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1

Ultrastructural and chemical evidence that the cell wall of green cotton fiber is suberized.  

PubMed

Green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers were shown by electron microscopy to have numerous thin concentric rings around the lumen of the cell. These rings possessed a lamellar fine structure characteristic of suberin. LiA1D(4) depolymerization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of a suberin polymer in the green cotton with the major aliphatic monomers being omega-hydroxydocosanoic acid (70%) and docosanedoic acid (25%). Ordinary white cotton was shown by chemical and ultrastructural examination to be encircled by a thin cuticular polymer containing less than 0.5% of the aliphatic components found in green cotton. PMID:16663251

Yatsu, L Y; Espelie, K E; Kolattukudy, P E

1983-10-01

2

Ultrastructural and Chemical Evidence That the Cell Wall of Green Cotton Fiber Is Suberized 1  

PubMed Central

Green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers were shown by electron microscopy to have numerous thin concentric rings around the lumen of the cell. These rings possessed a lamellar fine structure characteristic of suberin. LiA1D4 depolymerization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of a suberin polymer in the green cotton with the major aliphatic monomers being ?-hydroxydocosanoic acid (70%) and docosanedoic acid (25%). Ordinary white cotton was shown by chemical and ultrastructural examination to be encircled by a thin cuticular polymer containing less than 0.5% of the aliphatic components found in green cotton. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663251

Yatsu, L. Y.; Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

1983-01-01

3

Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

4

Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation  

E-print Network

means analysis (GMA). Findings from this study should lay the foundation for future breeding work in cotton fiber elongation. Of the seven distinctive upland parents used for the diallel study, general combining ability was far more prominent than...

Ng, Eng Hwa

2013-05-29

5

Multiparameter Comparison of Cotton Fiber Length Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length distributions obtained from a broad range of cottons were examined and revealed complex patterns with, in many instances, clear evidence of bimodality. With such complex distributional features, the summary parameters typically used to describe fiber length (means, percentiles, SFC…) are not representative of the distribution, and often show clear insufficiencies in characterizing its alterations during mechanical processing. This paper

Mourad Krifa

6

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

Van't Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

1998-09-01

7

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

Van`t Hof, J.

1998-09-01

8

Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution  

E-print Network

Fiber quality data from five upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes, which were grown at College Station, TX during 2001 and 2002, were subjected to diallel and generation means analyses to determine the potential for improvement of fiber...

Braden, Chris Alan

2006-10-30

9

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers  

SciTech Connect

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

2003-05-01

10

The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development  

E-print Network

. Representing one of most distinct single cell types in the plant kingdom, cotton fibers may attain a finalThe Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism Ran in Gossypium (``cotton fiber''). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how

Wendel, Jonathan F.

11

TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND  

E-print Network

483 TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND INCREASED FIBER. Keating, N. G. Srinivas, C. Wu and A. S. Holaday Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX G. J. Jividen Cotton Incorporated Raleigh, NC Abstract We set out to use genetic engineering to make cotton crop yield and fiber

Strauss, Richard E.

12

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

2014-10-01

13

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

...2014-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general....

2014-10-01

14

Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton  

E-print Network

contributes to reduced yield and reduced fiber length, thus minimizing the profitability for the grower and the competitiveness of the fiber for the textile industry. For dryland cotton to remain a viable commodity for Texas producers its quality properties...

Braden, Chris Alan

2012-06-07

15

Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

2003-01-01

16

Hydroxyapatite growth on cotton fibers modified chemically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared carboxymethyl cellulose fibers (CMC) by chemically modifying cotton cellulose with monochloroacetic acid and calcium chloride solution. This modification favored the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the surface of the CMC fibers in contact with simulated body fluid solutions (SBF). After soaking in SBF for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days, formation of HAP was observed. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that crystallinity, crystallite size, and growth of HAP increased with the soaking time. The amount of HAP deposited on CMC fibers increased greatly after 21 days of immersion in the SBF, while the substrate surface was totally covered with hemispherical aggregates with the size of the order of 2 microns. Elemental analysis showed the presence of calcium and phosphate, with calcium/phosphate atomic ratio of 1.54. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy bands confirmed the presence of HAP. The results suggest that cotton modified by calcium treatment has a nucleating ability and can accelerate the nucleation of HAP crystals.

Varela Caselis, J. L.; Reyes Cervantes, E.; Landeta Cortés, G.; Agustín Serrano, R.; Rubio Rosas, E.

2014-09-01

17

Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense  

E-print Network

Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense barbadense (Pima cotton), homoeolog expression, iTRAQ, polyploidy, proteomics. Summary Pima cotton conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar

Wendel, Jonathan F.

18

[Gibberellin signal transduction and cotton fiber molecular development].  

PubMed

Gibberellins (GAs) is a sort of high efficiency plant growth regulator which is very important for cotton fiber initiation and development. Recently, the research of GA signal transduction mostly focuses on Arabidopsis, wheat, barley, maize, rice and so on. Yet we know little about molecular mechanism of GA to cotton fiber initiation and development. In recent years, exciting progress has been made in identifying many important components involved in gibberellin signal transduction pathways, which can help us to understand deeply these pathways and their regulation. This review summarized the recently research process of GA signal transduction and correlation of GA and cotton fiber' molecular development. We hope that the paper can provide some new ideas about the function and mechanism of GA in cotton fiber initiation and development, and for cotton breeding task. PMID:17369146

Wang, Rong; Cui, Bai-Ming; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Gen-Fa

2007-03-01

19

Properties and potential applications of natural cellulose fibers from the bark of cotton stalks.  

PubMed

Natural cellulose fibers have been obtained from the bark of cotton stalks and the fibers have been used to develop composites. Cotton stalks are rich in cellulose and account for up to 3 times the quantity of cotton fiber produced per acre. Currently, cotton stalks have limited use and are mostly burned on the ground. Natural cellulose fibers obtained from cotton stalks are composed of approximately 79% cellulose and 13.7% lignin. The fibers have breaking tenacity of 2.9 g per denier and breaking elongation of 3% and modulus of 144 g per denier, between that of cotton and linen. Polypropylene composites reinforced with cotton stalk fibers have flexural, tensile and impact resistance properties similar to jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. Utilizing cotton stalks as a source for natural cellulose fibers provides an opportunity to increase the income from cotton crops and make cotton crops more competitive to the biofuel crops. PMID:19327987

Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2009-07-01

20

Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-10-01

21

49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.  

... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

2014-10-01

22

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON  

E-print Network

INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

Wendel, Jonathan F.

23

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold or...and any cotton or vegetable fibers. This wooden bulkhead must...compartment must be equipped with a carbon dioxide or overhead water sprinkler...unloading of cotton or vegetable fibers. (f) Upon...

2010-10-01

24

Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC) Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC) composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II) ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting

Mary Grace; Navin Chand; Sunil Kumar Bajpai

2009-01-01

25

Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability  

E-print Network

The temporal system of fruiting on the cotton plant lends itself to bolls at different fruiting sites developing under different environmental conditions and with varied source-sink relationships. To investigate this, intra-plant fiber quality...

Kothari, Neha

2012-10-19

26

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Implications of Surface Chemistry on Cotton Fiber Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing speeds of cotton yarn production in the textile mill have made it necessary to de- velopment complementary methods to traditional measurements of physical fiber properties, such as length and strength, as predictors of yarn spinning efficiency. With the goal of investigating possible complementary measures to address this problem, this research attempts to quantify the pectin, wax, glucose, and surface

Gary R. Gamble

2004-01-01

27

Cotton Planting Seed and Related Fiber Qualities.  

E-print Network

of Cotton Planting Seed, 1953 Eig,ht-tenths of the Rowden seed sold was produced in Texas. Most of the remainder was from Arkansas. Nearly all of the Mebane types were produced in Texas (Table 12). Seed of the certified and registered grade were... of Cotton Planting Seed, 1953 Eig,ht-tenths of the Rowden seed sold was produced in Texas. Most of the remainder was from Arkansas. Nearly all of the Mebane types were produced in Texas (Table 12). Seed of the certified and registered grade were...

Paulson, W. E.; Ward, J. M.

1956-01-01

28

UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV / visible / NIR technique was examined for its feasibility in determining the portions of cotton fiber and trash. Overall result indicated that NIR prediction was limited to screening purpose for probable reasons as heterogeneous trash distribution, relatively small sampling, and gravimetric reference method.

Liu, Yongliang; Gamble, Gary R.; Thibodeaux, Devron

2010-04-01

29

Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and guayule bagasse. The plant fibers were characterized for physical (bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical

Sreekala G. Bajwa; Dilpreet S. Bajwa; Greg Holt; Terry Coffelt; Francis Nakayama

2011-01-01

30

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1365, and other vegetable fibers, Division...bale of cotton or vegetable fibers must...compressed to a density of at least 512...of dry cotton or vegetable fibers, in a 'tween...is saturated with water may not be transported...showing contact with oil or grease may...

2011-10-01

31

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1365, and other vegetable fibers, Division...bale of cotton or vegetable fibers must...compressed to a density of at least 512...of dry cotton or vegetable fibers, in a 'tween...is saturated with water may not be transported...showing contact with oil or grease may...

2012-10-01

32

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1365, and other vegetable fibers, Division...bale of cotton or vegetable fibers must...compressed to a density of at least 512...of dry cotton or vegetable fibers, in a 'tween...is saturated with water may not be transported...showing contact with oil or grease may...

2013-10-01

33

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

2014-04-01

34

QTL analysis of genotype × environment interactions affecting cotton fiber quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is unusual among major crops in that large acreages are grown under both irrigated and rainfed conditions, making genotype 2 environment interactions of even greater importance than usual in designing crop-improvement strategies. We describe the impact of well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions on the genetic control of fiber quality, a complex suite of traits that collectively determine the utility

A. H. Paterson; Y. Saranga; M. Menz; C.-X. Jiang; R. Wright

2003-01-01

35

Nonleaching antimicrobial cotton fibers for hyaluronic acid adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternary ammonium containing compounds (QACs) such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is commonly employed in hyaluronic acid (HA) production process as an HA precipitating agent. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, a Si containing QAC (Si-QAC) generally used to modify the surface of cotton fibers for the preparation of nonleaching antibacterial textiles, has a chemical structure very similar to CPC. Choline, a natural QAC,

David Wibowo; Cheng-Kang Lee

2010-01-01

36

Effects of Deferred Ginning of Cotton on Cotton Fiber Quality as Reflected in Certain Fiber Properties.  

E-print Network

at the lint slide were combined into a composite sample and tested in a fiber laboratory to measure fiber length, fiber length distribution, color antl nonlint content. Data on moisture and fiber properties were ana- lyzed by a nestecl analysis... at the lint slide were combined into a composite sample and tested in a fiber laboratory to measure fiber length, fiber length distribution, color antl nonlint content. Data on moisture and fiber properties were ana- lyzed by a nestecl analysis...

Ward, James M.; Graves, James W.

1965-01-01

37

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A majority of cotton genes are expressed in single-celled fiber  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A majority of cotton genes are expressed in single-celled fiber Ran Hovav Ã? Joshua differentiation. To address these questions in a model plant system, we studied the unique and highly exaggerated single-celled, epidermal seed trichomes (``cotton'') of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). By taking

Wendel, Jonathan F.

38

The role of fiber property testing in the operations of American cotton mills  

E-print Network

and the instruments for testing fiber properties common? ly used by the textile mills. Part 2 presents case histories of the use of instrument testing of cotton fiber properties in the manufacturing operations of several diversified cotton textile firms. Part 3... for the use of all segments of the American cotton trade because of the apparent long-run prospect that the best customers for the American cotton crop will be the consuming public of the United States. Cotton Textile Mill Operations, 1947-1952 According...

Burns, William Henry

2013-10-04

39

[Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].  

PubMed

By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-12-01

40

Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

2012-06-07

41

The Cotton ACTIN1 Gene Is Functionally Expressed in Fibers and Participates in Fiber Elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-celled cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum) provides a unique experimental system to study cell elongation. To investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton during fiber development, 15 G. hirsutum ACTIN (GhACT) cDNA clones were characterized. RNA gel blot and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhACT genes are differentially expressed in different tissues and can be classified into four groups. One group,

Xue-Bao Li; Xiao-Ping Fan; Xiu-Lan Wang; Lin Cai; Wei-Cai Yangb

2005-01-01

42

COTTON YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATED TILLAGE SYSTEMS OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation can positively influence cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and fiber quality during periods of short - term drought. A cover crop in conjunction with conservation tillage can also benefit cotton yield and fiber quality by conserving soil moisture and potentially increasing plant available water. A split - plot experiment in a randomized complete block design was utilized to

Kipling S. Balkcom; D. Wayne Reeves; Joey N. Shaw; Larry M. Curtis; Charles H. Burmester

2006-01-01

43

The Behaviour of Compacted Cotton Fibers in Hot Low Velocity Air Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation and morphology of compacted cotton fibers placed in hot oxidizing low velocity streams have been examined using a scanning electron microscope. The effects of sample compactness, stream velocity, stream tem perature and exposure time on the degradation of the cotton fibers were estab lished.

G. A. Karim; S. Mehta

1986-01-01

44

In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.  

PubMed

Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers. The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of respiratory chain inhibitors, i.e., rotenone and thiourea, on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. After 1 d post-anthesis, ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d. The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions, and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea. Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton. In green cotton fiber, rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 ?mol/L, while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 2000 ?mol/L). Both respiratory inhibitors, however, had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors. It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. PMID:22661210

Yuan, Shu-na; Malik, Waqas; Hua, Shui-jin; Bibi, Noreen; Wang, Xue-de

2012-06-01

45

Development of a Seed Cotton Fiber Quality Sensing System For Cotton Fiber Quality Mapping  

E-print Network

) wavebands. Both algorithms yielded similar results when used on seed cotton samples. The reflectivity measurement after removing the effects of foreign matter had a strong relationship to standard micronaire measurements (R^2= 0.73 and 0.74 for the ratio...

Schielack, Vincent Paul

2012-02-14

46

Utilization of nucleoside diphosphate glucoses in developing cotton fibers.  

PubMed

The capacity for biosynthesis of hot alkali-insoluble products using uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-glucose as substrate has been studied in isolated cotton fibers harvested at various stages of development following anthesis. During the period of rapid elongation and primary wall synthesis (7-14 days postanthesis), incorporation of radioactivity from GDP-(14)C-glucose into hot alkali-insoluble product is high. This activity gradually declines and is not demonstrated in older fibers undergoing active deposition of secondary wall. With respect to all characteristics examined, the product from GDP-glucose resembles cellulose. Incorporation of UDP-(14)C-glucose into hot alkali-insoluble product was low in young fibers but increased to high levels in older fibers. This product was shown to be soluble in chloroform-methanol, and when chromatographed in lipid solvents it was separated into three components. Activity for the production of two of these three presumed glucolipids increased with increasing age of fibers. PMID:16658666

Delmer, D P; Beasley, C A; Ordin, L

1974-02-01

47

Utilization of Nucleoside Diphosphate Glucoses in Developing Cotton Fibers 1  

PubMed Central

The capacity for biosynthesis of hot alkali-insoluble products using uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-glucose as substrate has been studied in isolated cotton fibers harvested at various stages of development following anthesis. During the period of rapid elongation and primary wall synthesis (7-14 days postanthesis), incorporation of radioactivity from GDP-14C-glucose into hot alkali-insoluble product is high. This activity gradually declines and is not demonstrated in older fibers undergoing active deposition of secondary wall. With respect to all characteristics examined, the product from GDP-glucose resembles cellulose. Incorporation of UDP-14C-glucose into hot alkali-insoluble product was low in young fibers but increased to high levels in older fibers. This product was shown to be soluble in chloroform-methanol, and when chromatographed in lipid solvents it was separated into three components. Activity for the production of two of these three presumed glucolipids increased with increasing age of fibers. PMID:16658666

Delmer, Deborah P.; Beasley, C. A.; Ordin, L.

1974-01-01

48

Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

2014-01-01

49

The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fox, S.V. [Natural Cotton Colours, Inc., Wickenburg, AZ (United States)

1997-12-31

50

Understanding the Relationship between Cotton Fiber Properties and Non-Cellulosic Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength, elongation and micronaire were measured. The relationship between the two datasets was established in an integrative manner using linear regression methods. In the conducted analysis, we demonstrated the usefulness of regression based approaches in establishing a relationship between glycan measurements and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further experimental validation. PMID:25383868

Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William G. T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Selbig, Joachim

2014-01-01

51

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Fiber and Yarn Properties Improve with New Cotton Cultivar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mill modernization and global market require- ments necessitates the continual improvement of upland cotton, Gossypium hirustum L., cultivars. Recent focus by breeders is to create upland cotton with superior fiber quality that approaches pima cotton, Gossypium barbadense L. The objective of this study was to perform in-depth analysis of fi - bers produced by 'FM832' and 'MD51neOK' and their progeny,

Jonn Foulk; William Meredith; David McAlister; Daniel Luke

2009-01-01

52

The involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the differentiation of secondary walls in cotton fibers  

PubMed

H2O2 is a widespread molecule in many biological systems. It is created enzymatically in living cells during various oxidation reactions and by leakage of electrons from the electron transport chains. Depending on the concentration H2O2 can induce cell protective responses, programmed cell death, or necrosis. Here we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as a developmental signal in the differentiation of secondary walls in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion: (a) the period of H2O2 generation coincided with the onset of secondary wall deposition, (b) inhibition of H2O2 production or scavenging the available H2O2 from the system prevented the wall differentiation process, and (c) exogenous addition of H2O2 prematurely promoted secondary wall formation in young fibers. Furthermore, we provide support for the concept that H2O2 generation could be mediated by the expression of the small GTPase Rac, the accumulation of which was shown previously to be strongly induced during the onset of secondary wall differentiation. In support of Rac's role in the activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species, we transformed soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis cells with mutated Rac genes. Transformation with a dominantly activated cotton Rac13 gene resulted in constitutively higher levels of H2O2, whereas transformation with the antisense and especially with dominant-negative Rac constructs decreased the levels of H2O2. PMID:10069824

Potikha; Collins; Johnson; Delmer; Levine

1999-03-01

53

Global analysis of gene expression in cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense  

E-print Network

Global analysis of gene expression in cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235 WB, India c Department of Plant and Wildlife extra-long staple cotton with superior luster, silkiness and high yield. These economically important

Wendel, Jonathan F.

54

Heritability and Correlations of Agronomic and Fiber Traits in an Okra-Leaf Upland Cotton Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the cost and time to develop and evaluate appropriate genetic populations have limited the number of intensive and complete heritability studies. Herein, three agronomic and 17 fiber quality traits were assessed for heritability and correlation analyses on progeny rows in an okra-leaf cotton population of 208 families. Progenies were advanced in succeeding generations by a

Mauricio Ulloa

2006-01-01

55

Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

2005-01-01

56

Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper  

SciTech Connect

Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

Hogue, M.G.

2002-02-07

57

Improvement of Work-to-Break Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fibers and Yarn through Breeding and Selection for Improved Fiber Elongation  

E-print Network

The development of cottons with improved fiber quality has been a major objective in breeding programs around the world. Breeders have focused their attention on improving fiber strength and length, and have generally not used fiber elongation...

Osorio Marin, Juliana 1982-

2012-11-12

58

The inheritance, linkage, and fiber development of a new mutant allele in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.  

E-print Network

THE INHERITANCE, LINKAGE, AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MUTANT ALLELE IN COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. A Thesis by EDWARD VERNON NARBUTH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Plant Breeding THE INHERITANCE, LINKAGE, AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MUTANT ALLELE IN COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. A Thesis by EDWARD VERNON NARBUTH Ap d as to st...

Narbuth, Edward Vernon

2012-06-07

59

Fiber Characteristics and Spinning Performance of Mechanically-Stripped Cotton on the High Plains.  

E-print Network

was increased by packing more fibers into a bundle and thereby obtaining greater cohesiveness when twisted. The behavior of cottons of 1950 and 1951 was similar to that of the cottons of 1949. fine indi c ha] iitili A high percentage of the cottons... machine- stripped cottons. Twist multipliers of 3.75, 4.25, 4.75 and 5.25 were used over a range of yarn numbers of 7's to 28's (see definition of terms). Neps varied closely with fineness; it is believed that on the coarser yams the effect of neps...

Paulson, W. E.; Hessler, L. E.; Ward, J. M.

1953-01-01

60

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY The Impact of Carding Micro-climate on Cotton Moisture Content and Fiber and Yarn Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and relative humidity are important considerations for carding cotton in textile manufacturing. It has been suggested that high relative humidity decreases the stiffness of fibers and increases the moisture content of the fibers. With the recent interest in moisture addition at the gin, it is important to determine if increased fiber moisture content in the cotton bale will also

David D. McAlister; David T. W. Chun; Gary R. Gamble; Luther C. Godbey; Dean R. Cobb; Everett E. Backe

2005-01-01

61

Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Fiber Differentially Expressed Fasciclin-like Arabinogalactan Protein Gene in Sea Island Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) protein is a cell-wall-associated protein playing crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, and it was characterized in different plants including Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In cDNA-AFLP analysis of 25 DPA (days post anthesis) fiber mRNA, two FLA gene-related transcripts exhibit differential expression between Sea Island cotton (G. barbadense L.) and Upland cotton. Based on the transcript-derived fragment, RACE-PCR and realtime PCR technique, GbFLA5 full-length cDNA was isolated and its expression profiles were characterized in both cotton plant tissues and secondary cell wall (SCW) fibers in this study. The 1154 bp GbFLA5 cDNA contains an ORF of 720 bp, encoding GbFLA5 protein of 239 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 25.41 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.63. The deduced GbFLA5 protein contains an N-terminal signal sequence, two AGP-like domains, a single fasciclin-like domain, and a GPI anchor signal sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GbFLA5 protein is homologous to some known SCW-specific expressed FLAs of plant developing xylem, tension wood and cotton fibers. In the SCW deposition stage from 15 to 45 DPA detected, FLA5 maintains a significantly higher expression level in Sea Island cotton fibers than in Upland cotton fibers. The increasing FLA5 transcript abundance coincided with the SCW deposition process and the expression intensity differences coincided with their fiber strength differences between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton. These expression profile features of GbFLA5 in cotton fibers revealed its tissue-specific and SCW developmental stage-specific expression characters. Further analysis suggested that GbFLA5 is a crucial SCW-specific protein which may contribute to fiber strength by affecting cellulose synthesis and microfibril deposition orientation. PMID:23875019

Liu, Hengwei; Shi, Ruifeng; Wang, Xingfen; Pan, Yuxin; Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xinlei; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

2013-01-01

62

Comparison of the Transcriptome between Two Cotton Lines of Different Fiber Color and Quality  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca2+/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

2014-01-01

63

Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved

Pieter Bas Kwak; Qin Qin Wang; Xu Sheng Chen; Cheng Xiang Qiu; Zhi Min Yang

2009-01-01

64

Substrate Supply for Cellulose Synthesis and its Stress Sensitivity in the Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on cotton fiber has figured prominently in the first steps toward understanding the metabolic control of cellulose biogenesis under normal and stressed conditions for at least two reasons. First, fiber secondary walls are composed of almost 100% cellulose that is deposited over a period of at least 20 days. Second, these extraordinary seed epidermal trichomes can be readily isolated

Candace H. Haigler

65

Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery.  

PubMed

An investigation to better understand the molecular mechanism of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery was conducted using a comparative proteomics analysis. Cotton plants (cv. NuCOTN 33B) were subjected to water deprivation for 10 days followed by a recovery period (with watering) of 5 days. The temporal changes in total proteins in cotton fibers were examined using 2DE. The results revealed that 163 proteins are significantly drought responsive. MS analysis led to the identification of 132 differentially expressed proteins that include some known as well as some novel drought-responsive proteins. These drought responsive fiber proteins in NuCOTN 33B are associated with a variety of cellular functions, i.e. signal transduction, protein processing, redox homeostasis, cell wall modification, metabolisms of carbon, energy, lipid, lignin, and flavonoid. The results suggest that the enhancement of the perception of drought stress, a new balance of the metabolism of the biosynthesis of cell wall components and cytoskeleton homeostasis plays an important role in the response of cotton fibers to drought stress. Overall, the current study provides an overview of the molecular mechanism of drought response in cotton fiber cells. PMID:24889071

Zheng, Mi; Meng, Yali; Yang, Changqin; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin

2014-08-01

66

The relative effectiveness of two systems of breeding for high and low fiber strength in cotton  

E-print Network

in several countries (1, 9, 30)* A review of recent literature on cotton breeding reveals two important trends. The first is a particular emphasis on transferring potentially valuable characters from wild to cultivated species. The second is an increasing... hand, in selection for fiber strength in back- cross populations, the Upland phenotype and, presumably, the genotype, was recovered as expected on theoretical grounds (30). Extensive work on the internal mechanism of speciation in cotton has thrown...

Fetooh, Anwar Abdel-Bary

2013-10-04

67

TexTile Technology A comparison of Methods for Measuring the Short Fiber content of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine bales of cotton with short fiber content ranging from approximately 5% to 25% were selected for the purpose of comparing the effectiveness and relationships among the current testing methods for fiber length. The instruments and\\/or methods used to measure short fiber include HVI, AFIS, and Suter-Webb array. Comparisons between the three methods indicate that they correlate well with each

D. Thibodeaux; H. Senter; J. L. Knowlton; D. McAlister; X. Cui

2008-01-01

68

Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least-square-means comparison, regression and correlation techniques. The results indicated that the physical properties were significantly influenced by the factors. For optimization, four responses were selected for stronger, softer, more extensible and more breathable nonwovens. The optimal processing conditions in a given blend ratio were suggested by a response surface technique based on multivariate-multiresponse analysis, and distance and desirability functions.

Suh, Hageun

69

Independent Control of Fiber Development and Nitrate Reduction in Cultured Cotton Ovules 1  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence implicate ammonium as an important factor in the growth and development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ovules cultured in vitro. For example, ovules cultured at 28 C require indoleacetic acid (IAA) and either ammonium or gibberellic acid (GA3) in the medium for fiber development, whereas ovules cultured at 34 C require only IAA. Because of this effect of ammonium supply, it seemed possible that hormones or increased temperature were also promoting the availability of reduced nitrogen by induction of increased nitrate reductase activity in the ovules. This possibility was tested. In vivo, where ovules received mostly reduced nitrogen and very little nitrate, they did not display appreciable nitrate reductase activity even when nitrate was forced into the ovary wall by transpiration. After initiation of culture, nitrate became freely available to ovules and their nitrate reductase activity increased rapidly. Treatment with ammonium, GA3, IAA, or increased temperature had no effect upon this induction. It is concluded that ammonium, hormone, and temperature effects on fiber development are independent of the availability of reduced nitrogen as a general substrate for growth. PMID:16660693

Beasley, Charles A.; Egli, Margaret A.; Chang, Shu-Ray; Radin, John W.

1979-01-01

70

Seasonal Dynamics of Bacterial Colonization of Cotton Fiber and Effects of Moisture on Growth of Bacteria within the Cotton Boll  

PubMed Central

A highly replicated 3-year field study was conducted to determine the seasonal patterns of bacterial colonization of cotton fiber from the time of dehiscence of the bolls (the point at which the bolls just begin to open) through harvest and commercial ginning. Bacterial numbers on fiber samples from 16 plots were determined by dilution pour plating with tryptic soy agar containing cycloheximide, and numbers of gram-negative bacteria were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar containing vancomycin and cycloheximide. Populations of bacteria varied from year to year, but in all three seasons the pattern of colonization was generally a pattern consisting of a rapid increase following opening of the bolls and a more or less stable number thereafter throughout the growing season. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 50% or more of the recoverable bacterial population. We hypothesized that the luxuriant bacterial flora developed as a result of the availability of sufficient free water in the bolls to allow bacterial proliferation with the carbon sources remaining after fiber maturation. Therefore, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the threshold moisture level allowing growth of bacteria on fiber in the bolls. Bacterial proliferation occurred when as little as 2% moisture was added to air-dried fiber. Using simulated bolls, we demonstrated bacterial growth resulting from dew formation on fiber held in controlled-humidity chambers. PMID:16348921

Zuberer, D. A.; Kenerley, C. M.

1993-01-01

71

QTL analysis of genotype x environment interactions affecting cotton fiber quality.  

PubMed

Cotton is unusual among major crops in that large acreages are grown under both irrigated and rainfed conditions, making genotype x environment interactions of even greater importance than usual in designing crop-improvement strategies. We describe the impact of well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions on the genetic control of fiber quality, a complex suite of traits that collectively determine the utility of cotton. Fiber length, length uniformity, elongation, strength, fineness, and color (yellowness) were influenced by 6, 7, 9, 21, 25 and 11 QTLs (respectively) that could be detected in one or more treatments. The genetic control of cotton fiber quality was markedly affected both by general differences between growing seasons ("years") and by specific differences in water management regimes. Seventeen QTLs were detected only in the water-limited treatment while only two were specific to the well-watered treatment, suggesting that improvement of fiber quality under water stress may be even more complicated than improvement of this already complex trait under well-watered conditions. In crops such as cotton with widespread use of both irrigated and rainfed production systems, the need to manipulate larger numbers of genes to confer adequate quality under both sets of conditions will reduce the expected rate of genetic gain. These difficulties may be partly ameliorated by efficiencies gained through identification and use of diagnostic DNA markers, including those identified herein. PMID:12589538

Paterson, A H; Saranga, Y; Menz, M; Jiang, C-X; Wright, R J

2003-02-01

72

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cotton Fibers: Modeling Using an Empirical Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of enzymes in wet-processing of textiles. Of the many enzymes suitable for textile applications, cellulase is one of the most impor- tant. Cellulase is used in biopolishing of cotton fibers to improve fabric smoothness and softness and in biofinishing denim garments to produce a worn look. To harness

Ajoy K. Sarkar; J. Nolan Etters

2004-01-01

73

Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30 % of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution. PMID:25156487

Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

2014-12-01

74

Respiratory symptoms and dust exposure in Lancashire cotton and man-made fiber mill operatives.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of work-related symptoms and cotton dust exposure was made in 404 man-made fiber and 1,048 cotton operatives in Lancashire spinning mills; 39 cotton-exposed operatives (3.7%) had symptoms of byssinosis. This was associated on regression analysis with cumulative lifetime cotton dust exposure (p < 0.001), total years spent carding (p < 0.001), and currently working in the carding area (p = 0.0041). Smoking habit did not differ significantly between byssinotic and nonbyssinotic workers. Other work-related symptoms were common: chronic bronchitis (CB) and persistent cough. The prevalence of CB correlated positively with dust exposure (r = 0.59). Cotton dust sampling was performed in the work area (SDPRES) and personal breathing zone (PD1). A retrospective estimate of lifetime cotton dust exposure based on SDPRES correlated best with the prevalence of byssinosis (r = 0.797), although correlations with PD1 (r = 0.709) and SDPRES (r = 0.594) were also significant. PMID:8049827

Fishwick, D; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A; Niven, R M; Faragher, E B

1994-08-01

75

The impact of the United States subsidies on world cotton price: evidence from ARDL bounds tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the impact of the United States subsidies on world cotton price in a structural framework. It starts with a simultaneous equations model of world cotton market, and then, it focuses on the reduced form. Using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds tests of Pesaran et al. (2001), no evidence of cointegration is found between the underlying variables. This

Fousseini Traoré

2011-01-01

76

Identification and quantification of glycerolipids in cotton fibers: reconciliation with metabolic pathway predictions from DNA databases.  

PubMed

The lipid profiles of cotton fiber cells were determined from total lipid extracts of elongating and maturing cotton fiber cells to see whether the membrane lipid composition changed during the phases of rapid cell elongation or secondary cell wall thickening. Total FA content was highest or increased during elongation and was lower or decreased thereafter, likely reflecting the assembly of the expanding cell membranes during elongation and the shift to membrane maintenance (and increase in secondary cell wall content) in maturing fibers. Analysis of lipid extracts by electrospray ionization and tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS) revealed that in elongating fiber cells (7-10 d post-anthesis), the polar lipids-PC, PE, PI, PA, phosphatidylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol-were most abundant. These same glycerolipids were found in similar proportions in maturing fiber cells (21 dpa). Detailed molecular species profiles were determined by ESI-MS/MS for all glycerolipid classes, and ESI-MS/MS results were consistent with lipid profiles determined by HPLC and ELSD. The predominant molecular species of PC, PE, PI, and PA was 34:3 (16:0, 18:3), but 36:6 (18:3,18:3) also was prevalent. Total FA analysis of cotton lipids confirmed that indeed linolenic (18:3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were the most abundant FA in these cell types. Bioinformatics data were mined from cotton fiber expressed sequence tag databases in an attempt to reconcile expression of lipid metabolic enzymes with lipid metabolite data. Together, these data form a foundation for future studies of the functional contribution of lipid metabolism to the development of this unusual and economically important cell type. PMID:16296396

Wanjie, Sylvia W; Welti, Ruth; Moreau, Robert A; Chapman, Kent D

2005-08-01

77

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

78

The dual functions of WLIM1a in cell elongation and secondary wall formation in developing cotton fibers.  

PubMed

LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase-box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

2013-11-01

79

Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

1999-10-01

80

Changes in the cell wall and cellulose content of developing cotton fibers investigated by FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of cotton fibers harvested at different stages of development were acquired using Universal Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR (UATR-FTIR). The main goal of the study was to monitor cell wall changes occurring during different phases of cotton fiber development. Two cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L. were planted in a greenhouse (Texas Marker-1 and TX55). On the day of flowering, individual flowers were tagged and bolls were harvested. From fibers harvested on numerous days between 10 and 56 dpa, the FTIR spectra were acquired using UATR (ZnSe-Diamond crystal) with no special sample preparation. The changes in the FTIR spectra were used to document the timing of the transition between primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. Changes in cellulose during cotton fiber growth and development were identified through changes in numerous vibrations within the spectra. The intensity of the vibration bands at 667 and 897 cm(-1) correlated with percentage of cellulose analyzed chemically. PMID:24188832

Abidi, Noureddine; Cabrales, Luis; Haigler, Candace H

2014-01-16

81

An ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter GhWBC1 from Elongating Cotton Fibers1  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a cDNA (GhWBC1) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter of the WBC (white/brown complex) subfamily. Members of this subfamily are half-sized transporters and are reported to mediate lipid and drug excretion in human (Homo sapiens). GhWBC1 is highly expressed in developing fiber cells, but transcripts were also detectable in other tissues except roots. The transcript level peaked in rapidly expanding fibers from 5 to 9 DPA and then decreased. The GhWBC1 expression was weak in fiber cells of an li (ligon-lintless) mutant, which is defective in fiber cell elongation. These data indicate that GhWBC1 gene expression correlates with cotton fiber elongation. Transient expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein-GhWBC1 fusion protein in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization. The GhWBC1 cDNA driven by a constitutive 35S promoter was introduced into Arabidopsis. About 13% of the transformants produced short siliques (SSs), whereas others had normal siliques (long siliques [LSs]). In siliques of SS lines, most embryos were severely shriveled, and only several seeds per silique could be found at maturity. The transgene expression level was higher in SS lines than in LS lines. Expression of AtWBC11, the closest homolog of GhWBC1 in Arabidopsis, was not altered in either SS or LS transgenic plants examined. These data suggest that GhWBC1 interferes with substance translocation that is required for Arabidopsis seed and silique development. Characterization of Arabidopsis WBC members, particularly AtWBC11, will help to dissect the role of GhWBC1 in cotton fiber development and elongation. PMID:12972649

Zhu, Yong-Qing; Xu, Ke-Xiang; Luo, Bin; Wang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ya

2003-01-01

82

Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G#), enthalpy (?H#), and entropy (?S#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

2014-10-01

83

Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

2012-01-01

84

Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth.  

PubMed

The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (?3 cm in ?20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via classical carbohydrate biochemistry were probed using a battery of antibodies that recognize a large number of different wall components. In addition, ovules from these same stages were investigated in three fiberless lines. Most antibodies reacted with at least some component of the ovule, and several of the antibodies reacted specifically with the epidermal layer of cells that may give clues as to the nature of the development of the fibers and the neighboring, nonfiber atrichoblasts. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) labeled the epidermal layers more strongly than other ovular tissue, even at 1 DBA. One of the AGP antibodies, CCRC-M7, which recognizes a 1-->6 galactan epitope of AGPs, is lost from the fiber cells by 2 DPA, although labeling in the atrichoblasts remained strong. In contrast, LM5 that recognizes a 1-->4 galactan RGI side chain is unreactive with sections until the fibers are produced and only the fibers are reactive. Dramatic changes also occur in the homogalacturonans (HGs). JIM5, which recognizes highly de-esterified HGs, only weakly labels epidermal cells of 1 DBA and 0 DPA ovules, but labeling increases in fibers cells, where a pectinaceous sheath is produced around the fiber cell and stronger reaction in the internal and external walls of the atrichoblast. In contrast, JIM7-reactive, highly esterifed HGs are present at high levels in the epidermal cells throughout development. Fiberless lines displayed similar patterns of labeling to the fibered lines, except that all of the cells had the labeling pattern of atrichoblasts. That is, CCRC-M7 labeled all cells of the fiberless lines, and LM5 labeled no cells at 2 DPA. These data indicate that a number of polysaccharides are unique in quantity or presence in the epidermal cell layers, and some of these might be critical participants in the early stages of initiation and elongation of cotton fibers. PMID:20878194

Bowling, Andrew J; Vaughn, Kevin Christopher; Turley, Rickie B

2011-07-01

85

Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.  

PubMed Central

Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. Images PMID:1631059

John, M E; Crow, L J

1992-01-01

86

Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.  

PubMed

Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2014-01-01

87

Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that energy deprivation may occur in the im mutant fibers. PMID:24341782

2013-01-01

88

Isolation and Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Raw Baled Cotton and Synthetic Textile Fibers with Special Reference to Environmental GNB and Endotoxin Concentrations of Textile Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the gram-negative bacterial (GNB) content of Indian raw baled cotton fibers and to compare with the U.S. cottons. Airborne endotoxin also was estimated in the different work places of the mill. On comparison with data on U.S. cottons, GNB content was found to be as high as in U.S. cottons. Moreover, endotoxin

V. N. GOKANI; P. B; S. K. GHOSH

1987-01-01

89

Synthesis and characterization of selective thiourea modified Hg(II) ion-imprinted cellulosic cotton fibers.  

PubMed

In the present study, Hg(2+) ion-imprinted chelating fibers based on thiourea modified natural cellulosic cotton fibers (Hg-C-TU) were synthesized and characterized using some instrumental techniques such as elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, wide angle X-ray and XPS spectroscopy. The modified Hg-C-TU fibers were employed for selective removal of Hg(2+) from aqueous solution. Effect of some essential parameters such as pH, temperature, adsorption times and adsorbate concentration were examined to evaluate the optimum adsorption condition. The adsorption kinetics followed the second-order kinetic model indicating that the chemical adsorption is the rate limiting step. Also, the adsorption isotherm experiments showed the best fit with Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacities 110.3 and 61.8 mg/g for both Hg-C-TU and NI-C-TU, respectively. PMID:24721050

Monier, M; Kenawy, I M; Hashem, M A

2014-06-15

90

Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic mapping is an essential tool for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) molecular breeding and application of DNA markers for cotton improvement. In this present study, we evaluated an RI population\\u000a including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and ‘MARCABUCAG8US-1-88’, at Mississippi State, MS, for two years.\\u000a Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits

Jixiang Wu; Osman Ariel Gutierrez; Johnie N. Jenkins; Jack C. McCarty; Jun Zhu

2009-01-01

91

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality  

PubMed Central

Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

2014-01-01

92

Incorporation of UDPglucose into cell wall glucans and lipids by intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

The (/sup 14/C) moiety from (/sup 3/H)UDP(/sup 14/C)glucose was incorporated by intact cotton fibers into hot water soluble, acetic-nitric reagent soluble and insoluble components, and chloroform-methanol soluble lipids; the (/sup 3/H)UDP moiety was not incorporated. The /sup 3/H-label can be exchanged rapidly with unlabeled substrate in a chase experiment. The cell wall apparent free space of cotton fibers was in the order of 30 picomoles per milligram of dry fibers; 25 picomoles per milligram easily exchanged and about 5 picomoles per milligram more tightly adsorbed. At 50 micromolar UDPglucose, 70% of the (/sup 14/C)glucose was found in the lipid fraction after both a short labeling period and chase. The percent of (/sup 14/C)glucose incorporated into total glucan increased within a 30-minute chase period. The data supports the concept that glucan synthesis, including cellulose, as well as the synthesis of steryl glucosides, acetylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol from externally supplied UDPglucose occurs at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. The synthase enzymes for such synthesis must be part of this interfacial membrane system.

Dugger, W.M.; Palmer, R.L.

1986-06-01

93

Incorporation of UDPGlucose into Cell Wall Glucans and Lipids by Intact Cotton Fibers 1  

PubMed Central

The [14C] moiety from [3H]UDP[14C]glucose was incorporated by intact cotton fibers into hot water soluble, acetic-nitric reagent soluble and insoluble components, and chloroform-methanol soluble lipids; the [3H] UDP moiety was not incorporated. The 3H-label can be exchanged rapidly with unlabeled substrate in a chase experiment. The cell wall apparent free space of cotton fibers was in the order of 30 picomoles per milligram of dry fibers; 25 picomoles per milligram easily exchanged and about 5 picomoles per milligram more tightly adsorbed. At 50 micromolar UDPglucose, 70% of the [14C]glucose was found in the lipid fraction after both a short labeling period and chase. The percent of [14C]glucose incorporated into total glucan increased slightly with chase, but the fraction of total glucans incorporated into insoluble acetic-nitric reagent (cellulose) did increase within a 30-minute chase period. The data supports the concept that glucan synthesis, including cellulose, as well as the synthesis of steryl glucosides, acetylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol from externally supplied UDPglucose occurs at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. The synthase enzymes for such synthesis must be part of this interfacial membrane system. PMID:16664839

Dugger, W. M.; Palmer, Raymond L.

1986-01-01

94

Transcript profiling during fiber development identifies pathways in secondary metabolism and cell wall structure that may contribute to cotton fiber quality.  

PubMed

A global gene expression profiling study at different stages of fiber development was undertaken on two cotton species cultivated for fiber, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) and G. barbadense (L.). A large proportion of the genome was expressed during both fiber elongation and subsequent secondary cell wall thickening. There was a major shift in abundance of transcripts for gene regulation, cell organization and metabolism between fiber elongation and fiber thickening that was fundamentally similar in both species. Each stage had its own distinctive features represented by specific metabolic and regulatory genes, a number of which have been noted previously. Many of the genes expressed in the fibers were of a similar type and developmental expression to those seen in other fiber-producing plants, indicating a conservation of mechanisms of cell elongation and wall thickening across diverse plant genera. Secondary metabolism and pectin synthesis and modification genes were amongst the most statistically significant differentially expressed categories between the two species during fiber elongation. The gene profiles of the fiber thickening stage, however, were almost identical between the two species, suggesting that their different final fiber quality properties may be established at earlier stages of fiber development. Expression levels of representative phenylpropanoid and pectin modification genes showed high correlations with specific fiber properties in an inter-specific cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, supporting a role in determining fiber quality. PMID:19520671

Al-Ghazi, Yves; Bourot, Stéphane; Arioli, Tony; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny J

2009-07-01

95

Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity. PMID:22890806

Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

2013-01-01

96

Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

97

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ? Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ? The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

Zou, Yunling, E-mail: zouyunling1999@126.com [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

2012-11-15

98

GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on [beta]-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg[sup 2+] was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca[sup 2+] was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

Shin, H.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Botany)

1999-03-01

99

A Potential Role for CHH DNA Methylation in Cotton Fiber Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H?=?A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August. PMID:23593241

Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

2013-01-01

100

The Effects of Fruiting Positions on Cellulose Synthesis and Sucrose Metabolism during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fiber Development  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

2014-01-01

101

Facile Preparation of Biocompatible Sulfhydryl Cotton Fiber-Based Sorbents by "Thiol-ene" Click Chemistry for Biological Analysis.  

PubMed

Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis. PMID:25268138

He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Shao-Ting; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

2014-10-22

102

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

103

[Effect of increased temperature in boll period on fiber yield and quality of cotton and its physiological mechanism].  

PubMed

To study the effect of temperature increase in boll period (13-Jul. to 24-Aug. ) on cotton yield and fiber quality under the global warming background, a pot experiment with cotton cultivar Simian 3 was carried out in half-open-top greenhouse in Pailou experiment station (32 degrees 02' N, 118 degrees 50' E) of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that when the temperature was increased by 2-3 degrees C (with an average daily temperature of 31.1 to 35.2 degrees C), the biomass declined by 10%, while the cotton yield declined by 30%-40%. The fiber quality also changed significantly with the relative indices responding differently. The micronaire value and fiber strength increased, the fiber length reduced while the fiber uniformity and elongation rate changed little. The plant photosynthesis capability, the biomass accumulation and the ability of carbohydrates transferring to sink organs all deceased. The soluble amino acids, soluble sugar, sucrose and C/N decreased significantly, while the starch content increased significantly. The allocation in vegetative organs was increased while that in reproductive organs was reduced, which in turn declined the economical index. The lower fruit branches were affected little under increased temperature condition while the middle, upper and top branches were affected greatly. The results indicated that, under the 2-3 degrees C warmer condition, the cotton plants experienced the high temperature stress, both the photosynthesis ability and the carbohydrates transportation from source to sink were decreased, leading to the decline of cotton yield. PMID:24697071

He, Xin-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Dai, Yan-Jiao; Qiang, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Bing-Lin; Wang, You-Hua

2013-12-01

104

Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation  

SciTech Connect

Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

2008-06-12

105

The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W  

PubMed Central

LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

2013-01-01

106

Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Cotton-made Activated Carbon Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon (AC) is an important functional material due to its outstanding adsorption ability. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has many advantages over other types of AC: It mainly possesses micropores and has large surface area. Its fibrous structure assures fast intraparticle adsorption kinetics. Finally, it can be made into felt and fabric forms, which would not hinder gas flow and could be easily recollected after use. However, ACF is expensive due to the lack of low cost precursor so its application is restricted. This work aims to use low cost cotton fiber as an ACF precursor. In this work, ACF was successfully synthesized by using raw cotton via ZnCl2 activation. The effects of the sintering temperature during activation, the ZnCl2 concentration during infiltration and the post-treatment after activation on our samples were studied. Our ACF products were characterized via various methods. It was found that our samples retained the fibrous structure of cotton. They contained trace of carbon-oxygen surface groups and were mainly composed of micropores. Their BET surface area (SBET) and pore volume (Vpore) were up to ˜2050 m2/g and 1 cm3/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of our samples in the Methylene blue (MB) adsorption were studied. The adsorption was very fast and almost reached equilibrium after an hour. Because of their high SBET, the saturated MB capacity in our ACF was found to be 597 mg/g and higher than other commercial AC. The effect of solution pH value on MB adsorption capacity was studied. We found that the basic condition favored MB adsorption while acidic condition lowered the adsorption ability. Adsorption kinetics, saturated adsorption volume (Vads) and desorption process of moisture, ethanol vapor, methanol vapor and acetone vapor by our samples were also evaluated. The adsorption of methanol vapor, ethanol vapor and acetone vapor reached equilibrium within 10 minutes. Our sample also adsorbed moisture faster than commercial silica gel. Less than 200 °C was required for complete desorption of these adsorbed species. Vads of our samples was up to 1 cm3/g and higher than other related works.

Chiu, Ka Lok

107

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (IV. In Vitro Assembly of the Cellulose I Allomorph).  

PubMed Central

In vitro assembly of cellulose from plasma membrane extracts of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber was enriched by a combination of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid extraction buffer and two independent digitonin solubilization steps consisting of 0.05% digitonin (SE1) followed by 1% digitonin (SE2). Glucan synthase activity assays revealed that, although the SE2 fraction possessed higher activity, only 8.6% of the in vitro product survived acetic/nitric acid treatment. On the other hand, the SE1 fraction was less active, but 32.1% of the total glucan in vitro product was resistant to acetic/nitric acid. In vitro products synthesized from the SE1 fraction contained [beta]-1,3-glucan and fibrillar cellulose I, whereas the SE2 fraction produced [beta]-1,3-glucan and cellulose II. Both celluloses assembled in vitro were labeled with cellobiohydrolase I-gold complex, and the electron diffraction patterns of both products from SE1 and SE2 revealed cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively. Contamination of native cellulose was ruled out by extensive evidence from autoradiography of the ethanol-insoluble and acetic/nitric acid-insoluble materials, including three different controls. PMID:12228346

Kudlicka, K.; Brown, R. M.; Li, L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, H.; Kuga, S.

1995-01-01

108

Comparative transcriptome analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless 1 and 2 reveals common mechanisms pertinent to fiber elongation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Understanding the molecular processes affecting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development is important for developing tools aimed at improving fiber quality. Short fiber cotton mutants Ligon-lintless 1 (Li1) and Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) are naturally occurring, monogenic mutations residing on different chromosomes. Both mutations cause early cessation in fiber elongation. These two mutants serve as excellent model systems to elucidate molecular mechanisms relevant to fiber length development. Previous studies of these mutants using transcriptome analysis by our laboratory and others had been limited by the fact that very large numbers of genes showed altered expression patterns in the mutants, making a targeted analysis difficult or impossible. In this research, a comparative microarray analysis was conducted using these two short fiber mutants and their near isogenic wild type (WT) grown under both field and greenhouse environments in order to identify key genes or metabolic pathways common to fiber elongation. Analyses of three transcriptome profiles obtained from different growth conditions and mutant types showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were affected by growth conditions. Under field conditions, short fiber mutants commanded higher expression of genes related to energy production, manifested by the increasing of mitochondrial electron transport activity or responding to reactive oxygen species when compared to the WT. Eighty-eight DEGs were identified to have altered expression patterns common to both short fiber mutants regardless of growth conditions. Enrichment, pathway and expression analyses suggested that these 88 genes were likely involved in fiber elongation without being affected by growth conditions. PMID:24748059

Gilbert, Matthew K; Kim, Hee Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Naoumkina, Marina; Fang, David D

2014-01-01

109

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutants Ligon-Lintless 1 And 2 Reveals Common Mechanisms Pertinent to Fiber Elongation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Understanding the molecular processes affecting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development is important for developing tools aimed at improving fiber quality. Short fiber cotton mutants Ligon-lintless 1 (Li1) and Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) are naturally occurring, monogenic mutations residing on different chromosomes. Both mutations cause early cessation in fiber elongation. These two mutants serve as excellent model systems to elucidate molecular mechanisms relevant to fiber length development. Previous studies of these mutants using transcriptome analysis by our laboratory and others had been limited by the fact that very large numbers of genes showed altered expression patterns in the mutants, making a targeted analysis difficult or impossible. In this research, a comparative microarray analysis was conducted using these two short fiber mutants and their near isogenic wild type (WT) grown under both field and greenhouse environments in order to identify key genes or metabolic pathways common to fiber elongation. Analyses of three transcriptome profiles obtained from different growth conditions and mutant types showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were affected by growth conditions. Under field conditions, short fiber mutants commanded higher expression of genes related to energy production, manifested by the increasing of mitochondrial electron transport activity or responding to reactive oxygen species when compared to the WT. Eighty-eight DEGs were identified to have altered expression patterns common to both short fiber mutants regardless of growth conditions. Enrichment, pathway and expression analyses suggested that these 88 genes were likely involved in fiber elongation without being affected by growth conditions. PMID:24748059

Gilbert, Matthew K.; Kim, Hee Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Naoumkina, Marina; Fang, David D.

2014-01-01

110

Zinc Fertilization Impact on Irrigated Cotton Grown in an Aridisol: Growth, Productivity, Fiber Quality, and Oil Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is widespread in calcareous soils. Therefore, we conducted a 2-year field experiment to investigate the impact of graded Zn levels on growth, yield, and fiber and oil quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv. CIM-473) grown in a calcareous Aridisol having 0.54 mg diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn kg soil. Zinc use increased boll bearing, boll weight, seed

Niaz Ahmed; Muhammad Abid; Abdul Rashid

2010-01-01

111

Carbon fiber aerogel made from raw cotton: a novel, efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils and organic solvents.  

PubMed

Twisted carbon fiber (TCF) aerogel with good selective sorption is produced in large scale by using raw cotton as the precursor. TCF aerogel shows highly efficient sorption of organic liquids (pump oil: up to 192 times its own weight; chloroform: up to 115 times its own weight). Moreover, it could be regenerated many times without decrease of sorption capacity by distillation, combustion or squeezing, which depends on the type of pollutants. PMID:24038404

Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Zongyou; Cao, Xiehong; Xie, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Bo; Chen, Fangtao; Yang, Qingling; Bu, Xinyang; Lu, Xuehong; Sun, Litao; Zhang, Hua

2013-11-01

112

A comparative miRNAome analysis reveals seven fiber initiation-related and 36 novel miRNAs in developing cotton ovules.  

PubMed

An increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play crucial regulatory roles in the process of plant development. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing combined with computational analysis to characterize miRNAomes from the ovules of wild-type upland cotton and a fiberless mutant during fiber initiation. Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with northern blotting and RACE-PCR revealed seven fiber initiation-related miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules and experimentally validated targets of these miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, including transcriptional regulation, auxin and gibberellin signal transduction, actin bundles, and lignin biosynthesis. This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules to coordinate fiber initiation responses. In addition, 36 novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were newly identified, nearly doubling the number of known cotton miRNA families to a total of 78. Furthermore, a chromatin remodeling complex subunit and a pre-mRNA splicing factor are shown for the first time to be miRNA targets. To our knowledge, this study is the first systematic investigation of fiber initiation-related miRNAs and their targets in the developing cotton ovule, deepening our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in cotton fiber initiation. PMID:22138860

Wang, Zheng-Ming; Xue, Wei; Dong, Chun-Juan; Jin, Long-Guo; Bian, Shao-Min; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Xiu-Yun; Liu, Jin-Yuan

2012-07-01

113

Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 ?m and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ? x ? 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from UV to visible region simply by tuning the ratio of the precursor during the fabrication. Our results suggest an approach to the fabrication of large-area NCs with a tunable bandgap on a silicon substrate by the standard MOCVD method that offers an immense opportunity for electronic and photonic applications and allows the scale-up from a research laboratory to industrial scale.

Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

2014-04-01

114

A Specialized Outer Layer of the Primary Cell Wall Joins Elongating Cotton Fibers into Tissue-Like Bundles1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the world's dominant renewable textile fiber, and cotton fiber is valued as a research model because of its extensive elongation and secondary wall thickening. Previously, it was assumed that fibers elongated as individual cells. In contrast, observation by cryo-field emission-scanning electron microscopy of cotton fibers developing in situ within the boll demonstrated that fibers elongate within tissue-like bundles. These bundles were entrained by twisting fiber tips and consolidated by adhesion of a cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML). The fiber bundles consolidated via the CFML ultimately formed a packet of fiber around each seed, which helps explain how thousands of cotton fibers achieve their great length within a confined space. The cell wall nature of the CFML was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, including polymer epitope labeling. Toward the end of elongation, up-regulation occurred in gene expression and enzyme activities related to cell wall hydrolysis, and targeted breakdown of the CFML restored fiber individuality. At the same time, losses occurred in certain cell wall polymer epitopes (as revealed by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling) and sugars within noncellulosic matrix components (as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized neutral and acidic glycosyl residues). Broadly, these data show that adhesion modulated by an outer layer of the primary wall can coordinate the extensive growth of a large group of cells and illustrate dynamic changes in primary wall structure and composition occurring during the differentiation of one cell type that spends only part of its life as a tissue. PMID:19369592

Singh, Bir; Avci, Utku; Eichler Inwood, Sarah E.; Grimson, Mark J.; Landgraf, Jeff; Mohnen, Debra; S?rensen, Iben; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Willats, William G.T.; Haigler, Candace H.

2009-01-01

115

Cotton GASL genes encoding putative gibberellin-regulated proteins are involved in response to GA signaling in fiber development.  

PubMed

GAST (GA-stimulated transcript)-like genes have been reported as targets of GA regulation in some plant species. In this study, we isolated seven GAST-like cDNAs from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cDNA libraries (designated as GhGASL1-GhGASL7). Meanwhile, the genomic DNA clones corresponding to the seven GhGASL genes were isolated by using PCR amplification technique. Analysis of gene structure revealed that four genes (GhGASL1/3/5/6) contain two exons and one intron, while the rest have four exons and three introns. All of the deduced GhGASL proteins contain a putative signal peptide in the N-terminus and a conservative cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the seven GhGASL genes are differentially expressed in cotton tissues. Among them, GhGASL1/4/7 were predominantly expressed in cotyledons, while the transcripts of GhGASL2/5 were preferentially accumulated at hypocotyls. GhGASL3 mRNA was largely accumulated in fibers, while GhGASL6 transcripts were mainly detected in ovules. Furthermore, GhGASL2/3/5 displayed a relatively high expression levels during early fiber elongation stages, and were regulated by GA. These data suggested that GhGASL genes may be involved in fiber elongation and in response to GA signaling during fiber development. PMID:23645033

Liu, Zhi-Hao; Zhu, Li; Shi, Hai-Yan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Yong; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-07-01

116

Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.  

PubMed

The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel. PMID:22420262

Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

2012-02-01

117

Genome-wide transcriptional changes associated with allopolyploidy and fiber domestication in cotton (Gossypium spp. L.).  

E-print Network

??Interspecific hybridization and subsequent genome doubling (allopolyploidy) is a common phenomenon in flowering plant lineages. Within the cotton genus, Gossypium L., two diploid species merged… (more)

Rapp, Ryan Adam

2009-01-01

118

Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation.  

PubMed

Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes. PMID:19815688

Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

119

Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes. PMID:19815688

Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

120

Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and environments for complex fiber traits. The consistent chromosomal regions contributing to fiber quality traits constitute good candidates for the further dissection of the genetic and genomic factors underlying important fiber characteristics, and for marker-assisted selection. PMID:20584292

2010-01-01

121

Lint Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter is generated in large quantities in the same south- eastern U.S. states where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a domi- nant field crop, but is rarely used as a primary cotton fertilizer partly because of lack of adequate management recommendations. This re- search was conducted to determine adequate rates of broiler litter and whether supplementation with inorganic N

H. Tewolde; K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe; A. Adeli; J. R. Johnson

2007-01-01

122

Cleaning Quality of Raw Cotton as Affected by Physical Properties of Fibers.  

E-print Network

.. ............ ...... Western Early. ...... Regular Ducona .. Western Meb. 140.. Arkansas n 5.. ...... .. Gorhams Lone Star. ....... Ijeltapine 14.. ... Coker's Wilds 15.. Average. ....... *The cotton grades are designated as follows: 2. Strict Good Middling (SGM) 6..... ............ ...... Western Early. ...... Regular Ducona .. Western Meb. 140.. Arkansas n 5.. ...... .. Gorhams Lone Star. ....... Ijeltapine 14.. ... Coker's Wilds 15.. Average. ....... *The cotton grades are designated as follows: 2. Strict Good Middling (SGM) 6...

Grimes, Mary Anna

1947-01-01

123

Mass Spectrometric Identification of In Vivo Phosphorylation Sites of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics approach was applied to extensively explore the molecular basis of plant development and environmental adaptation. These proteomics analyses revealed thousands of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) closely related to different biological processes. However, little attention has been paid to how peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) data generated by the approach can be directly utilized for the determination of protein phosphorylation. Here, we used the software tool FindMod to predict the peptides that might carry the phosphorylation modification by examining their PMF data for mass differences between the empirical and theoretical peptides and then identified phosphorylation sites using MALDI TOF/TOF according to predicted peptide data from these DEP spots in the 2-D gels. As a result, a total of 48 phosphorylation sites of 40 DEPs were successfully identified among 235 known DEPs previously revealed in the 2-D gels of elongating cotton fiber cells. The 40 phosphorylated DEPs, including important enzymes such as enolase, transketolase and UDP-L-rhamnose synthase, are presumed to participate in the functional regulation of numerous metabolic pathways, suggesting the reverse phosphorylation of these proteins might play important roles in elongating cotton fibers. The results also indicated that some different isoforms of the identical DEP revealed in our 2-DE-based proteomics analysis could be annotated by phosphorylation events. Taken together, as the first report of large-scale identification of phosphorylation sites in elongating cotton fiber cells, our study provides not only an excellent example of directly identifying phosphorylation sites from known DEPs on 2-D gels but also provides a valuable resource for future functional studies of phosphorylated proteins in this field. PMID:23516553

Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jin-Yuan

2013-01-01

124

Smith-Doxey Classification, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade.  

E-print Network

MARKETING Acreage control and price support are the problems most commonly discussed among cotton , merchants. This is to be expected since these controls vitally affect their volume and methods ing business. Most of them feel the interests e farmers... MARKETING Acreage control and price support are the problems most commonly discussed among cotton , merchants. This is to be expected since these controls vitally affect their volume and methods ing business. Most of them feel the interests e farmers...

Hunt, Robert L.

1956-01-01

125

Transcriptomic Analysis of Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton Chromosome Introgression Lines Carrying Different Gossypium barbadense Chromosomal Segments  

PubMed Central

Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process. PMID:24762562

Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

126

Cotton fibers nano-TiO{sub 2} composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ? The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ? The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ? UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ? The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid {sup 13}C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

Xia, J.H., E-mail: xiajianhan@163.com [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D. [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)] [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

2012-12-15

127

Genes Involved in Osmoregulation during Turgor-Driven Cell Expansion of Developing Cotton Fibers Are Differentially Regulated1  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single-celled trichomes that synchronously undergo a phase of rapid cell expansion, then a phase including secondary cell wall deposition, and finally maturation. To determine if there is coordinated regulation of gene expression during fiber expansion, we analyzed the expression of components involved in turgor regulation and a cytoskeletal protein by measuring levels of mRNA and protein accumulation and enzyme activity. Fragments of the genes for the plasma membrane proton-translocating ATPase, vacuole-ATPase, proton-translocating pyrophosphatase (PPase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, major intrinsic protein, and ?-tubulin were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and used as probes in ribonuclease protection assays of RNA from a fiber developmental series, revealing two discrete patterns of mRNA accumulation. Transcripts of all but the PPase accumulated to highest levels during the period of peak expansion (+12–15 d postanthesis [dpa]), then declined with the onset of secondary cell wall synthesis. The PPase was constitutively expressed through fiber development. Activity of the two proton-translocating-ATPases peaked at +15 dpa, whereas PPase activity peaked at +20 dpa, suggesting that all are involved in the process of cell expansion but with varying roles. Patterns of protein accumulation and enzyme activity for some of the proteins examined suggest posttranslational regulation through fiber development. PMID:9536073

Smart, Lawrence B.; Vojdani, Fakrieh; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Wilkins, Thea A.

1998-01-01

128

Two cotton fiber-associated glycosyltransferases, GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, function in hemicellulose glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during plant development.  

PubMed

Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent in dicot secondary cell walls. Cell wall composition of cotton fiber changes dynamically throughout development. Not only the amounts but also the molecular sizes of the hemicellulosic polysaccharides show substantial changes during cotton fiber development. However, none of the genes encoding glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for synthesizing xylan have been isolated and characterized in cotton fiber. In this study, we applied a bioinformatics approach and identified two putative GTs from cotton, designated GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, which belong to the CAZy GT43 family and are closely related to Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. We show that GhGT43A1 is highly and preferentially expressed in 15 and 20?days post-anthesis (dpa) cotton fiber, whereas GhGT43C1 is ubiquitously expressed in most organs, with especially high expression in 15 dpa fiber and hypocotyl. Complementation analysis demonstrates that GhG43A1 and GhGT43C1 are orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 in Arabidopsis results in increased xylan content. We also show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 leads to more cellulose deposition. These findings suggest that GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1 likely participate in xylan synthesis during fiber development. PMID:24641584

Li, Long; Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Lixia; Huang, Yuying; Zeng, Wei; Rao, Yue; Li, Juan; Li, Xuebao; Xu, Wenliang

2014-10-01

129

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon\\u000a source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions.\\u000a To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS)

Candace H. Haigler; Bir Singh; Deshui Zhang; Sangjoon Hwang; Chunfa Wu; Wendy X. Cai; Mohamed Hozain; Wonhee Kang; Brett Kiedaisch; Richard E. Strauss; Eric F. Hequet; Bobby G. Wyatt; Gay M. Jividen; A. Scott Holaday

2007-01-01

130

Down-regulating annexin gene GhAnn2 inhibits cotton fiber elongation and decreases Ca2+ influx at the cell apex.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber is a single cell that differentiates from the ovule epidermis and undergoes synchronous elongation with high secretion and growth rate. Apart from economic importance, cotton fiber provides an excellent single-celled model for studying mechanisms of cell-growth. Annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been reported to be localized in multiple cellular compartments and involved in control of vesicle secretions. Although several annexins have been found to be highly expressed in elongating cotton fibers, their functional roles in fiber development remain unknown. Here, 14 annexin family members were identified from the fully sequenced diploid G. raimondii (D5 genome), half of which were expressed in fibers of the cultivated tetraploid species G. hirsutum (cv. YZ1). Among them, GhAnn2 from the D genome of the tetraploid species displayed high expression level in elongating fiber. The expression of GhAnn2 could be induced by some phytohormones that play important roles in fiber elongation, such as IAA and GA3. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of GhAnn2 inhibited fiber elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis, resulting in shorter and thinner mature fibers in the transgenic plants. Measurement with non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode revealed that the rate of Ca(2+) influx from extracellular to intracellular was decreased at the fiber cell apex of GhAnn2 silencing lines, in comparison to that in the wild type. These results indicate that GhAnn2 may regulate fiber development through modulating Ca(2+) fluxes and signaling. PMID:24890373

Tang, Wenxin; He, Yonghui; Tu, Lili; Wang, Maojun; Li, Yang; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-08-01

131

Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutant in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which exhibits an early cessation of fiber elongation resulting in very short fibers (< 6 mm) at maturity. This presents an excellent model system for studying the underlying molecular and cellular processes involved with cotton fiber elongation. Previous reports have characterized Li1 at early cell wall elongation and during later secondary cell wall synthesis, however there has been very limited analysis of the transition period between these developmental time points. Results Physical and morphological measurements of the Li1 mutant fibers were conducted, including measurement of the cellulose content during development. Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze transcript profiles at the critical developmental time points of 3 days post anthesis (DPA), the late elongation stage of 12 DPA and the early secondary cell wall synthesis stage of 16 DPA. The results indicated severe disruption to key hormonal and other pathways related to fiber development, especially pertaining to the transition stage from elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified several key pathways at the transition stage that exhibited altered regulation. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and primary cell wall rearrangement were affected, and a primary cell wall-related cellulose synthase was transcriptionally repressed. Linkage mapping using a population of 2,553 F2 individuals identified SSR markers associated with the Li1 genetic locus on chromosome 22. Linkage mapping in combination with utilizing the diploid G. raimondii genome sequences permitted additional analysis of the region containing the Li1 gene. Conclusions The early termination of fiber elongation in the Li1 mutant is likely controlled by an early upstream regulatory factor resulting in the altered regulation of hundreds of downstream genes. Several elongation-related genes that exhibited altered expression profiles in the Li1 mutant were identified. Molecular markers closely associated with the Li1 locus were developed. Results presented here will lay the foundation for further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of fiber elongation. PMID:23767687

2013-01-01

132

Cotton AnnGh3 encoding an annexin protein is preferentially expressed in fibers and promotes initiation and elongation of leaf trichomes in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The annexins are a multifamily of calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding proteins. To investigate the roles of annexins in fiber development, four genes encoding putative annexin proteins were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated AnnGh3, AnnGh4, AnnGh5, and AnnGh6. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that AnnGh3, AnnGh4, and AnnGh5 were preferentially expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of AnnGh6 were predominantly accumulated in roots. During fiber development, the transcripts of AnnGh3/4/5 genes were mainly accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers. With fiber cells further developed, their expression activity was dramatically declined to a relatively low level. In situ hybridization results indicated that AnnGh3 and AnnGh5 were expressed in initiating fiber cells (0-2 DPA). Additionally, their expression in fibers was also regulated by phytohormones and [Ca(2+)]. Subcellular localization analysis discovered that AnnGh3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AnnGh3 in Arabidopsis resulted in a significant increase in trichome density and length on leaves of the transgenic plants, suggesting that AnnGh3 may be involved in fiber cell initiation and elongation of cotton. PMID:23651035

Li, Bing; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Li, Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-10-01

133

Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts of Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.

Donald E. Brushwood

134

Producing the natural fiber naturally: Technological change and the US organic cotton industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic cotton productionboomed in the early 1990s only to fall steeplymid-decade. Production is currently rising, butslowly, and has yet to reach previous levels.This is in marked contrast to the steady growthin organic food production during the 1990s.Why, when other areas of organic productionexperienced steady growth, did organic cottonexperience a boom and bust? A study of thecotton production and processing industryreveals

Mrill Ingram

2002-01-01

135

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Cotton Fuzz Fiber Development Having a Similar Molecular Model as Arabidopsis Trichome  

PubMed Central

The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

136

Impact of Cotton Harvesting and Storage Methods on Seed and Fiber Quality  

E-print Network

for making this research possible by finding extra cotton for me to use in both years of my research, but also for all of the time, career, and personnel management techniques I learned from him simply through observation during all of the years of our... of three moisture content levels, three trash content levels, and three density levels in a randomized complete block design. Samples were sealed in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers for three to four months until ginned. To create each sample, seed...

Hamann, Mark Thomas

2012-02-14

137

Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of poly(butylene succinate) composites reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers (CSBF) which had been pre-treated by the continuous steam explosion method. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, crystalline structure and spherulitic morphology of neat PBS and CSBF\\/PBS composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Moreover, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties of

Tan Bin; Jin-ping Qu; Li-ming Liu; Yan-hong Feng; Song-xi Hu; Xiao-chun Yin

2011-01-01

138

Pretreatment Based on Sulfhydryl Cotton Fiber Adsorption and Toluene Extraction for the Determination of Alkyl-Mercury Compounds in Aqueous Samples Using Capillary GC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology of pretreatment for the determination of alkyl-mercury compounds in aqueous samples using capillary gas chromatography (GC) was described, which mainly comprised of sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) adsorption\\/NaCl-HCl elution\\/toluene extraction. The factors with regard to the effect of adsorption were evaluated, which involved pH value and flow through SCF tube. The other factors affecting pretreatment were optimized, including eluent

Rongfang Yuan; Beihai Zhou; Hui Qi; Huimin Yin

2009-01-01

139

Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture  

E-print Network

- and GPS-based system was fabricated and developed for automated module-level fiber quality mapping. The system is composed of several subsystems distributed among harvest vehicles, and the main components of the system include a GPS receiver, wireless...

Ge, Yufeng

2009-05-15

140

Evaluation of the effect of plant growth regulators and GOSSYM recommendations on cotton fiber quality  

E-print Network

to have a positive impact on fiber properties. They concluded that irrigation treatments should be applied in a manner to maximize yields because the improved fiber properties did not result in any specific trend responses concerning yarn properties... for all treatments in the analysis. This allowed for statistical separation of means. However, it reduced the certainty of differences indicated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test for those analyses. 22 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Iv. 1 PLANT...

Shaw, Bryan Webb

2012-06-07

141

A study of programmed cell death in cotton (gosypium hirsutum) fiber  

E-print Network

cell wall formation, with maturation characterized by drying, twisting, and death (Kremer and Drinnan, 2003). They also have arabinogalactan proteins present in their secondary cell walls (Kremer et al., 2004). Tracheary elements are proposed..., the TUNEL signal begins distribute throughout the cell (Figure 11). Also, twisting of the fiber becomes observable, due to the drying out that occurs during fiber maturation. The secondary cell wall is prominent in this stage, being highly stained by PI...

Roche, Meghan C.

2009-05-15

142

Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.  

PubMed

Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles. Implications for the evolution of new locomotor modes in primates are discussed. PMID:17289114

Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

2007-04-01

143

Cotton and Protein Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

2006-06-30

144

Genetic Improvement of Upper Half Mean Length and Short Fiber Content in Upland Cotton, Gosspium hirsutum  

E-print Network

) and to estimate SFCw using HVI fiber properties. Obsolete cultivars from China are not likely sources for UHML improvement, cultivars from Africa and the U.S. could harbor alleles not being used in current elite short staple cultivars or modern ELSU cultivars...

Beyer, Benjamin

2012-10-19

145

Saturated Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acids Promote Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Cell Elongation by Activating Ethylene Biosynthesis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids are essential for membrane biosynthesis in all organisms and serve as signaling molecules in many animals. Here, we found that saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; C20:0 to C30:0) exogenously applied in ovule culture medium significantly promoted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cell elongation, whereas acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-acetamide; ACE), which inhibits VLCFA biosynthesis, abolished fiber growth. This inhibition was overcome by lignoceric acid (C24:0). Elongating fibers contained significantly higher amounts of VLCFAs than those of wild-type or fuzzless-lintless mutant ovules. Ethylene nullified inhibition by ACE, whereas C24:0 was inactive in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor (l-[2-aminoethoxyvinyl]-glycine), indicating that VLCFAs may act upstream of ethylene. C24:0 induced a rapid and significant increase in ACO (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) transcript levels that resulted in substantial ethylene production. C24:0 also promoted Ser palmitoyltransferase expression at a later stage, resulting in increased sphingolipid biosynthesis. Application of C24:0 not only stimulated Arabidopsis thaliana root cell growth but also complemented the cut1 phenotype. Transgenic expression of Gh KCS13/CER6, encoding the cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, in the cut1 background produced similar results. Promotion of Arabidopsis stem elongation was accompanied by increased ACO transcript levels. Thus, VLCFAs may be involved in maximizing the extensibility of cotton fibers and multiple Arabidopsis cell types, possibly by activating ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:17993622

Qin, Yong-Mei; Hu, Chun-Yang; Pang, Yu; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2007-01-01

146

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01

147

Cotton Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) cotton altered for insect and herbicide resistance released into commercial production in 1996 to 1997 now accounts for the lion's share of cotton acreage in the U.S. The rapid increase in transgenic cotton acreage in such a short period of time attests to the overall success of agricultural biotechnology. Grower satisfaction with transgenic cotton is largely due

Thea A. Wilkins; Kanniah Rajasekaran; David M. Anderson

2000-01-01

148

Respirators for Protection against Cotton Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byssinosis is an occupational disease that affects workers involved in processing fibers of cotton, flax, and soft hemp. It is caused by inhalation of dust particles present in work areas where these vegetable fibers are processed. The results of experiments involving the performance of single-use dust respirators worn by workers in a cotton textile plant indicate that these respirators are

WILLIAM H. REVOIR

1974-01-01

149

Mapping Fiber and Yield QTLs with Main, Epistatic, and QTL × Environment Interaction Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Upland Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most agronomic traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are quan- titatively inherited and affected by environment. The importance of epistasis as the genetic basis for complex traits has been reported in many crops. In this study, a linkage map was constructed by means of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from 72353TM-1. Main effects, epistatic effects, and environmental interaction

Xinlian Shen; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Xiaoyang Zhang

2006-01-01

150

No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed. PMID:22314028

Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

2012-08-01

151

7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.  

...cotton, and fiber property measurements such...determine all fiber property measurements except extraneous matter. High Volume Instrument...presence of extraneous matter and authorized employees...determine all fiber property measurements...

2014-01-01

152

Direct photolabeling with ( sup 32 P)UDP-glucose for identification of a subunit of cotton fiber callose synthase. [Gossypium hirsutum  

SciTech Connect

The authors have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1{r arrow}3)-{beta}-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, {alpha}-({sup 32}P)UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca{sup 2+}, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the K{sub m} of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase.

Delmer, D.P.; Solomon, M.; Read, S.M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1991-02-01

153

Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca2+ dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions.\\u000a We generated transgenic cotton plants expressing mustard annexin (AnnBj1), which showed enhanced tolerance towards different abiotic stress treatments like sodium chloride, mannitol, polyethylene\\u000a glycol and hydrogen peroxide. The tolerance to these treatments was associated with

Kesanakurti Divya; S. K. Jami; P. B. Kirti

2010-01-01

154

Presynaptic Evidence for Zinc Release at the Mossy Fiber Synapse of  

E-print Network

Presynaptic Evidence for Zinc Release at the Mossy Fiber Synapse of Rat Hippocampus Joshua K, Ohio Vesicular zinc (Zn21 ) is found in a subset of glutamater- gic nerve terminals throughout between cellular compartments at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses by using the fluo- rescent indicator

Li, Yang V.

155

Influence of row spacing, population density and irrigation on phenology, yield and fiber properties of three upland cotton varieties  

E-print Network

uniformity and strength of fiber in each of four harvests 50 24. Irrigation, row-spacing and plant population effects on length uniformity ratio in harvest 4 51 25. Variety effects on micronaire, length, length uniformity and strength of fiber in each... uniformity and strength of fiber in each of four harvests 50 24. Irrigation, row-spacing and plant population effects on length uniformity ratio in harvest 4 51 25. Variety effects on micronaire, length, length uniformity and strength of fiber in each...

Hamilton, William David

2012-06-07

156

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of Trash in Cotton Rotor Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton always has trash associated with its fibers, which is known to affect processing effi- ciency. Rotor spinning is more sensitive to trash levels in cotton compared with ring spinning, the other major spinning system. Trash trapped in the rotor grove is typically pulverized cotton fiber and trash particles whose origins cannot be visu- ally determined (e.g. leaf, fiber, bark,

Jonn Foulk; David McAlister; David Himmelsbach; Ed Hughs

2004-01-01

157

Changes in the 14C-Labeled Cell Wall Components with Chase Time after Incorporation of UDP[14C]Glucose by Intact Cotton Fibers 1  

PubMed Central

Intact, in vitro-grown cotton fibers will incorporate [14C]glucose from externally supplied UDP[14C]glucose into a variety of cell wall components including cellulose; this labeled fraction will continue to increase up to 4 hours chase time. In the fraction soluble in hot water there was no significant change in total label; however, the largest fraction after the 30 minute pulse with UDP[14C]glucose was chloroform-methanol soluble (70%) and showed a significant decrease with chase. The lipids that make up about 85% of this fraction were identified by TLC as steryl glucosides, acylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol. Following the pulse, the loss of label from acylated steryl glucosides and glucosylphophoryl-polyprenol was almost complete within 2 hours of chase; steryl glucosides made up about 85% of the fraction at that chase time. The total loss in the lipid fraction (about 100 picomoles per milligram dry weight of fiber) with chase times of 4 hours approximates the total gain in the total glucans. PMID:16666066

Dugger, W. M.; Palmer, Raymond L.

1988-01-01

158

Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro fiber development from unfertilized and fertilized Egyptian cotton ovules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfertilized and fertilized ovules of Gossypium barbadense Giza 45 (extra long staple variety) were used to study the effect of plant growth substances (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins) on in vitro fiber initiation and development. Kinetin, alone did not increase total fiber unit (TFU) of unfertilized ovules, while an increase in TFU value occurred when a constant level of IAA and

Osama A. Momtaz

1998-01-01

159

Letter to the Editor Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes  

E-print Network

$900 million. Cotton fiber is an outstanding model for the study of plant cell elongation and cell wallLetter to the Editor Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes Despite rapidly decreasing costs complex ge- nomes de novo. The cotton (Gossypium spp.) genomes represent a challenging case. To this end

Chee, Peng W.

160

60The Journal of Cotton Science 17:6068 (2013) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2013  

E-print Network

*Corresponding author: pjcotty@email.arizona.edu ABSTRACT Cotton is the most important natural fiber used, the seed accounts for 15 to 20% of crop value (Cotty, 2001). There is a complex classification system used required to break the fiber, and micronaire is an indicator of air permeability, indicating both fiber

Cotty, Peter J.

161

be encouraged to self-fumigate their nests, we placed 30 cotton dispensers  

E-print Network

of (interspersed) dispensers: experimental dispensers, which contained cotton treated with a % permethrin solution of the nests contained more than one type of cotton. Thirteen nests had experimental (permethrin) cotton be encouraged to `self-fumigate' nests with cotton fibers that have been treated with permethrin. Nests

Tipple, Brett

162

[beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro  

SciTech Connect

In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-04-01

163

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (I. Identification of [beta]-1,4- and [beta]-1,3-Glucans Synthesized in Vitro).  

PubMed Central

In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg2+, Ca2+, cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose II. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase I. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. PMID:12231764

Okuda, K.; Li, L.; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R. M.

1993-01-01

164

Early Cottons  

E-print Network

........................... F. R. MARSHALL. .Animal Husbandry EDWARD C. GREEN, B. S.. ................. .Assistant Horticultt~rist .................................. G. S. FRAPS. .Associate Chemist R. L. BENNETT. ................................ .Cotton Specialist 0. M... ........................... F. R. MARSHALL. .Animal Husbandry EDWARD C. GREEN, B. S.. ................. .Assistant Horticultt~rist .................................. G. S. FRAPS. .Associate Chemist R. L. BENNETT. ................................ .Cotton Specialist 0. M...

Bennett, R. L. (Robert Love)

1904-01-01

165

Development of Innovative Cotton-Surfaced Nonwoven Laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton-based nonwovens have been developed at Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), The University of Tennessee, with the cotton fibers on the surface or in the core layer laminated with meltblown (MB) and\\/or spunbonded (SB) webs. Both Cotton-Surfaced Nonwovens (CSN) and Cotton-Core Nonwovens (CCN) have excellent soft hand, breathability, absorbency, and tensile properties making them ideal for many medical applications

Dong Zhang; Larry C. Wadsworth; Mac McLean

2002-01-01

166

Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics  

PubMed Central

Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

2008-01-01

167

crop science, vol. 51, septemberoctober 2011 Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton (Gossypium  

E-print Network

crop science, vol. 51, september­october 2011 ReseaRch Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton by a fundamental shift in the cotton fiber market from a primarily domestically con- sumed product to one in which nearly two-thirds of the U.S. cot- ton is now exported. Since the international cotton fiber market

Chee, Peng W.

168

Cotton flow  

E-print Network

Using the conformally invariant Cotton tensor, we define a geometric flow, the "Cotton flow", which is exclusive to three dimensions. This flow tends to evolve the initial metrics into conformally flat ones, and is somewhat orthogonal to the Yamabe flow, the latter being a flow within a conformal class. We define an entropy functional, and study the flow of nine homogeneous spaces both numerically and analytically. In particular, we show that the arbitrarily deformed homogeneous 3-sphere flows into the round 3-sphere. Two of the nine homogeneous geometries, which are degenerated by the Ricci flow, are left intact by the Cotton flow.

Ali Ulas Ozgur Kisisel; Ozgur Sarioglu; Bayram Tekin

2008-03-11

169

Cotton Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton has been cultured in vitro for 37 years, yet even today, some of the culture difficulties that were seen when it was\\u000a first cultured, namely, a very long culture time and a limited number of cultivars that can be cultured, continue to pose\\u000a problems. These inherent tissue culture limitations have made transforming cotton an arduous process. Transforming embryogenic\\u000a callus

D. R. Duncan

170

The effect of growth-regulators and nutrition on the development of Verticillium wilt of cotton  

E-print Network

. For many helpful suggestions grateful acknowledgment is also due Dr. J. T. Presley, Head, Cotton Disease Section, Cotton and Cordage Fibers Research Branch, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland. SEP 17 195 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page.... For many helpful suggestions grateful acknowledgment is also due Dr. J. T. Presley, Head, Cotton Disease Section, Cotton and Cordage Fibers Research Branch, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland. SEP 17 195 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page...

Ranney, Carleton David

2013-10-04

171

Fibers under fire: suggestions for improving their use to provide forensic evidence.  

PubMed

The current emphasis on DNA technology in forensic science has led many to believe that trace evidence examinations, including fibers, may be of little value. Reasons are given here to show that this is an erroneous assumption. In the face of this situation, fibers examiners have been challenged to consider ways in which they can improve the services they offer to the Criminal Justice System not only by increasing the efficiency of the examinations, but also by expressing the evidential value of the findings in a clearer way. The separate stages within fibers casework from evidence collection to report writing are critically examined. Suggestions are made on how improvements may be achieved. Areas where particular progress can be made include improving communication and exchange of information between the investigator and the scientist and streamlining analysis by using the latest equipment in conjunction with effective case management. In addition, ways of making better use of existing data pertaining to fiber frequencies, accumulating new data by using the resources of working groups, and improving training procedures with respect to evidence interpretation are discussed. PMID:11451064

Grieve, M C; Wiggins, K G

2001-07-01

172

The effect of ionizing gamma radiation on natural and synthetic fibers and its implications for the forensic examination of fiber evidence.  

PubMed

Circumstances of criminal activities involving radioactive materials may mean fiber evidence recovered from a crime scene could have been exposed to materials emitting ionizing radiation. The consequences of radiation exposed fibers on the result of the forensic analysis and interpretation is explored. The effect of exposure to 1-1000 kGy radiation doses in natural and synthetic fibers was noticeable using comparative forensic examination methods, such as optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed no signs of radiation-induced chemical changes in any of the fiber structures. The outcome of the comparative methods highlights the risk of "false negatives" associated in comparing colors of recovered fibers that may have been exposed to unknown radiation doses. Consideration of such results supports the requirement to know the context, including the environmental conditions, as much as possible before undertaking a forensic fiber examination. PMID:21306372

Colella, Michael; Parkinson, Andrew; Evans, Tegan; Robertson, J; Roux, Claude

2011-05-01

173

Keys To Profitable Cotton Production in the Rolling Plains.  

E-print Network

, KE.YS TO PROFITABLE COTTON PRODUCTION IN THE ROLLING _PLAINS U. U. Alexander, Willis B. Gass, Emory P. Boring III and Thomas W. Fuchs* Cotton and wheat are the principal crops produced in the Rolling Plains. Moisture is a limiting factor in crop.... The market for U.S. cotton is strongly influenced by synthetic fibers and cotton production in other countries. Aggressive and intelligent mar keting programs have been undertaken by U.S. cot ton producers under the Cotton, Inc. program to strengthen...

Alexander, U.U.; Gass, Willis B.; Borring, Emory P. III; Fuchs, Thomas W.

1983-01-01

174

Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

175

Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

2013-10-01

176

Adverse health effects of fluoro-edenitic fibers: epidemiological evidence and public health priorities.  

PubMed

Subsequent to the detection of a cluster of mesothelioma cases in the Sicilian town of Biancavilla, located at the slopes of Etna volcano, ad hoc epidemiological studies and environmental monitoring suggested an etiological role of an asbestiform fiber present in a stone quarry. The fiber was shown to constitute a new mineral species named fluoro-edenite. Fluoro-edenitic fibers were found in the materials extracted from the quarry and used in the local building industry, as well as in soils. Besides the risk of mesothelioma, residents in Biancavilla showed a significantly increased mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which was particularly evident among women. In the light of these findings, Biancavilla was defined a site of national interest for environmental reclamation. The first preventive action involved termination of quarrying activity, covering with asphalt of roads previously paved with local soil materials, and removal of sources of dust in the urban area. Concurrent to the implementation of environmental cleanup, some specific "second generation" studies are now being designed and performed, namely morbidity surveys based on hospital discharge cards, monitoring of fibers in sputum and health surveillance in selected population groups. In this frame, special emphasis is given to the issue of communication, both to the general public and to target groups like family doctors, teachers, and media professionals. This experience could represent a useful basis for the elaboration of a strategy to approach similar environmental issues. PMID:17119254

Bruno, Caterina; Comba, Pietro; Zona, Amerigo

2006-09-01

177

Identification of the family of aquaporin genes and their expression in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is produced in over 30 countries and represents the most important natural fiber in the world. One of the primary factors affecting both the quantity and quality of cotton production is water. A major facilitator of water movement through cell membranes of cotton and other plants are the aquaporin proteins. Aquaporin proteins are present as diverse

Brian E Scheffler; Philip J Bauer; B Todd Campbell

2010-01-01

178

Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. Domesticated cotton makes these reserves available to developing seeds which impacts seed yield. The goals of these analyses were to identify genes and

Earl W Taliercio; Gabriela Romano; Jodi Scheffler; Brian G Ayre

2009-01-01

179

Nitrogen fertilization and plant development of cotton as determined by nodes above white flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early maturation is very beneficial in successfully harvesting a high?quality, high?yielding cotton (Gossypium hirstum L.) crop. If harvest is delayed until inclement weather patterns are established, both yield and fiber quality may be lost. The objective of these studies was to determine the maturity differences that occur in cotton differentially fertilized with nitrogen (N). Field experiments with irrigated cotton were

J. S. McConnell; R. E. Glover; E. D. Vories; W. H. Baker; B. S. Frizzell; F. M. Bourland

1995-01-01

180

The impact of the removal of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement on textile and cotton trade of the United States and China  

E-print Network

and four other country-groups. With different assumptions about U.S. textile supply elasticity, foreign cotton exportersÂ? reaction and changes in the U.S. farm program payments, alternative scenarios are simulated to predict changes in domestic and import...

Xia, Yan

2006-04-12

181

29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”  

...v. Refuge Cotton Oil Co., 91 Miss. 480, 44 So. 828, 829). Mote ginning, the process whereby raw motes (leaves, trash, sticks, dirt, and immature cotton with some cottonseed) are run through a ginning process to extract the short-fiber...

2014-07-01

182

The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations  

E-print Network

parameters, determined by high volume instrument, were: micronaire, upper half mean fiber length (UHM), unifon-nity index (UI), fiber strength, and elongation. Within-boll yield components, determined by direct measurements or through calculations included...

Basal, Huseyin

2012-06-07

183

Characteristics of Cotton Varieties Grown in Texas.  

E-print Network

14) Boll Size: LARGE Seed Per Pound: 3480 Boll Type: OPEN Lint Turnout (% seed cotton): . MEDIUM Staple Length (32nd): 36 ---- Upper Half Mean (UHM): 1.18 ------ fiber Strength (gm/tex): _2_7 ____ _ Uniformity Ratio (520%5~span ): 47 . ? /0... definitions on page 14) Boll Size: MEDIUM Seed Per Pound: 3485 Boll Type: OPEN Lint Turnout (% seed cotton): MEDIUM Staple Length (32nd): _3_7 __ Upper Half Mean (UHM): _1_._2_2 __ _ Fiber Strength (gm/tex): __ 2_7 ____ _ Uniformity Ratio (520%5~span...

Metser, Robert B.; Supak, James R.

1980-01-01

184

Resistance of Cotton to Pink Bollworm Damage.  

E-print Network

grandis Boh., by mechanically crush- ing them. Pink Bollworm Marlatt (1918) advanced the theory that the pink bollworm originated in India and offered as supporting evidence the apparent resistance of native Indian cottons to this insect. Imported... grandis Boh., by mechanically crush- ing them. Pink Bollworm Marlatt (1918) advanced the theory that the pink bollworm originated in India and offered as supporting evidence the apparent resistance of native Indian cottons to this insect. Imported...

Martin, Dial F.; Brazzel, J. R.

1956-01-01

185

Expression Profile of Early Responsive Genes Under Salt Stress in Upland Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important fiber and oil crop. High soil salinity affects cotton growth and production severely. To identify genes\\u000a in response to salt stress and clarify salt tolerance mechanism in cotton, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries\\u000a were constructed from cotton roots under salt stress. A total of 1,131 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from both forward and\\u000a reverse

Xi Zhang; Junbo Zhen; Zhaohu Li; Dingming Kang; Youming Yang; Jin Kong; Jinping Hua

2011-01-01

186

Seed Cotton Handling & Storage  

E-print Network

Seed Cotton Handling & Storage #12;S.W. Searcy Texas A&M University College Station, Texas M) Lubbock, Texas E.M. Barnes Cotton Incorporated Cary, North Carolina Acknowledgements: Special thanks for the production of this document has been provided by Cotton Incorporated, America's Cotton Producers

Mukhtar, Saqib

187

Molecular dissection of interspecific variation between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: I. Fiber elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is the first installment of an effort to explore the secondary gene pool for the enhancement of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm. We developed advanced-generation backcross populations by first crossing G. hirsutum cv. Tamcot 2111 and G. barbadense cv. Pima S6, then independently backcrossing F1 plants to the G. hirsutum parent for three cycles. Genome-wide mapping revealed introgressed

Peng Chee; Xavier Draye; Chun-Xiao Jiang; Laura Decanini; Terrye A. Delmonte; Robert Bredhauer; C. Wayne Smith; Andrew H. Paterson

2005-01-01

188

Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored. The objective of this work was to directly clone, annotate, and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA\\/microRNAs involved in cotton ovule and fiber development. RESULTS: We cloned small RNA sequences from 0–10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing cotton ovules. A

Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov; Eric J Devor; Zabardast T Buriev; Lingyan Huang; Abdusalom Makamov; Shukhrat E Shermatov; Tohir Bozorov; Fakhriddin N Kushanov; Gafurjon T Mavlonov; Abdusattor Abdukarimov

2008-01-01

189

DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the DNA sequence of the bacteriophage P2 tail genes G and H, which code for polypeptides of 175 and 669 residues, respectively. Gene H probably codes for the distal part of the P2 tail fiber, since the deduced sequence of its product contains regions similar to tail fiber proteins from phages Mu, P1, lambda, K3, and T2. The similarities of the carboxy-terminal portions of the P2, Mu, ann P1 tail fiber proteins may explain the observation that these phages in general have the same host range. The P2 H gene product is similar to the products of both lambda open reading frame (ORF) 401 (stf, side tail fiber) and its downstream ORF, ORF 314. If 1 bp is inserted near the end of ORF 401, this reading frame becomes fused with ORF 314, creating an ORF that may represent the complete stf gene that encodes a 774-amino-acid-long side tail fiber protein. Thus, a frameshift mutation seems to be present in the common laboratory strain of lambda. Gene G of P2 probably codes for a protein required for assembly of the tail fibers of the virion. The entire G gene product is very similar to the products of genes U and U' of phage Mu; a region of these proteins is also found in the tail fiber assembly proteins of phages TuIa, TuIb, T4, and lambda. The similarities in the tail fiber genes of phages of different families provide evidence that illegitimate recombination occurs at previously unappreciated levels and that phages are taking advantage of the gene pool available to them to alter their host ranges under selective pressures. PMID:1531648

Haggård-Ljungquist, E; Halling, C; Calendar, R

1992-01-01

190

DDT and methyl parathion residues found in cotton and cotton-polyester fabrics worn in cotton fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent spraying of cotton fields with chemicals to control insect pests is generally practiced in the Mississippi Delta area. The clothing worn by agricultural workers is subjected to direct contact with insecticide residues present in the field environment. The fiber content and special finishes in the fabrics worn by these workers may affect the pick=up, retention, and\\/or release of insecticide

E. L. Finley; J. R. B. Rogillio

1969-01-01

191

Photocatalytic Self Cleaning Textile Fibers by Coaxial Electrospinning  

E-print Network

(18) or using plasma treatment of electrospun fibers followed by repeated cycles of surface attachment), chemically modified cotton (9), polya- mide fibers (10), and chemically modified wool-like fibers (11

Steckl, Andrew J.

192

Cleanup of agrochemical spills using cotton sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated natural sorbents such as cotton that had been structured into needlepunched nonwovens with or without polypropylene fibers in the cleanup of agrochemical spills such as malathion,. It was shown that at high levels of compaction and fraction of polypropylene, mechanical properties of the nonwoven sorbents were generally increased considerably. At low level of compaction, variations on mechanical properties

H. Choi; J. P. Moreau; M. Srinivasan

1994-01-01

193

POLYPLOIDY AND THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF COTTON  

E-print Network

of the Polyploids D. Phylogenetic Relationships and the Temporal Scale of Divergence III. Speciation Mechanisms A. Ecological Consequences of Polyploidization VII. Polyploidy and Fiber VIII. Concluding Remarks References The cotton genus (Gossypium ) includes approximately 50 species distributed in arid to semi-arid regions

Wendel, Jonathan F.

194

Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling, syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus other diverse symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, precluding definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established etiologies, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, e.g., diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled with “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized SFPN causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, signs, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 matched normal controls. Fibromyalgia subjects had to satisfy American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present documented evidence of a physician’s actual fibromyalgia diagnosis. Study instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). 41% of skin biopsies from fibromyalgia subjects vs. 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher among fibromyalgia than control subjects (all P ? 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from all 13 fibromyalgia subjects with SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into etiologies. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but eight subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and one family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized small-fiber polyneuropathy, a distinct disease that can be objectively tested for and sometimes definitively treated. PMID:23748113

Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather; Klein, Max M.

2013-01-01

195

Optical Decoherence in Er3+-Doped Silicate Fiber: Evidence for Coupled Spin-Elastic Tunneling Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the optical decoherence times T2, or, equivalently, the homogeneous line width, in an Er-doped optical fiber at low temperature as a function of external magnetic field and temperature using two-pulse photon echoes. The decoherence times were up to 230 ns at fields above 3 T. The magnitude of the line narrowing induced by a magnetic field of 3 T is 2.5 MHz, which is anomalously large compared to that typical for oxide crystals with similar Er3+ concentration. This is interpreted as evidence for dephasing by coupled spin-elastic tunneling modes where the normal glass tunneling modes acquire a magnetic character by coupling to the Er3+ spin.

Macfarlane, R. M.; Sun, Y.; Sellin, P. B.; Cone, R. L.

2006-01-01

196

IN THIS ISSUE Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES July, 2004 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Management Influence on Hardlock Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Wet Conditions and Nitrogen Applications on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Watson, Craig A.

197

Smart textiles: Tough cotton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

2008-08-01

198

Potassium Management of Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

However, despite soil analyses and subsequent soil applications of fertilizer prior to planting, K deficiencies have occurred sporadically and somewhat unpredictably across the US Cotton Belt. This has prompted a renewed focus on K management in cotton with some emphasis on understanding K fertilizer requirements and use by the cotton plant. The occurrence of a complex of K- deficiency symptoms

DERRICK M. OOSTERHUIS

199

Methods for reducing exposure to cotton dust. Progress report, 1 January 1981-30 September 1982  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of additives and the blending of fibers on dust emission during carding, the relationship between dust-particle size and grade of cotton, and amount of oil mist in dust from treated cottons were investigated. Six additives were evaluated for dust-suppressant abilities on high-micronaire cotton. A substantial reduction in dust generated was achieved by the addition of very small amounts of five of the additives. For polyester and cotton blends, the dust generated increased as the cotton content of the blend increased and as the production rate increased.

Hersh, S.P.; Batra, S.K.

1982-01-01

200

Presynaptic evidence for zinc release at the mossy fiber synapse of rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Vesicular zinc (Zn(2+)) is found in a subset of glutamatergic nerve terminals throughout the mammalian forebrain and is colocalized with glutamate. Despite well-documented neuromodulatory roles, exocytosis of endogenous Zn(2+) from presynaptic terminals has never been directly demonstrated, because existing studies have measured elevated Zn(2+) concentrations by examining the perfusate. Thus, the specific origin of synaptic Zn(2+) remains a controversial subject. Here, we describe synaptic Zn(2+) trafficking between cellular compartments at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses by using the fluorescent indicator Zinpyr-1 to label the hippocampal mossy fiber boutons. We determined endogenous Zn(2+) exocytosis by direct observation of vesicular Zn(2+) as decreasing fluorescence intensity from presynaptic axonal boutons in the stratum lucidum of CA3 during neural activities induced by the stimulation of membrane depolarization. This presynaptic fluorescence gradually returned to a level near baseline after the withdrawal of moderate stimulation, indicating an endogenous mechanism to replenish vesicular Zn(2+). The exocytosis of the synaptic Zn(2+) was also dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was sensitive to Zn(2+)-specific chelators. Vesicular Zn(2+) loading was sensitive to the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A, and our experiments indicated that blockade of vesicular reloading with concanamycin A led to a depletion of that synaptic Zn(2+). Furthermore, synaptic Zn(2+) translocated to the postsynaptic cell body upon release to produce increases in the concentration of weakly bound Zn(2+) within the postsynaptic cytosol, demonstrating a feature unique to ionic substances released during neurotransmission. Our data provide important evidence for Zn(2+) as a substance that undergoes release in a manner similar to common neurotransmitters. PMID:17847078

Ketterman, Joshua K; Li, Yang V

2008-02-01

201

Lignification in the flax stem: evidence for an unusual lignin in bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of our research on cell wall formation and maturation in flax (Linum usitatissimum L) bast fibers, we (1) confirmed the presence of lignin in bast fibers and (2) quantified and characterized the chemical nature of this lignin at two developmental stages. Histochemical methods (Weisner and Maüle reagents and KMnO4-staining) indicating the presence of lignin in bast fibers

Arnaud Day; Katia Ruel; Godfrey Neutelings; David Crônier; Hélène David; Simon Hawkins; Brigitte Chabbert

2005-01-01

202

Development and commercial use of Bollgard cotton in the USA--early promises versus today's reality.  

PubMed

Bollgard cotton is the trademark given to a number of varieties of cotton bio-engineered to produce an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). When produced by the modified cotton plants, this protein controls certain lepidopterous cotton insect pests. Commercially available since 1996, these cotton varieties are purchased under a license agreement in which the growers pay a fee and agree to abide by the terms, which include a 1-year license to use the technology and agreement to participate in an insect resistance management program. Today, Bollgard cotton is grown on more than one-third of all cotton acreage in the USA. This product has reduced cotton production costs and insecticide use by providing an effective alternative to chemical insecticides for the control of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens; cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea; and pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. The specificity and safety profile of the Bt protein produced in planta in cotton was maintained. It has retained its selectivity for lepidopterous insects and lacks the characteristics found in potential allergenic proteins. Fiber quality, the agronomic characteristics of the plant and seed composition remain unchanged. New cotton technology is being developed to provide improved insect control and a wider spectrum of activity. These future products could further reduce insecticide use in the production of cotton, while maintaining the high level of safety and reliability that has been demonstrated by five seasons of Bollgard cotton use. PMID:11576434

Perlak, F J; Oppenhuizen, M; Gustafson, K; Voth, R; Sivasupramaniam, S; Heering, D; Carey, B; Ihrig, R A; Roberts, J K

2001-09-01

203

Does Salicylic Acid Act as a Signal in Cotton for Induced Resistance to Helicoverpa zea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study indicated that insect herbivory on cotton induced resistance to the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea). Here we examine the role of salicylic acid as a signal in cotton for the induced resistance. Abundant evidence has accumulated showing that salicylic acid plays a key role in coordinating the expression of systemic acquired resistance against phyto-pathogens. We report that herbivory

J. L. BI; J. B. Murphy; G. W. Felton

1997-01-01

204

Evidence from dithizone and selenium zinc histochemistry that perivascular mossy fiber boutons stain preferentially “in vivo”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a perivascular staining pattern that is obtained when dithizone or sodium selenite are used to label zinc intravitally. Our observations indicate that the perivascular staining is a result of zinc labeling in mossy fiber boutons adjacent to capillaries and suggest that there might be a special blood brain barrier in the mossy fiber regions.

C. A. Howell; C. J. Frederickson; G. Danscher

1989-01-01

205

Fiber Geometry in the Corpus Callosum in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Transcallosal Misconnection  

PubMed Central

Background Structural abnormalities in the callosal fibers connecting the heteromodal association areas of the prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices bilaterally have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Aims To investigate for geometric abnormalities in these callosal fibers in schizophrenia patients using a novel Diffusion-Tensor Imaging (DTI) metric of fiber geometry named Shape-Normalized Dispersion (SHD). Methods DTIs (3T, 51 gradient directions, 1.7 mm isotropic voxels) were acquired from 26 schizophrenia patients and 23 matched healthy controls. The prefrontal and temporoparietal fibers of the corpus callosum were extracted by means of whole-brain tractography, and their mean SHD calculated. Results The schizophrenia patients exhibited subnormal levels of SHD in the prefrontal callosal fibers when controlling for between-group differences in Fractional Anisotropy. Reduced SHD could reflect either irregularly turbulent or inhomogeneously distributed fiber trajectories in the corpus callosum. Conclusions The results suggest that the transcallosal misconnectivity believed to be associated with schizophrenia could arise from abnormalities in fiber geometry. These abnormalities in fiber geometry could potentially be underpinned by irregularities in the normative processes of neurodevelopment. PMID:21831601

Whitford, Thomas J.; Savadjiev, Peter; Kubicki, Marek; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Terry, Douglas P.; Bouix, Sylvain; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Bobrow, Laurel; Rausch, Andrew C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Nestor, Paul G.; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

2011-01-01

206

Evidence TRPV4 contributes to mechanosensitive ion channels in mouse skeletal muscle fibers  

PubMed Central

We recorded the activity of single mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels from membrane patches on single muscle fibers isolated from mice. We investigated the actions of various TRP (transient receptor potential) channel blockers on MS channel activity. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) neither inhibited nor facilitated single channel activity at submillimolar concentrations. The absence of an effect of 2-APB indicates MS channels are not composed purely of TRPC or TRPV1, 2 or 3 proteins. Exposing patches to 1-oleolyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a potent activator of TRPC channels, also had no effect on MS channel activity. In addition, flufenamic acid and spermidine had no effect on the activity of single MS channels. By contrast, SKF-96365 and ruthenium red blocked single-channel currents at micromolar concentrations. SKF-96365 produced a rapid block of the open channel current. The blocking rate depended linearly on blocker concentration, while the unblocking rate was independent of concentration, consistent with a simple model of open channel block. A fit to the concentration-dependence of block gave kon = 13 x 106 M?1s?1 and koff = 1609 sec?1 with KD = ~124 µM. Block by ruthenium red was complex, involving both reduction of the amplitude of the single-channel current and increased occupancy of subconductance levels. The reduction in current amplitude with increasing concentration of ruthenium red gave a KD = ~49 µM. The high sensitivity of MS channels to block by ruthenium red suggests MS channels in skeletal muscle contain TRPV subunits. Recordings from skeletal muscle isolated from TRPV4 knockout mice failed to show MS channel activity, consistent with a contribution of TRPV4. In addition, exposure to hypo-osmotic solutions increases opening of MS channels in muscle. Our results provide evidence TRPV4 contributes to MS channels in skeletal muscle. PMID:22785252

Ho, Tiffany C.; Horn, Natalie A.; Huynh, Tuan; Kelava, Lucy; Lansman, Jeffry B.

2012-01-01

207

Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.  

PubMed

Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. PMID:23987402

Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

2013-10-15

208

Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity: An example of single-use articles tailored to self-sterilize  

E-print Network

Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity envisaged in which single-use cotton gauze could be chemically tailored to display anti-microbial activity as AEM 5700, into the cotton matrix and polymerizing the monomers about the fibers. In a second approach

Taralp, Alpay

209

Polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in Gossypium (cotton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed restriction fragment length poly- morphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) segregating in a cross between cultivars of al- lotetraploid (AADD) Gossypium hirsutum (''Upland'' cotton) and Gossypium barbadense (''Sea Island,'' ''Pima,'' or ''Egyp- tian'' cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. Most

CHUN-XIAO JIANG; ROBERT J. WRIGHT; K AMAL M. EL-ZIK; ANDREW H. PATERSON

1998-01-01

210

Influence of shade on mineral nutrient status of field?grown cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic irradiance has variable effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth, development, lint yield and fiber quality. However, little is known about the effect of shade on the mineral nutrient status of cotton plants. A two?year study was conducted to determine the effects of shade (63% light reduction) at different growth stages on mineral nutrient concentrations in plant components of

Duli Zhao; Derrick M. Oosterhuis

1998-01-01

211

7 CFR 28.303 - Standards for length of staple for American upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Effective July 12, 1985, standards for the lengths of staple of American upland cotton shall be measurements as determined by the Suter-Webb Duplex Cotton Fiber Sorter in accordance with the test method prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section....

2010-01-01

212

Schistosoma mansoni: l-Glutamate-Induced Contractions in Isolated Muscle Fibers; Evidence for a Glutamate Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansonimuscle fibers contract in response tol-glutamate in a dose-dependent manner (10?6–10?3M).l-aspartate andd-aspartate are likewise effective in eliciting contraction of the fibers. Mammalian glutamate receptor agonists produce little or no contraction at concentrations as high as 1 mM. In addition, common glutamate receptor antagonists do not inhibit the contraction induced byl-glutamate. However, amino acids known to be substrates for the

C. L. Miller; T. A. Day; J. L. Bennett; R. A. Pax

1996-01-01

213

Features . . . Cover Crop Value to Cotton  

E-print Network

for cotton are increased by 175-300 lbs/A when cattle are grazed vs. not grazed and then cotton planted. EvenFeatures . . . Cotton Cover Crop Value to Cotton Cotton Price and Rotation 32:12 December 2008 #12;Cotton Price and Rotation Agronomy Notes Page 2 Cotton price has been low

Watson, Craig A.

214

Effects of Exogenously Applied Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) to Cotton  

E-print Network

There is a need in the cotton industry for cultivars with enhanced lint yield potential and high-quality fiber properties. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a phytohormone that is predominantly responsible for cell elongation and required for primary...

Clement, Jenny D.

2011-08-08

215

Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of 1/f frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental evidence in support of the recent theoretical proposal that intrinsic 1/f frequency noise in short cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers is of thermal origin. We demonstrate that the power spectral density of frequency noise in distributed-feedback fiber lasers (DFB FL) exhibits predicted T{sup 2} temperature dependence across all frequencies over a temperature range of almost 200 K. This temperature dependence is observed both in direct interferometric measurements of frequency noise in a single mode DFB FL and noninterferometric measurements of polarization-beat-frequency noise in a dual frequency DFB FL. It is also shown that frequency noise of orthogonal polarization modes in the dual frequency DFB FL is substantially correlated providing a strong indication of a common origin.

Foster, Scott; Tikhomirov, Alexei [Maritime Operations Division, Defence Science and Technology Organization, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Cranch, Geoffrey A. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC (United States)

2009-05-15

216

Effects of Fiber Content Labeling on Perception of Apparel Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to examine stereotypic perceptions associated with the fiber content of jeans and to determine if a prejudice exists againstjeans made of polyester. In an experimental design the independent variable was four variations of hangtag information: 100% cotton, 100% polyester, 50% cotton\\/50% polyester, and no fiber content information. The dependent variable was a list of

Jane E. Workman

1990-01-01

217

Optical depolarization changes in single, skinned muscle fibers. Evidence for cross-bridge involvement.  

PubMed Central

Optical ellipsometry studies of single, skinned muscle fibers conducted on the diffraction orders have yielded spectra that are sensitive to the state of the fiber. The linearly polarized light field vector becomes elliptically polarized as it passes through the fiber and may be collected at the diffraction orders. Fibers that have been subjected to extraction of myosin (0.6 M KCl) retain a weak diffraction pattern and exhibit a substantially decreased depolarization of incident linearly polarized light. A significant decrease in polarization is seen in skinned fibers that are subject to an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.0. This increase in pH results in a decrease of approximately 30% in the depolarization angle of single fibers. The major decrease in depolarization angle that we observe at pH 8.0 is consistent with the notion that as cross-bridges move out from the shaft of the thick filament, their ability to cause depolarization of the incident linearly polarized light decreases. This interpretation is also consistent with the work of Ueno and Harrington where the decrease in the ability to cross-link S-1 and S-2 to the thick filament at pH 8.2 suggests cross-bridge movement away from the thick filament. A large decrease in birefringence, seen after treatment of skinned fibers with alpha-chymotrypsin, appears to be related to the breakdown of myosin into rod, S-1, heavy meromyosin, and light meromyosin. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:3488081

Baskin, R J; Yeh, Y; Burton, K; Chen, J S; Jones, M

1986-01-01

218

THE DEMISE OF KING COTTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fields were associated closely with rolling plains and black people in the traditional South. Cotton acreage within the region has declined sharply from its peak in 1929, and the crop has become increasingly concentrated in favored areas. The demise of cotton is best described by a mini-atlas of comparable maps of cotton and its correlatives. The once close relationship

JOHN FRASER HART

1977-01-01

219

Root Rot of Cotton or "Cotton Blight"  

E-print Network

, cotton . dies year after year unless checked. The "dead spots" increase i~ size. When such plants as Sweet Potatoes, Grapes, Mulberry, Ap ple, China trees and Cow Peas follow diseased cotton they also dic in the same way, namely, a rotting... of the roots occurs. As an illustration Iwill only give one case, which came under my personal observation: I was anxious to obtain sweet potatoes which showed lEoot Rot. My desire was expressed to Mr. A. W. Kerr, of Sher- man. I was shown a sweet potato...

Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

1888-01-01

220

The future of nematode management in cotton.  

PubMed

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

Starr, J L; Koenning, S R; Kirkpatrick, T L; Robinson, A F; Roberts, P A; Nichols, R L

2007-12-01

221

Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

2012-12-18

222

The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton  

PubMed Central

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality. PMID:19259500

Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

2007-01-01

223

INFLUÊNCIA DO DESCAROÇAMENTO NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA DO ALGODÃO ANALISADAS PELO HVI (HIGH VOLUME INSTRUMENTS) E PELO AFIS (ADVANCED FIBER INFORMATION SYSTEM)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work had the objective to evaluate the effect of three cotton ginning methods on intrinsic and extrinsic cotton fiber characteristics analized by the HVI (High Volume Instrumentes) and AFIS (Advanced Fiber Information System) equipaments. The following treatments were studied: 1) roller gin machine; 2) 50 saw-brush gin smal works prototype; 3) stand 90 saw-brush gin machine. Seed cotton samples

ODILON RENY; RIBEIRO FERREIRA DA SILVA; MARIA JOSÉ DA SILVA

224

THE COTTON ACREAGE EFFECTS OF BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION: A COUNTY-LEVEL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the Boll Weevil Eradication (BWE) Program is believed to be one factor underlying the recent increase in cotton acreage in the Southeast. We find weak evidence that the initial, eradication phase of the BWE program decreases cotton acreage, and strong evidence that the second, maintenance phase of the program increases acreage. The full benefits associated with a

Christopher F. Dumas; Rachael E. Goodhue

1999-01-01

225

Nano Res (2010) 3: 452458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton  

E-print Network

, similar to those widely used for dyeing fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The SWNT coating makes electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes

Cui, Yi

226

REGIONAL COTTON ACREAGE RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An econometric model of cotton acreage response was estimated for four distinct production regions in the United States. This work builds on previous work in the area of supply response under government farm programs and provides up-to-date regionalized estimates of own-price elasticity of cotton acreage supply. The own-price variable used in this study is a weighted combination of expected market

Patricia A. Duffy; James W. Richardson; Michael K. Wohlgenant

1987-01-01

227

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

...one-eighth inch or more. For purposes of this paragraph, White Cotton (including the Plus grades), Light Gray Cotton, and Gray Cotton shall constitute one color group, and Light Spotted Cotton, Spotted Cotton, Tinged Cotton, and...

2014-01-01

228

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

229

Interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and potassium deficiency on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass partitioning of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern cotton production systems, potassium (K) deficiency is one of the major factors limiting lint yield and affecting fiber quality. Although influence of K deficiency on cotton plant physiology and growth and lint yield responses to K fertilizer applications have received intensive studies, it is not clear whether elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] affects plant requirements and sensitivity to

K. Raja Reddy; Duli Zhao

2005-01-01

230

75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing...the Cotton Research and Promotion...producing region'' for consistency...Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton...Cotton-producing region....

2010-05-05

231

7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 ...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order...Cotton-producing region....

2010-01-01

232

Cotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-print Network

: 704.0 Acres harvested (x1000): 317.5 Table 3 Arkansas Cotton Insect Losses for 1983 Loss attributableCotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Coordinator----------Ron Smith Arizona-----------Leon Moore Arkansas----------Donald Johnson California---------Vernon Burton

Ray, David

233

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-print Network

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative. Ronald H. Smith Arkansas-- Dr. Don Johnson Arizona-- Dr. Leon Moore California-- Dr. Peter B. Goodell to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2

Ray, David

234

Insect Tolerant Cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the 13 “biotech mega-countries” in the world, growing Bt cotton commercially since 2002 (http:\\/\\/www.isaaa.org\\/). Bollgard® hybrids were approved for commercial release in 2002, followed by Bollgard II® hybrids in 2006; these were followed\\u000a by Bt cotton hybrids with two other events. In this chapter, we discuss insect pests in cotton and insecticide resistance\\u000a in major cotton

S. Parimi; B. R. Char; R. K. Goravale; C. B. Chaporkar

235

The Control of Cotton Root Rot in the Blackland Region of Texas.  

E-print Network

Tillage 29 Soil Amendments for Root-rot Control ........................... 30 Increasing Yields of Susceptible Crops from the Use of Fertilizers . . 31 Plant Improvement and Root-rot Control ........................ 32 Literature cited... progressively increased the yield of cotton the less frequently this crop was grown. - It is also evident that the most outstanding increases in the yield of cotton were secured in the rotations in which cotton was used only 1,/3 and 114 of the time...

Rea, H. E. (Homer Earl)

1939-01-01

236

Indicators of Cotton Nitrogen Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) deficiency limits cotton yields, while too much N causes excessive vegetative growth hurting yields, wastes expensive inputs, and causes environmental pollution. Diagnostic indicators are needed to assess cotton N status so that yields can be optimized as efficiently as possible. This study evaluated selected tools for predicting cotton responses to N fertilizer application. Petiole nitrate (NO3)-N (PNN) concentration

Bob Wiedenfeld; B. Webb Wallace; Frank Hons

2009-01-01

237

Genome-Wide Functional Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in Response to Drought  

PubMed Central

Cotton is one of the most important crops for its natural textile fibers in the world. However, it often suffered from drought stress during its growth and development, resulting in a drastic reduction in cotton productivity. Therefore, study on molecular mechanism of cotton drought-tolerance is very important for increasing cotton production. To investigate molecular mechanism of cotton drought-resistance, we employed RNA-Seq technology to identify differentially expressed genes in the leaves of two different cultivars (drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6) of cotton. The results indicated that there are about 13.38% to 18.75% of all the unigenes differentially expressed in drought-resistant sample and drought-sensitive control, and the number of differentially expressed genes was increased along with prolonged drought treatment. DEG (differentially expression gene) analysis showed that the normal biophysical profiles of cotton (cultivar J-13) were affected by drought stress, and some cellular metabolic processes (including photosynthesis) were inhibited in cotton under drought conditions. Furthermore, the experimental data revealed that there were significant differences in expression levels of the genes related to abscisic acid signaling, ethylene signaling and jasmonic acid signaling pathways between drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6, implying that these signaling pathways may participate in cotton response and tolerance to drought stress. PMID:24260499

Feng, Li; Zheng, Yong; Li, Deng-Di; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-01-01

238

Mechanical Properties of Poly(Butylene Succinate) Reinforced with Continuously Steam-Exploded Cotton Stalk Bast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was reinforced by cotton stalk bast fibers (CSBF), which had been pretreated by the continuous steam explosion method. The influence of water content in CSBF during the explosion and fiber content on the mechanical properties of CSBF\\/PBS biocomposites was investigated. The results showed that the incorporation of CSBF decreased the tensile and impact strength, while significantly enhanced

Jin-ping Qu; Bin Tan; Yan-hong Feng; Song-xi Hu

2011-01-01

239

Fiber quality parameters and within-boll yield components of Gossypium arboreum L. putative mutant lines  

E-print Network

mean fiber length (UBM), fiber bundle strength, micronaire, and uniformity index. Lint yield components, using the ontogenetic yield model proposed by Worley et al. included: lint percentage (LP), seeds per boll (S/BOLL), seed cotton per seed (SC...

Naivar, Kevin Scott

2012-06-07

240

Fabrication of superhydrophobic/superoleophilic cotton for application in the field of water/oil separation.  

PubMed

Cotton with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties had been successfully fabricated for application in the field of oil/water separation by the combination of SiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fiber surface and subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane modification. The as-prepared cotton could be used to selectively absorb various common oils and organic solvents up to above 50 times of its own weight while repelling water completely. The absorbed oils were easily collected by a simple vacuum filtration, and the recovered cotton could be reused for several cycles while still keeping high absorption capacity. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton was simply spun into cloth, which not only could be tailored to the water-repellent clothing but also could be used in the oil/water separation filter system. The results presented in this work might provide a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the field of water/oil separation. PMID:24528757

Liu, Feng; Ma, Miaolian; Zang, Deli; Gao, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyu

2014-03-15

241

Darwin's finches combat introduced nest parasites with fumigated cotton.  

PubMed

Introduced parasites are a threat to biodiversity when naïve hosts lack effective defenses against such parasites [1]. Several parasites have recently colonized the Galápagos Islands, threatening native bird populations [2]. For example, the introduced parasitic nest fly Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) has been implicated in the decline of endangered species of Darwin's finches, such as the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) [3]. Here, we show that Darwin's finches can be encouraged to 'self-fumigate' nests with cotton fibers that have been treated with permethrin. Nests with permethrin-treated cotton had significantly fewer P. downsi than control nests, and nests containing at least one gram of cotton were virtually parasite-free. Nests directly fumigated with permethrin had fewer parasites and fledged more offspring than nests treated with water. PMID:24801182

Knutie, Sarah A; McNew, Sabrina M; Bartlow, Andrew W; Vargas, Daniela A; Clayton, Dale H

2014-05-01

242

Evidence of Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy in Unexplained, Juvenile-Onset, Widespread Pain Syndromes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. RESULTS: Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). CONCLUSIONS: More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23478869

Klein, Max M.

2013-01-01

243

BT COTTON REFUGE POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since cotton producers do not own legal rights to kill insect populations that are susceptible to insecticides, individual producers may have no incentive to account for future, insecticide-resistance productivity losses arising from their pest-management decisions. As a result, the collective actions of producers may increase the rate of resistance development relative to the rate that maximizes social welfare. Concerns regarding

Michael J. Livingston; Gerald A. Carlson; Paul L. Fackler

2000-01-01

244

Cotton Pickin' Good Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

Gentry, Carol

2000-01-01

245

Recent Advances And Future Prospective in Molecular Breeding of Cotton For Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) is a major product in the world economy. It is a botanically unique plant as it is a perennial allotetraploid derived from\\u000a diploid Gossypium species, one of which does not produce lint, which is grown as an annual row crop. Cotton is an especially appropriate system\\u000a for research into the molecular basis

Edward L. Lubbers; Peng W. Chee; Yehoshua Saranga; Andrew H. Paterson

246

Identification of trash types in ginned cotton using neuro fuzzy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of soft computing techniques such as neural networks and fuzzy logic based approaches in the identification of various types of trash (non-lint material\\/foreign matter) in ginned cotton. Lint is the cotton fiber; non-lint or foreign matter is everything other than lint. The effectiveness of a hybrid neuro-fuzzy structure, namely the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to classify trash

Murali Siddaiah; Michael A. Lieberman; Nadipuram R. Prasad

1999-01-01

247

Bollgard II cotton: compositional analysis and feeding studies of cottonseed from insect-protected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins.  

PubMed

Bollgard II cotton event 15985 producing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins has been developed by genetic modification to broaden the spectrum of insects to which the plant is tolerant and to provide an insect resistance management tool to impede the onset of resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition and nutrition of Bollgard II cotton, relative to the use for food and animal feed, compared to that of conventional cotton varieties. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure proximate, fiber, amino acid, fatty acid, gossypol, and mineral contents of cottonseed from a total of 14 U.S. field sites over two years. Compositional analysis results showed that the cottonseed and cottonseed oil from Bollgard II cotton were comparable in their composition to those of the conventional control cotton line and other commercial varieties. The composition data are supported by nutritional safety studies conducted with dairy cows, catfish, and quail. Results from these studies showed that Bollgard II performed similarly to the conventional control cotton varieties. These data demonstrate that Bollgard II cotton is compositionally and nutritionally equivalent to conventional cotton varieties. These data support the conclusion that Bollgard II cotton is as safe and nutritious as conventional cotton for food and feed use. PMID:15537305

Hamilton, Kathryn A; Pyla, Paul D; Breeze, Matthew; Olson, Tammy; Li, Menghe; Robinson, Edwin; Gallagher, Sean P; Sorbet, Roy; Chen, Yin

2004-11-17

248

Raw Cotton Requirements of Textile Mills: Implications for Southwestern Cotton.  

E-print Network

. . . . ..... .. ...-.--.-.-----..--.-.---------...---.-------- 9 .i.apendix Tables .. .. ...... ...-......-.....------------------ 12 I OTTON FUNDAnzalu AALLY IS USED as a raw material by C the textile industry. As such, it must compete in price and quality with other raw materials such as wool, flax... of producing and marketing southwestern I Textile Mill Survey ( In 1065, a study was conducted by the Southern I Rgional Cotton Marketing Research Committee to de- rrinine the qualities of cotton that mills were using, and hi. particalar cotton was being...

Graves, James W. (James Wilson)

1967-01-01

249

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

251

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2010-01-01

252

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

253

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

254

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

255

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

256

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

257

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2010-01-01

258

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

259

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

260

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

261

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

262

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

263

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2010-01-01

264

A study of pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of flame-retardant cotton fabrics by DSC, TGA, and PY–GC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of thermal decompositions of cotton and flame-retardant cotton fabrics can assist understanding of fire-resistant functions of the materials. In this research, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (PY–GC–MS) were employed to investigate decomposition processes and decomposed products of flame-retardant treated (using an organo-phosphorus compound) and untreated cotton fibers in the pyrolysis. The thermal decomposition

Ping Zhu; Shuying Sui; Bing Wang; Kai Sun; Gang Sun

2004-01-01

265

Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands.

Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-01-01

266

Bactericidal treatment of raw cotton as the method of byssinosis prevention.  

PubMed

In early studies, research to control byssinosis focused on methods to reduce the trash in the textile mill environment. Dust control has been effective in reducing the prevalence of byssinosis, but simple reduction in dust levels does not always assure its prevention. Also, bacteria and fungi present in cotton do not in themselves cause byssinosis, but the endotoxins-heat-stable lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes contained in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria-are responsible for the development of this respiratory disease of workers on cotton, flax, and some other fibers. Experimental work was carried out in cotton fields in different cotton growing countries. Opened cotton capsules were treated by spraying them with bactericidal water solutions of benzododecinium bromide to avoid the growth of bacteria by bacteriostatic effect during transportation and storage and thus to prevent the formation of endotoxins. To simulate transport conditions, treated and nontreated cotton samples were incubated under high air humidity. The endotoxin contents were determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay depending on the duration of incubation. In nontreated samples the endotoxin content grew to over 5,000 ng/mg. In comparison, in treated samples the endotoxin content grew extremely slowly. Thus, the bactericidal treating of raw cotton showed high efficiency as a potential method of byssinosis prevention. The irradiation by gamma-rays is also efficient, but it is not realistic in cotton growing areas of developing countries at the present time. PMID:12570400

Hend, I-M; Milnera, M; Milnera, S M

2003-01-01

267

Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.  

PubMed

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

268

Texas Guide for Growing Irrigated Cotton.  

E-print Network

IRRIGATED COTTON R. V. THURMOND JOHN BOX FRED C. ELLIOTT CXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER ASSISTANT EXTENSION AGRONOMIST EXTENSION COTTON WORK SPECIALIST -IRRIGATION- TEXAS A. M. COLLEGE SYSTEM THE SUCCESSFUL COTTON PRODUCER dependability of water... IRRIGATED COTTON R. V. THURMOND JOHN BOX FRED C. ELLIOTT CXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER ASSISTANT EXTENSION AGRONOMIST EXTENSION COTTON WORK SPECIALIST -IRRIGATION- TEXAS A. M. COLLEGE SYSTEM THE SUCCESSFUL COTTON PRODUCER dependability of water...

Elliott, Fred C.; Box, John; Thurmond, R.V.

1958-01-01

269

Cotton Harvest-Aid Chemicals.  

E-print Network

have label approval. For example, 2,4-D compounds are not approved for use with defoliants or dessicants in cotton. Since residue tolerances do not exist for 2,4-D compounds in cotton, serious action could occur if these residues were detected.... Treat only sufficient acreage to stay ahead of har vesting operations. If a second application is required, use a chemical with a different active ingredient to stay within the safe residue tolerance. When cotton reaches desired maturity, check...

Metzer, Robert B.; Supak, James

1987-01-01

270

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

SciTech Connect

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba 84105 (Israel); Bounioux, Celine [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Katz, Eugene A. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel [Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zussman, Eyal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-03-12

271

Pigments of cotton flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The flower petals of the Uppam cotton plant (G. herbaceum) contain as their main components gossypitrin and quercetin. An appreciable quantity of a new glycosidic pigment and a small\\u000a quantity of gossypetin were also isolated. Uppam petals, therefore, differ in their composition from those ofG. herbaceum examined by Perkin who probably obtained his supply of the petals from the North

K. Neelakantam; T. R. Seshadri; R. H. Ramachandra Rao

1935-01-01

272

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

in the cotton-belt states, usually do not contain large amounts of organic matter, because the high temperatures and favorable moisture conditions lead to the rapid decomposition of the organic matter. Under these conditions, the processes of decay... only, the cowpeas receiving the residual effects of the fertilizer. The cowpeas have been harvested for seed and the vines plowed under for soil improvement. The average annual rainfall at Nacogdoehes during the 19 years, 1913 to 1931, inclusive...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

273

Bronze Wilt of Cotton  

E-print Network

,? ?red wilt? and ?antho- cyanosis? in other countries. The disease occurs on short-season varieties of Upland and Pima cotton. Bronze wilt was first recognized as a problem in Mississippi and Louisiana in 1995, and in Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee and North... State University, Texas A&M University, University of Tennessee, Texas Cooperative Extension, University of Tennessee, University of Missouri, and University of Arkansas. Table 1. Stages of development, or levels of severity, of Bronze Wilt. Stage...

Bell, Alois A.; Nichols, Robert L.; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-02-12

274

The Economic Effectiveness of the Cotton Checkoff Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of the marketing\\/promotion, nonagricultural research, and agricultural research activities associated with the cotton checkoff program over the period of 1986\\/87 through 2004\\/05. The analysis is based on a multi-equation, econometric, non-spatial, price equilibrium simulation model of U.S. and foreign fiber markets using annual data. The key average annual impacts of the

Oral Capps Jr.; Gary W. Williams

2006-01-01

275

Insect resistant cotton plants.  

PubMed

We have expressed truncated forms of the insect control protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1(cryIA(b) and HD-73 (cryIA(c) in cotton plants at levels that provided effective control of agronomically important lepidopteran insect pests. Total protection from insect damage of leaf tissue from these plants was observed in laboratory assays when tested with two lepidopteran insects, an insect relatively sensitive to the B.t.k. insect control protein, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) and an insect that is 100 fold less sensitive, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). Whole plants, assayed under conditions of high insect pressure with Heliothis zea (cotton bollworm) showed effective square and boll protection. Immunological analysis of the cotton plants indicated that the insect control protein represented 0.05% to 0.1% of the total soluble protein. We view these results as a major step towards the agricultural use of genetically modified plants with insect resistance in this valuable, high acreage crop. PMID:1366777

Perlak, F J; Deaton, R W; Armstrong, T A; Fuchs, R L; Sims, S R; Greenplate, J T; Fischhoff, D A

1990-10-01

276

Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2013-01-01

277

New Discovery in the Properties of Composites Reinforced with Natural Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials with thermoplastic matrices and a reinforcement of natural fibers are increasingly regarded as an alternative to glass fiber-reinforced composites. The substitution of the traditionally used reinforcing glass fibers by natural fibers such as flax, kenaf, or cotton can lead to a reduction of the component’s weight and furthermore to a significant improvement of specific properties like impact strength,

Dieter H. Mueller; Andreas Krobjilowski

2003-01-01

278

29The Journal of Cotton Science 10:2938 (2006) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2006  

E-print Network

29The Journal of Cotton Science 10:29­38 (2006) http://journal.cotton.org, © The Cotton Foundation 2006 BREEDING AND GENETICS Predicting Intron Sites by Aligning Cotton ESTs with Arabidopsis Genomic DNA Sciences, Coastal Plains Experiment Station, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA 31794; A. H. Paterson, Plant

Chee, Peng W.

279

Wide-cross whole-genome radiation hybrid (WWRH) mapping and identification of cold-responsive genes using oligo-gene microarray analysis in cotton  

E-print Network

-gene microarray analysis. Increased cold-tolerance in cotton would promote early and uniform seedling establishment, expand the growing season, decrease susceptibility to fungal infections and certain diseases, and increase fiber yield and quality. BLAST searches...

Gao, Wenxiang

2005-02-17

280

Mali: Beyond Cotton? Searching for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malian economy faces the challenge of reducing its over-dependence on cotton and gold. In order to do so, a search for “green gold” — commercial agriculture beyond cotton — is underway. Mali has started to exploit export market opportunities for horticulture products in Europe as well as in neighbouring countries. Moreover, the country is currently testing the introduction of

Yoshiko Matsumoto-Izadifar

2009-01-01

281

Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets.

Rohit Singla; Phillip N. Johnson; Sukant K. Misra

2010-01-01

282

Measuring the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to India's cotton yields leap  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of empirical studies have demonstrated the role of Bt cotton adoption in increasing Indian cotton productivity at the farm level, there has been questioning around the overall contribution of Bt cotton to the average cotton yield increase observed these last ten years in India. This study examines the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to long- term average

Guillaume P. Gruere; Yan Sun

2012-01-01

283

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2011-01-01

284

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2014-01-01

285

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2013-01-01

286

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2013-01-01

287

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2012-01-01

288

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2012-01-01

289

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2010-01-01

290

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2010-01-01

291

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2011-01-01

292

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2014-01-01

293

IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Nitrogen on Cotton Now is the time to apply N to produce a bale of cotton. There may be as much as 20-50 lbs/A of soil residual nitrate N available

Watson, Craig A.

294

Biogas production potential from cotton wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of three different cotton wastes namely, cotton stalks, cotton seed hull and cotton oil cake were determined in batch reactors. In addition, the effects of nutrient and trace metal supplementation were also investigated. To this purpose biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were performed for two different waste concentrations, namely 30 and 60g\\/l. The

A. Isci; G. N. Demirer

2007-01-01

295

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section 1205.342... Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer...

2010-01-01

296

Cotton Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

. In the humid parts of the State, several cultivations usually are needed to control weeds. r cultivations are required in the subhumid areas. Cultivation and hand hoeing are the principal meth- ~f controlling weeds in cotton. Rotary hoeing, the use of weed...-control chemicals and flame cultivation are j~~~~lernen tary practices. Rotary hoeing probably is the most widely used supplementary weed-control prac- tice in Texas. Many of the soils in Texas respond to fertilizers, but, where the average yearly rainfall...

Reynolds, E. B.

1959-01-01

297

Fabrication of super-repellent cotton textiles with rapid reversible wettability switching of diverse liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By in situ introducing polyaniline (PANI) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to cotton fibers, normally hydrophilic and oleophilic cotton textile has easily turned superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic. This super-repellent cotton fabric exhibits a high contact angle (>150°) and low contact angle hysteresis, even with liquids possessing significantly low surface tension. The water or oil repellent property is ascribed to the combination of a dual-size surface roughness and low-surface-energy material. In particular, a reversible wettability switching of various low-surface-tension liquids on the PANI-fabric can be simultaneously observed, when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with sodium hydroxide via a simple dipping method. This transition can be explained by the conversion of fluorine content and hydrophilic groups on the surface during the doping/dedoping process. Besides, this doping polymerization and dedoping process can slightly affect the mechanical strength of the cotton fabrics, even with harsh chemicals like acid and base.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhu, Xiaotao

2013-07-01

298

Use of ultrasonic energy in the enzymatic treatment of cotton fabric  

SciTech Connect

Application of enzymes in the textile industry is becoming increasingly popular because of mild processing conditions and the capability for replacing harsh organic/inorganic chemicals. The combination of ultrasound with conventional enzymatic treatment of cotton offers significant advantages such as less consumption of expensive enzymes, shorter processing time, less fiber damage, and better uniformity of enzymatic treatment. Laboratory research has shown that introduction of ultrasonic energy during enzymatic treatment resulted in significant improvement in the performance of cellulase enzyme (CELLUSOFT L). It was established that ultrasound does not inactivate the complex structure of the enzyme molecules and weight loss of cotton fabric sonicated and treated with cellulase enzyme increased up to 25--35%. The experimental data indicate that the maximum benefit provided by sonification occurs at relatively low enzyme concentrations. Ultrasonic energy significantly intensified the enzymatic treatment of the cotton fabrics but did not contribute to a decrease in tensile strength of the cotton textiles.

Yachmenev, V.G.; Blanchard, E.J.; Lambert, A.H. [Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-10-01

299

Emergence of minor pests becoming major pests in GE cotton in China: what are the reasons? What are the alternatives practices to this change of status?  

PubMed

A recent study in China by Lu et al.(1) shows that populations of an occasional cotton pest, mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae), increased following the introduction of genetically engineered (GE) cotton plants. The GE cotton produces a delta-endotoxin from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control the cotton bollworm. Before the introduction of Bt cotton in China, mirid bugs were usually controlled by broad-spectrum pesticide sprays targeted against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the most important pest of cotton in China. The effectiveness of the control of H. armigera by Bt cotton cultivation has resulted in a decrease in the amount of insecticides used on Bt cotton compared to conventional cotton. This has led to a lack of control of mirids on Bt cotton due to the reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use and consequently to a transformation of a minor pest to a main one. We discuss the scientific evidence available in the literature of this phenomenon. We examine the reasons of the emergence of minor pests to become major pests in Bt cotton in China and possible solutions to this change of status. PMID:21844676

Bergé, Jean Baptiste; Ricroch, Agnès Evelyne

2010-01-01

300

Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin

2014-04-01

301

Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))

1989-04-01

302

Screening upland cotton for resistance to cotton fleahopper (Heteroptera: Miridae)  

E-print Network

with trichome density, trichome length and their angles of insertion also contribute toward jassid resistance (Parnell et al., 1945). However, it has also been reported that not all hairy cotton are resistant to jassids (Parnell, 1925; Husain, 1938; Husain... with trichome density, trichome length and their angles of insertion also contribute toward jassid resistance (Parnell et al., 1945). However, it has also been reported that not all hairy cotton are resistant to jassids (Parnell, 1925; Husain, 1938; Husain...

Mekala, Diwakar Karthik

2004-11-15

303

Evidence of altered epidermal nerve fiber morphology in adults with self-injurious behavior and neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the morphology and neuropeptide density of epidermal nerve fibers quantified through skin biopsy samples from three adults with neurodevelopmental disorders and chronic self-injurious behavior (SIB) secondary to mental retardation compared with non-SIB normal IQ controls. A cross-sectional design was used with 3 mm punch skin biopsies collected from each participant from non-self-injurious body sites and compared with site-matched existing normal control skin samples. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. The primary dependent measure for the morphology analyses was the coefficient of variation (CV) to quantify the mean gap length between epidermal nerve fibers for each subject. Visual microscopic examination and quantitative analysis of the microscopy images suggested there were morphological abnormalities (increased CV) in the epidermal nerve fibers among the chronic SIB cases. Substance P (SP) fiber density was increased with 2 to 3 times as many fibers in SIB subjects as control subjects. Additional empirical work is needed to clarify the relation between sensory innervation of the skin and self-injury to improve assessment and treatment outcomes. PMID:17850969

Symons, Frank J.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William; Hardrict, Ronald; Dahl, Norm; Bodfish, James W.

2012-01-01

304

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2011-01-01

305

7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2010-01-01

307

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2014-01-01

308

7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton...

2013-01-01

309

7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton...

2012-01-01

310

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2013-01-01

311

7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2012-01-01

312

7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section 27.43...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2010-01-01

313

7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section 27.44...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2011-01-01

314

7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton...

2012-01-01

315

7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton...

2010-01-01

316

7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton...

2013-01-01

317

7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton...

2011-01-01

318

7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton...

2011-01-01

319

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2013-01-01

320

7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.  

... 2014-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton...

2014-01-01

321

7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.  

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2014-01-01

322

7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2010-01-01

323

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

...2014-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2014-01-01

324

7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section 27.44...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2010-01-01

325

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2011-01-01

326

7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section 27.44...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2014-01-01

327

7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section 27.43...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2012-01-01

328

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2012-01-01

329

7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2011-01-01

330

7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section 27.43...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2014-01-01

331

7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section 27.44...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2013-01-01

332

7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton...

2010-01-01

333

7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.  

...2014-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton...

2014-01-01

334

7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section 27.43...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2011-01-01

335

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2012-01-01

336

7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section 27.44...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2012-01-01

337

7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section 27.43...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton...

2013-01-01

338

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...heating by fire, or on account of water packing, or by other causes...including the Plus grades), Light Gray Cotton, and Gray Cotton shall constitute one color...constitute a color group. (h) Water-packed cotton. Cotton in...

2013-01-01

339

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...heating by fire, or on account of water packing, or by other causes...including the Plus grades), Light Gray Cotton, and Gray Cotton shall constitute one color...constitute a color group. (h) Water-packed cotton. Cotton in...

2012-01-01

340

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...heating by fire, or on account of water packing, or by other causes...including the Plus grades), Light Gray Cotton, and Gray Cotton shall constitute one color...constitute a color group. (h) Water-packed cotton. Cotton in...

2011-01-01

341

Smoking and cotton dust effects in cotton textile workers.  

PubMed

Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns compared with control subjects. Similar abnormal patterns may occur with respiratory diseases of other etiologies, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. To better evaluate the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure and to contrast them with those of cigarette smoking, we defined a new functional parameter (angle beta) related to the shape of the MEFV curve. We compared 477 cotton textile workers, both current smokers and never smokers, 45 years and older, with 932 similarly aged control subjects from three communities. Smokers, regardless of their occupational exposure or sex, have smaller beta values than nonsmokers. Cotton textile workers, despite a greater prevalence of abnormal lung function, have beta values that do not differ from those of persons without occupational exposure to cotton dust. We suggest that morphologic patterns of flow volume curves reflect separate effects of cotton dust exposure and smoking and may be related to different sites of airway injury. PMID:2707092

Schachter, E N; Kapp, M C; Beck, G J; Maunder, L R; Witek, T J

1989-05-01

342

Silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromised cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide and serves as a significant source of fiber, feed, foodstuff, oil and biofuel products. Considerable effort in genetics and genomics has been expended to increase sustainable yield and quality through molecular breeding and genetic engineering of new cotton cultivars. With the effort of whole genome sequencing of cotton, it is essential to develop molecular tools and resources for large-scale analysis of gene functions at the genome-wide level. We have successfully established an Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay in several cotton cultivars with different genetic backgrounds. The genes of interest were potently and readily silenced within 2 weeks after inoculation at the seedling stage. Importantly, we showed that silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromised cotton resistance to the infection by Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing Verticillium wilt. Furthermore, we established a cotton protoplast system for transient gene expression to study gene functions by a gain-of-function approach. The viable protoplasts were isolated from green cotyledons, etiolated cotyledons, and true leaves, and responded to a wide range of pathogen elicitors and phytohormones. Remarkably, cotton plants possess conserved, but also distinct MAP kinase activation with Arabidopsis upon bacterial elicitor flagellin perception. Thus, we demonstrated that GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 are required for Verticillium resistance in cotton using gene silencing assays, and established the high throughput loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays for functional genomic studies in cotton. PMID:21219508

Gao, Xiquan; Wheeler, Terry; Li, Zhaohu; Kenerley, Charles M.; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

2011-01-01

343

ECONOMICS & MARKETING Ethanol's Effect on the U.S. Cotton Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly expanding ethanol industry is significantly impacting agricultural markets in the United States. While the most direct effects of this biofuel boom are being seen in corn and soybean markets, the objective of this study is to estimate the effects on the U.S. cotton industry. Using a partial equilibrium econometric model of the world fiber market developed at Texas

M. Welch; S. Pan; S. Mohanty; M. Fadiga

344

Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton, one of the world’s leading crops, is important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070

2013-01-01

345

Gas-exchange properties of developing cotton fruit  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted to document the photosynthetic and respiratory properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruit during ontogeny. Dark respiration by the developing boll averaged {minus}18.7 {mu}mol per meter squared per second for the first six days after anthesis and gradually declined to less than 16% of this value after 40 days. Diurnal patterns of respiration were age dependent and closely correlated with stomatal conductance of the capsule wall. Stomata of young fruit were highly responsive to diurnal signals but lost this capacity with increasing age. Radio-labeled carbon dioxide injected into the fruit was rapidly assimilated by the outer capsule wall in the light, while fiber and seed fixed significant carbon-14 activity in both the light and dark. These data indicate that cotton fruit are sites of carbon dioxide evolution, but also serve a role in the reassimilation of carbon dioxide and thereby, function as important sources of assimilate for reproductive development.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA))

1990-05-01

346

Pressing the nerve alters muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus in rats: Preliminary evidence for external anal sphincteroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have demonstrated that anal reconstruction with a gracilis graft pressing the dominant nerve could be used to treat fecal incontinence. However, the detailed mechanism by this remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated the alteration in muscle fiber types and contractility of the peroneus longus muscle in rats after pressing its dominant nerves. Material/Methods The rat soleus and peroneus longus were exposed during surgery. The superficial peroneal nerve was pressed so that the peroneus longus temporarily lost its innervation. The epimysium between the soleus and the peroneus longus was removed. The end point of the soleus was cut off and the epimysium of the contact surfaces of the soleus and the peroneus longus were sutured. Five months later, peroneus longus contractility was recorded by the myograph system, and types of muscle fibers were observed using the myosin ATPase staining method. Results The skeletal muscle fiber type underwent adaptive changes due to double innervations with both fast and slow muscle nerves. Compared with other groups, the percentage of type I fibers in the peroneus longus increased significantly in the group of rats with the pressure on the nerve and removal of the sarcolemma. The maximal contraction and relaxation time at the single twitch and complete tetanus of the peroneus longus were also increased. Conclusions Our results show that pressing dominant nerves alter the skeletal muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus, which lead to increased maximal contraction and relaxation time, and significantly improve the ability in resistance to fatigue in rats. This study provides a basis for future clinical studies for external anal sphincter reconstruction using gracilis grafts that are doubly innervated by pressing on its dominant nerve. PMID:24807024

Shi, Song; Liu, Hao; Bai, Xiaobin; Cao, Yongxiao

2014-01-01

347

Fibers as renewable resources for industrial materials. [Review and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents include: the pulp, paper and paperboard industry (assessment of the industry, some factors affecting the industry, enhancement of availability and utility of materials with reduction in costs, enhanced role of renewable fiber resources--an overview of product substitution, identification of educational roles and needs, and recommended research--its costs and returns and time schedules); plant fibers other than wood and cotton;

1976-01-01

348

In situ sonosynthesis of nano TiO2 on cotton fabric.  

PubMed

Here, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) were sonosynthesized and loaded simultaneously onto the cotton fabric. Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and ultrasonic irradiation was utilized as a tool for synthesis of TiO2 in low temperature with anatase structure and loading nanoparticles onto the cotton fabric. TiO2 loaded cotton fabric was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, and XRF. Moreover, several properties of the treated cotton fabrics such as self-cleaning, UV protection, washing durability, and tensile strength were studied. The effect of variables, including TTIP concentration and sonication time, was investigated based on central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The results confirmed formation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with 3-6 nm crystalline size loaded onto the cotton fabric at low temperature (75 °C) that led to good self-cleaning and UV-protection properties. The excellent UV-protection rating of the treated fabric maintained even after 25 home launderings indicating an excellent washing durability. Interestingly, sonochemical method had no negative influence on the cotton fabric structure. The statistical analysis indicated significant effect of both TTIP concentration and sonication time on the content of the loaded TiO2 on the fiber and self-cleaning properties of the fabric. PMID:24152573

Akhavan Sadr, Farid; Montazer, Majid

2014-03-01

349

SUMMER JOB: Job Title: Cotton Scout  

E-print Network

to work 30-40 hrs/wk over the summer (hours may be flexible) -Personal vehicle - Pickup truck or SUV Description: Cotton scouts will aid in conducting the Williamson/Milam County Cotton IPM program by scouting

Behmer, Spencer T.

350

Comparison of Different Methods of Harvesting Cotton.  

E-print Network

was significant, especially for the longer staple cottons. Relatively small differences were found in piclter and card waste content between the hancl-snapped samples and the machine-harvested samples of the short staple cottons. Method of harvesting had... was significant, especially for the longer staple cottons. Relatively small differences were found in piclter and card waste content between the hancl-snapped samples and the machine-harvested samples of the short staple cottons. Method of harvesting had...

Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1946-01-01

351

Cotton in India: Analysis of Differing Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to investigate the performance of Indian cotton sector and impact of economic and biological factors on acreage and yield of cotton in the major cotton growing states of the country using time series secondary data. The results indicate that the cotton production in the country increased significantly (2.37% per annum) between 1951-52 and 1995-96, largely as a

Vijay Paul Sharma

352

Variation in trash composition in raw cottons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw cotton from 4 machine picked varieties and 2 machine stripped varieties is examined by stereomicroscope and bright-field microscopy for presence of plant trash (bract, leaf, stem, seed, boll, and weed fragments—size range 841-2000??m) that gives rise to cotton dust during yarn manufacturing operations. Bract was found to be the major trash component in all raw cottons examined. Cotton leaf

P. R. MOREY; P. E. SASSER; R. M. BETHEA; M. T. KOPETZKY

1976-01-01

353

Updated 1-14 Cheryl J. Cotton  

E-print Network

Updated 1-14 Cheryl J. Cotton Director, Resource Management Division Deputy Chief of Naval and Bureau of Naval Personnel Comptroller, Dr. Cotton is responsible for the programming, budgeting, executing, and accounting of approximately $32 billion in Department of the Navy resources. Dr. Cotton

354

A noninvasive skin imaging system Symon Cotton  

E-print Network

A noninvasive skin imaging system Symon Cotton School of Computer Science, University Of Birmingham arriving at a diagnosis. A previous paper [Cotton and Claridge 1996] presented a model of colour formation­dimensional colour space, is limited to a curved surface [Cotton and Claridge 1996]. As abnormal skin often has a di

Claridge, Ela

355

Cotton Worms - I.D. Guide  

E-print Network

Cotton producers and scouts can use this handy guide to identifying the most common "worms found in cotton. This shirt-pocket-size, laminated card features close-up color photos of cotton bollworm-tobacco budworm, fall armyworm, beet armyworm...

Bynum, Jr.; Edsel,Byrns; Steve,Fuchs; Thomas W.,Minzenmayer; Rick,Multer; Warren

2006-04-17

356

FUTURE POTENTIAL OF BRAZILIAN COTTON EXPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Acreage Allocation model of the type developed by Holt (1999) is applied to the four most important Brazilian field crops (cotton, soybeans, corn and rice) in Brazil's new and expanding cotton producing states of Mato Grosso and Goais. Cotton acreage response to additional field crop land (scale effect) and own and cross crop price elasticities are estimated. Results indicate

L. Vado; D. Willis; S. Mohanty

357

Impact of Bt Cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 283 cotton farmers in Northern China was surveyed in December 1999. Farmers that used cotton engineered to produce the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin substantially reduced the use of pesticide without reducing the output\\/ha or quality of cotton. This resulted in substantial economic benefits for small farmers. Consumers did not benefit directly. Farmers obtained the major share of

Jikun Huang; Fangbin Qiao

2001-01-01

358

Sugar Uptake by Cotton Tissues  

PubMed Central

The tissue accumulation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose has been studied in cultured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots and leaf discs. Sucrose uptake by both tissues from high apoplastic concentrations was independent of pH but has a slightly acidic pH optimum from low concentrations. Like other higher plant tissues, cotton root cells accumulate sucrose via a `saturable,' inhibitor-sensitive mechanism and a linear, inhibitor-resistant mechanism. The linear mechanism of sucrose uptake is not as pronounced in leaf disc data as it is in root data. Further, sucrose uptake by cotton leaf discs is more resistant than uptake by root cells to pH alterations, inhibitors, and monosaccharides in the uptake medium. The saturable phase of sucrose influx into cotton root is eliminated by glucose, fructose, and high pH. Sucrose influx into both tissues is not altered by osmotica up to 200 milliOsmolar. Sucrose accumulated by both tissues is rapidly converted to other chemical forms, especially in root tissue where only approximately 50% remains as neutral sugars 1 hour following the start of radiolable exposure. Although the entry of radiolabeled sucrose is faster in abraded leaf discs, they give the same response patterns to pH, inhibitors, and monosaccharide as do unabraded discs. The sucrose accumulation kinetics of cotton roots and leaf discs differ. These differences may be related to the physiological roles (source versus sink) of the two tissues in the intact plant. PMID:16663371

Hendrix, Donald L.

1984-01-01

359

Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp.), including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii) or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs) for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2) in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA), before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for cotton improvement via modern marker-assisted selection strategies. PMID:20565911

2010-01-01

360

The Effect of Cleaning on the Grade, Staple and Price of Cotton.  

E-print Network

-picked cotton contains the least foreign matter followed by machine-picked, snapped and machine-stripped. The greatest difference in amounts of foreign matter is usually found between hand-picked and each of the other methods. More and better mechanical... and small amount of short or broken fibers. There are EFFECT OF CLEANING ON GRADE, STAPLE AND PRICE OF COTTON 7 only occasional bits of foreign matter visible after the lint has twice passed through this cleaning device. The cleaned amples, for which...

Grimes, Mary Anna

1950-01-01

361

Analysis of the effects of catalytic bleaching on cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide can be catalyzed to bleach cotton fibers at temperatures as low as 30°C by incorporating dinuclear tri-?-oxo\\u000a bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) as the catalyst in the bleaching\\u000a solution. The catalytic system was found to be more selective under the conditions applied than the non-catalytic H2O2 system, showing better bleaching performance while causing slightly lower

Tatjana Topalovic; Vincent A. Nierstrasz; Lorenzo Bautista; Dragan Jocic; Antonio Navarro; Marijn M. C. G. Warmoeskerken

2007-01-01

362

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St... it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

363

Graphene oxide nanostructures modified multifunctional cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of cotton fabrics using graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures was reported. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations revealed that the GO nanostructure was coated onto the cotton fabric. The molecular level interaction between the graphene oxide and the cotton fabric is studied in detail using the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GO loaded cotton fabrics have enhanced thermal stability compared to the bare cotton fabrics. The photocatalytic activity of the GO-coated cotton fabrics was investigated by measuring the photoreduction of resazurin (RZ) into resorufin (RF) under UV light irradiation. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the results indicated that the GO-coated cotton fabrics are more toxic towards the Gram-positive ones. Our results provide a way to develop graphene oxide-based devices for the biomedical applications for improving health care.

Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Navaneethaiyer, Umasuthan; Mohan, Rajneesh; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Sang-Jae

2012-06-01

364

Plant Responses of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton to Nitrogen Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production technology in the Mississippi River Delta region include drill planting cotton. Production systems that include drill planting cotton are referred to as ultra narrow row (UNR). Ultra narrow row cotton production is a low input system designed to maximize economic returns. Cotton grown under UNR systems is generally lower yielding and lower

J. S. McConnell; P. B. Francis; C. R. Stark; R. E. Glover

2008-01-01

365

Voltammetric measurements at the surface of cotton: absorption and catalase reactivity of a dinuclear manganese complex.  

PubMed

Voltammetric measurements at the surface of cotton fabric were conducted after impregnating the surface of the textile with graphite flakes. The resulting conducting surface contact was connected to a conventional basal plane pyrolytic graphite substrate electrode and employed both in stagnant solution and in rotating disc voltammetry mode. Diffusion through the immobilized cotton sample (inter-fiber) is probed with the aqueous Fe(CN)6(4-/3-) redox system. With a small amount of platinum immobilized at the cotton surface, catalase reactivity toward hydrogen peroxide was observed and used to further quantify the diffusion (intra- and inter-fiber) into the reactive zone at the graphite-cotton interface. A well-known catalase model system, the dinuclear manganese metal complex [Mn(IV)2(micro-O)3L2](PF6)2 (with L=1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane), is investigated in aqueous 0.1 M carbonate buffer at pH 9.8 in contact with cotton fabric. Absorption of the metal complex is monitored and quantified by voltammetric methods. A Langmurian binding constant of approximately K=2x103 M-1 was determined. Voltammetric measurements of the adsorbed metal complex reveal strong absorption and chemically irreversible reduction characteristics similar to those observed in solution. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, catalyst coverage dependent anodic catalase activity was observed approximately following the rate law rate=k[catalyst]surface[H2O2]solution and with k=3x104 dm3 s-1 mol-1. The catalyst reactivity was modified by the presence of cotton. PMID:17279720

Marken, Frank; Taylor, James E; Bonné, Michael J; Helton, Matthew E; Parry, Matthew L; McKee, Vickie

2007-02-13

366

Natural Lignocellulosic Fibers as Engineering Materials—An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations on the tensile properties of natural cellulose-based fibers revealed an increasing potential as engineering materials. This is particularly the case of very thin fibers of some species such as sisal, ramie, and curaua. However, several other commonly used fibers such as flax, jute, hemp, coir, cotton, and bamboo as well as less known bagasse, piassava, sponge gourde, and buriti display tensile properties that could qualify them as engineering materials. An overview of the strength limits attained by these fibers is presented. Based on a tensile strength vs density chart, it is shown that natural fibers stand out as a relevant class of engineering materials.

Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lopes, Felipe Perissé Duarte; Barbosa, Anderson Paula; Bevitori, Alice Barreto; Silva, Isabela Leão Amaral Da; Costa, Lucas Lopes Da

2011-10-01

367

A Comparative Analysis of Production and Marketing of Bt Cotton and Hybrid Cotton in Saurashtra Region of Gujarat State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study has revealed that the total cost per hectare is higher in Bt cotton than hybrid cotton. The cost of seeds has been found higher in Bt cotton, whereas hybrid cotton growers incur more cost on insecticides\\/ pesticides. This shows the effectiveness of the new technology (Bt cotton) for insect resistance. The average total cost of production as well

H. R. Visawadia; A. M. Fadadu; V. D. Tarpara

2006-01-01

368

Influences of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cotton Planting on Population Dynamics of the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inßuence of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton on population dynamics of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, was investigated during 1999 Ð2000 in northern China. The Þeld experiments were conducted in plots of Bt cotton and conventional cotton that received no insecticide applications, and in plots of conventional cotton in which pyrethroid and organophosphate insecti- cides were used regularly for

Kongming Wu; Yuyuan Guo

2003-01-01

369

Welcome to Cotton Mills At Cotton Mills, we believe your accommodation should help you make the most of your  

E-print Network

Welcome to Cotton Mills At Cotton Mills, we believe your accommodation should help you make to an amazing �1,200 per annum. Cotton Mills is fully certificated by: Cotton Mills is fully certificated. Cotton Mills is conveniently located on Radford Boulevard, right next to Norton Court (NTU accommodation

Evans, Paul

370

CRADA No. BNL-C-97-10 between BNL and Cotton, Inc. Final abstract and final report [Final Report of Research carried out under DOE CRADA No. BNL-C-97-10 - "Prediction of Yield in Cotton"  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were to determine if the numbér of fiber cell initials varied genetically and to compare the number of initials with that of mature fibers obtained at harvest time. The method used to count the number of fiber cell initials is direct, simple, quick and done while the plant is growing. In contrast, the currently used commercial process is indirect and needs large amount mature fibers gathered at harvest time. However, all current work on cotton yield is based on fiber numbers obtained by the indirect commercial process. Consequently, it was necessary to compare results obtained from the two methods using the same plants as the source of material. The results show that the number of fiber initials per ovule differed significantly (P>0.05) for seven cultivars in 1995 and 1996. AIso, a 1997 study shows the number of fiber initials varied by 15% over boll positions and environments, with rankings among cultivars generally consistent across boll positions and sampling times. Finally, although there were differences among cultivars for initial fiber cell number, all cultivars had nearly the same number of mature lint fibers per seed. This last finding is significant. It indicates that the rate of fiber cell initiation varies among cultivars; the lower the rate, the greater the difference between the number of initials and the number of mature fiber cells. If the rate of fiber initiation is relatively high, the number of initials and mature fibers differs by about 11%; if it is low, the difference is as high as 31%. Cotton breeders may be able to use genetic differences for the number of fiber initials and/or the rate of fiber cell initiation in crop improvement programs.

none,

2000-01-03

371

78 FR 39551 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending...cotton and the cotton content of imported products...cotton and the cotton content of imported products...research, Cotton, Marketing agreements,...

2013-07-02

372

Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-healing Wound  

SciTech Connect

A comparative examination of two methods, the classical- and chromatographic, commonly used to study adsorption isotherms is presented. Both methods were used to study the solid/liquid interface of two different derivatives of cotton fiber and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Castro, Nathan J.; Goheen, Steven C.

2005-12-01

373

Relationships between differential gene expression and heterosis in cotton hybrids developed from the foundation parent CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines.  

PubMed

CRI-12, an Upland cotton variety with high yield, elite fiber quality and disease resistance, is further characterized by its high heritability, combining ability and genetic stability. CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines were used to develop increased heterosis cotton hybrids, including CRI-28, CRI-29, XZM 2 and Jimian18. CRI-12 was chosen as the cotton foundation parent and analyzed by gene differential expressions between hybrids and their corresponding parents at seedling, squaring and flowering stages. The following approaches were considered the most viable candidates to elucidate the molecular basis of CRI-12: cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (cDNA-AFLPs), gene differential expression ratios, and vegetative growth heterosis and yield heterosis for correlation analysis. The results indicated that CRI-12 plays a predominant role in vegetative heterosis in CRI-28, CRI-29 and Jimian18 hybrids at the seedling and squaring stages; the percentage of dominant expression in single parents was greater than other patterns; downregulated expression in single parents was higher than upregulated expression in hybrids, and downregulated expression in hybrids was the lowest of the four patterns in the three growth stage cumulative totals. The gene differential expression ratio of hybrids and parents varied for the three growth stages, suggesting gene differential expression changes over time. Further analysis of differential gene expression ratios, vegetative growth and yield heterosis correlation revealed upregulated expression in hybrids were correlated with vegetative heterosis at the seedling and squaring stages, which play an important role in yield heterosis at the flowering stage. Downregulated expression in the maternal parent (CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines) suggested benefits in vegetative heterosis at the squaring stage, but a possible hybrid yield decrease at the flowering stage. These results provided evidence that CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines express genes integral for heterosis in CRI-28, CRI-29 and Jimian18. PMID:21421364

Zhu, Xinxia; Ainijiang; Zhang, Yuanming; Guo, Wangzen; Zhang, Tian-Zhen

2011-02-01

374

Stimulation and release of prostaglandins and thromboxane from macrophages by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

Decreases in the ventilation capacity of human lungs following the inspiration of cotton dust correlates more closely with the concentration of endotoxin in the dust than with any other parameter measured thus far. A lipopolysaccharide isolated from the endotoxin of Enterobacter agglomerans, a common bacterial contaminant of cotton fiber, stimulated isolated rat macrophages to produce and release prostaglandins 6 keto-PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2, PGA2, and PGB2 and thromboxane B2. If in vivo human pulmonary macrophages respond in a similar fashion by releasing these arachidonic acid metabolites or their immediate precursors in response to stimulation by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharides, some of the acute pulmonary changes observed in humans following inspiration of cotton dust could be caused by increased release of these biologically active compounds. Daily release of arachidonic acid metabolites at concentrations significantly above normal homeostatic levels could produce some of the pathophysiologic pulmonary changes observed in byssinotics. This paper reports the results of an experiment to quantitate arachidonic acid metabolite production following macrophage stimulation by E. agglomerans lipopolysaccharide. Procedures are described for the stimulation of macrophages by cotton dust associated lipopolysaccharide, for the separation and identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for the quantification of those products by radioisotope techniques. PMID:2270833

Elissalde, M H; Beier, R C

1990-12-01

375

Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.  

PubMed

Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. PMID:25128346

Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

2014-11-01

376

7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205...Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization...

2010-01-01

377

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205...Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316 Cotton-Producer organization. Cotton-Producer organization means any organization...

2010-01-01

378

75 FR 23300 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-101 (Third Review)] Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY...the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China...the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China...

2010-05-03

379

7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23...

2012-01-01

380

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2011-01-01

381

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. ...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2012-01-01

383

7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of...

2010-01-01

384

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2014-01-01

385

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2011-01-01

386

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2011-01-01

387

7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

388

7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative...

2013-01-01

389

7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of...

2013-01-01

390

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

391

7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2013-01-01

392

7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program §...

2010-01-01

393

7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

394

7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9...

2012-01-01

395

7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification...

2010-01-01

396

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2013-01-01

397

7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2013-01-01

398

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2013-01-01

399

7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

400

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2014-01-01

401

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

402

7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.  

... 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of...

2014-01-01

403

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2011-01-01

404

7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9...

2010-01-01

405

7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed...

2014-01-01

406

7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of...

2011-01-01

407

7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

408

7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program §...

2014-01-01

409

7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2010-01-01

410

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2014-01-01

411

7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of...

2011-01-01

412

7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program §...

2011-01-01

413

7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of...

2013-01-01

414

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

415

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2014-01-01

416

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. ...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of...

2011-01-01

417

7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of...

2010-01-01

418

7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative...

2011-01-01

419

7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

420

7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2011-01-01

421

7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

422

7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification...

2014-01-01

423

7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2012-01-01

424

7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification...

2012-01-01

425

7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

426

7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2011-01-01

427

7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of...

2012-01-01

428

7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.  

... 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2013-01-01

430

7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.  

... 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2014-01-01

431

7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2014-01-01

432

7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers...

2011-01-01

433

7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program §...

2013-01-01

434

7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of...

2012-01-01

435

7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2010-01-01

436

7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

437

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. ...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of...

2012-01-01

438

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2013-01-01

439

7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9...

2011-01-01

440

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2013-01-01

441

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2014-01-01

442

7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers...

2010-01-01

443

7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2011-01-01

444

7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

445

7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2012-01-01

446

7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2010-01-01

447

7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2012-01-01

448

7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program §...

2012-01-01

449

7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

450

7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

451

7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers...

2012-01-01

452

7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23...

2013-01-01

453

7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative...

2010-01-01

454

7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed...

2013-01-01

455

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2012-01-01

456

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

457

7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification...

2011-01-01

458

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. ...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of...

2014-01-01

459

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2012-01-01

460

7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9...

2013-01-01

461

7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23...

2011-01-01

462

7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

463

7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2010-01-01

464

7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification...

2013-01-01

465

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2012-01-01

466

7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.  

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2014-01-01

467

7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9...

2014-01-01

468

7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative...

2012-01-01

469

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

2012-01-01

470

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. ...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of...

2013-01-01

471

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2013-01-01

472

7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2011-01-01

473

7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31 Agriculture ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations...

2010-01-01

474

7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2013-01-01

475

7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms...

2012-01-01

476

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to an extent that reduces its value more than two grades. (d) Reginned cotton. ...a difference of three or more grades, or (2) a difference of three...White Cotton (including the Plus grades), Light Gray Cotton, and...

2010-01-01

477

Superhydrophobic cotton fabric fabricated by electrostatic assembly of silica nanoparticles and its remarkable buoyancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly hydrophilic cotton fabrics were rendered superhydrophobic via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte/silica nanoparticle multilayers on cotton fibers, followed with a fluoroalkylsilane treatment. The surface morphology of the silica nanoparticle-coated fibers, which results in the variety of the hydrophobicity, can be tailored by controlling the multilayer number. Although with the static contact angle larger than 150°, in the case of 1 or 3 multilayers, the fabrics showed sticky property with a high contact angle hysteresis (>45°). For the cotton fabrics assembled with 5 multilayers or more, slippery superhydrophobicity with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° was achieved. The buoyancy of the superhydrophobic fabric was examined by using a miniature boat made with the fabric. The superhydrophobic fabric boat exhibited a remarkable loading capacity; for a boat with a volume of 8.0 cm 3, the maximum loading was 11.6 or 12.2 g when the boat weight is included. Moreover, the superhydrophobic cotton fabric showed a reasonable durability to withstand at least 30 machine washing cycles.

Zhao, Yan; Tang, Yanwei; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

2010-09-01

478

Direct visualization of horizontal gene transfer in cotton plants.  

PubMed

Plant mitochondrial and chloroplast genes that underwent horizontal transfer have been identified by parasite and grafting systems, respectively. Here, we directly observed 3 horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events in the 45 second axillary shoots of grafted cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum) after extirpating the first axillary bud. The second axillary shoots showed phenotypic variations in cotton flowers and seeds that were evidence of spontaneous development from cells in the grafting site. As the progeny segregated and did not show stable inheritance across 3 generations, inheritance of traits in our study differed from the stable heredity of HGT plants in previous studies. In those studies, plants were artificially regenerated from the graft junctions, and inheritance involved only the movement of chloroplast DNA or genomic material between cells. Our findings may provide a feasible method to enhance plant breeding and the study of HGT. PMID:25160847

Hao, Junjie; Jia, Xinhe; Yu, Jiwen; Deng, Shizheng

2014-01-01

479

What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend  

SciTech Connect

Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through specific well cases, how deliverability from well to well can vary due to delicate differences in reservoir properties. It is evident from the case wells illustrated that not all tight Cotton Valley sand or limestone wells result in high-rate flows. That being the case, it is important that detailed logging analysis be utilized so optimum stimulation procedures can be designed at each well site. Improperly place perforations or poorly designed and operated stimulation procedures can result in a bad well, where a successful one was possible.

Nangle, P.; Fertl, W.H.; Frost, E. Jr.

1982-10-01

480

Relocation and installation of a cotton gin and other cotton research  

E-print Network

RELOCATION AND INSTALLATION OF A COTTON GIN ANO OTHER COTTON RESEARCH A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by TIMOTHY CHARLES HERKLOTZ SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE OF TEXAS A8M UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE... OF MASTER OF AGRICULTURE DECEMBER. 1985 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE REI. OCATION ANO INSTALLATiON OF A COTTON SIN AND OTHER COTTON RESEARCH A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by TIMOTHY CHARLES HERKLOTZ APPROVED AS TO STYLE AND CONTENT BY...

Herklotz, Timothy Charles

2012-06-07

481

Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the antibacterial cotton fabric was prepared using zinc oxide/silicon dioxide (ZnO/SiO2) nanocomposite. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized with an in situ approach using two different methods on the cotton fabric. One of the methods was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles into the prepared sol solution, and then coating on the cotton fabric. The other method was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide-coated cotton fabric. The morphological, structural, thermal, and antibacterial properties of ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite-coated cotton fabric was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermo gravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide coated cotton fabric sample resulted in agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fiber, while the spherical nanoparticles structure was formed by synthesizing them into the sol solution of silicon dioxide. The EDS results indicated presence of ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite on the surface of coated cotton fabric, and presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Barani, Hossein

2014-11-01

482

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids  

PubMed Central

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wackers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jorg

2013-01-01

483

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-05-01

484

Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton: Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton  

E-print Network

The role of natural enemies in cotton pest management has often been obscured by the widespread use of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, cotton can support a large complex of insects, spiders and mites that feed on cotton pests. Changes...

Knutson, Allen E.; Ruberson, John

2005-07-08

485

21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and...

2012-04-01

486

21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and...

2011-04-01

487

21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and...

2014-04-01

488

21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances migrating from cotton and cotton...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and...

2010-04-01

489

A simulation model for adaptation of cotton bollworm to transgenic Bt cotton in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial use of transgenic cotton expressing an insecticidal protein gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) began in 1998 in northern China. Resistance management is a major concern for the sustainable use of Bt cotton. With our understanding of the cropping and ecological system in northern China , we developed a simulation model to forecast adaptation of the cotton bollworm ,

RU Li; RUI Chang

490

The Impact of India's Cotton Yield on U.S. and World Cotton Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is India’s main cash crop. It contributes to the livelihood of 60 million people and accounts for 30 percent of the country’s agricultural domestic product (Barwale et al., 2004). Total cotton acreage in India is estimated at 9 million hectares, the largest in the world (Gandhi, 2006). About 65 percent of cotton production activities are rainfed and subject to

Suwen Pan; Mark Welch; Samarendu Mohanty; Mohamadou L. Fadiga

2006-01-01

491

Forests for cotton: Institutions and organizations in Brazil's mid-twentieth-century cotton boom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western region of São Paulo state, Brazil, became one of several sites of global cotton production during the first half of the twentieth century in response to increased global demand and fears of cotton shortages. The cotton boom tapped a ‘forest rent’ that helped Brazil rise to become the largest producer in Latin America, providing both export revenue and

Christian Brannstrom

2010-01-01

492

Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter analyzes the socioeconomic impacts of Bt cotton in an international context. Bt cotton technology has already\\u000a been adopted by millions of farmers around the world, including many smallholders in developing countries. On average, farmers\\u000a growing Bt cotton benefit from insecticide savings, increasingly effective yields as a result of reduced crop losses, and\\u000a profit gains in spite of higher

M. Qaim; A. Subramanian; P. Sadashivappa

493

Combustion characteristics of cotton stalk in FBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports studies on the mixing and combustion characteristics of cotton stalk with 10–100mm in length in FBC. Experiments on a cold model show that cotton stalk cannot fluidize, and adding bed material can improve the fluidization condition. Cotton stalk can mix well with 0.6–1mm alumina at fluidization number N=3–7. However, when the fluidization number is higher more

Zhiao Sun; Jiezhong Shen; Baosheng Jin; Liyan Wei

2010-01-01

494

Production of Mannitol by Fungi from Cotton Dust  

PubMed Central

Cotton dust associated with high pulmonary function decrements contains relatively high levels of mannitol. In this study, cotton leaf and bract tissue and dust isolated from cotton leaf tissue were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and capillary gas chromatography. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Fusarium pallidoroseum were isolated from cotton leaf dust. The fungal samples, cotton dust, and cotton leaf contained mannitol. This study demonstrates that fungi from a late-fall harvest of cotton leaf material produce mannitol and are a probable source of the mannitol found in cotton dust. Images PMID:16347688

Domelsmith, Linda N.; Klich, Maren A.; Goynes, Wilton R.

1988-01-01

495

The Cleaning of Mechanically Harvested Cotton.  

E-print Network

qualities were harvested with strippers, designated as Nos. 15 and 16 machines, and with a spindle- type picker. At Lubbock, the stems in late-harvested cotton increased 175 percent and the dirt and sand increased 209 percent over early-harvested cotton... w-hen the No. 15 stripper was used. Where the cotton stripper was equipped with a tractor-mounted field extractor, termed the No. 16 machine, the total foreign matter removed averaged less than half the amount removed from cotton stripped...

Miller, H. F. (Herbert F.); Jones, D. L. (Don. L.); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1950-01-01

496

Characterization and expression analysis of two cotton genes encoding putative UDP-Glycosyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDP-Glycosyltransferases (UGT) are a large family of enzymes, which catalyze the transfer of a sugar from an activated sugar\\u000a donor to an acceptor molecule. Both in plants and in mammals, they are important in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis.\\u000a In this study, two genes (designated GhUGT1 and GhUGT2, respectively) encoding putative UGT were isolated from the cotton fiber cDNA library.

F.-J. Tai; X.-L. Wang; W.-L. Xu; X.-B. Li

2008-01-01

497

Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from an irrigated cotton field in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is one of the major crops worldwide and delivers fibers to textile industries across the globe. Its cultivation requires\\u000a high nitrogen (N) input and additionally irrigation, and the combination of both has the potential to trigger high emissions\\u000a of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), thereby contributing to rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Using an

Chunyan Liu; Xunhua Zheng; Zaixing Zhou; Shenghui Han; Yinghong Wang; Kai Wang; Wangguo Liang; Ming Li; Deli Chen; Zhiping Yang

2010-01-01