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Sample records for costus speciosus koen

  1. Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm (Costaceae) is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin) from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 μg/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. μg/ml against T. simii, 31.25 μg/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 μg/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 μg/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 μg/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 μg/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 μg/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 μg/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity. PMID:22397713

  2. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of diosgenin isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm.

    PubMed

    Selim, Samy; Al Jaouni, Soad

    2016-08-01

    Costus speciosus is an important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous medicinal formulations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus. The diosgenin was isolated from C. speciosus by HPTLC and its biological activities were studied by different protocols. The results demonstrated that LPS stimulated TNF-α generation in RAW 264.7 macrophage culture supernatant up to 3.7-fold of the control and that sample treatment (50 μg/mL) resulted in a highly significant inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated TNF-α (p < 0.01) in a similar manner to methotrexate inhibitory effect. The tested sample possessed an effective antioxidant scavenging affinity against DPPH radicals as compared with the standard antioxidant activity of vitamin C. The results presented here may suggest that diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus possess anticancer, apoptotic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. PMID:26222585

  3. Evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454

  4. Pharmacognostical study and establishment of quality parameters of aerial parts of Costus speciosus-a well known tropical folklore medicine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri Kishor; Srivastava, Sourabh; Sangeeta; Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Tahseen, Mohd Adil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costus speciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species. PMID:25182951

  5. Apoptotic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by methanol leaf extract of Costus speciosus.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandhya V G; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ≤ 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148

  6. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): Evidence from NRDNA ITS and STA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series o...

  7. A review on Insulin plant (Costus igneus Nak).

    PubMed

    Hegde, Prakash K; Rao, Harini A; Rao, Prasanna N

    2014-01-01

    Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date. PMID:24600198

  8. A review on Insulin plant (Costus igneus Nak)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Prakash K.; Rao, Harini A.; Rao, Prasanna N.

    2014-01-01

    Costus igneus Nak and Costus pictus D. Don, commonly known as Spiral flag, is a member of Costaceae and a newly introduced plant in India from South and Central America. It is a perennial, upright, spreading plant reaching about two feet tall, with spirally arranged leaves and attractive flowers. In southern India, it usually grows as an ornamental plant and its leaves are used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recently, a number of researches have been carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of this plant. Besides, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like hypolipidemic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancerous. Further, various phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, and appreciable amounts of trace elements. This work is an attempt to compile and explore the different pharmacological and phytochemical studies reported till date. PMID:24600198

  9. Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India

    PubMed Central

    Gwari, Garima; Bhandari, Ujjwal; Andola, Harish Chandra; Lohani, Hema; Chauhan, Nirpendra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. Objective: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Material and Methods: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. Conclusion: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea. PMID:23901213

  10. A Novel Hemagglutinin with Antiproliferative Activity against Tumor Cells from the Hallucinogenic Mushroom Boletus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Little was known about bioactive compounds from the hallucinogenic mushroom Boletus speciosus. In the present study, a hemagglutinin (BSH, B. speciosus hemagglutinin) was isolated from its fruiting bodies and enzymatic properties were also tested. The chromatographic procedure utilized comprised anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was a homodimer which was estimated to be approximately 31 kDa in size. The activity of BSH was stable up to 60°C, while there was a precipitous drop in activity when the temperature was elevated to 70°C. BSH retained 25% hemagglutinating activity when exposed to 100 mM NaOH and 25 mM HCl. The activity was potently inhibited by 1.25 mM Hg2+ and slightly inhibited by Fe2+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. None of the sugars tested showed inhibition towards BSH. Its hemagglutinating activity towards human erythrocytes type A, type B, and type AB was higher than type O. The hemagglutinin showed antiproliferative activity towards hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210) in vitro, with IC50 of 4.7 μM and 7.0 μM, respectively. It also exhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 7.1 μM. PMID:24977148

  11. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  12. Costus spicatus tea failed to improve diabetic progression in C57BLKS/J db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Vandebroek, Ina; Liu, Youping; Balick, Michael J.; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J.; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study Costus spicatus Sw. (Costaceae) is a prominent medicinal herb used by Dominicans in the Dominican Republic and the United States for the treatment of diabetes, a growing epidemic in the Hispanic community. An ethnobotanical survey of the Dominican community in New York City revealed the popular use of a tea from the insulina plant to treat hyperglycemia. Insulina was identified as Costus spicatus. We tested the ability of a tea made from the leaves of Costus spicatus to alter glucose homeostasis in C57BLKS/J (KS) db/db mice, a model of obesity-induced hyperglycemia with progressive beta cell depletion. Materials and methods From 6 to 16 weeks of age, Experimental and Control animals (n = 6/5) were given ad lib access to Costus spicatus tea or water, respectively. Results Weight gain and progression of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia between the Experimental and Control groups were statistically indistinguishable. There was no difference between groups in average fed or fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Intraperitoneal (IP) insulin tolerance testing after the 10-week study period showed that Costus spicatus tea consumption did not alter insulin sensitivity. Conclusions These data suggest that at the dose given, tea made from Costus spicatus leaves had no efficacy in the treatment of obesity-induced hyperglycemia. More investigation is needed to more fully explore dosages and the possible utility and biological activity of this common Dominican herbal remedy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19027842

  13. Geographic Variation in Skull Morphology of the Large Japanese Field Mice, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae) Revealed by Geometric Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Yuta; Motokawa, Masaharu

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed geographic variation in skull morphology of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and determined changes in skull morphology that occurred during the evolutionary history of A. speciosus in relation to the estimated distribution range in the last glacial maximum (LGM). We analyzed 1,416 specimens from 78 localities using geometric morphometric techniques applied to the dorsal side of the cranium and mandible. While large variations within and among the populations in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu were observed, geographic patterns were not observed. Hokkaido and peripheral island populations showed shared differentiation from the Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu populations with a larger skull and distinct mandible shape. In addition, these two groups also differed from each other in accumulated random shape variation. Common characteristics found in Hokkaido and peripheral island populations were considered to be the ancestral states, which were retained by geographic isolation from the main islands. Random variations in Hokkaido and the peripheral island populations were formed through stochastic processes in relation to their isolation. Characteristic morphologies widely found in the populations of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu were considered to be derived states that expanded after separation from the peripheral islands. Complex geomorphology and a shift in distribution range related to climate change and altitudinal distribution are suggested to have formed the complex geographic variation in this species. PMID:27032678

  14. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  15. Ecological differentiation and local adaptation in two sister species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace F; Schemske, Douglas W

    2015-02-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments have often provided evidence of local adaptation in temperate plants, but few such studies have been conducted in the tropics. To enhance our knowledge of local adaptation in tropical plants, we studied natural populations of two recently diverged Neotropical plant species, Costus allenii and C. villosissimus, in central Panama. We found that these species display a parapatric distribution that reflects local environmental differences on a fine geographic scale: C. allenii is found along ravines in the understory of primary forest, while C. villosissimus is found along forest edges. Light availability was lower in C. allenii habitats, while precipitation and soil moisture were lower in C. villosissimus habitats. We carried out reciprocal transplant experiments with seeds and clones of mature plants to test the hypothesis that the parapatric distribution of these species is due to divergent adaptation to their local habitats. We found strong evidence of local adaptation, i.e., when grown in their "home" sites, each species outperformed the species from an "away" site. Our finding that C. allenii and C. villosissimus are mainly isolated by their microhabitats provides a first step toward understanding the mechanisms of adaptation and speciation in the tropics. PMID:26240865

  16. Aqueous extract of Costus arabicus inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth and adhesion to renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    de Cógáin, Mitra R; Linnes, Michael P; Lee, Hyo Jung; Krambeck, Amy E; de Mendonça Uchôa, Julio Cezar; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lieske, John C

    2015-04-01

    Costus arabicus L. (C. arabicus) is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat urolithiasis; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. The interaction between calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the renal epithelium is important in calculogenesis, and compounds that modulate this process represent candidate therapeutic agents for stone prevention. Therefore, we assessed the inhibitory activity of C. arabicus on CaOx crystallization and the interaction of CaOx crystals with the renal epithelium. A seeded CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystallization system was used to study the effect of C. arabicus on crystal growth. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used to study [(14)C] COM crystal adhesion in the presence and absence of an aqueous extract of C. arabicus. Cytotoxicity was assessed using a tetrazolium (MTS) cell proliferation assay. Aqueous extracts of C. arabicus decreased crystal growth in a concentration-dependent fashion. Precoating crystals with C. arabicus extract prevented their adhesion to MDCK cells, while pretreating cells did not show any effect. The extract was non-cytotoxic in concentrations of at least 1 mg/ml, which is likely above concentrations achievable in the urine following oral ingestion and excretion. No inhibitory activity was found in hexane, methyl chloride, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of an ethanol extract of the herb. An aqueous extract of C. arabicus may disrupt calculogenesis by interacting with CaOx crystal surfaces. Activity was present in the aqueous extract; therefore, this agent may be bioavailable when administered orally. Fractionation results suggest that the active agent might be a polar polysaccharide. Further identification and characterization along these lines may be warranted. PMID:25652357

  17. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima. PMID:27005329

  18. Redescription of Metabronema magnum (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a swimbladder parasite of the carangid fish Gnathanodon speciosus off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2007-11-01

    The cystidicolid nematode Metabronema magnum (Taylor, 1925) is redescribed from specimens collected from the swimbladder of the fish (golden trevally) Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae, Perciformes) off New Caledonia, South Pacific (a new geographical record). The light and scanning electron microscopical examination made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known species. Its pseudolabia were found to possess distinct anterior protrusions (protuberances), sublabia are absent, only four cephalic papillae are present, deirids are bifurcated, and the male possesses six pairs of postanal papillae. By its morphology, M. magnum seems to be most similar to species of Salvelinema Trofimenko, 1962, also from the swimbladder of fishes, differing from them mainly in the presence of median wedge-shaped outgrowths in the mouth, lateral alae, the longer spicule on the right side, and a fewer number of pairs of preanal papillae in the male. Since the morphology of M. magnum considerably differs from that of other representatives of the Cystidicolidae, Metabronema in Rasheed's (1966) conception is considered a valid genus. PMID:18303771

  19. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima. PMID:27005329

  20. Investigations of the methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer. Ker for pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anaga, A O; Njoku, C J; Ekejiuba, E S; Esiaka, M N; Asuzu, I U

    2004-02-01

    The methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer. Ker (family: Zingiberaceae) was investigated for some pharmacological effects in vivo and in vitro. Brine shrimp lethality test showed that the extract was significantly (p < 0.05) cytotoxic with LC50 of 21.3 ppm. The extract showed moderate local anesthetic property, about twice less than lignocaine of the same concentration, on guinea pig wheal test. The extract contracted the guinea pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on pleuripara and nullipara non-gravid uteri at progestogenic and estrogenic phases respectively. The contractile effect on the guinea pig ileum was partially inhibited by atropine but completely reversed by adrenaline. The extract induced expulsion of whole fetuses still enveloped within the placental membrane at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The extract exhibited a biphasic antihyperglycemic activity. At 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o., it decreased the blood glucose level by 50% in Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in male rats in 60 minutes post dosing. However, doses above 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o., caused increase in blood glucose level, potentiating the action of STZ. At 10 microg/ml the extract induced about 98% glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes when compared with insulin (340 nm). PMID:15070179

  1. Spiraling into History: A Molecular Phylogeny and Investigation of Biogeographic Origins and Floral Evolution for the Genus Costus

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, Shayla; Driscoll, Heather E.; Renner, Tanya; André, Thiago; Shen, Stacy; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid radiations are notoriously difficult to resolve, yet understanding phylogenetic patterns in such lineages can be useful for investigating evolutionary processes associated with bursts of speciation and morphological diversification. Here we present an expansive molecular phylogeny of Costus L. (Costaceae Nakai) with a focus on the Neotropical species within the clade, sampling 47 of the known 51 Neotropical species and including five molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ETS, rps16, trnL-F, and CaM). We use the phylogenetic results to investigate shifts in pollination syndrome, with the intention of addressing potential mechanisms leading to the rapid radiation documented for this clade. Our ancestral reconstruction of pollination syndrome presents the first evidence in this genus of an evolutionary toggle in pollination morphologies, demonstrating both the multiple independent evolutions of ornithophily (bird pollination) as well as reversals to melittophily (bee pollination). We show that the ornithophilous morphology has evolved at least eight times independently with four potential reversals to melittophilous morphology, and confirm prior work showing that neither pollination syndrome defines a monophyletic lineage. Based on the current distribution for the Neotropical and African species, we reconstruct the ancestral distribution of the Neotropical clade as the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America. Our results indicate an historic dispersal of a bee-pollinated taxon from Africa to the Pacific Coast of Mexico/Central America, with subsequent diversification leading to the evolution of a bird-pollinated floral morphology in multiple derived lineages. PMID:26146450

  2. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

    2014-01-01

    Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

  3. Proximate composition, mineral content and in vitro antioxidant activity of leaf and stem of Costus afer (Ginger lily)

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, G. N.; Onajobi, F. D.; Osilesi, O.; Adebawo, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to determine the proximate composition and mineral content of Costus afer leaf and stem, as well as to identify the most active antioxidant fraction. Materials and Methods: The proximate composition and mineral analysis of C. afer leaf and stem were performed using the standard methods described by Pearson and Association of Official Analytical Chemist while the 1,1 diphenyl 2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Results: Proximate analysis revealed that the carbohydrate content was highest in the leaf (55.83 ± 3.71%) and stem (50.38 ± 1.27%) while crude fat content was lowest in the leaf (1.83 ± 0.43%) and stem (1.75 ± 0.48%). The minerals detected in appreciable quantity in both the leaf and stem samples were calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and copper. Further study showed that the aqueous leaf fraction exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) high DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 259.07 µg/ml) and TAC (7.95 ± 0.37 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) compared with the other test fractions while the aqueous stem fraction had the highest TBARS scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.37 µg/ml) and inhibition of LPO (IC50 = 41.15 µg/ml) compared with the other test fractions. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that C. afer could serve as a source of nutrient and minerals for animal nutrition and human metabolism. It also showed that the aqueous fractions of C. afer leaf and stem possess high antioxidant activity than the other fractions. In addition, this study may also explain the folkloric use of crude C. afer leaf or stem extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress associated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic disorder. PMID

  4. Morphological and molecular aspects of Ceratomyxa mehlhorni n. sp., a parasite of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus in the Arabian Gulf off the Saudi Arabian coast, with data on its seasonal prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-10-01

    During a survey of the myxosporean fauna of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus from the Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia, a species of Ceratomyxa that did not conform to any known species was recorded. The infection was detected as a large number of mature spores free-floating in the bile. Mature spores were hat- or helm-like in the frontal view with two short and unequal valves. The spores measured 8 (7-9) × 12 (10-14). The two polar capsules were spherical, equal in size and measured 3 (2-4) in diameter with three filament turns. Sporoplasm was binucleated and filled the whole extracapsular space. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species did not match any available sequences in GenBank. The lowest genetic distance was 0.017, observed with Ceratomyxa moseri infecting Pomacentrus wardi from Australia's Great Barrier Reef. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed a close association between the new species and a variety of ceratomyxid species, including Ceratomyxa arabica reported from the Arabian Gulf. Given the morphological and molecular differences between this species and other Ceratomyxa spp., we proposed the present form was a new species and the name Ceratomyxa mehlhorni sp. n. for this parasite from the gallbladder of G. speciosus. PMID:26163134

  5. Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as “Insulin Plant” in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti

  6. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952

  7. Classification of the spermatogenic cycle, seasonal changes of seminiferous tubule morphology and estimation of the breeding season of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in Toyama and Aomori prefectures, Japan

    PubMed Central

    OKANO, Tsukasa; ONUMA, Manabu; ISHINIWA, Hiroko; AZUMA, Noriko; TAMAOKI, Masanori; NAKAJIMA, Nobuyoshi; SHINDO, Junji; YOKOHATA, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    The large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, is a potential indicator of environmental stress, but this function has not been confirmed by histological studies. Since environmental stress affects the reproductive function of mice, we determined the reproductive characteristics of this species at two locations: Toyama (36°35ʹN, 137°24ʹE) and Aomori (40°35ʹN, 140°57ʹE). Mice were captured during May–November (n=119) and July–November (n=146) at these locations, respectively. We classified the breeding season from the numbers of pregnant females and young, in addition to the spermatogenic cycle and seasonal changes in seminiferous tubule morphology of males. Testicular weight was measured, and seminiferous tubule morphology was examined histologically. Fourteen stages were found in the seminiferous epithelium cycle based on acrosome formation and spermatid head morphology. At both locations, the breeding season peaked from late summer to early autumn and possibly in spring. Spermatogenic activity was classified into 4 periods from June to November: resting around June and October–November; resumptive around July; active around August; and degenerative around September. During the resting period, the seminiferous tubules consisted of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Spermatogenesis began during the resumptive period, and spermatids were observed. During the active period, active spermatogenesis and a broad lumen were observed. During the degenerative period, spermatogenesis ended, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and degenerating exfoliated round spermatids were observed. This study provides scientific information about the testicular histopathological evaluations of the large Japanese field mouse for its use as an index species of environmental pollution. PMID:25754934

  8. Antimalarial activity in Xylocarpus granatum (Koen).

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Vijai; Srivastava, Shishir; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Mahendra Nath; Srivastava, Kumkum; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The antimalarial activity of Xylocarpus granatum fruits and their active constituents gedunin and xyloccensin-I were investigated using an in vitro model in this study. The chloroform fraction of X. granatum fruits was found to show promising antimalarial activity using an in vitro model of Plasmodium falciparum. On purification of the active fraction, four pure compounds were isolated and characterised, namely gedunin, photogedunin, xyloccensin-I and palmitic acid. Out of these only gedunin and xyloccensin-I were found to show activity equivalent to the parent active fraction in vitro model. PMID:21787243

  9. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  10. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates.

    PubMed

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  11. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  12. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates.

    PubMed

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates-RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  13. Contrasting stress responses of two co-occurring chipmunk species (Tamias alpinus and T. speciosus).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Talisin T; Palme, Rupert; Lacey, Eileen A

    2015-01-15

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are important mediators of responses to environmental conditions. Accordingly, differences in GC physiology may contribute to interspecific variation in response to anthropogenically-induced patterns of climate change. To begin exploring this possibility, we validated the use of fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCM) to measure baseline glucocorticoid levels in two species of co-occurring chipmunks that have exhibited markedly different patterns of response to environmental change. In Yosemite National Park, the alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) has undergone a significant upward contraction of its elevational range over the past century; in contrast, the lodgepole chipmunk (Tamiasspeciosus) has experienced no significant change in elevational distribution over this period. To determine if GC levels in these species vary in response to external stimuli and to assess whether these responses differ between species, we compared FCM levels for the same individuals (1) at the time of capture in the field, (2) after a short period of captivity, and (3) after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), (4) handling, and (5) trapping challenges conducted while these animals were held in captivity. Our analyses indicate that T. alpinus was more responsive to several of these changes in external conditions. Although both species displayed a significant FCM response to ACTH challenge, only T. alpinus showed a significant response to our handling challenge and to captive housing conditions. These findings underscore the importance of species-specific validation studies and support the potential for studies of GC physiology to generate insights into interspecific differences in response to environmental change. PMID:25461808

  14. Three Tests and Three Corrections: Comment on Koen and Yonelinas (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The slope of the z-transformed receiver-operating characteristic (zROC) in recognition memory experiments is usually less than 1, which has long been interpreted to mean that the variance of the target distribution is greater than the variance of the lure distribution. The greater variance of the target distribution could arise because the…

  15. In vitro and in silico evaluation of NF-κB targeted costunolide action on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells--a comparison with normal breast cells.

    PubMed

    Pitchai, Daisy; Roy, Anita; Banu, Sakhila

    2014-10-01

    Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone is a plant-derived secondary metabolite found to be present in most of the pharmacologically active herbs, being the cause for their medicinal values. The present study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus rhizome extract on MDA-MB-231 cells and explore its targeted action in comparison with its action on the normal breast cells (MCF 10A). The effect of costunolide on cell viability of the cells was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay. The targeted action of the compound was analyzed comparing the effectiveness of the compound to alter the protein expression levels of NF-κB subunits in the normal and the cancer cells using western blotting analysis. In silico studies were performed to predict the targeted interaction of costunolide with the NF-κB subunit proteins. Costunolide inhibited the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner leaving no significant change in the viability of the normal breast cells. The over expressed NF-κB subunits - p65, 52 and 100 in the cancer cells were found to be downregulated when treated with costunolide at an effective dose of 20 and 40 μM costunolide. In silico results provided stable interactions between costunolide and the target proteins, supporting the in vitro results in addition. Thus, costunolide derived from C. speciosus plant source elevates a fresh conviction for its use in breast cancer therapy for its cytotoxic efficacy and non-toxic nature. PMID:24733523

  16. Use of household ingredients as complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Senadhira, Danusha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study on 220 diabetic patients using herbal remedies for perceived glycemic benefit. Results: All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%). Conclusion: The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored about their hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26401401

  17. (1R,2S,5R,8R)-Iridodial and Z,E-nepetalactol: first long-range 4 chemical attractants for antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    e synthetic green lacewing pheromone compound, (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial, strongly attracted adult males and females of the North American antlion, Dendroleon speciosus Banks, and an aphid sex pheromone component, Z,E-nepetalactol, was weakly attractive to D. speciosus adults. Iridodial and Z,E-nepeta...

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658

  19. Speciation dynamics and biogeography of Neotropical spiral gingers (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    André, Thiago; Salzman, Shayla; Wendt, Tânia; Specht, Chelsea D

    2016-10-01

    Species can arise via the divisive effects of allopatry as well as due to ecological and/or reproductive character displacement within sympatric populations. Two separate lineages of Costaceae are native to the Neotropics; an early-diverging clade endemic to South America (consisting of ca. 16 species in the genera Monocostus, Dimerocostus and Chamaecostus); and the Neotropical Costus clade (ca. 50 species), a diverse assemblage of understory herbs comprising nearly half of total familial species richness. We use a robust dated molecular phylogeny containing most of currently known species to inform macroevolutionary reconstructions, enabling us to examine the context of speciation in Neotropical lineages. Analyses of speciation rate revealed a significant variation among clades, with a rate shift at the most recent common ancestor of the Neotropical Costus clade. There is an overall predominance of allopatric speciation in the South American clade, as most species display little range overlap. In contrast, sympatry is much higher within the Neotropical Costus clade, independent of node age. Our results show that speciation dynamics during the history of Costaceae is strongly heterogeneous, and we suggest that the Costus radiation in the Neotropics arose at varied geographic contexts. PMID:27400627

  20. Morphological and dietary responses of chipmunks to a century of climate change.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rachel E; Aprígio Assis, Ana Paula; Patton, James L; Marroig, Gabriel; Dawson, Todd E; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-09-01

    Predicting how individual taxa will respond to climatic change is challenging, in part because the impacts of environmental conditions can vary markedly, even among closely related species. Studies of chipmunks (Tamias spp.) in Yosemite National Park provide an important opportunity to explore the reasons for this variation in response. While the alpine chipmunk (T. alpinus) has undergone a significant elevational range contraction over the past century, the congeneric and partially sympatric lodgepole chipmunk (T. speciosus) has not experienced an elevational range shift during this period. As a first step toward identifying the factors underlying this difference in response, we examined evidence for dietary changes and changes in cranial morphology in these species over the past century. Stable isotope analyses of fur samples from modern and historical museum specimens of these species collected at the same localities indicated that signatures of dietary change were more pronounced in T. alpinus, although diet breadth did not differ consistently between the study species. Morphometric analyses of crania from these specimens revealed significant changes in cranial shape for T. alpinus, with less pronounced changes in shape for T. speciosus; evidence of selection on skull morphology was detected for T. alpinus, but not for T. speciosus. These results are consistent with growing evidence that T. alpinus is generally more responsive to environmental change than T. speciosus, but emphasize the complex and often geographically variable nature of such responses. Accordingly, future studies that make use of the taxonomically and spatially integrative approach employed here may prove particularly informative regarding relationships between environmental conditions, range changes, and patterns of phenotypic variation. PMID:26732228

  1. Large-scale habitat associations of four desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayton, G.H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.

  2. The search for new odorants: synthesis of animalic fragrant and musky/ambery compounds.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the recent research which allowed us to discover novel animalic odorants is presented. The new derivatives were prepared from readily available starting materials via easy reaction steps in good yields. They possess very different structures, such as bicyclic pentanols, glycolates, or tricyclic ketones, and all show interesting notes in the animalic fragrant family: from costus, leathery to ambery and musky scents, making them all attractive for different purposes. PMID:25329782

  3. Estimation of the cost of using chemical protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwope, A.D.; Renard, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, either directly or through its Superfund contractors, is a major user of chemical protective clothing. The purpose of the study was to develop estimates for the cost of using this clothing. These estimates can be used to guide purchase decisions and use practices. For example, economic guidelines would assist in decisions pertinent to single-use versus reusable clothing. Eight cost elements were considered: (1) purchase cost, (2) the number of times an item is used, (3) the number of items used per day, (4) cost of decontamination, (5) cost of inspection, (6) cost of maintenance, (7) cost of storage, and (8) cost of disposal. Estimates or assumed inputs for each of these elements were developed based on labor costs, fixed costs, and recurring costs. The cost elements were combined into an economic (mathematical) model having the single output of cost/use. By comparing cost/use for various use scenarios, conclusions are readily reached as to the optimum economics for purchase, use, and reuse of the clothing. In general, clothing should be considered disposable if its purchase cost is less than its average cost/use per use for the anticipated number of times it will be reused.

  4. [Sequencing of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and reconstruction of the matriarchal relationships between wood and field mice of the genus Apodemus (Muridae, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N; Suzuki, H; Tsuchiya, K; Moriwaki, K; Liapunova, E A; Vorontsov, N N

    1998-05-01

    The primary sequence of a 402-bp part of the cytochrome b gene was determined in nine species of wood and field mice of the genus Apodemus. The majority of mutations were synonymous. The total number of transitions exceeded than of transversions. Among all substitutions, C-T transitions prevailed (51%); the most common substitution type in genus-specific sites was C-A transversions (42%). In interpopulation analysis, only transitions were recorded. A phylogenetic tree, constructed with the use of the neighbor-joining method, showed that the genus Apodemus is divided into three highly divergent groups: south Asian (Apodemus argenteus, A. semotus), east Asian (A. speciosus, A. agrarius), and Eurocaucasian (A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, A. uralensis, A. ponticus, A. flavipectis). The mean genetic distances within each group were 12.6, 11.2, and 8.8%, respectively. The species of the first group are more remote genetically and ancestrally with regard to the other groups. The interspecies divergence estimated for A. speciosus ranged from 0.25 to 3.75%. Thus, the evolutionary age of the genus Apodemus is about 6 Myr, and time of divergence of A. speciosus populations is 0.1-1.5 Myr. The phylogeny inferred from the data on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene in Apodemus mtDNA is somewhat different from similar phylogenies based on other genetic data and from the zoological taxonomy of wood and field mice. However, the above classification of species is confirmed by features of their karyotypes and segmentation of satDNA, and by the RFLP of total nDNA and isozyme polymorphism. Our results are in good agreement with the new classification of wood and field mice recently proposed by Russian zoologists. PMID:9719913

  5. Updated checklist of Iranian Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of Opiinae from Iran is provided including 101 species from 11 genera (Atormus van Achterberg, 1997, Biosteres Foerster, 1862, Eurytenes Forster, 1862, Fopius Wharton, 1987, Indiopius Fischer, 1966, Opius Wesmael, 1835, Phaedrotoma Forster, 1862, Pokomandya Fischer, 1959, Psyttalia Walker, 1860, Utetes Forster, 1862 and Xynobius Forster, 1862) belonging to two tribes (Biosterini and Opiini). Moreover, seven species Biosteres (Chilotrichia) punctiscuta (Thomson, 1895), Biosteres (Biosteres) remigii Fischer, 1971, Eurytenes (Eurytenes) abnormis (Wesmael, 1835), Opius (Hypocynodus) ponticus Fischer, 1958, Opius pygmaeator (Nees, 1811), Opius (Nosopoea) speciosus Fischer, 1959 and Phaedrotoma nitidulator (Nees, 1834) are recorded for the first time from Iran. PMID:27395527

  6. Nine New Species of Aleiodes Wesmael Reared at Yanayacu Biological Station (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) in Eastern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrew C.; Shaw, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Nine new species of Aleiodes (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: A. aclydis, A. albiterminus, A. arbitrium, A. atripileatus, A. capillosus, A. greeneiyi, A. nebulosus, A. speciosus and A. stilpnos. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing Neotropical species that belong to the circumscriptus and gastritor species-groups, a larger species-group combining the two, termed the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, is created. The new species described in this study belonged to the seriatus, albitibia, gressitti, and circumscnptus/gastritor species-groups, respectively. Aldodes capillosus represents the first Neotropical species belonging to the gressitti species-group. Of the 34 previously described Neotropical species in Aldodes, only 13 have known biologies. The Aleiodes species in this study were reared from the families Geometridae and Noctuidae, two of the most common host families of other Aleiodes species worldwide. PMID:19619013

  7. [Genetic divergence and allozymic variability in mice of the genus Apodemus s. lato (Muridae, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Zykov, A E

    1991-01-01

    Genetic variability of 36 presumed loci was examined in 5 species of subgenus Sylvaemus (sylvaticus, flavicollis, microps, falzfeini, ponticus) and in 3 species of the subgenus Apodemus s. str. (agrarius, peninsulae, speciosus) from different geographic regions of the USSR. Taxonomic status and species affiliation of A. s. chorassanicus from Turkmenia and A. s. tscherga from Altay have been established: the former is identical to A. falzfeini from the Ukraine, the latter is identical to A. microps. Genus Apodemus s. lato can be divided into two different geni (Apodemus s. str. and Sylvaemus) on the basis of genetic distance between them (D = 1,518). Genetic differentiation within subgenus Sylvaemus is 0.311, within subgenus Apodemus s. str. is 1,011. The observed differences in genetic heterozygosity between species (H varies from 0 to 0.067) are, probably, due to the historical events which take place in the formation of areas of these species. PMID:1796503

  8. Lizards in the ecology of salmonellosis in Panama.

    PubMed Central

    Kourany, M; Telford, S R

    1981-01-01

    Enteropathogenic bacteria was isolated from 131 of 447 (29.4%) neotropical Panamanian lizards belonging to 34 species of seven families. Overall, 147 strains of bacteria were isolated comprising 26 Salmonella and 10 Arizona serotypes. Gymnopthalmus speciosus had the highest infection rate, 12 of 13 individuals (92.3%), whereas Gonatodes fuscus exhibited the lowest, 1 of 18 (5.6%). The highest infection was detected in lizards whose behavioral patterns were secretive (42.0%) and terrestrial (42.6%), whereas the lowest infection was among the scansorial lizards (17.5%). Rates were highest during the dry season, from January through April. Many neotropical Panamanian lizards were multiply infected by Salmonella an Arizona strains representing representing a wide range of serotypes. Infected lizards were distributed in areas varying from remote rural and forested regions to urban developments, offering a potentially important reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria known to cause infection in man and domestic animals. PMID:7259156

  9. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested. PMID:27427818

  10. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  11. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  12. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  13. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities. PMID:25420272

  14. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words. PMID:26977265

  15. Investigation of reservoir animals of Leptospira in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Baba, Yoshitaka; Kudo, Momotoshi; Tamae, Yoshinobu; Shimomura, Koji; Takatori, Ichiro; Iwakiri, Akira; Ishikawa, Koji; Soma, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-11-01

    We surveyed reservoir animals of leptospires in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture, where a cluster of human leptospirosis had occurred during the summer of 2006. Leptospira was isolated from 6 of 57 large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus). The serogroups of the isolates were Autumnalis (5 strains) and Hebdomadis (1 strain) and the partial nucleotide sequences of their flaB genes suggested that the isolates belonged to L. interrogans. The human patient sera reacted specifically with the Leptospira strain isolated from the mice captured around the area where each patient occurred, suggesting that mice are the source of human infection. We also detected leptospiral DNAs by flaB-polymerase chain reaction in the kidneys of large feral animals; wild boars (positive ratio 10.3%; 4 of 39) and deer (19.2%; 10 of 52). The Leptospira spp. harbored by these animals were deduced to be L. interrogans (in 5 animals) and L. borgpetersenii (in 9 animals) by the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were also detected among symptomatic hound dogs. These results suggest that these feral animals may cause leptospirosis and pose a potential risk to hunters and workers in the meat processing industry. PMID:19050356

  16. [Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of field mice (Mammalia, Rodentia, Apodemus)].

    PubMed

    Boeskorov, G G; Kartavtseva, I V; Zagorodniuk, I V; Belianin, A N; Liapunova, E A

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (= A. microps), A. fulvipectus (= A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 65). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. PMID:7721059

  17. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G.; Kartavtseva, I.V.; Zagorodnyuk, I.V.; Belyanin, A.N.; Lyapunova, E.A.

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D.; Chan, Tin-Yam; O’Leary, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade’s ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently. PMID:27415002

  19. New palynological data from Karoo sediments, Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Engelbronner, E. R.

    1996-07-01

    The palynological associations of 16 Karoo samples, collected in the Mana Pools basin, Northern Zimbabwe, were studied, and four zonal assemblages can be recognized. Assemblage I (Kondo Pools Formation) is dominated by monosaccate pollen grains and diverse alete bisaccate pollen grains occur frequently. Important but rare marker genera include Limitisporites, Vittatina and Weylandites. These indicate a middle to late Early Permian age (e.g. Late Sakmarian to Early Artinskian). The palynological assemblage, derived from the Massive Sandstone Member, Angwa Sandstone Formation, is characterized by a small number of smooth and apiculate spores, but is lacking any age significant marker taxa. Assemblages II and III, both from the Alternations Member (Angwa Sandstone Formation), and Assemblage IV (Pebbly Arkose Formation) are dominated by alete bisaccate and multitaeniate pollen grains. The rare occurrence of Vittatina, Weylandites lucifer and Guttulapollenites hannonicus indicates a Late Permian to Early Triassic age for Assemblage II. Based on sedimentological data and literature, a preliminary age of Early Triassic (Induan) can be given. A range from latest Fassanian (Ladinian) to Lacian (Norian) for Assemblage III is indicated by the occurrence of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Eucommiidites, Infernopollenites, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Retisulcites perforatus and Samaropollenites speciosus. Small amounts of Asseretospora gyrata, Cadargasporites senectus, Cycadopites, Microcachryidites and Minutosaccus crenulatus indicate a slightly larger age range for Assemblage IV (e.g. Carnien to Rhaetian).

  20. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently. PMID:27415002

  1. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  2. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M. R.; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2015-01-01

    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies. PMID:26734021

  3. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park.

    PubMed

    Niño, Jaime; Correa, Yaned Milena; Cardona, Germán David; Mosquera, Oscar Marino

    2011-09-01

    Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. In order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae) were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP), Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae) showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae) showed good antioxidant activity (48%); in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae) showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. PMID:22017115

  4. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

  5. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  6. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2015-01-01

    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies. PMID:26734021

  7. Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

    2009-04-01

    The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

  8. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-01

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis. PMID:17825510

  9. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  10. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Stinckens, A.; Vereijken, A.; Ons, E.; Konings, P.; Van As, P.; Cuppens, H.; Moreau, Y.; Sakai, R.; Aerts, J.; Goddeeris, B.; Buys, N.; Vanmechelen, K.; Cassiman, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a “Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome”. However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words: PMID:26977265

  11. Micro, meso, macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljenström, Hans; Svedin, Uno

    1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.

  12. Potential of native Thai aromatic plant extracts in antiwrinkle body creams.

    PubMed

    Leelapornpisid, Pimporn; Wickett, R Randall; Chansakaow, Sunee; Wongwattananukul, Nitima

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of 10 essential oils and 10 absolutes extracted from Thai aromatic plants were evaluated and compared to thyme oil, trolox, quercetin, and kaempferol by two independent assays: the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging assay and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation. We found that four essential oils including ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Wan-sao-long leaf oil (Amomum uliginosum Koen), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus), holy basil oil (Ocimum sanctum L.), and the absolute of dwarf ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson var. fruticosa (Craib) J. Sinclair] exhibited high antioxidant activity in both DPPH and TBARS assays and possessed satisfactory fragrance properties. These were then combined into an essential oil blend (EOB) and retested for antioxidant activity. The EOB also exhibited high antioxidant activity in the above assays. It was then incorporated into a stable cream base as EOB body cream. The EOB body cream was found to be best able under storage in stress conditions and presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than its' cream base both before and after stability testing. The effect of EOB body cream on skin surface topography was evaluated in 29 healthy volunteers using the Skin Visiometer (SV 600 FW, CK Electronic GmbH, Germany). Three parameters, Ra, Rz (roughness), and surface, were analyzed. After 4 weeks of application, the EOB body cream showed significant reductions in surface and Rz compared with before treatment (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and with untreated and placebo treatment (p < 0.05, Duncan test). These results indicate that the essential oils and absolutes from Thai plants may serve as potential sources of natural antioxidants for spa and cosmetic products designed to prevent or treat signs of skin aging. PMID:26665978

  13. Phylogeny Estimation of the Radiation of Western North American Chipmunks (Tamias) in the Face of Introgression Using Reproductive Protein Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Noah; Demboski, John R.; Sullivan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The causes and consequences of rapid radiations are major unresolved issues in evolutionary biology. This is in part because phylogeny estimation is confounded by processes such as stochastic lineage sorting and hybridization. Because these processes are expected to be heterogeneous across the genome, comparison among marker classes may provide a means of disentangling these elements. Here we use introns from nuclear-encoded reproductive protein genes expected to be resistant to introgression to estimate the phylogeny of the western chipmunks (Tamias: subgenus: Neotamias), a rapid radiation that has experienced introgressive hybridization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyze the nuclear loci using coalescent-based species-tree estimation methods and concatenation to estimate a species tree and we use parametric bootstraps and coalescent simulations to differentiate between phylogenetic error, coalescent stochasticity and introgressive hybridization. Results indicate that the mtDNA gene tree reflects several introgression events that have occurred between taxa of varying levels of divergence and at different time points in the tree. T. panamintinus and T. speciosus appear to be fixed for ancient mitochondrial introgressions from T. minimus. A southern Rocky Mountains clade appears well sorted (i.e., species are largely monophyletic) at multiple nuclear loci, while five of six taxa are nonmonophyletic based on cytochrome b. Our simulations reject phylogenetic error and coalescent stochasticity as causes. The results represent an advance in our understanding of the processes at work during the radiation of Tamias and suggest that sampling reproductive-protein genes may be a viable strategy for phylogeny estimation of rapid radiations in which reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, a genome-scale survey that can statistically compare heterogeneity of genealogical process at many more loci will be necessary to test this conclusion. PMID:21878471

  14. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  15. [Molecular phylogeny of forest and field mice of the genus Apodemus (Muridae, Rodentia) based on the data on restriction analysis of total nuclear DNA].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N

    1998-09-01

    Based on restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of total nuclear DNA (nDNA), analyses of phylogenetic relations and genetic similarity were performed in nine species of forest and field mice of the genus Apodemus. Genetic distances calculated for different species pairs ranged from 0.24 to 12.53%; i.e., the differences were 50-fold. The estimated evolutionary age of the genus Apodemus is approximately 12 million years. In general, the obtained data on genetic similarity and phylogenetic relationship allow us to differentiate at least three groups of species: (1) southern Paleoarctic (A. argenteus), (2) eastern (A. peninsulae, A. speciosus, and A. agrarius), and (3) western (A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, A. ponticus, A. uralensis, and A. fulvipectus) ones. The latter two groups are related to the northern Paleoarctic. Such a division into groups corresponds to characteristic features of karyotype organization and segmentation of satellite DNA (satDNA) of these species, as well as the nature of variation in isozymes and in a fragment of the enzyme-encoding sequence of cytochrome b gene isolated from the mitochondrial genome. Species groups (1) and (3) exhibited a high probability of a monophyletic origin (70 and 99%, respectively). Group (2) is unlikely to be monophyletic, and the genetic distances in it are significantly greater than those in group 3. A. argenteus is the most diverged, both phenogenetically and phylogenetically. The data are consistent with a new zoological classification, which assumes the division of the unified genus Apodemus into two taxa of generic rank and suggest that the southern Paleoarctic forest mouse should be regarded as a separate taxon of at least subgeneric rank. PMID:9879015

  16. Dynamics, co-infections and characteristics of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in Hokkaido small mammals, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Shimozuru, Michito; Sashika, Mariko; Rosà, Roberto; Thu, May June; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Many of the emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and many of them are caused by vector-borne pathogens. In Japan, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are frequently detected in both ticks and wildlife. Here, we studied the infection rates of potentially zoonotic species, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neoehrlichia and Babesia spp., in Hokkaido's most abundant small mammals as they relate to variable extrinsic factors that might affect the infection rates of these pathogens. A total of 412 small mammals including 64 Apodemus argenteus, 219 Apodemus speciosus, 78 Myodes rufocanus, 41 Myodes rutilus, 6 Myodes rex and 4 Sorex unguiculatus were collected from Furano and Shari sites in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 and were examined by multiplex PCR for TBPs. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) was then developed for the specific detection of 13 potentially zoonotic TBPs. A total of 4 TBPs were detected: Anaplasma sp. AP-sd, Ehrlichia muris, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia microti. The infection rates were 4.4% (18/412), 1.2% (5/412), 13.1% (54/412) and 17.2% (71/412), respectively. The infection rates of each of the detected TBPs were significantly correlated with host small mammal species. A total of 22 (two triple and 20 double) co-infection cases were detected (5.3%). The most frequent co-infection cases occurred between Candidatus N. mikurensis and B. microti 68.2% (15/22). Further studies are required to examine human exposure to these zoonotic TBPs in Hokkaido. PMID:27166277

  17. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. PMID:26296603

  18. Dehydrocostuslactone Suppresses Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Inhibition of Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Ya; Tsai, An-Chi; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine component dehydrocostuslactone (DHC) isolated from Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, has been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Angiogenesis is an essential process in the growth and progression of cancer. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, the anti-angiogenic mechanism of action of DHC to be via the induction of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase due to abrogation of the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/cyclin D1 and mTOR signaling pathway. First, we demonstrated that DHC has an anti-angiogenic effect in the matrigel-plug nude mice model and an inhibitory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary-like tube formation in vitro. DHC caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, leading to the suppression of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cyclin A and cdk2 expression. With respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying the DHC-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation, this study demonstrated that DHC significantly inhibits Akt expression, resulting in the suppression of GSK-3β phosphorylation and mTOR expression. These effects are capable of regulating cyclin D1 degradation, but they were significantly reversed by constitutively active myristoylated (myr)-Akt. Furthermore, the abrogation of tube formation induced by DHC was also reversed by overexpression of Akt. And the co-treatment with LiCl and DHC significantly reversed the growth inhibition induced by DHC. Taken together, our study has identified Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR as important targets of DHC and has thus highlighted its potential application in angiogenesis-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:22359572

  19. Inflorescences of Neotropical herbs as a newly discovered microhabitat for myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schnittler, Martin; Stephenson, Steven L

    2002-01-01

    An assemblage of myxomycetes associated with inflorescences of large Neotropical herbs, a microhabitat not previously known to support these organisms, is described and characterized ecologically from a number of study sites in Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. Thirty-one different taxa were found among 652 specimens of myxomycetes recorded in the field or obtained from 358 moist chamber cultures prepared with decaying floral parts. A comparison with the results of 696 moist chamber cultures prepared with various other litter substrates showed that thirteen myxomycete taxa occurred more often on inflorescences. Six taxa had a strong preference for this microhabitat, and three of those seem to be new for the Neotropics. Correspondence analysis of the data set compiled for inflorescences indicated that the assemblage of myxomycetes was relatively consistent across all of the various study sites. The actual myxomycete substrates were the rapidly decaying floral parts enclosed by the massive, still living bracts. Richest in myxomycetes were species of Heliconia and Costus. Here, nectar residuals probably promoted a rapidly developing community of yeasts and bacteria. A high density of these organisms was indicated by the frequent occurrence of myxobacteria in the moist chamber cultures prepared with floral parts. Results from canonical correspondence analysis suggested that a substrate pH between 8 and 9 and the presence of massive, compact inflorescences on plants occurring at lower elevations in localities with moderate annual rainfall provide optimal conditions for inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes. An incidental dispersal of myxomycete spores by birds that pollinate the flowers or feed upon the fruits seems possible and may have accounted for the high degree of preference exhibited by some of the inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes, for which the term "floricolous" is proposed. PMID:21156473

  20. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A

    2000-08-01

    Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590

  1. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Castus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, Godswill Nduka; Funmilayo, Onajobi; Odutola, Osilesi; Olugbenga, Adebawo; Oboutor, Efere Martins

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the bioactive compounds in Costus afer Ker Gawl, an indigenous African medicinal plant whose leaf and stem extracts are used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatism and arthritis. Materials and Methods: The bioactive compounds present in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem were identified using qualitative phytochemical evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical method, comparing the mass spectra of the identified compounds with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database library. Results: Qualitative analysis detected alkaloids, saponins, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterol, phlobatannins, and tannins in both n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Phenols were detected in leaves alone while flavonoids were present in stem alone. GC/MS data showed that the bioactive compounds in n-butanol fraction of C. afer leaf were indolizine, 2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, phytol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecanoic acid-methyl ester, eicosane, cis-vaccenic acid and oleic acid while n-butanol fraction of C. afer stem contain benzofuran,2,3-dihydro,2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, campesterol, stigmasterol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:26401352

  2. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  3. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0–10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan

  4. Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 μg (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 μg (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 μg per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally

  5. Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers.

    PubMed

    Inouye, David W

    2008-02-01

    The timing of life history traits is central to lifetime fitness and nowhere is this more evident or well studied as in the phenology of flowering in governing plant reproductive success. Recent changes in the timing of environmental events attributable to climate change, such as the date of snowmelt at high altitudes, which initiates the growing season, have had important repercussions for some common perennial herbaceous wildflower species. The phenology of flowering at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado, USA) is strongly influenced by date of snowmelt, which makes this site ideal for examining phenological responses to climate change. Flower buds of Delphinium barbeyi, Erigeron speciosus, and Helianthella quinquenervis are sensitive to frost, and the earlier beginning of the growing season in recent years has exposed them to more frequent mid-June frost kills. From 1992 to 1998, on average 36.1% of Helianthella buds were frosted, but for 1999-2006 the mean is 73.9%; in only one year since 1998 have plants escaped all frost damage. For all three of these perennial species, there is a significant relationship between the date of snowmelt and the abundance of flowering that summer. Greater snowpack results in later snowmelt, later beginning of the growing season, and less frost mortality of buds. Microhabitat differences in snow accumulation, snowmelt patterns, and cold air drainage during frost events can be significant; an elevation difference of only 12 m between two plots resulted in a temperature difference of almost 2 degrees C in 2006 and a difference of 37% in frost damage to buds. The loss of flowers and therefore seeds can reduce recruitment in these plant populations, and affect pollinators, herbivores, and seed predators that previously relied on them. Other plant species in this environment are similarly susceptible to frost damage so the negative effects for recruitment and for consumers dependent on flowers and seeds could be

  6. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688

  7. “Resale Shammieh” First Source of Allergic Rhinitis Description by Rhazes

    PubMed Central

    Alembizar, Faranak; Nimrouzi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, known as Rhazes in the Western world (854-925 CE), was an Iranian polymath, physician and one of the most prominent sages in the medieval period. He wrote several medical books and treaties such as “Continents”, a comprehensive medical encyclopedia, treaties in smallpox and measles, “Al-Mansuri” and many other important manuscripts in the medical field. “Resale Shammieh” is one of his pioneering well-known works in medicine; replying to Shahid-Ibn-Hussein Balkhi, dedicated to his master Abuzeid Ahmad-Ibn-sahl Balkhi, who was getting cold in spring at the time of rose blossoming. We are about to review “Resale Shammieh” because of the importance of this treaty as a pioneering work in allergy and its clinical manifestation. Methods: This study is a traditionary review of “Resale Shammieh” and similar copies as well as works cited by Abureihan Birooni, Ibn Abi-Ossaiba’ei, Ibn-e-nadim. Results: It seems that this treatise has been prepared before treatise of Qest-ibn-Looqa, written for Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil, about hay fever. Rhazes, in “Resale Shammieh” elucidated almost all clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis and hay fever is mentioned in the conventional medical resources, including nasal stuffiness, itchy nose, sneezing repeatedly, runny nose, red face, and light elevated temperature of the body. He also cited complications of hay fever such as hoarseness, dyspnea and fever; and mentioned primary preventive measures including covering the head in cold weather, abstaining from drinking cold water as well as smelling musk, Costus and myrrh Maki. His proposed remedies for hay fever comprising of dipping a fabric in the nose, fumigation, shaving the head and rubbing mustard and allium on it, as well as ear or forehead bloodletting. Conclusion: “Resale Shammieh”, a valuable work of Rhazes, the Muslim Persian physician, in hay fever is most probably the first known treaty

  8. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%), followed by roots (22.2%). The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipech. (UV = 0.67), Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67), Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63), Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62), Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60), and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60). Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species), heat, fever, colds (11 plant species), retained afterbirth (11 plant species), and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species). Many Nu villagers (52