Japanese deciduous oak Quercus crispula, which contain 9.9% tannins on a dry weight basis. For the experiment, we allocated 26 wood mice into two groups: acclimated (N = 12) and nonacclimated (N = 14). Mice in the nonacclimated group were fed only acorns for 10 d after 4 wk of receiving a tannin-free diet. In contrast, mice in the acclimated group received ca. 3 g acorns daily in addition to the tannin-free diet for the first 4 wk, then they were fed only acorns for 10 d. Body weight, food intake, and digestibility were monitored. In addition, the amount of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and abundance of tannase-producing bacteria (TPB) in the feces of mice were measured. Of the 14 mice in the nonacclimated group, 8 died, whereas only 1 of the 12 in the acclimated group died. During the first 5 d of feeding acorns only, mice in the nonacclimated group lost, on average, 17.5% of their body mass, while those in the acclimated group lost only 2.5%. Food intake, dry matter digestibility, and nitrogen digestibility were higher in the acclimated group than in the nonacclimated group. The results indicate that wood mice can mitigate the negative effects of tannins by acclimation. Path analysis revealed that increased secretion of PRPs and abundance of Lactobacillus type of TPB might explain the acclimation to tannins. PMID:16770711

Shimada, Takuya; Saitoh, Takashi; Sasaki, Eiki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Osawa, Ro



Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes  

PubMed Central

The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack



Survey of Babesia microti infection in field rodents in Japan: records of the Kobe-type in new foci and findings of a new type related to the Otsu-type.  


Of 247 rodents comprising 5 genera and 7 species collected at 17 sites throughout Japan from 2003 to 2005, Babesia microti was detected microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 36 rodents comprising 2 genera and 3 species from 12 sites. Based on the analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) sequences, the Kobe-type, the etiological type of the first Japanese case of human infection was found in Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus in Aomori, the northernmost prefecture of the Japanese mainland, while the U.S.-type was found on Hokkaido Island and the Otsu-type was widely distributed. In addition, a new Otsu-related type was detected exclusively in Eothenomys andersoni in Nagano, a prefecture in central Japan. The sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 (ITS1/2) of the present Kobe- and Otsu-types were almost identical to those of the same types previously identified. The ITS1/2 sequence of the U.S.-type identified in Hokkaido in this survey was somewhat different from that of the U.S.-type strain originating from the U.S.A., with approximately 95% identity. This value was similar to the 94% identity found between the ITS1/2 sequences of the Otsu-type and the new Otsu-related type. The new Otsu-related type of B. microti was isolated as the Nagano strain, which was serologically differentiated from the other type strains of B. microti. The divergence and distribution of genotypes are important factors in investigating the epidemiology of human B. microti infection in Japan. PMID:17237595

Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Kasahara, Midori; Kasai, Masatoshi; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Kawai, Atsuko; Fujita, Hiromi; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro



Efficacy of natural diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and beta cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.  


Costus igneus, has been prescribed for the treatment of diabetic mellitus in India for several years. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of plant derived diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and pancreatic composition through electron microscopical studies of normal and diabetic rats. Diosgenin at a dose of 5 or 10mg/kg per body weight (bw) was orally administered as a single dose per day to diabetic induced rats for a period of 30 days. The effect of diosgenin on blood glucose, HbA1c, PT, APTT, Oxy-LDL, serum lipid profile, electron microscopical studies of pancreas, antioxidant enzymes (in liver, kidney, pancreas) and hepatoprotective enzymes in plasma and liver were measured in normal and diabetic rats. The results showed that fasting blood glucose, PT, APTT, Oxy-LDL, TC, TG, LDL, ALT, AST, ALP, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and LPO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased, whereas HDL, SOD, CAT, GSH and the glycolytic enzyme glucokinase levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the diabetes induced rats and these levels were significantly (p<0.05) reversed back to normal in diabetes induced rats after 30 days of treatment with diosgenin. Electron microscopical studies of the pancreas revealed that the number of beta cells and insulin granules were increased in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats after 30 days of treatment with diosgenin. In conclusion, the data obtained from the present study strongly indicate that diosgenin has potential effects on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion and beta cell regeneration in STZ induced diabetic rats, these results could be useful for new drug development to fight diabetes and its related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24889525

Kalailingam, Pazhanichamy; Kannaian, Bhuvaneswari; Tamilmani, Eevera; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran



Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*  

PubMed Central

Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ?8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun



[Optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic tactics for primary megaureter in children].  


Obstructive megaureter (MU) and refluxing MU were treated in 2000-2004 in 580 and 711 children, respectively. This number was by 18.9% higher than in 1990-1994. Out of 1291 children with MU, two groups of patients were singled out: group 1 with primary obstructive MU (n = 158) and group 2 with primary refluxing MU (n = 185). In patients of groups 1 and 2 the following operations were made: ureteral reimplantation (n = 126), Koen's operation (n = 104), Politano-Leadbetter operation (n = 12), Lich-Greguaru operation (n = 8), nephrureterectomy (n = 32), heminephrureterectomy (n = 27), transurethral dissection of ureterocele (n = 8), other in 26 patients. A great number of primary nephrureterectomies evidence for frequent morphofunctional immaturity of one of the kidneys in children with primary MU forms. The 1.5-6 year follow-up results were good in 85.4% children of group 1 and 94.1% children of group 2. In planning follow-up and assessing long-term follow-up results morphofunctional state of the kidney and ureter before and after operation must be considered according to the following main criteria: dilation of the caliceal-pelvic system and ureter, renal function, pyelonephritis activity, the presence or absence of recurrent stricture of the distal ureteric segment or the presence of vesicoureteral reflux. PMID:17722624

Iushko, E I; Strotski?, A V; Skobeius, I A; Gerasimovich, A I



Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.  

PubMed Central

Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.



Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.  


The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 ?Gy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after the accident. This dose rate exceeds 0.1-1 mGy d(-1) derived consideration reference level for Reference rat proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). PMID:25666988

Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi



Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers.  


The timing of life history traits is central to lifetime fitness and nowhere is this more evident or well studied as in the phenology of flowering in governing plant reproductive success. Recent changes in the timing of environmental events attributable to climate change, such as the date of snowmelt at high altitudes, which initiates the growing season, have had important repercussions for some common perennial herbaceous wildflower species. The phenology of flowering at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado, USA) is strongly influenced by date of snowmelt, which makes this site ideal for examining phenological responses to climate change. Flower buds of Delphinium barbeyi, Erigeron speciosus, and Helianthella quinquenervis are sensitive to frost, and the earlier beginning of the growing season in recent years has exposed them to more frequent mid-June frost kills. From 1992 to 1998, on average 36.1% of Helianthella buds were frosted, but for 1999-2006 the mean is 73.9%; in only one year since 1998 have plants escaped all frost damage. For all three of these perennial species, there is a significant relationship between the date of snowmelt and the abundance of flowering that summer. Greater snowpack results in later snowmelt, later beginning of the growing season, and less frost mortality of buds. Microhabitat differences in snow accumulation, snowmelt patterns, and cold air drainage during frost events can be significant; an elevation difference of only 12 m between two plots resulted in a temperature difference of almost 2 degrees C in 2006 and a difference of 37% in frost damage to buds. The loss of flowers and therefore seeds can reduce recruitment in these plant populations, and affect pollinators, herbivores, and seed predators that previously relied on them. Other plant species in this environment are similarly susceptible to frost damage so the negative effects for recruitment and for consumers dependent on flowers and seeds could be widespread. These findings point out the paradox of increased frost damage in the face of global warming, provide important insights into the adaptive significance of phenology, and have general implications for flowering plants throughout the region and anywhere climate change is having similar impacts. PMID:18409425

Inouye, David W



Micro, meso, macro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.

Liljenström, Hans; Svedin, Uno


Phylogenetic Origins of the Himalayan Endemic Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus (Asteraceae: Cardueae) Based on Three DNA Regions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is an enduring question as to the mechanisms leading to the high diversity and the processes producing endemics with unusual morphologies in the Himalayan alpine region. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships and origins of three such endemic genera were analysed, Dolomiaea, Diplazoptilon and Xanthopappus, all in the tribe Cardueae of Asteraceae. Methods The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid trnL-F and psbA-trnH regions of these three genera were sequenced. The same regions for other related genera in Cardueae were also sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined data sets of the three types of sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The phylogenetic tree obtained allowed earlier hypotheses concerning the relationships of these three endemic genera based on gross morphology to be rejected. Frolovia and Saussurea costus were deeply nested within Dolomiaea, and the strong statistical support for the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade suggested that circumscription of Dolomiaea should be more broadly redefined. Diplazoptilon was resolved as sister to Himalaiella, and these two together are sister to Lipschitziella. The clade comprising these three genera is sister to Jurinea, and together these four genera are sister to the Dolomiaea–Frolovia clade. Xanthopappus, previously hypothesized to be closely related to Carduus, was found to be nested within a well-supported but not fully resolved Onopordum group with Alfredia, Ancathia, Lamyropappus, Olgaea, Synurus and Syreitschikovia, rather than the Carduus group. The crude dating based on ITS sequence divergence revealed that the divergence time of Dolomiaea–Frolovia from its sister group probably occurred 13·6–12·2 million years ago (Ma), and the divergence times of the other two genera, Xanthopappus and Diplazoptilon, from their close relatives around 5·7–4·7 Ma and 2·0–1·6 Ma, respectively. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the intergeneric relationships in Cardueae. The crude calibration of lineages indicates that the uplifts of the Qiinghai–Tibetan Plateau since the Miocene might have served as a continuous stimulus for the production of these morphologically aberrant endemic elements of the Himalayan flora. PMID:17218340

Wang, Yu-Jin; Liu, Jian-Quan; Miehe, Georg



Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China  

PubMed Central

Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52%) considered traditional remedies their first choice of animal disease treatment. Traditional ethnoveterinary knowledge was related to the local social-cultural characteristics of Nu people and communities. Conclusion Animal production plays an important role in Nu culture and livelihoods, and the Nu ethnic group has abundant traditional knowledge about animal production and ethnoveterinary plant remedies. This traditional knowledge faces the risk of disappearing due to increasing modern veterinary medicine extension, livelihood changes and environment degradation. Animal diseases are a major constraint in livestock production in Nu villages. Thus, some strategies and measures should be adopted in the future, such as further researches on Nu culture and livelihoods, community-based validation of ethnoveterinary medicine and broad network building and knowledge sharing. PMID:20796273



Household health care-seeking costs: experiences from a randomized, controlled trial of community-based malaria and pneumonia treatment among under-fives in eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Home and community-based combined treatment of malaria and pneumonia has been promoted in Uganda since mid 2011. The combined treatment is justified given the considerable overlap between the symptoms of malaria and pneumonia among infants. There is limited evidence about the extent to which community-based care reduces healthcare-seeking costs at the household level in rural and urban settings. This paper assesses the rural–urban differences in direct and indirect costs of seeking care from formal health facilities compared to community medicine distributors (CMDs). Methods Exit interviews were conducted for 282 (159 rural and 123 urban) caregivers of children below five years who had received treatment for fever-related illnesses at selected health centres in Iganga and Mayuge districts. Data on the direct and indirect costs incurred while seeking care at the health centre visited were obtained. Using another tool, household level direct and indirect costs of seeking care from CMDs were collected from a total of 470 caregivers (304 rural and 166 urban). Costs incurred at health facilities were then compared with costs of seeking care from CMDs. Results Household direct costs of seeking care from health facilities were significantly higher for urban-based caregivers than the rural (median cost?=?US$0.42 for urban and zero for rural; p?