Sample records for cotton fibers evidence

  1. SINGLE COTTON FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Favimat, a single fiber testing machine, it used to measure fibers from samples consisting of cottons containing two different parents FM832 AND MD51neOK) and their progeny. In order to get a representation of certain fibers within these samples, the cotton is further divided into the 17 and 19...

  2. The mechanism of cellulase action on cotton fibers: evidence from atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Lee; Barbara R. Evans; Jonathan Woodward

    2000-01-01

    Two cellulases from Trichoderma reesei – an exoglucanase, CBH I, and an endoglucanase, EG II – alone and in combination were incubated with cotton fibers. The effects of the cellulases on the surfaces of the cotton fibers were examined by atomic force microscopy. At high magnification, the physical effects on the fibers caused by the two types of enzymes were

  3. Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers: evidence for an extracellular form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Jin Kim; Naohiro Kato; Sunran Kim; Barbara Triplett

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes.\\u000a Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton\\u000a (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We show here, based on immunoreactivity, that the enzyme is a Cu\\/Zn-SOD (CSD). Immunogold localization shows that\\u000a CSD localizes to secondary cell walls of developing cotton fibers.

  4. Cotton Fiber $uality: Characterisation

    E-print Network

    Principal Investigator; Michael S. Ellison; Co-investigator Clarence; D. Rogers; Graduate Student; Yogeshwar K. Velu

    The objective of this project was to develop an acoustic emission tester as an adjunct to HVI testing for obtaining an additional parameter in the classification of cotton fibers. We have developed a microcomputer-based instrument for detecting and analyzing the acoustic emission from the fracture of each of the single cotton fibers in a bundle: the acoustic pulse height and width are recorded. In addition, a measure of the breaking load and elongation of each fiber is determined coincident with the acoustic pulse. A nonlinear relationship was found between the acoustic pulse energy density and the work of rupture of the fiber. The instrument is fast and can be used as a parallel test in conjunction with the HVI testing of cottons.

  5. Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

  6. Genotypic and Developmental Evidence for the Role of Plasmodesmatal Regulation in Cotton Fiber Elongation Mediated by Callose Turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Ling Ruan; Shou-Min Xu; Rosemary White; Robert T. Furbank

    2004-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled hairs that elongate to several centimeters long from the seed coat epidermis of the tetraploid species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense). Thus, cotton fiber is a unique system to study the mechanisms of rapid cell expansion. Previous work has shown a transient closure of plasmodesmata during fiber elongation (Y.-L. Ruan, D.J. Llewellyn, R.T. Furbank (2001) Plant

  7. Stacking Faults in Cotton Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakara, S.; Niranjana, A. R.; Siddaraju, G. N.; Somashekar, R.

    2011-07-01

    The stacking faults in different variety of cotton fibers have been quantified using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data. Exponential functions for the column length distribution have been used for the determination of microstructural parameters. The crystal imperfection parameters like crystal size , lattice strain (g in %), stacking faults (?d) and twin faults (?) have been determined by profile analysis using Fourier method of Warren. We examined different variety of raw cotton fibers using WAXS techniques. In all these cases we note that, the stacking faults are quite significant in determining the property of cotton fibers.

  8. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation

    E-print Network

    Ng, Eng Hwa

    2013-05-29

    Fiber elongation (ability to stretch before breaking) is one of the key components in determining overall yarn quality. Elongation in U.S. upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) has remained largely neglected due to: absence of monetary incentives...

  9. Molecular and biochemical evidence for phenylpropanoid synthesis and presence of wall-linked phenolics in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Shi, Wei-Jun; Hu, Wen-Ran; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Hui; Yan, Hong-Ying

    2009-07-01

    The mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber is a single cell with a typically thickened secondary cell wall. The aim of this research was to use molecular, spectroscopic and chemical techniques to investigate the possible occurrence of previously overlooked accumulation of phenolics during secondary cell wall formation in cotton fibers. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GhCAD6 and GhCAD1 were predominantly expressed among seven gene homologs, only GhCAD6 was up-regulated during secondary wall formation in cotton fibers. Phylogenic analysis revealed that GhCAD6 belonged to Class I and was proposed to have a major role in monolignol biosynthesis, and GhCAD1 belonged to Class III and was proposed to have a compensatory mechanism for monolignol biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that the cofactor binding sites of GhCADs were highly conserved with high similarity and identity to bona fide cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases. The substrate binding site of GhCAD1 is different from GhCAD6. This difference was confirmed by the different catalytic activities observed with the enzymes. Cell wall auto-fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical analyses confirmed that phenolic compounds were bound to the cell walls of mature cotton fibers. Our findings may suggest a potential for genetic manipulation of cotton fiber properties, which are of central importance to agricultural, cotton processing and textile industries. PMID:19566641

  10. PHOTOBIOLOGY IMPACT ON COTTON FIBER LENGTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single elongated cells that extend from the seed coat during development, and fiber length is important to textile quality. It was hypothesized that elongating cotton fibers would be as responsive to far-red light (FR) as elongating cells in seedling hypocot...

  11. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  12. Cotton Fibers Can Undergo Cell Division

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Van't Hof; Sukumar Saha

    1997-01-01

    Ovular culture was used to determine the cell cycle aspects of cotton fiber cells. Each ovule (Gossypium hirsutum,cultivar, MD51 ne) grown under the conditions used has ;10 000 fiber cells at 4 d postanthesis. About 25% of these cells divide when ovules are cultured at 348C. Mitosis occurs after fiber cells differentiate, producing multicelled fibers. The basal and tip cells

  13. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  14. Biomorphic Synthesis of TiC Hollow Fibers from Cotton Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thapanee SRICHUMPONG

    Biomorphic titanium carbide fibers have successfully been prepared using natural fiber of cotton as bio-templates. Cotton fibers charcoal are infiltrated with titanium oxide sol into hollow fiber and subsequently sintered in inert gas at high temperature to produce the final titanium carbide fibers. The morphology of resulting titanium carbide fibers, as well as conversion of cotton fibers to ceramic fiber,

  15. Breeding Transformed Cotton Expressing Enhanced Fiber Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lloyd May; Thomas J. Wofford

    2001-01-01

    New cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds that can produce fiber with enhanced strength would increase efficiency of the rotor form of open end yarn manufacture. We report results of 3-yr of breeding transgenic ‘Deltapine 50’ (DP 50) germplasm expressing enhanced fiber strength. The objective was to identify germplasm that could consistently express and transmit enhanced fiber strength to their progeny.

  16. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  17. The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

    2003-05-01

    Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

  18. beta. -1,3-glucan in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Maltby; N. C. Carpita; D. Montezinos; C. Kulow; D. P. Delmer

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of a noncellulosic ..beta..-1,3-glucan in cotton fibers. The glucan can be isolated as distinct fractions of varying solubility. When fibers are homogenized rigorously in aqueous buffer, part of the total ..beta..-1,3-glucan is found as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls. The proportion of total ..beta..-1,3-glucan which is found as the soluble

  19. Cotton fiber moisture measurements: a comparative evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commonly used standard method for measuring cotton fiber moisture is the oven drying method (moisture content equal weight loss). However, several commercial instruments are available for measuring fiber moisture content. A comparative evaluation program was implemented to determine the capabili...

  20. The Impact of Drought on Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum) Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate moisture during the growing season has been shown to reduce cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lint yields. Little is known, however, as to how in-season growing conditions alter cotton fiber quality. Here, we show the impact of irrigation on cotton fiber quality. Cotton was grown in large repli...

  1. TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    483 TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND INCREASED FIBER. Keating, N. G. Srinivas, C. Wu and A. S. Holaday Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX G. J. Jividen Cotton Incorporated Raleigh, NC Abstract We set out to use genetic engineering to make cotton crop yield and fiber

  2. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  3. Nanostructured copper oxide-cotton fibers: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahhal, Issa M.; Zourab, Shehata M.; Kodeh, Fawzi S.; Selmane, Mohamed; Genois, Isabelle; Babonneau, Florence

    2012-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently deposited onto surface of the cotton fibers by ultrasonic irradiation. The structure and morphology of the coated and un-coated cottons were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These methods revealed that of CuO nanoparticles are crystalline and corresponds to monoclinic phase, and that these nanoparticles are physically adsorbed onto the cotton fiber surface. They have an average crystallite size of 10 nm; the physical and chemical properties of the treated cotton fibers are markedly different from those of the untreated cotton fibers. The CuO-cotton fiber nanocomposites were tested against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) cultures and showed a significant antimicrobial activity; whereas its analogous CuS-coated cotton material formed by the reaction CuO-coated cotton fibers with H2S showed no activity.

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF PECTIN ON COTTON FIBER PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INCREASING SPEEDS OF COTTON YARN PRODUCTION IN THE TEXTILE MILL HAVE RENDERED TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL FIBER MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS LENGTH AND STRENGTH LESS RELIABLE AS PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY. WITH THE GOAL TOWARD ADDRESSING THIS PROBLEM, THIS WORK ATTEMPTS TO CHARACTERIZE THE PECTIN COM...

  5. Within Bale Variations of Cotton Fiber Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve bales of cotton having a wide range of lengths were selected for testing. Each bale was systematically sectioned so as to collect twenty-five individual fiber samples from each bale. HVI and AFIS measurements were carried out on each bale to determine the variability of the various measured...

  6. COTTON FIBER NONWOVENS FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing demand for automobiles in the global mareket, and a simultaneous pressure to address the issue of sustainability, there is continuing need for the incorporation of natural fiber based materials into automotives. The focus of recent research has been to produce compostable cotton fibe...

  7. Development of a Seed Cotton Fiber Quality Sensing System For Cotton Fiber Quality Mapping

    E-print Network

    Schielack, Vincent Paul

    2012-02-14

    standards correlated very well (R2=0.99) with their micronaire values. This method, which included the use of an NIR camera, was used strictly on lint cotton and requires modification to work with seed cotton in order for fiber quality to be determined... on wavelengths that have shown very strong correlation (R2=0.99) to the HVI micronaire value of cotton fiber in the work of Sui et al., 2008: 1450, 1550, and 1600 nm. An image sensor that is sensitive in all the selected wavebands is needed. Thus, an NIR...

  8. Analysis of Gene Expression in Cotton Fiber Initials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber 1 day after anthesis (daa). Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries representing 1 dpa fibers and other cotton tissues were sequenced and analyzed. Assembly of ...

  9. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  10. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  11. COTTON FIBER CELLS ARE ARRESTED AT G1 STAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of cell cycle genes during the very early stages of cotton fiber development triggers specific epidermal cells in the ovule to stop cell division and then elongate into fiber cells. The objective of this study was to identify the cell cycle phase in which cotton fiber cells are arrested ...

  12. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  13. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  14. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  15. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  16. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  17. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  18. Glycoproteome of elongating cotton fiber cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-12-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  19. Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-01-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  20. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  1. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  2. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is both a fiber and food crop that is grown in about 80 countries. Annually in the world about 90 million 217.7 kg (480 Ibs) bales {~19.6 million metric tonnes (21.6 million tons) of cotton fiber and 27 million metric tonnes (29.8 million tons) of cottonseed are produced. Cotton is the most...

  3. Surface properties of bamboo fiber and a comparison with cotton linter fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Shen; Dian-Sen Liu; Yuan Gao; Ying Chen

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the different touch senses from bamboo and cotton fibers, the surface properties of bamboo fiber, e.g., the surface free energy, the Lifshitz–van der Waals force, and Lewis acid and base components have been determined using the column wicking technique. Taking the traditional cotton linter fiber as a reference, this paper shows that both these fibers have

  4. Functional genomics of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bulak Arpat; Mark Waugh; John P. Sullivan; Michael Gonzales; David Frisch; Dorrie Main; Todd Wood; Anna Leslie; Rod A. Wing; Thea A. Wilkins

    2004-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes of major economic importance. Factors that regulate the rate and duration of cell expansion control fiber morphology and important agronomic traits. For genetic characterization of rapid cell elongation in cotton fibers, ? 14,000 unique genes were assembled from 46,603 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developmentally staged fiber cDNAs of a cultivated diploid species (Gossypium

  5. Improving NIR model for the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber strength is an important quality characteristic that is directly related to the manufacturing of quality consumer goods. Currently, two types of instruments have been implemented to assess cotton fiber strength, namely, the automation oriented high volume instrument (HVI) and the labora...

  6. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  7. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber\\/gypsum composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guozhong Li; Yanzhen Yu; Zhongjian Zhao; Jianquan Li; Changchun Li

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber\\/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  8. TEXTILE MANUFACTURERS' MARKET VALUATION OF COTTON FIBER ATTRIBUTES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changping Chen; Don E. Ethridge; Stanley M. Fletcher

    1997-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the price-quality relationships of U.S. cotton using primary data collected from textile manufacturers, the end users of fiber. Hedonic prices of fiber attributes are estimated for three production regions - West, South Central, and South - over the 1992-95 study period. Results indicate that cotton price is determined by quality attributes and nonquality factors

  9. Hydroxyapatite growth on cotton fibers modified chemically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Caselis, J. L.; Reyes Cervantes, E.; Landeta Cortés, G.; Agustín Serrano, R.; Rubio Rosas, E.

    2014-09-01

    We have prepared carboxymethyl cellulose fibers (CMC) by chemically modifying cotton cellulose with monochloroacetic acid and calcium chloride solution. This modification favored the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the surface of the CMC fibers in contact with simulated body fluid solutions (SBF). After soaking in SBF for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days, formation of HAP was observed. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that crystallinity, crystallite size, and growth of HAP increased with the soaking time. The amount of HAP deposited on CMC fibers increased greatly after 21 days of immersion in the SBF, while the substrate surface was totally covered with hemispherical aggregates with the size of the order of 2 microns. Elemental analysis showed the presence of calcium and phosphate, with calcium/phosphate atomic ratio of 1.54. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy bands confirmed the presence of HAP. The results suggest that cotton modified by calcium treatment has a nucleating ability and can accelerate the nucleation of HAP crystals.

  10. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  11. Analysis of gene expression in cotton fiber initials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl W Taliercio; Deborah Boykin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. Little is known about the developmental pathway causing fiber to differentiate from ovular epidermal cells even though limits on the number of cells that differentiate into fiber will limit yield. RESULTS: A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber initials 1 day post anthesis (dpa).

  12. An examination of the developing cotton fiber: Wall and plasmalemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. M. Willison; R. Malcolm Brown

    1977-01-01

    Summary The ultrastructure of developing cotton fibers has been examined using novel modifications of the techniques of surface replication, freeze-etching and thin-sectioning. The fiber surface was found to be coated with a lamellar cuticle, which is stretched and thinned as the fiber elongates. It is marked by bars which run parallel with the fiber long axis. Beneath the cuticle, the

  13. Bridging classical and molecular genetics of cotton fiber quality and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the single most important natural fiber in the world and represents a vital agricultural commodity in the global economy. Ninety percent of cotton’s value resides in the lint fiber. Cotton fiber quality, defined by the physical properties of the lint fibers, is an important part of the cot...

  14. Effect of Mechanical Actions on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to Cotton Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various machine-fiber interactions during harvesting and ginning on fiber quality and attachment between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 s...

  15. Effect of H 2O 2 on fiber initiation using fiber retardation initiation mutants in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayong Zhang; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo

    2010-01-01

    Single-celled fibers initiate at anthesis from cotton seed epidermal cells of normal developmental cotton cultivars; however, fiber initiation is retarded in some cotton fiber mutants. In this study, the relationship between genes associated with fiber initiation retardation and fiber initiation development was investigated using three cotton fiber developmental mutants: recessive naked seed n2; dominant naked seed N1; and Xinxiangxiaoji Linted-Fuzzless

  16. A novel expression assay system for fiber-specific promoters in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Jin Kim; Marian Y. Williams; Barbara A. Triplett

    2002-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Cotton fibers\\u000a are not only an economically important commodity, but they also are a good experimental model for studying plant cell elongation\\u000a and wall biogenesis because of their fast elongation rate and high cellulose content. During fiber development, many genes\\u000a are known to be transcriptionally regulated;

  17. ?-1,3-Glucan in Developing Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, David; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Montezinos, David; Kulow, Carl; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of a noncellulosic ?-1,3-glucan in cotton fibers. The glucan can be isolated as distinct fractions of varying solubility. When fibers are homogenized rigorously in aqueous buffer, part of the total ?-1,3-glucan is found as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls. The proportion of total ?-1,3-glucan which is found as the soluble polymer varies somewhat as a function of fiber age. The insoluble fraction of the ?-1,3-glucan remains associated with the cell wall fraction. Of this cell wall ?-1,3-glucan, a variable portion can be solubilized by treatment of walls with hot water, a further portion can be solubilized by alkaline extraction of the walls, and 17 to 29% of the glucan remains associated with cellulose even after alkaline extraction. A portion of this glucan can also be removed from the cell walls of intact cotton fibers by digestion with an endo-?-1,3-glucanase. The glucan fraction which can be isolated as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls is not associated with membranous material, and we propose that it represents glucan which is also extracellular but not tightly associated with the cell wall. Enzyme digestion studies indicate that all of the cotton fiber glucan is ?-linked, and methylation analyses and enzyme studies both show that the predominant linkage in the glucan is 1 ? 3. The possibility of some minor branching at C-6 can also be deduced from the methylation analyses. The timing of deposition of the ?-1,3-glucan during fiber development coincides closely with the onset of secondary wall cellulose synthesis. Kinetic studies performed with ovules and fibers cultured in vitro show that incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]glucose into ?-1,3-glucan is linear with respect to time almost from the start of the labeling period; however, a lag is observed before incorporation into cellulose becomes linear with time, suggesting that these two different glucans are not polymerized directly from the same substrate pool. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that neither the ?-1,3-glucan nor cellulose exhibits significant turnover after synthesis. PMID:16660875

  18. An Investigation on Different Parameters Used for Characterizing Short Cotton Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantity of short fibers in a cotton sample is an important cotton quality parameter. Short cotton fibers have significant impacts on yarn production performance and yarn quality. There are different parameters for characterizing the amount of short fibers in a cotton sample. We conducted an ...

  19. Predicting cotton stelometer fiber strength by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strength of cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR models ...

  20. Chitosan coated cotton fiber: preparation and physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. D Liu; N Nishi; S Tokura; N Sakairi

    2001-01-01

    A new cotton fiber with a chitosan coating (CCCF) was prepared by the oxidation of a cotton thread with potassium periodate at 60°C in water and subsequent treatment with a solution of chitosan in aqueous acetic acid. Infrared spectra of the CCCF suggested the formation of Schiff's base between the chitosan and the oxidized cellulose. Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis of the

  1. Applying Quantile Regression to Analysis of AFIS Cotton Fiber Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian W. Gardunia; Chris Braden; Eric Hequet; C. Wayne Smith

    2008-01-01

    Varying fi ber length distributions of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., impacts its spinning performance. Advanced Fiber Information Sys- tem (AFIS) facilitates the analysis of the length distribution of individual fi bers in cotton. Quan- tile regression is a variant of standard regres- sion with which conditional quantile values can be calculated by minimizing weighted sums of absolute deviations across the

  2. Attachment Mechanisms Between Cotton Fibers and Foreign-matter Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop a fundamental understanding of the requirements for removing foreign matter from bulk cotton fiber, a video microscope was used to collect images of foreign-matter particles in lint from smooth-leaf and hairy-leaf cottons. A method is given for categorizing the particles accordin...

  3. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  4. Obtaining Cotton Fiber Length Distribution from Beard Test Method Part 1 - Theoretical Distribution of Cotton Fiber Length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By testing a tapered fiber beard, certain fiber length parameters can be obtained rapidly. This study is aimed at exploring the possibility to obtain the entire length distribution of a sample from the beard test method. In Part 1, the mathematical function describing cotton fiber length was searc...

  5. Preparation of cotton fibers with antibacterial silver nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuh-Yean Chen; Chen-Li Chiang

    2008-01-01

    A chelating monomer, glycidyl methacrylate–iminodiacetic acid (GMA–IDA), was grafted onto cotton fibers to form cotton fiber-graft-GMA–IDA (CFGI). The quantity of GMA–IDA grafting on CFGI was dependent on the concentration of GMA–IDA solution in the reaction system. The weight of Ag+ adsorbed by CFGI increased with increasing the amount of GMA–IDA on CFGI. After the CFGI–Ag+ complexes were irradiated by ultraviolet

  6. Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2001-01-01

    BOLL AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT IN LONG STAPLE UPLAND COTTON A Thesis by CHRIS ALAN BRADEN Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2001... Major Subject: Plant Breeding BOLL AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT IN LONG STAPLE UPLAND COTTON A Thesis CHRIS ALAN BRADEN Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  7. Role of abscisic acid in cotton fiber development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Dasani; V. S. Thaker

    2006-01-01

    Fibers of three cotton cultivars varying widely in their final fiber length, i.e., long staple (Gossypium hirsutum H-4), middle staple (G. Hirsutum H-8), and short staple (G. Arboretum G. Cot-15) were analyzed to study the role of ABA in fiber elongation and dry matter accumulation, in vivo and in vitro. The fibers were analyzed for different growth parameters and endogenous

  8. Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2012-10-01

    Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

  9. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  10. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  11. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  12. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  13. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  14. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  15. Electron diffraction from the primary wall of cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chanzy; K. Imada; R. Vuong

    1978-01-01

    Summary Electron diffraction patterns have been obtained from selected areas of disencrusted microfibrils isolated from the primary cell wall of cotton fibers. The resultant fiber diagram has the same meridional repeat distance as a corresponding pattern of secondary wall microfibrils but differs markedly in the equatorial reflections. The primary wall diagram displays only two strong equatorial reflections centered at 0.570

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PARAMETERS USED FOR CHARACTERIZING COTTON SHORT FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantity of short cotton fibers in a cotton sample is an important cotton quality parameter which impacts yarn production performance and yarn quality. Researchers have proposed different parameters for characterizing the amount of short fibers in a cotton sample. A comprehensive study was car...

  17. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational spectroscopy studies can be used to examine the quality and structure of cotton fibers. An emerging area of research relates to the imaging of cotton fibers. Herein, we report the use of a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to image developing cotton fibers. Studies were perfor...

  18. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  19. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  1. INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

  2. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  3. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  4. Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense of renewable nature textile fiber. Two major forms of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Upland cotton­582 doi: 10.1111/nph.12381 Key words: domestication, expression-level bias, fiber development, Gossypium

  5. Design systems for gear elements made of cotton fiber-reinforced plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiki Hirogaki; Eiichi Aoyama; Tsutao Katayama; Shinya Iwasaki; Yoshinori Yagura; Kazuya Sugimura

    2004-01-01

    We look on the cotton fiber reinforced plastics as industrial gear materials, and have been developing design systems for industrial gears made of cotton fiber-reinforced plastics. In this report, we deal with a method estimating for tooth root stresses caused by bending movements under running conditions. The gear material used was cotton fiber plain woven cloth reinforced phenolic resin laminates.

  6. USE OF FLUORESCENTLY LABELED CELLULOSE BINDING DOMAIN TO MONITOR COTTON FIBER DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose is the major component of the secondary wall in cotton fiber, and by the maturation stage, cotton fiber becomes almost pure cellulose. Although cotton fiber development is well synchronized in an ovary, it can differ between varieties and among plants from different environments. In this r...

  7. Polyploidy and small RNA regulation of cotton fiber development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xueying; Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2014-08-01

    Cotton is not only the most important source of renewal textile fibers, but also an excellent model for studying cell fate determination and polyploidy effects on gene expression and evolution of domestication traits. The combination of A and D-progenitor genomes into allotetraploid cotton induces intergenomic interactions and epigenetic effects, leading to the unequal expression of homoeologous genes. Small RNAs regulate the expression of transcription and signaling factors related to cellular growth, development and adaptation. An example is miRNA-mediated preferential degradation of homoeologous mRNAs encoding MYB-domain transcription factors that are required for the initiation of leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis and of seed fibers in cotton. This example of coevolution between small RNAs and their homoeologous targets could shape morphological traits such as fibers during the selection and domestication of polyploid crops. PMID:24866591

  8. De-esterified Pectins in the Cell Walls of Cotton Fiber: A Study of Fiber Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the wild-type cotton (DP 5690), the cell walls of elongating cotton fibers are bilayered, with the outer layer enriched in de-esterified homogalacturonan (HGA), and an inner layer enriched in xyloglucans and cellulose. This bilayer is conspicuously absent in the cell walls of the ovule epidermal...

  9. Variability in Cotton Fiber Yield, Fiber Quality, and Soil Properties in a Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Johnson; Robert G. Downer; Judith M. Bradow; Philip J. Bauer; E. John Sadler

    2002-01-01

    correlated with soil organic matter, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Fiber quality was correlated with soil Mg, K, Cu, To maximize profitability, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produc- and As. Elms et al. (1997) reported that yield in an ers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing irrigated cotton field in Texas displayed spatial correla- yield.

  10. Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To maximize profitability, cotton (GossypiumhirsutumL.) producers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing yield. The objective of this research was to measure the intrinsic variability present in cotton fiber yield and quality. The 0.5-ha experimental site was located in a...

  11. Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability

    E-print Network

    Kothari, Neha

    2012-10-19

    The temporal system of fruiting on the cotton plant lends itself to bolls at different fruiting sites developing under different environmental conditions and with varied source-sink relationships. To investigate this, intra-plant fiber quality...

  12. Rapid measurement of cotton fiber maturity and fineness by image analysis microscopy using the Cottonscope®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two of the important cotton fiber quality and processing parameters are fiber maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity is the degree of development of the fiber’s secondary wall, and fiber fineness is a measure of the fiber’s linear density and can be expressed as mass per unit length. A well-known m...

  13. Control of Plant Trichome Development by a Cotton Fiber MYB Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shui Wang; Jia-Wei Wang; Nan Yu; Chun-Hong Li; Bin Luo; Jin-Ying Gou; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2004-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22- like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and

  14. QTL alleles for improved fiber quality from a wild Hawaiian cotton, Gossypium tomentosum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengsheng; Rong, Junkang; Waghmare, Vijay N; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Wright, Robert J; Gannaway, John R; Paterson, Andrew H

    2011-11-01

    Seventeen backcross-self families from crosses between two Gossypium hirsutum recurrent parent lines (CA3084, CA3093) and G. tomentosum were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. A total of 28 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified (P < 0.001), including four for fiber elongation, eight for fiber fineness, four for fiber length, four for fiber strength, six for fiber uniformity, one for boll weight, and one for boll number. Three statistically significant marker-trait associations for lint yield were found in a single environment, but need further validation. Two-way analysis of variance revealed one locus with significant genotype × family interaction (P < 0.001) for fiber strength and a second locus with significant genotype × environment interaction (P < 0.001) in the CA3084 background, and two loci with significant genotype × background interaction (P < 0.001) for the 28 common markers segregating in both of the two recurrent backgrounds. Co-location of many QTLs for fiber quality traits partially explained correlations among these traits. Some G. tomentosum alleles were associated with multiple favorable effects, offering the possibility of rapid genetic gain by introgression. Many G. tomentosum alleles were recalcitrant to homozygosity, suggesting that they might be most effectively deployed in hybrid cottons. DNA markers linked to G. tomentosum QTLs identified in the present study promise to assist breeders in transferring and maintaining valuable traits from this exotic source during Upland cotton cultivar development. This study also adds further evidence to prior studies indicating that the majority of genetic variation associated with fiber quality in tetraploid cotton traces to the D-subgenome from a diploid ancestor that does not produce spinnable fiber. PMID:21735234

  15. The R3-MYB Gene GhCPC Negatively Regulates Cotton Fiber Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in ?1–5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

  16. The R3-MYB Gene GhCPC Negatively Regulates Cotton Fiber Elongation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in -1-5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

  17. Crop juxtaposition affects cotton fiber quality in Georgia farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Shurley, W Donald

    2009-08-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including green stink bug [Acrosternum hilare (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and brown stink bug [Euschistus servus (Say)], have become a serious production issue for southeastern U.S. cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., growers. To investigate how different agronomic crops may affect stink bug damage and fiber quality in neighboring cotton fields, replicated 1.6-2.0-ha trials were planted with corn (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] bordering a centrally located cotton plot (each of the four crops composed of approximately 0.4-0.5 ha per trial). Three trials were conducted in 2007 and three additional trials were conducted in 2008. Stink bug damage in the cotton plot was sampled weekly during weeks 3 through 6 of bloom at distances of 0.5, 5.3, 9.6, and 18.7 m from the adjacent crop. At the end of the year, representative lint samples at distances of 0.5, 9.6, 18.7, and 31.8 m from each adjacent crop were mechanically harvested, ginned, and classed. Results show that boll damage, seedcotton yield, gin turnout, fiber color, and lint value were negatively affected when the cotton was located adjacent to peanut and soybean. Regardless of the adjacent crop, there were no differences among yield and fiber quality parameters comparing seedcotton obtained 18.7 m from the plot edge and samples obtained from the middle of the cotton plot (approximately 31.8 m from an adjacent crop). These data suggest that integrated pest management programs for the stink bug complex in cotton may include farmscape level planning and targeted interventions as opposed to a crop specific management approach. PMID:19736764

  18. UV\\/visible\\/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongliang Liu; Gary R. Gamble; Devron Thibodeaux

    2010-01-01

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV \\/ visible \\/ NIR technique was

  19. Comprehensive investigation of NIR technique in cotton fiber quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared spectroscopy, with an extension to UV and visible region, has been considerably applied for the qualitative and quantitative measurements of key color and physical characteristics in cotton fibers. However, the results have been inconsistent, mostly due to the use of different spectral...

  20. TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Implications of Surface Chemistry on Cotton Fiber Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Gamble

    2004-01-01

    Increasing speeds of cotton yarn production in the textile mill have made it necessary to de- velopment complementary methods to traditional measurements of physical fiber properties, such as length and strength, as predictors of yarn spinning efficiency. With the goal of investigating possible complementary measures to address this problem, this research attempts to quantify the pectin, wax, glucose, and surface

  1. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  2. Effect of Machine-Fiber Interaction on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to the Fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in fiber quality and attachment forces between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied at multi stages from the time of harvest through lint cleaning to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 sam...

  3. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  4. Distribution and organization of gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is an extremely elongated cell derived from epidermal layer of cotton seed coat and it is an ideal model for studies of plant cell initiation/differentiation, cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Genetic improvement of cotton fiber yield and quality relies largely on the knowledge...

  5. Consequences of immature fiber on the processing performance of Upland cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Long; Michael P. Bange

    2011-01-01

    Immature cotton fiber will negatively impact textile processing. Three field experiments were undertaken that applied chemical harvest aids to upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops at varying times with the intention of manipulating the maturity of bolls and fibers. The aim was to quantify the effects of these treatments on the textile performance of the harvested cotton and relate these

  6. Near infrared measurement of cotton fiber micronaire, maturity and fineness--a comparative investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key cotton fiber quality property is micronaire, which is an air flow resistance measurement that is highly correlated to the fiber’s maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity and fineness can impact the downstream processing of the fiber into yarn and fabric and the fiber’s dyeability. Previous studi...

  7. COTTON FIBER/SEED COAT STRUCTURE AND FLAX FIBER ENZYME TREATMENT AS ANALYZED BY MID-IR MICROSPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are bound within the seed coat, and the bond strength influences cotton quality. High bond strengths can result, after ginning, in fibers contaminated with seed coat fragments or with increased short fiber contents. Mid-infrared micro- spectroscopy was used to derive fundamental data ...

  8. COTTON VARIETY ASSESSMENT FOR FIBER MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year scientists at the LSU AgCenter test cotton varieties at various locations throughout the state. Varieties are grown using practices that follow AgCenter recommendations and conformto commercial operations as closely as possible. One location is the Macon Ridge Research Station in Winnsbo...

  9. Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated. PMID:22661979

  10. Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research.

    PubMed

    Haigler, Candace H; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R; Tuttle, John R

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated. PMID:22661979

  11. Comparative Evolutionary and Developmental Dynamics of the Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Fiber Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ?5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution. PMID:24391525

  12. Suppression of Sucrose Synthase Gene Expression Represses Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation, Elongation, and Seed Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    2003-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop as a result of its long cellulose-enriched mature fibers. These single-celled hairs initiate at anthesis from the ovule epidermis. To date, genes proven to be critical for fiber development have not been iden- tified. Here, we examined the role of the sucrose synthase gene ( Sus ) in cotton fiber and seed by

  13. Action of purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases on cotton fibers and yarn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaakko Pere; Arja Puolakka; Pertti Nousiainen; Johanna Buchert

    2001-01-01

    In this work the possibility and potential of treating cotton fibers and yarns instead of fabrics with monocomponent cellulases was investigated. Different pretreatments on fibers were performed and tested in order to improve the accessibility of cotton to enzymatic modification. The enzymatic treatments were evaluated microscopically and by analysing the effects of treated fibers on spinnability, yarn evenness, tenacity and

  14. Identification and Measurement of Convolutions in Cotton Fiber Using Image Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young J. Han; Yong-Jin Cho; Wade E. Lambert; Charles K. Bragg

    1998-01-01

    An image analysis procedure was developed to quantify morphological characteristics of convolutions in individual cotton fibers without pre-tensioning or orientation requirements. The image of each fiber was captured by a PC-based color imaging system using a conventional microscope. Ends of individual cotton fibers were glued on a microscope slide without any tension or straightening. A modified watershed technique was implemented

  15. UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Gamble, Gary R.; Thibodeaux, Devron

    2010-04-01

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV / visible / NIR technique was examined for its feasibility in determining the portions of cotton fiber and trash. Overall result indicated that NIR prediction was limited to screening purpose for probable reasons as heterogeneous trash distribution, relatively small sampling, and gravimetric reference method.

  16. Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunjing LiDiqiu; Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Xianlong Zhang; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Jiafu Tan; Fenglin Deng

    2010-01-01

    Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton\\u000a ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes\\u000a encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi)\\u000a construct. The RNAi according

  17. Research and Development of Nanometer Material Antimite and Antibacteria Knitting Fabric with Cotton Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaguang Meng; Guanxiong Qiu; Tao Xue; Yanfen He; Jianjun Pan

    2006-01-01

    This text analyzed the nature of the cotton fiber, and on this basis developed nanometer material anti-mite and antibiotic finishing agent and finishing routine of cotton fiber knitting fabric by the valid compound of nanometer material Ag and TiO2, and developed the cotton fiber knitting fabric products with good effect on anti-mite and anti-bacteria, This product have better performance on

  18. Dissecting Functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in Cotton Fiber Development by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Most of the world’s natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

  19. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  20. Characterization of inhibitors of cellulose synthesis in cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Montezinos; Deborah P. Delmer

    1980-01-01

    Several compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the in-vivo synthesis of cellulose and other cell-wall polysaccharides in fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) developing on in-vitro cultured ovules. Inhibitory effects were measured by the ability of the compounds to inhibit the incorporation of radioactivity from [U-14C]glucose into these cell-wall polymers. Of the compounds surveyed, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) was the

  1. QTL analysis of genotype × environment interactions affecting cotton fiber quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Paterson; Y. Saranga; M. Menz; C.-X. Jiang; R. Wright

    2003-01-01

    Cotton is unusual among major crops in that large acreages are grown under both irrigated and rainfed conditions, making genotype 2 environment interactions of even greater importance than usual in designing crop-improvement strategies. We describe the impact of well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions on the genetic control of fiber quality, a complex suite of traits that collectively determine the utility

  2. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton fibers in supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayrat Muratov; Chul Kim

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out on the application of supercritical fluid to the hydrolysis of boll fibers of cotton (cultivar Tashkent-6\\u000a ofGossypium hirsutum L.) by cellulase enzymes fromTrichoderma viride, Trichoderma reesei andAspergillus niger. Conditions of the enzymatic process were optimized. The stabilities of cellulase enzymes were sustained, at the pressure\\u000a of up to 160 atm for 48 hours at 50°C

  4. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses Revealed a Detailed Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway in Brown Cotton Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yue-Hua; Yan, Qian; Ding, Hui; Luo, Ming; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mi; Yao, Dan; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jia; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs). To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols) were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin), and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively). Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber. PMID:24466041

  5. PAG1, a cotton brassinosteroid catabolism gene, modulates fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Xiaojie; Liu, Kun; Wu, Zhixia; Zhang, Xueyan; Zheng, Wu; Xun, Qingqing; Liu, Chuanliang; Lu, Lili; Yang, Zhaoen; Qian, Yuyuan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Li, Changfeng; Li, Jia; Li, Fuguang

    2014-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the major source of natural textile fibers. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in regulating fiber development. The molecular mechanisms of BRs in regulating fiber elongation, however, are poorly understood. pagoda1 (pag1) was identified via an activation tagging genetic screen and characterized by genome walking and brassinolide (BL) supplementation. RNA-Seq analysis was employed to elucidate the mechanisms of PAG1 in regulating fiber development. pag1 exhibited dwarfism and reduced fiber length due to significant inhibition of cell elongation and expansion. BL treatment rescued its growth and fiber elongation. PAG1 encodes a homolog of Arabidopsis CYP734A1 that inactivates BRs via C-26 hydroxylation. RNA-Seq analyses showed that the constitutive expression of PAG1 downregulated the expression of genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) biosynthesis, ethylene-mediated signaling, response to cadmium, cell wall development, cytoskeleton organization and cell growth. Our results demonstrate that PAG1 plays crucial roles in regulating fiber development via controlling the level of endogenous bioactive BRs, which may affect ethylene signaling cascade by mediating VLCFA. Therefore, BR may be a critical regulator of fiber elongation, a role which may in turn be linked to effects on VLCFA biosynthesis, ethylene and cadmium signaling, cell wall- and cytoskeleton-related gene expression. PMID:24786710

  6. Silencing the vacuolar invertase gene GhVIN1 blocks cotton fiber initiation from the ovule epidermis, probably by suppressing a cohort of regulatory genes via sugar signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cook, Akiko; Patrick, John W; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Cotton fibers, the most important source of cellulose for the global textile industry, are single-celled trichomes derived from the ovule epidermis at or just prior to anthesis. Despite progress in understanding cotton fiber elongation and cell-wall biosynthesis, knowledge regarding the molecular basis of fiber cell initiation, the first step of fiber development determining the fiber yield potential, remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that expression of a vacuolar invertase (VIN) is an early event that is essential for cotton fiber initiation. RNAi-mediated suppression of GhVIN1, a major VIN gene that is highly expressed in wild-type fiber initials, resulted in significant reduction of VIN activity and consequently a fiberless seed phenotype in a dosage dependent manner. The absence of a negative effect on seed development in these fiberless seeds indicates that the phenotype is unlikely to be due to lack of carbon nutrient. Gene expression analyses coupled with in vitro ovule culture experiments revealed that GhVIN1-derived hexose signaling may play an indispensable role in cotton fiber initiation, probably by regulating the transcription of several MYB transcription factors and auxin signaling components that were previously identified as required for fiber initiation. Together, the data represent a significant advance in understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber initiation, and provide the first indication that VIN-mediated hexose signaling may act as an early event modulating the expression of regulatory genes and hence cell differentiation from the ovule epidermis. PMID:24654806

  7. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in the prediction of cotton fiber strength indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite relatively low correlation between 2 cotton strength readings from the automation oriented HVI and laboratory based Stelometer device, the present study demonstrates the consistence of cotton fiber strength measurements between the two methods if the strength readings were modified by cotton...

  8. Global analysis of gene expression in cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    species has resulted in overlapping, parallel, metabolic transformations. INTRODUCTION The cotton genusGlobal analysis of gene expression in cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense extra-long staple cotton with superior luster, silkiness and high yield. These economically important

  9. 13/IMPACT OP BARLY-SBASON APHID POPULATIONS ON COTTON MATURATION, YIBLD AND FIBER QUALITY

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    -season aphid populations and cotton yield and quality in the the San Joaquin Valley of California. Materials13/IMPACT OP BARLY-SBASON APHID POPULATIONS ON COTTON MATURATION, YIBLD AND FIBER QUALITY L. R populations and cotton production. Naturally occurring early-season populations were extremely large. and were

  10. Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2006-10-30

    using parents, F1, F2, and backcross generations. The magnitude and significance of the estimates for non-allelic effects in the parental combinations suggest that epistatic gene effects are present and important in the basic mechanism of AFIS fiber...

  11. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

  12. COTTON FIBERS: PROPERTIES AND INTERACTION WITH FLAX FIBERS IN BLENDS (FOCUS ON ROTOR SPUN YARN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FASHION DICTATES WHAT FIBERS AND YARNS WILL BE UTILIZED TO MAKE APPAREL AND OTHER TEXTILE FASHION ITEMS. IN RECENT YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN FLAX/COTTON BLENDS, PARTICULARLY IN APPAREL. TRADITIONALLY, FLAX HAS BEEN SPUN AS "LONG LINE" STAPLE LENGTH, AS WOULD BE THE CASE IN THE SPINNING ...

  13. Variation in surface chemical constituents of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber as a function of maturity.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Gary R

    2003-12-31

    Modern cotton yarn production technology has made it imperative that new predictors of yarn spinning efficiency be determined. Surface frictional forces play a large role in spinning efficiency, yet little is known about the chemical constituents comprising the cotton fiber surface or their respective roles in inter-fiber frictional behavior. Major cotton fiber surface chemical components including pectin, wax, soluble salts, and sugars were quantified, and their respective relationships to cotton fiber maturity, as measured by micronaire, determined for 87 cotton samples exhibiting large variations in age, micronaire, genetics, and growing region. In the case of pectin and wax, inverse relationships with micronaire were found, whereas salts and sugars exhibit linear relationships with micronaire. Using these mathematical relationships, it will be possible to develop predictive models of whether spinning performance of different cottons is affected by deviations of the chemical constituents from the determined relationships. PMID:14690385

  14. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  15. Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (~3 cm in ~20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via class...

  16. Preliminary study of relating cotton fiber tenacity and elongation with crystallinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fundamental understanding of the relationship between cotton fiber strength (or tenacity) / elongation and structure is important, as cotton breeders could modify their varieties for enhancing end-use qualities. In this study, the Stelometer instrument was employed to measure bundle fiber tenacity a...

  17. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  18. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  19. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  1. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  2. Preliminary comparisons of portable near infrared (nir) instrumentation for laboratory measurements of cotton fiber micronaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber. A program was implemented to determine the capabilities of portable Near Infrared (NIR) instrumentation to monitor cotton fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and in/near the field. Previous evaluations on one NIR unit demon...

  3. TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY The Effect of Bale Ageing on Cotton Fiber Chemistry, Processing Performance, and Yarn Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Gamble

    2007-01-01

    The effects of ageing as a result of extended warehouse storage of baled cotton on fiber pro - cessing characteristics have not been extensively investigated. This study attempts to address this issue by characterizing some of the chemical and physical factors of the cotton fiber both before and after storage for 2 years, and by comparing any changes that occur

  4. Gene expression and metabolite profiles of cotton fiber during cell elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ying Gou; Ling-Jian Wang; Shuang-Ping Chen; Wen-Li Hu; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2007-01-01

    Cotton fibers elongate rapidly after initiation of elongation, eventually leading to the deposit of a large amount of cellulose. To reveal features of cotton fiber cells at the fast elongation and the secondary cell wall synthesis stages, we compared the respective transcriptomes and metabolite profiles. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes by cDNA array identified 633 genes that were differentially regulated during

  5. Fiber Longitudinal Measurements for Predicting White Speck Contents of Dyed Cotton Fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber Image Analysis System (FIAS) was developed to provide an automatic method for measuring cotton maturity from fiber snippets or cross-sections . An uncombed cotton bundle is chopped and sprayed on a microscopic slide. The snippets are imaged sequentially on an microscope and measured with custo...

  6. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  7. Relationship of ginning energy use ginning rate and fiber quality in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton genotypes that gin faster and with less energy presumably gin more gently with less stress on the fiber and less damage. The objective of this research was to determine if ginning energy and ginning rate affect the fiber qualities of Upland cotton genotypes. Thirty four conventional and twelv...

  8. Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. New high-speed roller ginning technology has advanced to the point that processing capacities have approached that of saw ginning. Producers seeking a better price for their upland cotton are interested in fiber property and textile m...

  9. Cotton revenue apportioned between lint yield and fiber quality: a precision agriculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The issue of cotton fiber quality has been emphasized by breeders, ginners, and textile processors but has not aroused much attention among growers. Whereas many studies have shown in-field variation of cotton fiber quality, the variation observed is usually small compared to that of lint yield, ca...

  10. Cotton fiber germin-like protein. I. Molecular cloning and gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HeeJin Kim; Barbara A. Triplett

    2004-01-01

    The presence of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber transcripts coding for a germin-like protein (GLP) was revealed by differential display analysis in which early stages of cotton fiber development between a wild type line, Texas Marker-1 (TM1) and a near isogenic mutant, Naked Seed (N1) were compared. Transcripts of the cotton GLP ( GhGLP1) accumulated specifically in TM1, but

  11. Metabolic Pathway Engineering in Cotton: Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate in Fiber Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maliyakal E. John; Greg Keller

    1996-01-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, beta -ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous beta -ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by

  12. GENETIC MAPPING OF NEW COTTON FIBER LOCI USING EST-DERIVED MICROSATELLITES IN AN INTERSPECIFIC RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE COTTON POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve important fiber traits. Toward this goal, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellites, or simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat marker...

  13. Using three overlapped RILs to dissect genetically clustered QTL for fiber strength on Chro.D8 in Upland cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Chen; Neng Qian; Wangzhen Guo; Qingping Song; Baocheng Li; Fujun Deng; Cunguang Dong; Tianzhen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Fiber strength is an important trait among cotton fiber qualities due to ongoing changes in spinning technology. Major quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality enable molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) to effectively improve fiber quality of\\u000a cotton cultivars. We previously identified a major QTL for fiber strength derived from 7235 in Upland cotton. In the present\\u000a study, in order to

  14. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan

    2011-05-01

    The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved. PMID:21478877

  15. Photoluminescence study of the surface modified and MEH-PPV coated cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Zakirov; Sh. U. Yuldashev; H. J. Wang; H. D. Cho; T. W. Kang; J. J. Khamdamov; A. T. Mamadalimov

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study on the photoluminescence properties of pure cotton fibers from chemically surface and morphology modified and coated with MEH-PPV polymer samples by dip-coating method. The treated and coated fibers surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), luminescence and FT-IR spectroscopy. The SEM photos showed that cotton fiber surface was covered by a layer

  16. Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Min; Brill, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength, especially in crop species, based on mutational and gene suppression studies. It remains elusive, however, whether, or to what extent, increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development. We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development. Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development, which reduced seed abortion, hence enhanced seed set, and (3) promoted fiber elongation. In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines, fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas, in elongating fibers, both fructose and glucose levels were increased. Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves, in contrast to developing fibers, it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation, probably through sugar signaling. The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%. However, further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight, indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect. Finally, based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number, a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole, rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth. PMID:22115917

  17. Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

  18. Protection of cellulose synthesis in detached cotton fibers by polyethylene glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, N.C.; Delmer, D.P.

    1980-11-01

    Detachment of the cotton fiber cell from the ovule results in loss of over 90% of the in vivo capacity for synthesis of (/sup 14/C)cellulose from (/sup 14/C)glucose. However, over 50% of the capacity for cellulose synthesis in the detached fiber population is protected when polyethylene glycol 4000 is present during detachment and incubation. Radioautography shows that approximately full capacity is restored in about half the fibers, whereas the other half of the population are incapable of cellulose synthesis from supplied glucose. The rate of cellulose synthesis in such fibers has a pH optimum of 6 and the optimum polyethylene glycol 4000 concentration is 0.06 molal (-9 bars). Cellulose synthesis in such detached fibers is synergistically stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ and inhibited by K/sup +/. Evidence is presented which indicates that the protection by polyethylene glycol 4000 is due to its ability to promote membrane resealing, which seems to be required for protecting cellulose synthesis in the detached fiber; however, the requirement for membrane integrity is not exclusively involved in the maintenance of an energy generating system for the synthesis. The possibility that a membrane potential may be required for maintaining an active cellulose synthesizing system is discussed.

  19. Understanding the Relationship between Cotton Fiber Properties and Non-Cellulosic Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William G. T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Selbig, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength, elongation and micronaire were measured. The relationship between the two datasets was established in an integrative manner using linear regression methods. In the conducted analysis, we demonstrated the usefulness of regression based approaches in establishing a relationship between glycan measurements and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further experimental validation. PMID:25383868

  20. The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fox, S.V. [Natural Cotton Colours, Inc., Wickenburg, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

  1. Detection of foreign fibers in cotton using near-infrared optimal wavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Dongyao; Ding, Tianhuai

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an optimal wavelength imaging system for detecting foreign fibers in the near infrared (NIR) region from 750 to 2500 nm. This method is based on the principle that different fibers have different spectral absorptions and reflectance characteristics. When subjected to a source of illumination at different wavelengths, foreign fibers present different reflectance values from those of cotton fibers. For simultaneously discriminating several types of foreign fibers from cotton, an optimal wavelength evaluation function for describing the cotton-foreign-fiber absorption discrimination was set up. Through a Fourier transform spectrometer experiment, the optimal wavelength for detecting these foreign fibers was determined and accordingly an optimal wavelength imaging system was developed. The wavelength selection experiment showed that 940 nm was the most appropriate wavelength for detection of a wide range of foreign fibers in cotton, and the 940-nm imaging system gave clear image features of these foreign fibers. The result suggests that NIR optimal wavelength imaging is a feasible and effective method to detect foreign fibers in cotton, which are currently difficult to detect.

  2. Improvement of Work-to-Break Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fibers and Yarn through Breeding and Selection for Improved Fiber Elongation

    E-print Network

    Osorio Marin, Juliana 1982-

    2012-11-12

    The development of cottons with improved fiber quality has been a major objective in breeding programs around the world. Breeders have focused their attention on improving fiber strength and length, and have generally not used fiber elongation...

  3. Wireless-and-GPS system for cotton fiber-quality mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yufeng Ge; J. Alex Thomasson; Ruixiu Sui

    A system including wireless-communication and GPS technologies was designed, constructed and field tested to enable site-specific\\u000a crop management in cotton production in the form of fiber-quality mapping. The system is comprised of three functional sub-systems\\u000a associated with the three machines typically used in cotton harvesting: harvester, boll buggy and module builder. Harvest\\u000a area for a basket load of cotton is

  4. Estimating the Economic Incentive to Adopt FiberMax Cotton Variety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas Malladi; Donald M. Nixon

    FiberMax is the brand name for cotton varieties marketed by Aventis Crop Science. To estimate profit potential for an individual farmer who might adopt the FiberMax 832 variety, various factors are to be considered such as yield potential, fiber quality, response to management, consistency, crop maturity, disease resistance, insect resistance, stress tolerance, and market acceptance. Introduction of new varieties in

  5. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Initiation: Inheritance Studies on Three Fiberless Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber initiation, or the protuberate expansion of individual cells in the epidermis of cotton ovules, is a key component of lint percentage. Ovular trichomes are classified as either lint or fuzz based on the timing of fiber initiation. Initiation of lint fiber begins at anthesis and continues for ...

  6. Changes in biochemical composition of the cell wall of the cotton fiber during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Meinert; D. P. Delmer

    1977-01-01

    The composition of the cell wall of the cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. Acala SJ = 1) has been studied from the early stages of elongation (5 days postanthesis) through the period of secondary wall formation, using cell walls derived both from fibers developing on the plant and from fibers obtained from excised, cultured ovules. Expressed as a weight percent

  7. QTL Analysis of Cotton Fiber Quality Using Multiple Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium barbadense Backcross Generations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Lacape; Trung-Bieu Nguyen; Brigitte Courtois; Jean-Louis Belot; Marc Giband; Jean-Paul Gourlot; Gerard Gawryziak; Sandrine Roques; Bernard Hau

    maturing and higher yielding. Although bidirectional genome exchanges between the two species are well doc- Cotton fiber properties are essential predictors of yarn perfor- umented (reviewed in Brubaker and Wendel, 2001) at- mance. The suite of fiber quality traits that collectively affect the tempts at utilizing deliberate interspecific recombination utility of the fiber for the textile industry include the length,

  8. The Effect of Calcium on Early Fiber Elongation in Cotton Ovule Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes that initiate on the ovule epidermis. Fiber initials accumulate calcium and membranes, including ER. Multiple calcium sensors, and small GTPase proteins that may act in calcium signaling pathways and/or primary cell wall biosynthesis were present in fiber init...

  9. Genetic Improvement of Upper Half Mean Length and Short Fiber Content in Upland Cotton, Gosspium hirsutum

    E-print Network

    Beyer, Benjamin

    2012-10-19

    ......................................................... 17 Fiber Length Distribution ......................................................... 18 Textile Industry .................................................................................. 18 Ring Spinning... that elongates up to 1000-3000 times longer than its diameter and is one of the purest forms of cellulose. Cotton fibers consist of two distinct types; longer fibers that have commercial value because they can be spun into yarns and made into textiles...

  10. SPS Over Expression in Cotton and Its Effect on Lint Yield and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicated that cool night temperatures may cause lower cotton lint yields and immature fiber. Biochemical analyses of leaf (source) and fiber (sink) metabolism indicated that increasing sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity might increase lint yields and improve fiber quality a...

  11. [Effects of air temperature on enzyme activities of cotton plants related to saccharide metabolism of cotton fiber].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, You-hua; Xu, Nai-yin; Zhang, Chuan-xi; Zhou, Zhi-guo; Chen, Bing-lin

    2009-01-01

    Taking two cotton cultivars with different fiber strength (KC-1, average fiber strength 35 cN x tex(-1); and AC-33B, average fiber strength 32 cN x tex(-1)) as test materials, a field experiment with two planting dates (25 April and 25 May) was conducted in Nanjing of Jiangsu (lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley) and Xuzhou of Jiangsu (Yellow River Valley) to study the dynamic changes of plant sucrase, sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and beta-1,3-glucanase activities during the development of cotton fiber at different air temperatures and their relationships with fiber length and strength. In the development period of fiber elongation, sucrase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities were higher; while during the period of fiber thickening, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities increased rapidly and were high, but sucrase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities had a rapid decrease. The higher sucrase activity in fiber elongation development period favored the fiber length development, while the rapid increase of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase and the rapid decrease of sucrase and beta-1,3-glucanase activity favored the development of fiber strength. For cotton variety KC-1, the sucrase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities in its early development period and the sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities in its middle and later development periods were all higher than those of AC-33B. In this study, 23.3 degrees C was the optimal temperature for high strength fiber formation, and 23.3 degrees C - 25.5 degrees C was the optimal temperature for long length fiber formation. PMID:19449579

  12. Comparison of NIR and FT-IR spectral models in the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strength quality in cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR mod...

  13. Reinforcement of cotton yarns with the nominal addition of high performance fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring- and rotor-spun yarns of predominantly cotton content have been produced by using a high performance, gel-spun polyethylene (PE) fiber, Dyneema, in intimate blend with selected white and naturally colored cottons of different qualities. Test results show that a nominal (10 to 15%) addition of ...

  14. High Temperature Effects on Cotton Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with all biological processes, an optimum temperature range exists for cotton growth. This research tests the upper threshold of that optimum temperature range by investigating how cotton growth and development, lint yield production, yield components, and fiber quality were affected by higher t...

  15. Cotton fiber cell wall development for three cultivars: an Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of FT-IR vibrational band development in spectra of cotton fiber at different developmental dates (18 – 40 days post-anthesis; DPA) will be presented in this talk. Results from three cotton cultivars will be presented. Two of the cultivars are nearly identical genetic lines, which ha...

  16. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  17. EFFECT OF TILLAGE ON DOUBLE-CROPPPED FLAX/COTTON PRODUCTION AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are limited studies related to flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) double-cropped with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and physical properties of flax fiber related to soil conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if degree of cotton plant residue incorporated via various tillage and s...

  18. Effect of cotton fiber properties on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven mechanically pre-cleaned greige cottons of significantly different fiber length, length uniformity or micronaire were processed into nonwoven fabrics using a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system of fabric formation. Results have shown that the pre-cleaned greige cotton of considerably di...

  19. Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulator rates on cotton yield and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two tillage systems, two row spacings, and three cotton varieties on yield, fiber quality, soil moisture, weed management, and economic returns. Cotton varieties, tillage systems, and row spacings were implemented at the Field Crops Unit of...

  20. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A majority of cotton genes are expressed in single-celled fiber

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    DPA Days Post Anthesis FDR False Discovery Rates SNARE Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor Cotton Á Gossypium hirsutum Á Fiber Á Single-cell Á Microarray Á Vesicle coating proteins Abbreviations

  2. New Uses for Immobilized Enzymes and Substrates on Cotton and Cellulose Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design, preparation, and application of both immobilized enzymes and enzyme substrates on cotton fibers for biomedical and specialty applications includes antibacterial fabrics, decontamination wipes, debridement and chronic wound dressing prototypes, and protease detection devices. The molecula...

  3. An environment-friendly thermal insulation material from cotton stalk fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-yan Zhou; Fei Zheng; Hua-guan Li; Cheng-long Lu

    2010-01-01

    A new environment-friendly thermal insulation material—binderless cotton stalk fiberboard (BCSF) made from cotton stalk fibers with no chemical additives was developed using high frequency hot-pressing. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of board density, fiber moisture content (MC) and pressing time on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of BCSF. The results showed that the board with

  4. Comparison of surfaces properties of different types of cotton fibers by inverse gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narjès Rjiba; Michel Nardin; Jean-Yves Drean; Richard Frydrych

    2010-01-01

    Three types of cotton fibers of different varieties and exhibiting different maturities and wax contents were examined by\\u000a inverse gas chromatography (IGC), at infinite dilution. In this study, the potential relationships between the microstructure\\u000a and the surface properties of different cotton fibers are analyzed. This method is based on the analysis of adsorption of\\u000a gaseous probes on solid surfaces. By

  5. Characterization and expression of plasma and tonoplast membrane aquaporins in elongating cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Li Wang; Yunjing Li; Longfu Zhu; Xianlong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.) is a good model for studies of plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Aquaporins are ancient membrane channel\\u000a proteins that facilitate the permeation of water across biological membranes. We studied GhPIP1-2, encoding plasma membrane intrinsic protein, and Gh?TIP1, encoding tonoplast intrinsic protein, during cotton fiber development. The full-length cDNAs of

  6. A Precision Agriculture Approach to Managing Cotton Fiber Quality as a Function of Variable Soil Properties

    E-print Network

    Stanislav, Scott

    2011-08-04

    A PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPROACH TO MANAGING COTTON FIBER QUALITY AS A FUNCTION OF VARIABLE SOIL PROPERTIES A Seniors Scholars Thesis By SCOTT MICHAEL STANISLAV Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University...://www.pdfmachine.com http://www.broadgun.com A PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPROACH TO MANAGING COTTON FIBER QUALITY AS A FUNCTION OF VARIABLE SOIL PROPERTIES A Seniors Scholars Thesis By SCOTT MICHAEL STANISLAV Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate...

  7. Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

    2005-01-01

    There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

  8. Molecular cloning and localization of a novel cotton annexin gene expressed preferentially during fiber development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Ke; Niu, Xiao Wei; Lv, Yan Hui; Zhang, Tian Zhen; Guo, Wang Zhen

    2010-10-01

    Annexins constitute a family of multifunction and structurally related proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, and are important calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins that participate in the polar development of different plant regions such as rhizoids, root caps, and pollen tube tips. In this study, a novel cotton annexin gene (designated as GhFAnnx) was isolated from a fiber cDNA library of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The full-length cDNA of GhFAnnx comprises an open reading frame of 945 bp that encodes a 314-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 35.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.49. Genomic GhFAnnx sequences from different cotton species, TM-1, Hai7124 and two diploid progenitor cottons, G. herbaceum (A-genome) and G. raimondii (D-genome) showed that at least two copies of the GhFAnnx gene, each with six exons and five introns in the coding region, were identified in the allotetraploid cotton genome. The GhFAnnx gene cloned from the cDNA library in this study was mapped to the chromosome 10 of the A-subgenome of the tetraploid cotton. Sequence alignment revealed that GhFAnnx contained four repeats of 70 amino acids. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that GhFAnnx is preferentially expressed in different developmental fibers but its expression is low in roots, stems, and leaves. Subcellular localization of GhFAnnx in onion epidermal cells and cotton fibers suggests that this protein is ubiquitous in the epidermal cells of onion, but assembles at the edge and the inner side of the apex of the cotton fiber tips with brilliant spots. In summary, GhFAnnx influences fiber development and is associated with the polar expansion of the cotton fiber during elongation stages. PMID:19885739

  9. TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY The Influence of Surface Electrolyte and Moisture Content on the Frictional Behavior of Cotton Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Gamble

    2006-01-01

    Cotton processing efficiency is dependent on the degree of friction between fibers and their processing environment as the fibers are subjected to the various pieces of equipment involved in converting fiber to yarn. This frictional behavior is a function of both fiber morphology and fiber surface characteristics. In this study, fiber surface electrolyte content and the moisture associated with the

  10. Cotton fiber quality characterization with light scattering and fourier transform infrared techniques.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, J A; Manickavasagam, S; Mengüç, M P

    2009-03-01

    Fiber quality measurement is critical to assessing the value of a bale of cotton for various textile purposes. An instrument that could measure numerous cotton quality properties by optical means could be made simpler and faster than current fiber quality measurement instruments, and it might be more amenable to on-line measurement at processing facilities. To that end, a laser system was used to investigate cotton fiber samples with respect to electromagnetic scattering at various wavelengths, polarization angles, and scattering angles. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument was also used to investigate the transmission of electromagnetic energy at various mid-infrared wavelengths. Cotton samples were selected to represent a wide range of micronaire values. Varying the wavelength of the laser at a fixed polarization resulted in little variation in scattered light among the cotton samples. However, varying the polarization at a fixed wavelength produced notable variation, indicating that polarization might be used to differentiate among cotton samples with respect to certain fiber properties. The FT-IR data in the 12 to 22 microm range produced relatively large differences in the amount of scattered light among all samples, and FT-IR data at certain combinations of fixed wavelengths were highly linearly related to certain measures of cotton quality including micronaire. PMID:19281648

  11. Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Fiber Differentially Expressed Fasciclin-like Arabinogalactan Protein Gene in Sea Island Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hengwei; Shi, Ruifeng; Wang, Xingfen; Pan, Yuxin; Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xinlei; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) protein is a cell-wall-associated protein playing crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, and it was characterized in different plants including Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In cDNA-AFLP analysis of 25 DPA (days post anthesis) fiber mRNA, two FLA gene-related transcripts exhibit differential expression between Sea Island cotton (G. barbadense L.) and Upland cotton. Based on the transcript-derived fragment, RACE-PCR and realtime PCR technique, GbFLA5 full-length cDNA was isolated and its expression profiles were characterized in both cotton plant tissues and secondary cell wall (SCW) fibers in this study. The 1154 bp GbFLA5 cDNA contains an ORF of 720 bp, encoding GbFLA5 protein of 239 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 25.41 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.63. The deduced GbFLA5 protein contains an N-terminal signal sequence, two AGP-like domains, a single fasciclin-like domain, and a GPI anchor signal sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GbFLA5 protein is homologous to some known SCW-specific expressed FLAs of plant developing xylem, tension wood and cotton fibers. In the SCW deposition stage from 15 to 45 DPA detected, FLA5 maintains a significantly higher expression level in Sea Island cotton fibers than in Upland cotton fibers. The increasing FLA5 transcript abundance coincided with the SCW deposition process and the expression intensity differences coincided with their fiber strength differences between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton. These expression profile features of GbFLA5 in cotton fibers revealed its tissue-specific and SCW developmental stage-specific expression characters. Further analysis suggested that GbFLA5 is a crucial SCW-specific protein which may contribute to fiber strength by affecting cellulose synthesis and microfibril deposition orientation. PMID:23875019

  12. Isolation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Jian Ji; Ying-Chun Lu; Jian-Xun Feng; Gang Wei; Jun Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Qiang Fu; Di Liu; Jing-Chu Luo; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Cotton fibers are differentiated epidermal cells originating from the outer integuments of the ovule. To identify genes involved in cotton fiber elonga- tion, we performed subtractive PCR using cDNA prepared from 10 days post anthesis (d.p.a.) wild-type cotton fiber as tester and cDNA from a fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant as driver. We recovered 280 independent cDNA fragments including most of the

  13. Comparison of the Transcriptome between Two Cotton Lines of Different Fiber Color and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca2+/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

  14. Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber.

    PubMed

    Betancur, Lissete; Singh, Bir; Rapp, Ryan A; Wendel, Jonathan F; Marks, M David; Roberts, Alison W; Haigler, Candace H

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Through exploring potential analogies between cotton seed trichomes (or cotton fiber) and arabidopsis shoot trichomes we discovered that CesAs from either the primary or secondary wall phylogenetic clades can support secondary wall thickening. CesA genes that typically support primary wall synthesis, AtCesA1,2,3,5, and 6, underpin expansion and secondary wall thickening of arabidopsis shoot trichomes. In contrast, apparent orthologs of CesA genes that support secondary wall synthesis in arabidopsis xylem, AtCesA4,7, and 8, are up-regulated for cotton fiber secondary wall deposition. These conclusions arose from: (a) analyzing the expression of CesA genes in arabidopsis shoot trichomes; (b) observing birefringent secondary walls in arabidopsis shoot trichomes with mutations in AtCesA4, 7, or 8; (c) assaying up-regulated genes during different stages of cotton fiber development; and (d) comparing genes that were co-expressed with primary or secondary wall CesAs in arabidopsis with genes up-regulated in arabidopsis trichomes, arabidopsis secondary xylem, or cotton fiber during primary or secondary wall deposition. Cumulatively, the data show that: (a) the xylem of arabidopsis provides the best model for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in cotton fiber; and (b) CesA genes within a "cell wall toolbox" are used in diverse ways for the construction of particular specialized cell walls. PMID:20377682

  15. Cotton Fiber Cell Walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense Have Differences Related to Loosely-Bound Xyloglucan

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L.; Hahn, Michael G.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species. PMID:23457548

  16. TRANCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF GENES INVOLVED IN SECONDARY-WALL CELLULOSE BIOSYNTHESIS IN CULTURED COTTON FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the transition from cell expansion to secondary wall thickening during cotton fiber development, the rate of cellulose biosynthesis rises nearly 100-fold. A similar increase in cellulose biosynthetic capacity occurs in fibers produced in vitro by ovule culture. Although the genes for the cel...

  17. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  18. Cotton Fiber Quality Characterization with Vis-NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: Toward an Optimal Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to (1) assess the performance of the Vis-NIR method for predicting cotton fiber quality parameters with different calibration methods, and (2) determine useful spectral wavebands and bandwidths for predicting various fiber quality parameters. This study is direct...

  19. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  20. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE FILM WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one year bale storage test was initiated to determine the effects of two different long-term storage conditions on baled fiber quality. Fiber quality will eventually be evaluated by textile processing the stored cotton through to dyed cloth. Ten bales were stored in an approved warehouse and ten...

  1. Analysis of Flavonoids and the Flavonoid Structural Genes in Brown Fiber of Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongchang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Xinyu; Jones, Brian Joseph; Sun, Yuqiang; Sun, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. Experimental Design Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3?H, and GhF3?5?H) were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. Result The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL). The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. Conclusions Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers. PMID:23527031

  2. A Study On The Hidden Portion Of The Fiber Beard In Cotton Lenght Measurements.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beard method is used to make a fiber beard, and then this beard is scanned to generate a fibrogram. Cotton fiber length parameters can be derived from the fibrogram. The method used for making such a beard impacts the resulted fibrogram, hence could influence the derived length parameters. When ...

  3. Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Bas Kwak; Qin Qin Wang; Xu Sheng Chen; Cheng Xiang Qiu; Zhi Min Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved

  4. Cotton fiber properties relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  5. Experience of the fibrotest for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fibrotest is a device developed by Textechno for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties. The Fibrotest provides abundant information, including more than 20 length and strength parameters in absolute and relative modes, and displays fibrogram, load-elongation curve, and fiber bea...

  6. Characterization of GhRac1 GTPase expressed in developing cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Jin Kim; Barbara A. Triplett

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton assembly plays an important role in determining cotton fiber cell length and morphology and is developmentally regulated. As in other plant cells, it is not clear how cytoskeletal assembly in fibers is regulated. Recently, several Rac\\/Rop GTPases in Arabidopsis were shown to regulate isotropic and polar cell growth of root hairs and pollen tubes by controlling assembly of the

  7. Variation analysis for fiber quality traits among different positions in eight Upland cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equivalency of fiber quality within a plant of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is very important. There are several traits within a plant that can be used to measure fiber quality and five of those traits will be investigated. Eight representative upland cultivars were grown at the Plant Scien...

  8. USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

  9. Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mi; Meng, Yali; Yang, Changqin; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin

    2014-08-01

    An investigation to better understand the molecular mechanism of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery was conducted using a comparative proteomics analysis. Cotton plants (cv. NuCOTN 33B) were subjected to water deprivation for 10 days followed by a recovery period (with watering) of 5 days. The temporal changes in total proteins in cotton fibers were examined using 2DE. The results revealed that 163 proteins are significantly drought responsive. MS analysis led to the identification of 132 differentially expressed proteins that include some known as well as some novel drought-responsive proteins. These drought responsive fiber proteins in NuCOTN 33B are associated with a variety of cellular functions, i.e. signal transduction, protein processing, redox homeostasis, cell wall modification, metabolisms of carbon, energy, lipid, lignin, and flavonoid. The results suggest that the enhancement of the perception of drought stress, a new balance of the metabolism of the biosynthesis of cell wall components and cytoskeleton homeostasis plays an important role in the response of cotton fibers to drought stress. Overall, the current study provides an overview of the molecular mechanism of drought response in cotton fiber cells. PMID:24889071

  10. Potential Role of Abscisic Acid in Cotton Fiber and Ovule Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Gokani; R. Kumar; V. S. Thaker

    1998-01-01

    .   Fibers and ovules of a cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L. Trambak-108) were analyzed for growth and free abscisic acid (ABA) content by indirect enzyme immunoassay. An inverse\\u000a correlation between fiber elongation and ABA content was observed. In the seed, accumulation of ABA was observed during secondary\\u000a thickening and the maturation phase. The potential role of ABA in fiber and

  11. UDP-glucose: glucan synthetase in developing cotton fibers. I. Kinetic and physiological properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Delmer; U. Heiniger; C. Kulow

    1977-01-01

    A uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose:glucan synthetase can be demonstrated in detached cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and in an isolated particulate fraction from such fibers. When assayed with detached fibers, the kinetics of the flucan synthetase activity with respect to variation in substrate concentration is complex and indicates activation of the enzyme by the substrate. Activity is stimulated by Ca\\/sup 2

  12. Transcriptome Profiling, Molecular Biological, and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Ethylene in Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hui Shi; Sheng-Wei Zhu; Xi-Zeng Mao; Jian-Xun Feng; Yong-Mei Qin; Liang Zhang; Jing Cheng; Li-Ping Wei; Zhi-Yong Wang; Yu-Xian Zhua

    2006-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) produces the most widely used natural fibers, yet the regulatory mechanisms governing fiber cell elongation are not well understood. Through sequencing of a cotton fiber cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found that ethylene biosynthesis is one of the most significantly upregulated biochemical pathways during fiber elongation. The 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase1-3 (ACO1-3) genes responsible for

  13. Isolation of genes preferentially expressed in cotton fibers by cDNA filter arrays and RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hong Li; Yong-Qing Zhu; Yu-Ling Meng; Jia-Wei Wang; Ke-Xiang Xu; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2002-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes derived from the outer integument cells of ovules. Recent studies showed that the rapid elongation of fibers was coordinated with the expression of a subset of fiber-specific genes. Here we report the use of filter arrays of cDNAs to identify genes preferentially expressed in cotton fibers. An array of 1536 clones was hybridized with cDNA

  14. Isolation by suppression-subtractive hybridization of genes preferentially expressed during early and late fiber development stages in cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Liu; X. Zhang; L. Tu; L. Zhu; X. Guo

    2006-01-01

    As a main natural fiber source, cotton plays an important role in human life. To identify genes preferentially expressed during\\u000a early and late cotton fiber development, we constructed two fiber subtracted libraries on the basis of PCR-selected subtraction\\u000a using a pool of nonfiber tissues as the same driver and 10 days postanthesis (DPA) and 20 DPA fiber cells as testers,

  15. The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism

    E-print Network

    Ran Hovav; Joshua A. Udall; Bhupendra Chaudhary; Einat Hovav; Lex Flagel; Guanjing Hu; Jonathan F. Wendel

    A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (‘‘cotton fiber’’). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with;22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long

  16. Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutan...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A majority of cotton genes are expressed in single-celled fiber

    E-print Network

    Æ Lex; Flagel Æ Jonathan; F. Wendel; R. Hovav; J. A. Udall; E. Hovav; L. Flagel; J. F. Wendel; R. Hovav; J. A. Udall

    Abstract Multicellular eukaryotes contain a diversity of cell types, presumably differing from one another in the suite of genes expressed during development. At present, little is known about the proportion of the genome transcribed in most cell types, nor the degree to which global patterns of expression change during cellular differentiation. To address these questions in a model plant system, we studied the unique and highly exaggerated single-celled, epidermal seed trichomes (‘‘cotton’’) of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). By taking advantage of advances in expression profiling and microarray technology, we evaluated the transcriptome of cotton fibers across a developmental timecourse, from a few days post-anthesis through primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Comparisons of gene expression in populations of developing cotton fiber cells to genetically complex reference samples derived from 6 different cotton organs demonstrated that a remarkably high proportion of the cotton genome is transcribed, with 75–94% of the total genome transcribed at each stage. Compared to the reference samples, more than half of all genes were upregulated during at least one stage of fiber development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-007-0619-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  18. A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bir; Cheek, Hannah D; Haigler, Candace H

    2009-07-01

    Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule/fiber units. To reach these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined microscopically. The differences in fiber from NAA and IAA culture were underpinned by changes in the expression patterns of marker genes for three fiber developmental stages (elongation, the transition stage, and secondary wall deposition), and these gene expression patterns were also analyzed quantitatively in plant-grown fiber. The results demonstrate that secondary wall cellulose synthesis: (1) is under strong transcriptional control that is influenced by auxin; and (2) must be specifically characterized in the cotton ovule/fiber culture system given the many protocol variables employed in different laboratories. PMID:19479259

  19. Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hageun

    A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least-square-means comparison, regression and correlation techniques. The results indicated that the physical properties were significantly influenced by the factors. For optimization, four responses were selected for stronger, softer, more extensible and more breathable nonwovens. The optimal processing conditions in a given blend ratio were suggested by a response surface technique based on multivariate-multiresponse analysis, and distance and desirability functions.

  20. Impacts of laboratory ginning method on cotton fiber micronaire measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evaluations have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring micronaire in remote locations (e.g., in or near the cotton field) using portable Near Infrared (NIR) analyzers. However, several different laboratory ginning methods are available to gin the seed cotton, including hand ginning, roll...

  1. Electrical and optical properties of air-stable, iodine-doped natural cotton fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Jeon, H. C.; Kang, T. W.; Mamadalimov, A. T.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of sodium-hydroxide treatment and iodine doping on the optical and the electrical properties of cotton fibers is investigated by using photoluminescence (PL), as well as photoconductivity, measurements. The iodine doping results in a quenching of the PL and an enhancement of the photoconductivity due to the photo-induced charge transfer between the dopants and the cotton fibers. The conductivity of the iodine-doped cellulose fibers shows a significant enhancement by more than five orders of magnitude as compared to that of the undoped samples. A good correlation is found between the changes in the fiber's morphology and the electrical and optical properties of the fiber, which opens interesting perspectives for molecular donor-acceptor device applications.

  2. Flame retardant cotton fibers produced using novel synthesized halogen-free phosphoramide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shariatinia, Zahra; Javeri, Nasrin; Shekarriz, Shahla

    2015-03-15

    Flame retardant cotton fibers were successfully produced using five new nanosized phosphoramide compounds synthesized by ultrasonic method. The (1)H NMR spectra of compounds 1-3 illustrate (3)J(H,H)cis and (3)J(H,H)trans corresponding to the splittings of cis and trans protons present in the CHCH2 bond. Comparing the char lengths of cotton fibers treated with phosphoramides 1-5 indicates that the samples with greater degree of grafting (DG) provide smaller char lengths so that the least and the greatest char lengths are observed for the treated fibers with phosphoramides 1 and 5, respectively. The very close DG and char lengths of compounds 1 and 2 can be described based on their chemical structures containing 4-nitroaniline and 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl aniline groups that both can release electrons through their resonance effects to their corresponding PN bonds and enhance the PN system synergistic effect. The TGA/DSC analyses on the treated fibers revealed that the maximum weight losses at 800°C are occurred within the range 43.52% (for fiber treated with 1) to 56.37 (for fiber treated with 5) which are all smaller than that of the raw fiber (56.83%). The in vitro antibacterial activity experiments on phosphoramides 1-5 displayed the greatest and the least antibacterial activities for compounds 2 and 4, respectively. Furthermore, when these phosphoramides are applied on the cotton fibers, they also demonstrate the above order for the antibacterial activities. PMID:25542124

  3. Ultrastructural effects of cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides on developing cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, K C; Turley, R B

    2001-01-01

    Cotton fibers are often utilized as a model system to investigate cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall elongation. In this study, we grew cotton fibers in vitro, with ovules dissected at day zero post anthesis as the explant source, in the presence of three herbicides that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis. Cultures were sampled for electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry 1-2 days after beginning the treatments. After dichlobenil treatment, the fibers were much shorter than the controls and assumed a variety of abnormal shapes, from shortened versions of the control fiber to nearly spherical. The inner layers of the fiber wall often contained juxtaposed electron-translucent and -transparent areas; this layer reacted strongly with antibodies to callose. Cellulase-gold labeling in these newly developed fibers grown in the presence of dichlobenil was present at only about 3% of the control labeling. After treatment with either isoxaben or flupoxam, the fibers assumed spherical shapes and frequently (more than 60% of fibers) exhibited a new cell plate within the fiber, indicating that cell division had occurred, a process that rarely occurred in the controls. Unlike the dichlobenil-treated fibers, fibers grown in the presence of isoxaben or flupoxam contained an extensive accumulation of chiefly deesterified pectins, replacing the entire wall with an elaborated version of the pectin sheath found in control cotton fibers. These data indicate that all three herbicides are effective disrupters of cellulose biosynthesis and cause radical changes in cell wall structure and composition. Moreover, these data indicate that the composition of the walls may influence indirectly cell cycle kinetics, keeping these fiber cells in a more meristematic mode. PMID:11732201

  4. Variations and relationship of quality and NIR spectral characteristics of cotton fibers collected from multi-location field performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High volume instrumentation (HVITM) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements are increasingly being utilized as primary and routine means of acquiring fiber quality data by cotton breeders and fiber processors. There is amount of information regarding fiber and yarn qualities, but l...

  5. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Lacape; Danny Llewellyn; John Jacobs; Tony Arioli; David Becker; Steve Calhoun; Yves Al-Ghazi; Shiming Liu; Oumarou Palaï; Sophie Georges; Marc Giband; Henrique de Assunção; Paulo Augusto Vianna Barroso; Michel Claverie; Gérard Gawryziak; Janine Jean; Michèle Vialle; Christopher Viot

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid

  6. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber quality and yield trait by RIL approach in Upland cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Qiongxian Lu; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; Tianzhen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of cotton fiber quality has become more important because of changes in spinning technology. Stable quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality will enable molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of future cotton\\u000a cultivars. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map consisting of 156 loci covering 1,024.4 cM was constructed using\\u000a a series of recombinant inbred lines

  7. Light-induced surface graft polymerizations initiated by an anthraquinone dye on cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jingyuan; Sun, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Anthraquinone and its derivatives could serve as photo-sensitizers and generate radicals and reactive oxygen species in polymers under exposure of UVA or day light. Such a property was utilized in development of novel light-induced surface radical graft polymerizations on cotton fibers that were dyed with an anthraquinone derivative, 2-ethylanthraquinone. Several functional monomers were directly grafted onto the dyed cotton fibers upon UVA exposure. The chemical and morphological structures and thermal properties of the grafted fibers were confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Reaction conditions including concentrations of the photosensitizer, the amount of monomers, as well as UVA irradiation time could influence grafting efficiencies. More interestingly, the surface graft polymerization did not significantly change the light active functions of the agent, evidenced by the light-active antimicrobial functions of the grafted fibers. PMID:25129730

  8. Suppression of Sucrose Synthase Gene Expression Represses Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation, Elongation, and Seed Development

    E-print Network

    Yong-ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    Cotton is the most important textile crop as a result of its long cellulose-enriched mature fibers. These single-celled hairs initiate at anthesis from the ovule epidermis. To date, genes proven to be critical for fiber development have not been identified. Here, we examined the role of the sucrose synthase gene (Sus) in cotton fiber and seed by transforming cotton with Sus suppression constructs. We focused our analysis on 0 to 3 days after anthesis (DAA) for early fiber development and 25 DAA, when the fiber and seed are maximal in size. Suppression of Sus activity by 70 % or more in the ovule epidermis led to a fiberless phenotype. The fiber initials in those ovules were fewer and shrunken or collapsed. The level of Sus suppression correlated strongly with the degree of inhibition of fiber initiation and elongation, probably as a result of the reduction of hexoses. By 25 DAA, a portion of the seeds in the fruit showed Sus suppression only in the seed coat fibers and transfer cells but not in the endosperm and embryo. These transgenic seeds were identical to wild-type seeds except for much reduced fiber growth. However, the remaining seeds in the fruit showed Sus suppression both in the seed coat and in the endosperm and embryo. These seeds were shrunken with loss of the transfer cells and were ?5 % of wild-type seed weight. These results demonstrate that Sus plays a rate-limiting role in the initiation and elongation of the single-celled fibers. These analyses also show that suppression of Sus only in the maternal seed tissue represses fiber development without affecting embryo development and seed size. Additional suppression in the endosperm and embryo inhibits their own development, which blocks the formation of adjacent seed coat transfer cells and arrests seed development entirely.

  9. UDP-glucose: glucan synthetase in developing cotton fibers. II. Structure of the reaction product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Heiniger; D. P. Delmer

    1977-01-01

    The solubility properties, composition, and structure of the radioactive product synthesized from UDP-(¹⁴C)glucose by a highly active cotton fiber glucan synthetase have been determined. Product obtained under the following three different conditions was analyzed: at high and low substrate concentrations by detached fibers, and at high substrate concentrations with an isolated particulate preparation. The results of acetic and nitric acid

  10. Protection of cellulose synthesis in detached cotton fibers by polyethylene glycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Carpita; D. P. Delmer

    1980-01-01

    Detachment of the cotton fiber cell from the ovule results in loss of over 90% of the in vivo capacity for synthesis of (¹⁴C)cellulose from (¹⁴C)glucose. However, over 50% of the capacity for cellulose synthesis in the detached fiber population is protected when polyethylene glycol 4000 is present during detachment and incubation. Radioautography shows that approximately full capacity is restored

  11. Localization of sucrose synthase and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim V. Salnikov; Mark J. Grimson; Robert W. Seagull; Candace H. Haigler

    2003-01-01

    Summary.?Methods for cryogenic fixation, freeze substitution, and embedding were developed to preserve the cellular structure and protein localization of secondary-wall-stage cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers accurately for the first time. Perturbation by specimen handling was minimized by freezing fibers still attached to a seed fragment within 2?min after removal of seeds from a boll still attached to the plant. These

  12. Changes in sugar composition and cellulose content during the secondary cell wall biogenesis in cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noureddine Abidi; Eric Hequet; Luis Cabrales

    2010-01-01

    Two cotton cultivars TX19 and TX55 (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv.) were planted in the greenhouse and fibers were harvested at different stages of development. The percentage of sugars\\u000a present on the fibers was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the cellulose content was determined using\\u000a the anthrone method. The percentage of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galacturonic acid) showed

  13. A study of programmed cell death in cotton (gosypium hirsutum) fiber

    E-print Network

    Roche, Meghan C.

    2009-05-15

    cell wall deposition and death. Secondary wall formation and PCD are purported to be coupled events in tracheary elements. In this study, an attempt was made to observe the occurrence and timing of PCD in cotton fibers by TUNEL staining to detect DNA...

  14. EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE AND CULTIVAR ON YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES OF IRRIGATED COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early planting often results in chilling stress on young cotton plants, which may affect final yield. Our objectives were to determine the effect of planting date on yield and fiber properties of genotypes differing in seedling vigor and to compare conventional varieties to transgenic varieties for ...

  15. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  16. COTTON YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY FROM IRRIGATED TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN THE TENNESSEE VALLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been conducted to examine interactive effects of surface tillage, deep tillage, conservation tillage, and irrigation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and fiber quality. We conducted a field experiment from 2001-2003 with a split-plot treatment structure in a randomized ...

  17. Robust and Efficient Detection of Non-Lint Material in Cotton Fiber Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yupeng Zhang; Philip W. Smith

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an automated image segmentation system that provides high-resolution measurements of non-lint material, or trash, in cotton samples. Unlike previous trash analysis systems, this platform is able to accurately and precisely quantify the amount of foreign matter present in a sample in the presence of both illuminant degradation and fiber color variations by employing a

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  19. Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2014-12-01

    Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution. PMID:25156487

  20. Mechanical, Thermal, and Microstructure Analysis of Silk and Cotton-Waste-Fiber-Reinforced High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilara Koçak; Münir Ta?demir; ?smail Usta; Nigar Merdan; Mehmet Akalin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, composite structures were produced using HDPE polymer with silk and cotton waste as reinforcement fibers in different ratios. Cotton and silk wastes were mixed in the ratios of HDPE\\/silk or cotton waste 100%\\/0%, 97%\\/3%, and 94%\\/6%. This mixture was prepared with double-screwed extruder. The tests were carried out in terms of tensile strength, % elongation, yield strength,

  1. Elevated growing degree days influence transition stage timing during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development and result in increased fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing degree days required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development were recorded for four growing seasons and compared with fiber quality measurements and gene expression data indicative of different stages of fiber development. Comparative fiber bundle strength differences betw...

  2. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines (NILs), Gossypium hirs...

  3. Influence of Nezara viridula feeding on cotton yield, fiber quality, and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bommireddy, P L; Leonard, B R; Temple, J H

    2007-10-01

    The influence of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), adults (males and females) and fourth to fifth instars on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll abscission, seedcotton yield, fiber quality, and seed viability was evaluated in field studies conducted during 2004 and 2005. Cotton bolls representing several age classes ranging from 0-600 heat units were individually infested with a specific gender or life stage of southern green stink bug. Adults and nymphs induced abscission of bolls that accumulated 0-280 heat units after anthesis. Seedcotton yield was significantly lower in bolls infested with adults (males and females) and late instars through approximately 500 heat units after anthesis. Southern green stink bug feeding on bolls significantly affected the physical fiber properties of micronaire (measure of fiber fineness or maturity), strength, uniformity, and fiber length. Discolored cotton lint in the stink bug-infested bolls was more common than in noninfested bolls. Seed germination and development of normal seedlings for seed harvested from stink bug-infested bolls that accumulated < or =500 heat units beyond anthesis were significantly lower compared with noninfested bolls. No significant differences in boll abscission, yield, fiber quality, and seed germination were detected between southern green stink bug males and females or between adults and fourth to fifth instars. PMID:17972633

  4. Diallel analysis of superior fiber quality properties in selected upland cottons.

    PubMed

    Yuan, You-Lu; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Pan, Jia-Ju; Kohel, R J

    2005-01-01

    Twenty cross combinations were produced using a complete diallel-mating system with five varieties or lines that differed in fiber properties in Upland cotton to determine the inheritance and breeding merits of superior fiber properties. Evaluations of parents and F1 ' s were conducted in two years. The results showed that fiber length uniformity was greatly affected by environmental factors, whereas the other fiber properties were mainly controlled by genetic factors. There were no significant interaction effect of environment with genotype for fiber strength or length, but there were significant environment interactions with additive and maternal affects for Micronaire, and with the dominance effects for elongation. There were no maternal effect, and additive effects predominated for the all fiber properties. Additive heritability was high for fiber strength and length, 77.6% and 73.2% respectively; for Micronaire, it was 45.2%, while the dominance effect was 11.5%, which was the highest among fiber properties. Micronaire had significant heterosis over mid-parent based on population mean (3.2%), while the other fiber properties showed no heterosis. Therefore, the performance of fiber properties in F1 ' s can be predicted from the average value of both parents. Since the additive heritability of strength, length, and fineness of fiber were high, these traits can be selected in early generations in breeding for high quality fiber properties. PMID:15715442

  5. PHYSICAL MAPPING OF FIBER DEVELOPMENT GENES IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large numbers of genes are involved in the regulation of fiber development. To understand where these genes located in chromosomes and how they interact is crucial for improving fiber yield and quality. Our goals are to develop integrated physical and transcript maps of fiber initiation, elongation,...

  6. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  7. Measurements of seed coat fragments in cotton fibers and fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) are parts of a seed coat that have been broken from the surface of either mature or immature seeds during mechanical processing. SCF can cause spinning problems and fabric defects, which ultimately cause losses to the cotton industry. The objective of this study was to dev...

  8. The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx of evolutionary innovation involving a single-celled structure is the cotton seed trichome, present in all 50

  9. Effect of surface cationization on the conformal deposition of polyelectrolytes over cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Hyde; Hong Dong; Juan P. Hinestroza

    2007-01-01

    The effect of surface cationization on the conformal deposition of alternating nanolayers of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)\\u000a (PSS) [Kleinfeld E, Ferguson G (1996) Chem Mater 8:1575–1578] and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) over cotton fibers\\u000a is reported. Three different levels of cotton cationization were evaluated. Variations in the cationization degree were achieved\\u000a by manipulating the ratio of 3-chloro-2-hydroxy propyl trimethyl ammonium to NaOH.

  10. Relationships of cotton fiber properties to ring-spun yarn quality on selected High Plains cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the adequacy of High Volume Instruement (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) fiber quality parameters for predicting quality parameters of ring-spun yarns considering differences in harvest method. Fiber properties measured using the HVI (...

  11. Characterization of PROFILIN genes from allotetraploid ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cotton and its diploid progenitors and expression analysis in cotton genotypes differing in fiber characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anagnostis Argiriou; Apostolos Kalivas; Georgios Michailidis; Athanasios Tsaftaris

    The actin-binding protein profilin (PRF) plays an important role in cell growth and expansion by regulating the organization\\u000a of the actin filaments. Recent studies have reported association between fiber elongation in cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and PRF expression. In the present study, we cloned four genomic clones from allotetraploid cotton (G. hirsutum) and its putative diploid progenitors (G. arboreum and

  12. THE IMPACT OF COTTON FIBER WAX, METALS AND OTHER NATURALLY OCCURING NONCELLULOSIC MATERIALS ON YARN PROCESSING PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface extractable noncellulosic materials and metal contents on a series of single season domestically grown cottons that had been previously processing by ring and rotor yarn production systems were determined. Resultant concentrations were correlated with standard fiber High Volume Instrument (...

  13. Molecular Basis of Quantitative Genetics Revealed by Cloning and Analysis of 474 Genes Controlling Fiber Length in Cotton

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yun Hua

    2014-07-11

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a leading textile crop in the world, generating an annual economic benefit of over hundred billion USD. However, few genes controlling fiber quality and yield traits have been cloned and characterized to date...

  14. Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

  15. PAMUK\\/POL?ESTER VE PAMUK\\/AKR?L?K KARI?IMLI O.E. ROTOR ?PL?KLER?NDE KARI?IM ORANININ ?PL?K KAL?TE DE?ERLER?NE ETK?S? THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER BLEND RATIOS ON YARN QUALITY VALUES FOR COTTON\\/POLYESTER AND COTTON\\/ACRYLIC O.E. ROTOR YARNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru HOSRAFO?LU ÇORUH

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the influences of fiber blend ratio on quality of cotton\\/polyester and cotton\\/acrylic rotor spun yarns, which have wide range usage area in textile, were investigated. For this purpose, cotton fibers grown in ?anliurfa region, polyester fibers, and acrylic fibers were used as raw materials. Ne 20\\/1 Cotton\\/Polyester yarns in four different blend ratios and Ne 20\\/1 cotton\\/acrylic

  16. Cloning and characterization of a gene for an LRR receptor-like protein kinase associated with cotton fiber development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Li Li; Jie Sun; Gui-Xian Xia

    2005-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an ideal model for studying plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis, but the genes that are critical for the regulation of fiber development are largely unknown. We report here the cloning and characterization of a receptor-like kinase gene (designated GhRLK1), expression of which is induced during the period of active secondary wall synthesis in the cotton

  17. Virus-induced gene silencing of fiber-related genes in cotton.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, John R; Haigler, Candace H; Robertson, Dominique Niki

    2015-01-01

    Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) is a useful method for transient downregulation of gene expression in crop plants. The geminivirus Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV) has been modified to serve as a VIGS vector for persistent gene silencing in cotton. Here the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is described as a marker for identifying silenced tissues in reproductive tissues, a procedure that requires the use of transgenic plants. Suggestions are given for isolating and cloning combinations of target and marker sequences so that the total length of inserted foreign DNA is between 500 and 750 bp. Using this strategy, extensive silencing is achieved with only 200-400 bp of sequence homologous to an endogenous gene, reducing the possibility of off-target silencing. Cotyledons can be inoculated using either the gene gun or Agrobacterium and will continue to show silencing throughout fruit and fiber development. CLCrV is not transmitted through seed, and VIGS is limited to genes expressed in the maternally derived seed coat and fiber in the developing seed. This complicates the use of GFP as a marker for VIGS because cotton fibers must be separated from unsilenced tissue in the seed to determine if they are silenced. Nevertheless, fibers from a large number of seeds can be rapidly screened following placement into 96-well plates. Methods for quantifying the extent of silencing using semiquantitative RT-PCR are given. PMID:25740368

  18. Extraction and characterization of cellulose whiskers from commercial cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Alice MartinsEliangela; Eliângela M. Teixeira; Ana Carolina Corrêa; Mariselma Ferreira; Luiz H. C. Mattoso

    During the past few years, there has been a growing interest in incorporating cellulose whiskers from different sources as\\u000a nanoreinforcement in polymer matrixes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the cellulose whiskers\\u000a obtained from Brazilian commercial cotton. In this sense, cellulose whiskers were prepared by acid hydrolysis which was carried\\u000a out with a sulfuric acid

  19. [Quantitative analysis on the relationships between cotton fiber quality and meteorological factors].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fuyu; Cao, Weixing; Li, Shaokun; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguo; Zheng, Zhong; Yang, Jianrong

    2005-11-01

    With the method of planting cotton by stages at the sites from Yangtze valley to north Xinjiang, this paper studied the effects of air temperature and sunlight on cotton fiber quality in 2002 approximately 2003. The results showed that with increasing latitude, fiber length increased, while micronaire value and soluble sugar content (SSC) decreased. An ecological model describing the relationships of fiber strength, micronaire value and SSC with air temperature and sunlight was built to determine the optimal range and critical value of air temperature during boll development period. If a high quality fiber (length > or = 27 mm) was targeted, the daily mean temperature (DMT) and minimum temperature (Tmin) during this period should be 21.3 approximately 29.7 and 10.7 approximately 21.3 degrees C, respectively, and the daily temperature difference (DTD) should not be > 15.2 degrees C. Fiber length was the longest when the DMT was 25.4 degrees C. If the lowest fiber length was > or = 25 mm, DMT and Tmin should not be lower than 15.5 and 10.7 degrees C, respectively, and DTD should not be over 17.9 degrees C during boll development period. PMID:16471347

  20. Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature ...

  1. A Genetic and Metabolic Analysis Revealed that Cotton Fiber Cell Development Was Retarded by Flavonoid Naringenin1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiafu; Tu, Lili; Deng, Fenglin; Hu, Haiyan; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    The cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber is a unique elongated cell that is useful for investigating cell differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of factors such as sugar metabolism, the cytoskeleton, and hormones, which are commonly known to be involved in plant cell development, while the secondary metabolites have been less regarded. By mining public data and comparing analyses of fiber from two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), we found that the flavonoid metabolism is active in early fiber cell development. Different flavonoids exhibited distinct effects on fiber development during ovule culture; among them, naringenin (NAR) could significantly retard fiber development. NAR is a substrate of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and silencing the F3H gene significantly increased the NAR content of fiber cells. Fiber development was suppressed following F3H silencing, but the overexpression of F3H caused no obvious effects. Significant retardation of fiber growth was observed after the introduction of the F3H-RNA interference segment into the high-flavonoid brown fiber G. hirsutum T586 line by cross. A greater accumulation of NAR as well as much shorter fibers were also observed in the BC1 generation plants. These results suggest that NAR is negatively associated with fiber development and that the metabolism mediated by F3H is important in fiber development, thus highlighting that flavonoid metabolism represents a novel pathway with the potential for cotton fiber improvement. PMID:23535943

  2. Stimulation of membrane-associated polysaccharide synthetases by a membrane potential in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Bacic; Deborah P. Delmer

    1981-01-01

    Conditions which induce a transmembrane electrical potential, positive with respect to the inside of membrane vesicles, result in a substantial (4–12-fold) stimulation of the activity of membrane-associated ß-glucan synthetases in a membrane preparation derived from the developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber. Induction of electrical potentials which are negative with respect to the inside of the membrane vesicle results in

  3. Characterization of mRNA for a proline-rich protein of cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maliyakal E. John; Creg Keller

    1995-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mRNA (H6) is expressed pre- dominantly in fiber cells and is present during early primary cell wall formation. However, H6 protein is found to accumulate during later stages, when active secondary cell wall formation occurs, indicating possible regulation at the translational leve1 and function in the secondary cell wall assembly. lhe nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of

  4. The primary walls of cotton fibers contain an ensheathing pectin layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Vaughn; R. B. Turley

    1999-01-01

    Summary Cotton fiber walls (1–2 days post anthesis) are distinctly bilayered compared to those of nonfiber epidermal cells, with a more electron-opaque outer layer and a less electron-opaque, more finely fibrillar inner layer. When probed with antibodies and affinity probes to various saccharides, xyloglucans and cellulose are found exclusively in the inner layer and de-esterified pectins and extensin exclusively in

  5. GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heungsop Shin; R. Malcolm Brown

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin

  6. Differential expression of a lipid transfer protein gene in cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Din-Pow Ma; Hong Tan; Yang Si; Roy G. Creech; Johnie N. Jenkins

    1995-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, GH3, has been isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library using a differential screening method. The nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence data show that GH3 encodes a lipid transfer protein (LTP) of 120 amino acids. The presence of a transmembrane signal peptide at the N-terminal of the protein would suggest its possible outer cellular location

  7. Specific expression of a ?-tubulin gene ( GhTub1 ) in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanli Li; Jie Sun; Chunhong Li; Yongqing Zhu; Guixian Xia

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -1–15 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a ?-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis\\u000a using 3’-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the

  8. Molecular cloning and localization of a novel cotton annexin gene expressed preferentially during fiber development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ke Wang; Xiao Wei Niu; Yan Hui Lv; Tian Zhen Zhang; Wang Zhen Guo

    2010-01-01

    Annexins constitute a family of multifunction and structurally related proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant\\u000a kingdom, and are important calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins that participate in the polar development of different\\u000a plant regions such as rhizoids, root caps, and pollen tube tips. In this study, a novel cotton annexin gene (designated as\\u000a GhFAnnx) was isolated from a fiber cDNA

  9. Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus nidulans : application in the biosoftening of cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Anuradha Jabasingh; C. ValliNachiyar

    2011-01-01

    The enhancement of the cellulase activity of Aspergillus nidulans by combinational optimization technique and the usage of cellulase for the biofinishing of cotton fibers were investigated\\u000a in this study. The strain isolated from decayed, outer shell of Arachis hypogaea was compared for the first time for its ability to produce cellulolytic enzyme in shaken cultures using the optimized media\\u000a formulated

  10. Concentration and metabolic turnover of UDP-glucose in developing cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Delmer, D.P.

    1981-01-10

    The flow of carbon in vivo from glucose to cellulose in developing cotton fibers which were actively engaged in the deposition of a cellulosic secondary cell wall was traced. Steady state levels of nucleotide sugars were analyzed from developing cotton fibers harvested between 13 and 36 days post-anthesis (DPA). The UDP-sugars were the predominant nucleotide sugars. UDP-glucose constituted over 75% of the UDP-sugar fraction, but UDP-galactose and traces of other UDP-sugars were also detected. The UDP-glucose levels increased from 0.2 ..mu..mol/boll at 13 DPA to over 2.1 ..mu..mol/boll by 24 DPA, just prior to the maximum rate of secondary wall cellulose synthesis; the levels dropped precipitously at the time when cellulose synthesis ceased. Fibers, cultured in vitro possess a very similar nucleotide-sugar composition to that of plant-grown fibers. When such fibers are pulse-labeled in vivo with (/sup 14/C)glucose, UDP-glucose is the predominant nucleotide sugar labeled. Pool size and rates of labeling of glucose, glucose-phosphate, and UDP-glucose pool data were analyzed using a computer simulation model, and it was determined that the rate of synthesis and turnover of UDP-glucose is more than sufficient to account for the combined rates of accumulation of sucrose, sterylglucosides, ..beta..-1,3-glucan, and cellulose. These data strongly indicate that UDP-glucose is a precursor to secondary wall cellulose in the cotton fiber.

  11. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that energy deprivation may occur in the im mutant fibers. PMID:24341782

  12. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G#), enthalpy (?H#), and entropy (?S#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

  13. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile.

    PubMed

    Ismail, L F M; Sallam, H B; Abo Farha, S A; Gamal, A M; Mahmoud, G E A

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G(#)), enthalpy (?H(#)), and entropy (?S(#)) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9kJmol(-1) indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process. PMID:24882703

  14. Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junkang Rong; Gary J. Pierce; Vijay N. Waghmare; Carl J. Rogers; Aparna Desai; Peng W. Chee; O. Lloyd May; John R. Gannaway; Jonathan F. Wendel; Thea A. Wilkins; Andrew H. Paterson

    2005-01-01

    Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li\\u000a 1, Li\\u000a 2, N\\u000a 1 and Fbl) and three recessive (n\\u000a 2, sma-4(h\\u000a a), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in

  15. Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

  16. Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Andrew J; Vaughn, Kevin Christopher; Turley, Rickie B

    2011-07-01

    The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (?3 cm in ?20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via classical carbohydrate biochemistry were probed using a battery of antibodies that recognize a large number of different wall components. In addition, ovules from these same stages were investigated in three fiberless lines. Most antibodies reacted with at least some component of the ovule, and several of the antibodies reacted specifically with the epidermal layer of cells that may give clues as to the nature of the development of the fibers and the neighboring, nonfiber atrichoblasts. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) labeled the epidermal layers more strongly than other ovular tissue, even at 1 DBA. One of the AGP antibodies, CCRC-M7, which recognizes a 1-->6 galactan epitope of AGPs, is lost from the fiber cells by 2 DPA, although labeling in the atrichoblasts remained strong. In contrast, LM5 that recognizes a 1-->4 galactan RGI side chain is unreactive with sections until the fibers are produced and only the fibers are reactive. Dramatic changes also occur in the homogalacturonans (HGs). JIM5, which recognizes highly de-esterified HGs, only weakly labels epidermal cells of 1 DBA and 0 DPA ovules, but labeling increases in fibers cells, where a pectinaceous sheath is produced around the fiber cell and stronger reaction in the internal and external walls of the atrichoblast. In contrast, JIM7-reactive, highly esterifed HGs are present at high levels in the epidermal cells throughout development. Fiberless lines displayed similar patterns of labeling to the fibered lines, except that all of the cells had the labeling pattern of atrichoblasts. That is, CCRC-M7 labeled all cells of the fiberless lines, and LM5 labeled no cells at 2 DPA. These data indicate that a number of polysaccharides are unique in quantity or presence in the epidermal cell layers, and some of these might be critical participants in the early stages of initiation and elongation of cotton fibers. PMID:20878194

  17. Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    John, M E; Crow, L J

    1992-01-01

    Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. Images PMID:1631059

  18. Deep Sequencing Reveals Differences in the Transcriptional Landscapes of Fibers from Two Cultivated Species of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Claverie, Michel; Vidal, Ramon O.; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Guimarães Pereira, Gonçalo A.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pré, Martial; Llewellyn, Danny; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Jacobs, John; Dereeper, Alexis; Huguet, Stéphanie; Giband, Marc; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton. PMID:23166598

  19. Molecular analysis of late-stage fiber development in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world's most important textile and the number one value-added crop. It plays a crucial role in the economy of Texas – supporting close to 50,000 jobs and supplying $2 billion to the state economy. Its role is even more evident in the South Plains of Texas, which supplies approximately...

  20. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  1. Genes Involved in Osmoregulation during Turgor-Driven Cell Expansion of Developing Cotton Fibers Are Differentially Regulated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence B. Smart; Fakrieh Vojdani; Masayoshi Maeshima; Thea A. Wilkins

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single-celled tri- chomes that synchronously undergo a phase of rapid cell expansion, then a phase including secondary cell wall deposition, and finally maturation. To determine if there is coordinated regulation of gene expression during fiber expansion, we analyzed the expression of components involved in turgor regulation and a cytoskeletal protein by measuring levels of

  2. Isolation and culture of anucleate protoplasts from cotton fiber; assessment of viability and analysis of regenerated wall polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean H. Gould; R. L. Palmer; W. M. Dugger

    1986-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the isolation and culture of an anucleate protoplast system from cotton fibers actively undergoing secondary wall synthesis. Because the fibers at this stage are elongated single cells (30 µm × 1–2 cm), most of the cellular vesicles released in the process of isolation are anucleate. After purification, the protoplast population was nuclei-free. When transferred to culture

  3. Assessment of the level of microbial contamination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

  4. Assessment of the level of microbial combination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

  5. A specialized outer layer of the primary cell wall joins elongating cotton fibers into tissue-like bundles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bir; Avci, Utku; Eichler Inwood, Sarah E; Grimson, Mark J; Landgraf, Jeff; Mohnen, Debra; Sørensen, Iben; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Willats, William G T; Haigler, Candace H

    2009-06-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the world's dominant renewable textile fiber, and cotton fiber is valued as a research model because of its extensive elongation and secondary wall thickening. Previously, it was assumed that fibers elongated as individual cells. In contrast, observation by cryo-field emission-scanning electron microscopy of cotton fibers developing in situ within the boll demonstrated that fibers elongate within tissue-like bundles. These bundles were entrained by twisting fiber tips and consolidated by adhesion of a cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML). The fiber bundles consolidated via the CFML ultimately formed a packet of fiber around each seed, which helps explain how thousands of cotton fibers achieve their great length within a confined space. The cell wall nature of the CFML was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, including polymer epitope labeling. Toward the end of elongation, up-regulation occurred in gene expression and enzyme activities related to cell wall hydrolysis, and targeted breakdown of the CFML restored fiber individuality. At the same time, losses occurred in certain cell wall polymer epitopes (as revealed by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling) and sugars within noncellulosic matrix components (as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized neutral and acidic glycosyl residues). Broadly, these data show that adhesion modulated by an outer layer of the primary wall can coordinate the extensive growth of a large group of cells and illustrate dynamic changes in primary wall structure and composition occurring during the differentiation of one cell type that spends only part of its life as a tissue. PMID:19369592

  6. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  7. Identification of GhMYB109 encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor that expressed specifically in fiber initials and elongating fibers of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinfeng Suo; Xiaoe Liang; Li Pu; Yansheng Zhang; Yongbiao Xue

    2003-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are derived from ovule epidermis, which are developmentally similar to Arabidopsis trichome where several MYB transcription factors have been shown to control their formation. However, little is known about the molecular control of cotton fiber initiation. Here we isolated 55 cotton MYB domain-containing sequences expressed in ovules during fiber initiation. Among them, GhMYB109, encoding a

  8. Effect of Late Planting and Shading on Cellulose Synthesis during Cotton Fiber Secondary Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%–25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%–20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%–5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38–45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  9. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  10. Organic photodiodes on the base of cotton fibers/polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Lee, J. C.; Kang, T. W.; Mamadalimov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we report a study on the optical and electrical properties of pure cotton fibers from chemically surface and morphology modified and coated with poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) polymer samples by the dip-coating method. The treated and coated fibers properties were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence, and I-V characteristics. The performance of fibers with the MEH-PPV polymer as a coating component was investigated and an excellent white-light emission which consists of blue-, green-, and red-light-emitting bands was demonstrated. I-V characteristics of the sandwich-type devices consisting of successive layers of ITO-PEDOT-PSS- CF/MEH-PPV-Ag show that upon light illumination the current increases in both the forward and reverse bias conditions which suggest that the photoresponse parameters for the heterojunction are better than the composite alone.

  11. Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality.

    PubMed

    Davis, R F; Earl, H J; Timper, P

    2014-06-01

    Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

  12. Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

  13. The Li2 Mutation Results in Reduced Subgenome Expression Bias in Elongating Fibers of Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Naoumkina, Marina; Thyssen, Gregory; Fang, David D.; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Florane, Christopher; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Page, Justin T.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to evaluate the effects of the Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) short fiber mutation on transcriptomes of both subgenomes of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as compared to its near-isogenic wild type. Sequencing was performed on 4 libraries from developing fibers of Li2 mutant and wild type near-isogenic lines at the peak of elongation followed by mapping and PolyCat categorization of RNA-seq data to the reference D5 genome (G. raimondii) for homeologous gene expression analysis. The majority of homeologous genes, 83.6% according to the reference genome, were expressed during fiber elongation. Our results revealed: 1) approximately two times more genes were induced in the AT subgenome comparing to the DT subgenome in wild type and mutant fiber; 2) the subgenome expression bias was significantly reduced in the Li2 fiber transcriptome; 3) Li2 had a significantly greater effect on the DT than on the AT subgenome. Transcriptional regulators and cell wall homeologous genes significantly affected by the Li2 mutation were reviewed in detail. This is the first report to explore the effects of a single mutation on homeologous gene expression in allotetraploid cotton. These results provide deeper insights into the evolution of allotetraploid cotton gene expression and cotton fiber development. PMID:24598808

  14. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  15. Systematic studies on adsorption of 11 trace heavy metals on thiol cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muqing Yu; Wei Tian; Daowei Sun; Wanbin Shen; Guoping Wang; Ning Xu

    2001-01-01

    The modified thiol cotton fiber (TCF) can quantitatively adsorb, at least the ions of 11 trace heavy metals in solution with adsorption order: Bi(III)?Sn(II)>Ag(I)>Cu(II)>In(III)>Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Zn(II)>Co(II)?Ni(II)>Tl(I) and a saturation adsorption quantity of ca. 0.3mmolg?1. For a column with 0.1g of TCF and a flow rate of 10–20mlmin?1, it can quantitatively adsorb the trace heavy metals and quantitative desorption of the elements can

  16. Molecular marker assisted selection and pyramiding of two QTLs for fiber strength in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wang-Zhen; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Ding, Ye-Zhang; Zhu, Yi-Chao; Shen, Xin-Lian; Zhu, Xie-Fei

    2005-12-01

    Based on two major QTLs that control high fiber strength which originated from an elite fiber germ-plasm line 7235 (Gossypium hiusutum L.), the efficiency of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) was investigated using two populations from pedigree selection and modified backcrossing pyramiding developed for the breeding purpose. Simian 3 (SM3), a widely planted variety in the Yangtze River Valley, and 7235 were used as parents to develop the two populations. In the two major QTLs for fiber strength from 7235, QTLfs-1 could explain more than 30% of the phenotypic variation (PV) in the (7235 x TM-1) F2 population. QTLfs-2 was at first identified in another super quality fiber line HS427-10 from (HS427-10 x TM-1) F2 population with 12.5% of PV explanation,which was further also identified in 7235 line but was non-allelic with QTLfs-1. The result of molecular marker-assisted selection for fiber strength showed that the genetic effect of the QTLfs-1 was stable under different environmental conditions, and its molecular marker-assisted selection showed significant selective efficiency among breeding populations with different genetic backgrounds. QTLfs-2 also showed high selective efficiency in advanced generation populations though its effect was a little lower than the former. When QTLfs-1 was selected simultaneously with 2 molecular markers with known genetic distance, the selection efficiency for the fiber strength was greatly increased. The pyramiding for two QTLs that control high fiber strength by MAS greatly improved the selection efficiency for cotton fiber strength. This report provides a successful example of MAS pyramiding for QTL for favorable traits in breeding programs. PMID:16459656

  17. Independent replication of mitochondrial genes supports the transcriptional program in developing fiber cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Gregory N; Song, Xianliang; Naoumkina, Marina; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fang, David D

    2014-07-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants exist both as a "master circle" chromosome and as numerous subgenomic sublimons that are generated by intramolecular recombination. Differential stability or replication of these sublimons allows individual mitochondrial gene copy numbers to vary independently between different cell types and developmental stages. Our objective was to determine the relationship between mitochondrial gene copy number and transcript abundance in the elongating fiber cells of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). We compared RNA and DNA from cotton fiber cells at five developmental time points from early elongation through secondary cell wall thickening from the Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) short fiber mutant and its wild type near isogenic line (NIL) DP5690. Mitochondrial gene copy number decreased from 3 to 8-DPA in the developing cotton fiber cells while transcript levels remained low. As secondary cell wall biosynthesis began in developing fibers, the expression levels and copy numbers of mitochondrial genes involved in energy production and respiration were up-regulated in wild type cotton DP5690. However, the short fiber mutant Li2, failed to increase expression of these genes, which include three subunits of ATP synthase, atp1, atp8 and atp9 and two cytochrome genes cox1 and cob. At the same time, Li2 failed to increase the copy numbers of these highly expressed genes. Surprisingly, we found that when mitochondrial genes were highly transcribed, they also had very high copy numbers. This observation suggests that in developing cotton fibers, increased mitochondrial sublimon replication may support increases in gene transcription. PMID:24768176

  18. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  19. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  20. Modification and characterization of cellulose cotton fibers for fast extraction of some precious metal ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Akl, M A; Ali, Wael M

    2014-05-01

    In this work, native cellulose cotton fibers were first modified through graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and then by insertion of phenyl thiosemicarbazide moieties to finally produce C-PTS chelating fibers, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD spectra. The obtained C-PTS were employed in removal and extraction of Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) precious metal ions from their aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model exhibited the best fit for the experimental data. In addition, the adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities for Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) were 198.31, 87.43 and 71.14 mg/g respectively. PMID:24530331

  1. Regular Paper Overexpression of a Profilin (GhPFN2) Promotes the Progression of Developmental Phases in Cotton Fibers

    E-print Network

    Shan-jin Huang; Gui-xian Xia

    2010-01-01

    Cotton fiber development at the stages of elongation and secondary wall synthesis determines the traits of fiber length and strength. To date, the mechanisms controlling the progression of these two phases remain elusive. In this work, the function of a fiber-preferential actin-binding protein (GhPFN2) was characterized by cytological and molecular studies on the fibers of transgenic green-colored cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum) through three successive generations. Overexpression of GhPFN2 caused pre-terminated cell elongation, resulting in a marked decrease in the length of mature fibers. Cytoskeleton staining and quantitative assay revealed that thicker and more abundant F-actin bundles formed during the elongation stage in GhPFN2-overexpressing fibers. Accompanying this alteration, the developmental reorientation of transverse microtubules to the oblique direction was advanced by 2 d at the period of transition from elongation to secondary wall deposition. Birefringence and reverse transcription–PCR analyses showed that earlier onset of secondary wall synthesis occurred in parallel. These data demonstrate that formation of the higher actin structure plays a determinant role in the progression of developmental phases in cotton fibers, and that GhPFN2 acts as a critical modulator in this process. Such a function of the actin cytoskeleton in cell phase conversion may be common to other secondary wall-containing plant cells.

  2. Influence of planting date on stink bug injury, yield, fiber quality, and economic returns in Georgia cotton.

    PubMed

    Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Shurley, Donald; Toews, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late. PMID:24772545

  3. A potential role for CHH DNA methylation in cotton fiber growth patterns.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H?=?A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August. PMID:23593241

  4. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from ?22 to ?61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

  5. GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Botany)

    1999-03-01

    A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on [beta]-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg[sup 2+] was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca[sup 2+] was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieying Zheng; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 ?m and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  7. Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    ({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yunling, E-mail: zouyunling1999@126.com [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ? Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ? The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

  9. Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from -22 to -61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

  10. The effects of fruiting positions on cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  11. Atomic force microscopy of cotton fiber cell wall surfaces in air and water: quantitative and qualitative aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Pesacreta; Lisa C. Carlson; Barbara A. Triplett

    1997-01-01

    .   Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. MD51) fiber cell walls were analyzed with an atomic force microscope to determine the effect of chemical treatments on\\u000a cell wall organization and topography. Analysis of fibers in either air or water and without any staining or coating produced\\u000a high-resolution images of cell wall microstructure which could be used for detailed quantitative analysis. Treatment of

  12. The Effects of Fruiting Positions on Cellulose Synthesis and Sucrose Metabolism during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fiber Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  13. CHEMICAL STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION OF THE COTTON FIBER BASE AND ASSOCIATED SEED COAT: FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED MAPPING AND HISTOCHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourier-transform mid-infrared mapping and histochemical staining are used to reveal the location and relative importance of chemical components involved with the base of cotton fibers and their associated seed coat. These two complementary techniques are focused on the nature of the chemical compon...

  14. Association of SSR Markers with Cotton Yield Components and Fiber Traits Analyzed in a Polycross Population Derived from Tetraploid Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement in fiber quality is needed for U.S.A. cotton in order to meet the needs of modern textile processing and international competition. A random mated population derived from multiple crosses among tetraploid species, designated as Species Polycross (SP), was used in this study to id...

  15. Facile preparation of biocompatible sulfhydryl cotton fiber-based sorbents by "thiol-ene" click chemistry for biological analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Shao-Ting; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-10-22

    Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis. PMID:25268138

  16. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  17. Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingxiong Pang; Andrew W Woodward; Vikram Agarwal; Xueying Guan; Misook Ha; Vanitharani Ramachandran; Xuemei Chen; Barbara A Triplett; David M Stelly; Z Jeffrey Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber development undergoes rapid and dynamic changes in a single cell type, from fiber initiation, elongation, primary and secondary wall biosynthesis, to fiber maturation. Previous studies showed that cotton genes encoding putative MYB transcription factors and phytohormone responsive factors were induced during early stages of ovule and fiber development. Many of these factors are targets of microRNAs (miRNAs)

  18. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.

    PubMed

    Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

  19. Near-isogenic cotton germplasm lines that differ in fiber-bundle strength have temporal differences in fiber gene expression patterns as revealed by comparative high-throughput profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug J. Hinchliffe; William R. Meredith; Kathleen M. Yeater; Hee Jin Kim; Andrew W. Woodward; Z. Jeffrey Chen; Barbara A. Triplett

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from two near-isogenic lines (NILs) that differ in fiber-bundle strength, short-fiber content, and in fewer than\\u000a two genetic loci were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray. Fiber gene expression was compared at five time points\\u000a spanning fiber elongation and secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. Fiber samples were collected from field plots

  20. [Roles of nitrogen fertilization in regulating the physiological bases of fiber specific strength formation in cotton bolls bloomed at different dates].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-hui; Xu, Nai-yin; Zhang, Chuan-xi; Li, Wen-feng; Feng, Ying; Qü, Lei; Wang, You-hua; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2008-12-01

    To study the roles of nitrogen fertilization in regulating the physiological bases of fiber specific strength formation in cotton bolls bloomed at different dates (July 15, July 25, and September 10; expressed as PSB, SB, and AB, respectively), field experiments were conducted in two sites with different ecological conditions, i.e., Nanjing (middle lower reach of Yangtze River Valley) and Xuzhou (Yellow River Valley). Three treatments (0, 240, and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) were installed. The results showed that comparing with applying optimum nitrogen (240 kg N x hm(-2)), no N application decreased the N content and increased the C/N in the leaves subtending cotton bolls significantly, and the effects increased with postponing blooming date, which, to a great extent, led to the decreases of the capabilities of the leaves subtending cotton bolls bloomed at SB and AB in the accumulation and transportation of photosynthetic products, the relative growth rate of fiber in cotton bolls, and the activities of key enzymes (sucrose synthetase and P-1,3-glucanase) during the middle-later period of fiber development, and also, the decline of cellulose speedily accumulating duration in cotton fiber and of the fiber specific strength in the bolls bloomed at SB and AB. On the contrary, applying high nitrogen (480 kg N x hm-2) increased the N content but decreased the C/N in the leaves subtending cotton bolls significantly, and the effects decreased with postponing blooming date, which decreased the distribution proportion of photosynthetic products to fiber, the key enzyme activities during the early-middle period of fiber development, and the momentary rate of cellulose accumulation in the fiber of the bolls blooming at PSB and SB, resulting in a significant decrease of the fiber specific strength. It was suggested that appropriate N application could regulate the 'source-sink' relation of cotton, and benefit the high fiber specific strength formation in cotton bolls bloomed at different dates. PMID:19288713

  1. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Li; X. D. Wang; X. Zhao; Y. Dutt

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants.

  2. A transcript profiling approach reveals an abscisic acid specific glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) induced in developing fiber of Ligon lintless-2 mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed i...

  3. EVALUATION OF FOUR COTTON GERMPLASM POOLS FOR FIBER AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diversity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm exists with various characteristics useful for cotton improvement. This study was conducted to determine whether four cotton germplasm pools could be developed to provide adapted germplasm resources for cotton breeders. The properties of dwar...

  4. Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

  5. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Cotton-made Activated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ka Lok

    Activated carbon (AC) is an important functional material due to its outstanding adsorption ability. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has many advantages over other types of AC: It mainly possesses micropores and has large surface area. Its fibrous structure assures fast intraparticle adsorption kinetics. Finally, it can be made into felt and fabric forms, which would not hinder gas flow and could be easily recollected after use. However, ACF is expensive due to the lack of low cost precursor so its application is restricted. This work aims to use low cost cotton fiber as an ACF precursor. In this work, ACF was successfully synthesized by using raw cotton via ZnCl2 activation. The effects of the sintering temperature during activation, the ZnCl2 concentration during infiltration and the post-treatment after activation on our samples were studied. Our ACF products were characterized via various methods. It was found that our samples retained the fibrous structure of cotton. They contained trace of carbon-oxygen surface groups and were mainly composed of micropores. Their BET surface area (SBET) and pore volume (Vpore) were up to ˜2050 m2/g and 1 cm3/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of our samples in the Methylene blue (MB) adsorption were studied. The adsorption was very fast and almost reached equilibrium after an hour. Because of their high SBET, the saturated MB capacity in our ACF was found to be 597 mg/g and higher than other commercial AC. The effect of solution pH value on MB adsorption capacity was studied. We found that the basic condition favored MB adsorption while acidic condition lowered the adsorption ability. Adsorption kinetics, saturated adsorption volume (Vads) and desorption process of moisture, ethanol vapor, methanol vapor and acetone vapor by our samples were also evaluated. The adsorption of methanol vapor, ethanol vapor and acetone vapor reached equilibrium within 10 minutes. Our sample also adsorbed moisture faster than commercial silica gel. Less than 200 °C was required for complete desorption of these adsorbed species. Vads of our samples was up to 1 cm3/g and higher than other related works.

  7. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (IV. In Vitro Assembly of the Cellulose I Allomorph).

    PubMed Central

    Kudlicka, K.; Brown, R. M.; Li, L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, H.; Kuga, S.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro assembly of cellulose from plasma membrane extracts of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber was enriched by a combination of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid extraction buffer and two independent digitonin solubilization steps consisting of 0.05% digitonin (SE1) followed by 1% digitonin (SE2). Glucan synthase activity assays revealed that, although the SE2 fraction possessed higher activity, only 8.6% of the in vitro product survived acetic/nitric acid treatment. On the other hand, the SE1 fraction was less active, but 32.1% of the total glucan in vitro product was resistant to acetic/nitric acid. In vitro products synthesized from the SE1 fraction contained [beta]-1,3-glucan and fibrillar cellulose I, whereas the SE2 fraction produced [beta]-1,3-glucan and cellulose II. Both celluloses assembled in vitro were labeled with cellobiohydrolase I-gold complex, and the electron diffraction patterns of both products from SE1 and SE2 revealed cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively. Contamination of native cellulose was ruled out by extensive evidence from autoradiography of the ethanol-insoluble and acetic/nitric acid-insoluble materials, including three different controls. PMID:12228346

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutants Ligon-Lintless 1 And 2 Reveals Common Mechanisms Pertinent to Fiber Elongation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Matthew K.; Kim, Hee Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Naoumkina, Marina; Fang, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular processes affecting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development is important for developing tools aimed at improving fiber quality. Short fiber cotton mutants Ligon-lintless 1 (Li1) and Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) are naturally occurring, monogenic mutations residing on different chromosomes. Both mutations cause early cessation in fiber elongation. These two mutants serve as excellent model systems to elucidate molecular mechanisms relevant to fiber length development. Previous studies of these mutants using transcriptome analysis by our laboratory and others had been limited by the fact that very large numbers of genes showed altered expression patterns in the mutants, making a targeted analysis difficult or impossible. In this research, a comparative microarray analysis was conducted using these two short fiber mutants and their near isogenic wild type (WT) grown under both field and greenhouse environments in order to identify key genes or metabolic pathways common to fiber elongation. Analyses of three transcriptome profiles obtained from different growth conditions and mutant types showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were affected by growth conditions. Under field conditions, short fiber mutants commanded higher expression of genes related to energy production, manifested by the increasing of mitochondrial electron transport activity or responding to reactive oxygen species when compared to the WT. Eighty-eight DEGs were identified to have altered expression patterns common to both short fiber mutants regardless of growth conditions. Enrichment, pathway and expression analyses suggested that these 88 genes were likely involved in fiber elongation without being affected by growth conditions. PMID:24748059

  9. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  10. Effects of chromosome-specific introgression in upland cotton on fiber and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Wu, Jixiang; McCarty, Jack C; Gutiérrez, Osman A; Percy, Richard G; Cantrell, Roy G; Stelly, David M

    2006-03-01

    Interspecific chromosome substitution is among the most powerful means of introgression and steps toward quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification. By reducing the genetic "noise" from other chromosomes, it greatly empowers the detection of genetic effects by specific chromosomes on quantitative traits. Here, we report on such results for 14 cotton lines (CS-B) with specific chromosomes or chromosome arms from G. barbadense L. substituted into G. hirsutum and chromosome-specific F2 families. Boll size, lint percentage, micronaire, 2.5% span length, elongation, strength, and yield were measured by replicated field experiments in five diverse environments and analyzed under an additive-dominance (AD) genetic model with genotype and environment interaction. Additive effects were significant for all traits and dominance effects were significant for all traits except 2.5% span length. CS-B25 had additive effects increasing fiber strength and fiber length and decreasing micronaire. CS-B16 and CS-B18 had additive effects related to reduced yields. The results point toward specific chromosomes of G. barbadense 3-79 as the probable locations of the genes that significantly affect quantitative traits of importance. Our results provided a scope to analyze individual chromosomes of the genome in homozygous and heterozygous conditions and thus detected novel effects of alleles controlling important QTL. PMID:16387867

  11. Carbon fiber aerogel made from raw cotton: a novel, efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils and organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Zongyou; Cao, Xiehong; Xie, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Bo; Chen, Fangtao; Yang, Qingling; Bu, Xinyang; Lu, Xuehong; Sun, Litao; Zhang, Hua

    2013-11-01

    Twisted carbon fiber (TCF) aerogel with good selective sorption is produced in large scale by using raw cotton as the precursor. TCF aerogel shows highly efficient sorption of organic liquids (pump oil: up to 192 times its own weight; chloroform: up to 115 times its own weight). Moreover, it could be regenerated many times without decrease of sorption capacity by distillation, combustion or squeezing, which depends on the type of pollutants. PMID:24038404

  12. Genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins analogous to mammalian rac are preferentially expressed in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah P. Delmer; Julie R. Pear; Andrawis Andrawis; David M. Stalker

    1995-01-01

    In animals, the small GTP-binding proteins, Rac and Rho, of theras superfamily participate in the signal rransduction pathway that regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We\\u000a report here on the characterization of two distinct cDNA clones isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library that code for homologs\\u000a of animal Rac proteins. Using gene-specific probes, we have determined that amphidiploid

  13. The effects of microtubule and microfilament disrupting agents on cytoskeletal arrays and wall deposition in developing cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Seagull

    1990-01-01

    Summary The effects of various cytoskeletal disrupting agents (cholchicine, oryzalin, trifluralin, taxol, cytochalasins B and D) on microtubules, microfilaments and wall microfibril deposition were monitored in developing cotton fibers, using immunocytochemical and fluorescence techniques. Treatment with 10-4 M colchicine, 10-6 M trifluralin or 10-6 M oryzalin resulted in a reduction in the number of microtubules, however, the “drug-stable” microtubules still

  14. Computation of stacking and twin faults in varieties of cotton fibers using whole powder pattern fitting technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Divakara; A. R. Niranjana; R. Somashekar

    2009-01-01

    The extent of stacking and twin faults has been estimated in different varieties of cotton fibers grown in the Karnataka State\\u000a of India using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data. Further, the microstructural parameters such as crystal size ?N? and lattice strain (g in %) have been determined by a whole powder pattern fitting technique developed by us. In all these

  15. Impact of Cotton Harvesting and Storage Methods on Seed and Fiber Quality

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Mark Thomas

    2012-02-14

    , sticks, and leaves. Harvested cotton is placed in modules for storage prior to ginning. Recent developments in the industry include on-board module builders that package seed cotton as they harvest. This leads to three methods of storage: 1...

  16. Natural cotton fibers as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Liu, Shengquan; Chen, Chunyan; Zou, Ying; Hu, Huiping; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-07-21

    A natural material, cotton fiber, has been applied as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for sample preparation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. The cotton fiber was used directly without any chemical modifications, which avoided a complex synthesis process and consumption of a large volume of organic solvent. The conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized to achieve high detection sensitivity, and included elution solvent, ultrasonic elution time, extraction time, sample volume, salt concentration and organic modifier addition. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for seven PAH compounds could reach up to 0.1-2.0 ng L(-1). The method accuracy was evaluated using recovery measurements in standard spiked samples and good recoveries of 70.69-110.04% with relative standard deviations of less than 10% have been achieved. Consequently, the method developed was successfully applied for determining PAH in environmental samples: snow water, metal-fabrication factory wastewater and Xiangjiang River water, with PAH contents ranging from 13.2 to 83.1 ng L(-1). Therefore, using cotton fiber as a new SPE adsorbent, was easy to prepare, had a low cost and great reusability, and this implies it is a promising method for sample preparation. PMID:24872029

  17. Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature seeds with no visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. The Li2 mutant phenotype provides an ideal model system to study fiber elongation. To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li2 mutant fibers were compared to wild-type fibers during development. Results Principal component analysis of metabolites from GC-MS data separated Li2 mutant fiber samples from WT fiber samples at the WT elongation stage, indicating that the Li2 mutation altered the metabolome of the mutant fibers. The observed alterations in the Li2 metabolome included significant reductions in the levels of detected free sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, and sugar phosphates. Biological processes associated with carbohydrate biosynthesis, cell wall loosening, and cytoskeleton were also down-regulated in Li2 fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as a signaling factor in many organisms, was significantly elevated in mutant fibers. Higher accumulation of 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate suggested higher nitrate assimilation in the Li2 line. Transcriptional activation of genes involved in nitrogen compound metabolism along with changes in the levels of nitrogen transport amino acids suggested re-direction of carbon flow into nitrogen metabolism in Li2 mutant fibers. Conclusions This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of metabolite and transcript changes in response to the Li2 mutation in elongating fibers. A number of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic processes of cotton fiber elongation. PMID:23497242

  18. Effect of harvesting method on fiber and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Texas cotton production has represented almost half of all the US cotton production, with most of that production coming from the High Plains. Due to the harsh weather conditions, most cotton on the High Plains is of more storm-proof varieties that are harvested using stripper harve...

  19. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  20. Broadening the genetic base of upland cotton in U.S. cultivars: genetics variation for lint yield and fiber quality in germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of both lint yield and fiber quality is a challenge to cotton breeders because of the negative associations between lint yield and fiber quality. The limited success in the breakup of unfavorable associations in breeding might be a result of the narrow genetic base in Upland cott...

  1. Regional, varietal, and crop year variations of metal contents associated with the separate structural components of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the presence of metal cations in raw cotton fiber has been well documented in previous studies, little information exists in the literature regarding the relative proportions of these metals in or on the different structural components of the fiber. Such information may prove useful in attemp...

  2. A Specialized Outer Layer of the Primary Cell Wall Joins Elongating Cotton Fibers into Tissue-Like Bundles1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bir; Avci, Utku; Eichler Inwood, Sarah E.; Grimson, Mark J.; Landgraf, Jeff; Mohnen, Debra; Sørensen, Iben; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Willats, William G.T.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the world's dominant renewable textile fiber, and cotton fiber is valued as a research model because of its extensive elongation and secondary wall thickening. Previously, it was assumed that fibers elongated as individual cells. In contrast, observation by cryo-field emission-scanning electron microscopy of cotton fibers developing in situ within the boll demonstrated that fibers elongate within tissue-like bundles. These bundles were entrained by twisting fiber tips and consolidated by adhesion of a cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML). The fiber bundles consolidated via the CFML ultimately formed a packet of fiber around each seed, which helps explain how thousands of cotton fibers achieve their great length within a confined space. The cell wall nature of the CFML was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, including polymer epitope labeling. Toward the end of elongation, up-regulation occurred in gene expression and enzyme activities related to cell wall hydrolysis, and targeted breakdown of the CFML restored fiber individuality. At the same time, losses occurred in certain cell wall polymer epitopes (as revealed by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling) and sugars within noncellulosic matrix components (as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized neutral and acidic glycosyl residues). Broadly, these data show that adhesion modulated by an outer layer of the primary wall can coordinate the extensive growth of a large group of cells and illustrate dynamic changes in primary wall structure and composition occurring during the differentiation of one cell type that spends only part of its life as a tissue. PMID:19369592

  3. Comparative Proteomics Indicates That Biosynthesis of Pectic Precursors Is Important for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Hair Elongation*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L.; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2010-01-01

    The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-l-rhamnose, UDP-d-galacturonic acid, or UDP-d-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-d-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-l-rhamnose and UDP-d-galacturonic acid synthesis. PMID:20525998

  4. Fiber Characteristics and Spinning Performance of Mechanically-Stripped Cotton on the High Plains.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E.; Hessler, L. E.; Ward, J. M.

    1953-01-01

    of the 1949 and 1951 crops were on -3 cotton machine-stripped after frost. The samples of the 1 crop also included cotton hand-pulled before frost. All samples of the 1949 crop and 60 percent of those of the crop were from field-stored machine...-stripped seed cotton. samples were obtained at or near the time of ginning n storage stocks. Hand pulling of cotton before frost is more selective and ~nc~udes only the more mature bolls. Stripping after frost is the kind of mechanical harvesting done...

  5. Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes. PMID:19815688

  6. Application of an Australian Model to Predict Fiber Characteristic of Cotton Gown in Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature varies continuously and is a pervasive influence on virtually all aspects of cotton growth and development. Variation in cotton yield and quality can be broadly correlated with seasonal temperature patterns. Within-season temperature variation correlates with yield and quality variation...

  7. Application of an Australian model to predict fiber characteristics of cotton grown in Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature varies continuously and is a pervasive influence on virtually all aspects of cotton growth and development. Variation in cotton yield and quality can be broadly correlated with seasonal temperature patterns. Within-season temperature variation correlates with yield and quality variation...

  8. The Effects of Three Module Types on Cotton Ginning and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently seed cotton has been stored in modules from the time it was harvested until it was ginned. These modules have been formed using additional equipment and operators. In an effort to improve the efficiency of cotton production by reducing the number of operators and equipment, two newer harv...

  9. Seed-Coat Fragment Fiber and Fabric Quality in World Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) can be neps that can cause spinning problems and fabric defects, which ultimately cause losses to the cotton industry. 12 US and 10 International cottons were processed with AFIS and compared to the fabric samples. Fabrics were tested on the new Autorate (for dark specks)...

  10. Lint yield and fiber quality of cotton fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a rich source of nearly all essential plant nutrients. It is generated in large quantities in the same southeastern US states where cotton is a dominant field crop but is rarely used as a primary cotton fertilizer partly because of lack of precise management recommendations. This...

  11. The Effect of Higher Temperatures on Cotton Lint Yield Production and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optimum temperature range for growth exists for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), as is typical for all plant species. When Mississippi Delta cotton experiences temperatures above the upper threshold, as can often occur during the months of July and August, it is not entirely clear what growth par...

  12. Functionalization of Cotton Fiber by Partial Etherification and Self-Assembly of Polyoxometalate Encapsulated in Cu3(BTC)2 Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Lange, Laura E; Obendorf, S Kay

    2015-02-25

    A combination of a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM), [CuPW11O39](5-), with a Cu3(BTC)2 metal-organic framework (MOF-199/HKUST-1; where BTC is benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate), was successfully self-assembled on a cellulose substrate (cotton) with a room-temperature process. Cotton fibers were functionalized by partial etherification. Cu3(BTC)2 metal-organic framework and polyoxometalate encapsulated in Cu3(BTC)2 metal-organic framework were self-assembled on the carboxymethylate ion sites initiated with copper nitrate using ethanol and water as solvents. Octahedral crystals were observed on both MOF-cotton and POM-MOF-cotton; both contained copper while the POM-MOF-cotton also contained tungsten. Occupancy of POM in MOF cages was calculated to be about 13%. Moisture content remained at 3 to 4 wt % similar to that of untreated cotton. Reactivity to both hydrogen sulfide and methyl parathion was higher for POM-MOF-cotton due to the Keggin polyoxometalate and the extra-framework cations Cu(2+) ions compensating the charges of the encapsulated Keggins. The POM-MOF material was found to effectively remove 0.089 mg of methyl parathion per mg of MOF from a hexane solution while MOF-cotton removed only 0.054 mg of methyl parathion per mg of MOF. PMID:25647089

  13. Mass Spectrometric Identification of In Vivo Phosphorylation Sites of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics approach was applied to extensively explore the molecular basis of plant development and environmental adaptation. These proteomics analyses revealed thousands of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) closely related to different biological processes. However, little attention has been paid to how peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) data generated by the approach can be directly utilized for the determination of protein phosphorylation. Here, we used the software tool FindMod to predict the peptides that might carry the phosphorylation modification by examining their PMF data for mass differences between the empirical and theoretical peptides and then identified phosphorylation sites using MALDI TOF/TOF according to predicted peptide data from these DEP spots in the 2-D gels. As a result, a total of 48 phosphorylation sites of 40 DEPs were successfully identified among 235 known DEPs previously revealed in the 2-D gels of elongating cotton fiber cells. The 40 phosphorylated DEPs, including important enzymes such as enolase, transketolase and UDP-L-rhamnose synthase, are presumed to participate in the functional regulation of numerous metabolic pathways, suggesting the reverse phosphorylation of these proteins might play important roles in elongating cotton fibers. The results also indicated that some different isoforms of the identical DEP revealed in our 2-DE-based proteomics analysis could be annotated by phosphorylation events. Taken together, as the first report of large-scale identification of phosphorylation sites in elongating cotton fiber cells, our study provides not only an excellent example of directly identifying phosphorylation sites from known DEPs on 2-D gels but also provides a valuable resource for future functional studies of phosphorylated proteins in this field. PMID:23516553

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton Chromosome Introgression Lines Carrying Different Gossypium barbadense Chromosomal Segments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process. PMID:24762562

  15. Cotton fibers nano-TiO{sub 2} composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.H., E-mail: xiajianhan@163.com [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D. [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)] [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ? The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ? The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ? UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ? The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid {sup 13}C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

  16. Comparative Proteomic and Biochemical Analyses Reveal Different Molecular Events Occurring in the Process of Fiber Initiation between Wild-Type Allotetraploid Cotton and Its Fuzzless-Lintless Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Chun-Juan; Du, Ying; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    To explore lint fiber initiation-related proteins in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a comparative proteomic analysis was performed between wild-type cotton (Xu-142) and its fuzzless-lintless mutant (Xu-142-fl) at five developmental time points for lint fiber initiation from -3 to +3 days post-anthesis (dpa). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, 91 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) species that are related to fiber initiation were successfully identified, of which 58 preferentially accumulated in the wild-type and 33 species in the fl mutant. These DAPs are involved in various cellular and metabolic processes, mainly including important energy/carbohydrate metabolism, redox homeostasis, amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis, protein quality control, cytoskeleton dynamics, and anthocyanidin metabolism. Further physiological and biochemical experiments revealed dynamic changes in the carbohydrate flux and H2O2 levels in the cotton fiber initiation process. Compared with those in the fl mutant, the contents of glucose and fructose in wild-type ovules sharply increased after anthesis with a relatively higher rate of amino acid biosynthesis. The relative sugar starvation and lower rate of amino acid biosynthesis in the fl mutant ovules may impede the carbohydrate/energy supply and cell wall synthesis, which is consistent with the proteomic results. However, the H2O2 burst was only observed in the wild-type ovules on the day of anthesis. Cotton boll injection experiments in combination with electron microscope observation collectively indicated that H2O2 burst, which is negatively regulated by ascorbate peroxidases (APx), plays an important role in the fiber initiation process. Taken together, our study demonstrates a putative network of DAP species related to fiber initiation in cotton ovules and provides a foundation for future studies on the specific functions of these proteins in fiber development. PMID:25700002

  17. Comparative Proteomic and Biochemical Analyses Reveal Different Molecular Events Occurring in the Process of Fiber Initiation between Wild-Type Allotetraploid Cotton and Its Fuzzless-Lintless Mutant.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Chun-Juan; Du, Ying; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    To explore lint fiber initiation-related proteins in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a comparative proteomic analysis was performed between wild-type cotton (Xu-142) and its fuzzless-lintless mutant (Xu-142-fl) at five developmental time points for lint fiber initiation from -3 to +3 days post-anthesis (dpa). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, 91 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) species that are related to fiber initiation were successfully identified, of which 58 preferentially accumulated in the wild-type and 33 species in the fl mutant. These DAPs are involved in various cellular and metabolic processes, mainly including important energy/carbohydrate metabolism, redox homeostasis, amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis, protein quality control, cytoskeleton dynamics, and anthocyanidin metabolism. Further physiological and biochemical experiments revealed dynamic changes in the carbohydrate flux and H2O2 levels in the cotton fiber initiation process. Compared with those in the fl mutant, the contents of glucose and fructose in wild-type ovules sharply increased after anthesis with a relatively higher rate of amino acid biosynthesis. The relative sugar starvation and lower rate of amino acid biosynthesis in the fl mutant ovules may impede the carbohydrate/energy supply and cell wall synthesis, which is consistent with the proteomic results. However, the H2O2 burst was only observed in the wild-type ovules on the day of anthesis. Cotton boll injection experiments in combination with electron microscope observation collectively indicated that H2O2 burst, which is negatively regulated by ascorbate peroxidases (APx), plays an important role in the fiber initiation process. Taken together, our study demonstrates a putative network of DAP species related to fiber initiation in cotton ovules and provides a foundation for future studies on the specific functions of these proteins in fiber development. PMID:25700002

  18. Smith-Doxey Classification, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade.

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Robert L.

    1956-01-01

    or we mailed a questionnaire in June 1955 and were asked the following questions: 1. To what extent are Texas cotton merchants buying cotton on the basis of Smith-Dox classification and what are their chief criticisms of this classing service? 2... shippers, f.0.b. merchants, spot brokers and mill buyers. Of the 65 firms, 53 indicated they purchase some cotton on Smith-Doxey classification and about 38 percent of their total purchases were made on the basis of "green cards" in 1951. Thirty...

  19. Seed Quality and Plant Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having to use poorer quality cotton seed, due to unfavorable growing conditions in seed production areas, complicates planting decisions for producers, particularly when higher priced transgenic cultivars are involved. This study investigated how varying planting dates and genetic backgrounds affec...

  20. Synthesis of highly conductive cotton fiber/nanostructured silver/polyaniline composite membranes for water sterilization application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Thabit, Nedal Y.; Basheer, Rafil A.

    2014-09-01

    Electrically conductive composite membranes (ECCMs) composed of cotton fibers, conductive polyaniline and silver nanostructures were prepared and utilized as electrifying filter membranes for water sterilization. Silver metal and polyaniline were formed in situ during the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of silver nitrate as weak oxidizing agent. The reaction was characterized by long induction period and the morphology of the obtained ECCMs contained silver nanoparticles and silver flakes of 500-1000 nm size giving a membrane electrical resistance in the range of 10-30 Ohm sq-1. However, when dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as an auxiliary reducing agent to trigger and speed up the polymerization reaction, silver nanostructures such as wires, ribbons, plates were formed and were found to be embedded between polyaniline coating and cotton fibers. These ECCMs exhibited a slightly lower resistance in the range of 2-10 Ohm sq.-1 and, therefore, were utilized for the fabrication of a bacteria inactivation device. When water samples containing 107-108 CFU mL-1 E. coli bacteria were passed through the prepared ECCMs by gravity force, with a filtration rate of 0.8 L h-1 and at an electric potential of 20 V, the fabricated device showed 92% bacterial inactivation efficiency. When the treated solution was passed through the membrane for a second time under the same conditions, no E. coli bacteria was detected.

  1. Down-regulating annexin gene GhAnn2 inhibits cotton fiber elongation and decreases Ca2+ influx at the cell apex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; He, Yonghui; Tu, Lili; Wang, Maojun; Li, Yang; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-08-01

    Cotton fiber is a single cell that differentiates from the ovule epidermis and undergoes synchronous elongation with high secretion and growth rate. Apart from economic importance, cotton fiber provides an excellent single-celled model for studying mechanisms of cell-growth. Annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been reported to be localized in multiple cellular compartments and involved in control of vesicle secretions. Although several annexins have been found to be highly expressed in elongating cotton fibers, their functional roles in fiber development remain unknown. Here, 14 annexin family members were identified from the fully sequenced diploid G. raimondii (D5 genome), half of which were expressed in fibers of the cultivated tetraploid species G. hirsutum (cv. YZ1). Among them, GhAnn2 from the D genome of the tetraploid species displayed high expression level in elongating fiber. The expression of GhAnn2 could be induced by some phytohormones that play important roles in fiber elongation, such as IAA and GA3. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of GhAnn2 inhibited fiber elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis, resulting in shorter and thinner mature fibers in the transgenic plants. Measurement with non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode revealed that the rate of Ca(2+) influx from extracellular to intracellular was decreased at the fiber cell apex of GhAnn2 silencing lines, in comparison to that in the wild type. These results indicate that GhAnn2 may regulate fiber development through modulating Ca(2+) fluxes and signaling. PMID:24890373

  2. Two cotton fiber-associated glycosyltransferases, GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, function in hemicellulose glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during plant development.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Lixia; Huang, Yuying; Zeng, Wei; Rao, Yue; Li, Juan; Li, Xuebao; Xu, Wenliang

    2014-10-01

    Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent in dicot secondary cell walls. Cell wall composition of cotton fiber changes dynamically throughout development. Not only the amounts but also the molecular sizes of the hemicellulosic polysaccharides show substantial changes during cotton fiber development. However, none of the genes encoding glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for synthesizing xylan have been isolated and characterized in cotton fiber. In this study, we applied a bioinformatics approach and identified two putative GTs from cotton, designated GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, which belong to the CAZy GT43 family and are closely related to Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. We show that GhGT43A1 is highly and preferentially expressed in 15 and 20?days post-anthesis (dpa) cotton fiber, whereas GhGT43C1 is ubiquitously expressed in most organs, with especially high expression in 15 dpa fiber and hypocotyl. Complementation analysis demonstrates that GhG43A1 and GhGT43C1 are orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 in Arabidopsis results in increased xylan content. We also show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 leads to more cellulose deposition. These findings suggest that GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1 likely participate in xylan synthesis during fiber development. PMID:24641584

  3. The Control of Single-Celled Cotton Fiber Elongation by Developmentally Reversible Gating of Plasmodesmata and Coordinated Expression of Sucrose and K+ Transporters and Expansin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    2001-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within z 16 days after an- thesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodes- mata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K

  4. Expression of an Arabidopsis vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter gene in cotton improves photosynthetic performance under salt conditions and increases fiber yield in the field.

    PubMed

    He, Cixin; Yan, Juqiang; Shen, Guoxin; Fu, Lianhai; Holaday, A Scott; Auld, Dick; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

    2005-11-01

    Drought and salinity are two major limiting factors in crop productivity. One way to reduce crop loss caused by drought and salinity is to increase the solute concentration in the vacuoles of plant cells. The accumulation of sodium ions inside the vacuoles provides a 2-fold advantage: (i) reducing the toxic levels of sodium in cytosol; and (ii) increasing the vacuolar osmotic potential with the concomitant generation of a more negative water potential that favors water uptake by the cell and better tissue water retention under high soil salinity. The success of this approach was demonstrated in several plants, where the overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 that encodes a vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter resulted in higher plant salt tolerance. Overexpression of AtNHX1 increases sodium uptake in vacuoles, which leads to increased vacuolar solute concentration and therefore higher salt tolerance in transgenic plants. In an effort to engineer cotton for higher drought and salt tolerance, we created transgenic cotton plants expressing AtNHX1. These AtNHX1-expressing cotton plants generated more biomass and produced more fibers when grown in the presence of 200 mM NaCl in greenhouse conditions. The increased fiber yield was probably due to better photosynthetic performance and higher nitrogen assimilation rates observed in the AtNHX1-expressing cotton plants as compared with wild-type cotton plants under saline conditions. Furthermore, the field-grown AtNHX1-expressing cotton plants produced more fibers with better quality, indicating that AtNHX1 can indeed be used for improving salt stress tolerance in cotton. PMID:16179357

  5. The relative effectiveness of two systems of breeding for high and low fiber strength in cotton

    E-print Network

    Fetooh, Anwar Abdel-Bary

    1955-01-01

    ................................ .... 24 The Relative Efficiency of the Pedigree and Recurrent Selection Systems in Breeding for High and Low Fiber Strength .................................... 26 Moving the Mean of Fiber S t r e n g t h .........................26 Variability........................................................................................43 Effectiveness of Selection for Fiber S t r e n g t h ................................................................ 44 Efficiency of Pedigree and Recurrent Selection for Fiber Strength ................ . . . . . . 47 Page Heritability...

  6. Analysis of Flax and Cotton Fiber Fabric Blends and Recycled Polyethylene Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonn A. Foulk; Wayne Y. Chao; Danny E. Akin; Roy B. Dodd; Patricia A. Layton

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing composites with polymers and natural fibers has traditionally been performed using chopped fibers or a non-woven\\u000a mat for reinforcement. Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric for composite formation. Fabric\\u000a directly impacts the composite because it contains various fiber types via fiber or

  7. Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutant in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which exhibits an early cessation of fiber elongation resulting in very short fibers (< 6 mm) at maturity. This presents an excellent model system for studying the underlying molecular and cellular processes involved with cotton fiber elongation. Previous reports have characterized Li1 at early cell wall elongation and during later secondary cell wall synthesis, however there has been very limited analysis of the transition period between these developmental time points. Results Physical and morphological measurements of the Li1 mutant fibers were conducted, including measurement of the cellulose content during development. Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze transcript profiles at the critical developmental time points of 3 days post anthesis (DPA), the late elongation stage of 12 DPA and the early secondary cell wall synthesis stage of 16 DPA. The results indicated severe disruption to key hormonal and other pathways related to fiber development, especially pertaining to the transition stage from elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified several key pathways at the transition stage that exhibited altered regulation. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and primary cell wall rearrangement were affected, and a primary cell wall-related cellulose synthase was transcriptionally repressed. Linkage mapping using a population of 2,553 F2 individuals identified SSR markers associated with the Li1 genetic locus on chromosome 22. Linkage mapping in combination with utilizing the diploid G. raimondii genome sequences permitted additional analysis of the region containing the Li1 gene. Conclusions The early termination of fiber elongation in the Li1 mutant is likely controlled by an early upstream regulatory factor resulting in the altered regulation of hundreds of downstream genes. Several elongation-related genes that exhibited altered expression profiles in the Li1 mutant were identified. Molecular markers closely associated with the Li1 locus were developed. Results presented here will lay the foundation for further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of fiber elongation. PMID:23767687

  8. ANALYSIS OF FLAX AND COTTON FIBER FABRIC BLENDS AND RECYCLED POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MANUFACTURING COMPOSITIES WITH POLYMERS AND NATURAL FIBERS HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN PERFORMED USING CHOPPED FIBERS OR A NONWOVEN MAT FOR REINFORCEMENT. FIBERS FROM FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) ARE STIFF AND STRONG AND CAN BE PROCESSED INTO A YARN AND THEN MANUFACTURED INTO A FABRIC FOR COMPOSITE FOR...

  9. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  10. The synchronized wash-off of reactive-dyed cotton fabrics and decolorization of resultant wastewater using titanium dioxide nano-fibers.

    PubMed

    Hao, Longyun; Wang, Rui; Fang, Kuanjun; Liu, Jingquan; Sun, Yong; Men, Yajing

    2015-07-10

    In this research, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-fibers with a well-organized anatase structure were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Their structural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis, respectively. Subsequently, the TiO2 nano-fibers were optically excited under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to decolorize the reactive dye solution. The influences of initial pH, concentrations of reactive dye and TiO2 nano-fibers as well as irradiation time on rate of photocatalytic decolorization were investigated. Based on their excellent photocatalytic performance, a novel method for achieving the synchronized wash-off of reactive-dyed cotton and decolorization of resultant wastewater was developed. It was found that the wash fastness of reactive-dyed cotton after TiO2-based wash-off was equal to that after standard way. The influences of TiO2-based wash-off on the properties of cotton substrates were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRD, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, respectively, which indicated that this new synchronized method would exert few damages to the cotton substrate. PMID:25857994

  11. Efect of tri-species chromosome shuffling on agronomic and fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypium barbadense (L.), G. tomentosum (Seem.), G. mustelinum (Watt.) and G. darwinii (Watt.) are in the primary gene pool of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). They share a common chromosome number (2n=52), similar AD-genome architecture, and form reasonably fertile F1 hybrids. However, reduced transm...

  12. Potential use of cutinase in enzymatic scouring of cotton fiber cuticle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofir Degani; Shimon Gepstein; Carlos G. Dosoretz

    2002-01-01

    The present study characterized the ability of a bacterial cutinase to improve the wettability of raw cotton fabrics by specific hydrolysis of the cutin structure of the cuticle. The effect of cutinase was studied alone and in coreaction with pectin lyase. The changes in both the fabric and the reaction fluid were measured and compared to enzymatic hydrolysis with polygalacturonase,

  13. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  14. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  15. HVI color and UV/visible spectral response of cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classification of cotton color is assessed by both human classers and HVI measurements. However, there are demonstrated inconsistencies between them, partly due to the human classer’s subjective perception and partly due to HVI’s 2-filter limitation. To improve the agreement, a number of attempts ha...

  16. DISCOVERY OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN SELECTED FIBER GENES IN CULTIVATED TETRAPLOID COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful for characterizing allelic variation, QTL mapping, and markerassisted selection. Information on the frequency and nature of SNPs in cotton, especially in coding DNA regions is lacking. This study was conducted to estimate the nucleotide diversity in ...

  17. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG STINK BUG MANAGEMENT, COTTON FIBER QUALITY AND BOLL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bug feeding and associated boll damage has become an important economic cotton production issue in the southeastern United States. Previous research showed that stink bug feeding directly resulted in increased lint staining, decreased lint yield, decreased gin turnout, and decreased lint value...

  18. Effects of Chromosome-Specific Introgression in Upland Cotton on Fiber and Agronomic Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukumar Saha; Johnie N. Jenkins; Jixiang Wu; Jack C. McCarty; Osman A. Gutierrez; Richard G. Percy; Roy G. Cantrell; David M. Stelly

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific chromosome substitution is among the most powerful means of introgression and steps toward quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification. By reducing the genetic ''noise'' from other chromo- somes, it greatly empowers the detection of genetic effects by specific chromosomes on quantitative traits. Here, we report on such results for 14 cotton lines (CS-B) with specific chromosomes or chromosome arms from

  19. Cotton Fiber Quality is Related to Boll Location and Planting Date

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayle H. Davidonis; Ann S. Johnson; Juan A. Landivar; Carlos J. Fernandez

    2004-01-01

    have the highest boll set and account for the majority of the yield. A change in boll distribution was noted when Early cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) planting in the Texas Coastal the growing season was characterized by lower tempera- Bend has the potential for improved performance through drought ture, less solar radiation, and higher precipitation amounts avoidance. This 2-yr field

  20. Thermal and flame retardant behaviors of cotton fiber treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate were prepared in very high yield and purity by one step procedure and the cotton fabrics treated with them at different levels of add-on (5 - 20 wt %) were c...

  1. The effects of narrow-row and twin-row cotton on fiber properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting crops in alternate row patterns such as skip row, twin-row, or narrow-row, in comparison to a conventional 102-cm single row pattern, has been shown to increase root spacing, canopy closure, and yields. Two studies were conducted to assess the effect of alternate cotton row patterns on fib...

  2. Direct Photolabeling with [32P]UDP-Glucose for Identification of a Subunit of Cotton Fiber Callose Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Delmer, Deborah P.; Solomon, Mazal; Read, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1?3)-?-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, ?-[32P]UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca2+, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the Km of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16668019

  3. Systematic studies on adsorption of trace elements Pt, Pd, Au, Se, Te, As, Hg, Sb on thiol cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muqing Yu; Daowei Sun; Wei Tian; Guoping Wang; Wanbin Shen; Ning Xu

    2002-01-01

    The modified thiol cotton fiber (TCF) can quantitatively adsorb Pt(II), Pd(II), Au(III), Se(IV), Te(IV), As(III), Hg(II) and Sb(III) strongly in addition to its adsorption of Bi(III), Sn(II), Ag(I), Cu(II), In(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Tl(I). In a HCl solution, the adsorption order for the eight elements is Pt(II)?Pd(II)>Au(III)?Se(IV)>Te(IV)>As(III)>Hg(II)>Sb(III). The adsorption capability of TCF for these eight ions depends

  4. Effect of kinetin concentration and methods of application on seed germination, yield components, yield and fiber properties of the Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense).

    PubMed

    Sawan; Mohamed; Sakr; Tarrad

    2000-08-01

    Two field experiments in 1993 and 1994 as well as a laboratory germination experiment were conducted on the Egyptian cotton cultivar Giza 75 (Gossypium barbadense) to determine the effect of six concentrations of kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) ranging from 0 to 10.0 mg l(-1) and three different methods of application: (A) seeds were soaked for 24 h before germination (laboratory experiment) or sowing (field experiment) in solutions of different kinetin concentration, (B) cotton plants were sprayed twice with different kinetin concentrations at 60 and 75 days after sowing (DAS) during the square initiation and the beginning of bolling stages, at volume solution of 480 l ha(-1). (C) Seeds were soaked in kinetin solutions before sowing as method A. In addition cotton plants were sprayed twice as method B with the same kinetin concentrations. Kinetin application improved seed viability and seedling vigour as shown by lengths of the hypocotyl, radicle and the entire seedling, as well as seedling fresh weight. Moreover, significant increases were recorded in the number of open bolls/plant, boll weight, lint and seed indices, seed cotton yield/plant, and seed cotton and lint yields/plot. The highest means were obtained at 5 mg kinetin l(-1) concentration and under method C of application. Treatments generally, had no significant effects on lint percentage, yield earliness and fiber properties. These results show that, the use of kinetin at 5 mg l(-1) for pre-soaking seeds before planting and spraying cotton plants at 60 and 75 DAS with the same concentration could improve cotton germination, seed cotton and lint yields. PMID:10927129

  5. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. PMID:24279997

  6. INVESTIGATION Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    to manipulate fiber and agro- nomic production of cotton. KEYWORDS cotton fiber comparative genomics molecular the world's cotton fiber production, with more than 90% of this total being attributable to the cultivationINVESTIGATION Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton Liquid chromatography MS Mass spectrometry Introduction Lint fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum

  8. Fruit and fiber development in relation to determinacy in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.)

    E-print Network

    Gomez Bogado, Graciela

    1984-01-01

    and in the FZ1. Over the entire fruiting season, and over successive fruiting zones, fiber became longer and finer. In the position series, length uniformity, fiber strength and elongation showed no appreciable variation between cultivars, planting date... ) found that planting date has a significant effect on fiber properties. Later, Bilbro (1962 ) corroborated those results with field experiments conducted during five years in the Texas High Plains. He found that each successive planting made after...

  9. Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts of Cotton Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Brushwood

    For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of plant growth regulators and GOSSYM recommendations on cotton fiber quality

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bryan Webb

    1990-01-01

    . They utilize new technologies which allow them to reduce production costs while maintaining high productivity, Computer modeling of crop growth is an emerging technology that can assist the producer in gaining maximum benefit from every crop input, Computer... it possible to predict relative effects of many inputs with reasonable accuracy. As the crop models continue to be refined they will become increasingly useful in assisting producers in the management decision process. GOSSYM is a physiological cotton...

  11. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase\\/hydrolase genes in cotton and their role in fiber elongation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joohyun Lee; Teresa H. Burns; Ginger Light; Yan Sun; Mohamed Fokar; Yoshihisha Kasukabe; Koichi Fujisawa; Yoshihiko Maekawa; Randy D. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell wall extensibility is mediated, in part, by xyloglucan endotransglycosylases\\/hydrolases (XTH) that are able to\\u000a cleave and reattach xyloglucan polymers that make up the hemicelluloses matrix of type I cell walls. In Arabidopsis and other\\u000a plants, XTHs are encoded by relatively large gene families that are regulated in specific spatial and temporal patterns. In\\u000a silico screening of a cotton

  12. Mutagenicity tests of fabric-finishing agents in Salmonella typhimurium: fiber-reactive wool dyes and cotton flame retardants.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, J T; Diamond, M J; Mazzeno, L W; Friedman, M

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine fabric-finishing agents were tested for mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. Twenty-four fiber-reactive wool dyes and three acid dyes (not fiber-reactive) were screened by spot tests in strains TA100, TA98, TA1535, and TA1537. Among these dyes, seven bromoacrylamide dyes and one vinyl sulfone dye were mutagenic. Additionally, one of the three acid dyes was mutagenic in spot tests. The mutagenicity of the acid dye was due to an impurity or breakdown product rather than to the dye itself; the origin of the activities of the other dyes is unknown. No mutagenicity was observed among five chlorotriazine or four sulfonyl-ethane sulfonic acid dyes. Eight phosphorus-containing flame retardants (phosphonium, phosphine, phosphine oxide, and phosphonic acid derivatives) and methyl-N-methylolcarbamate, which is employed to obtain a flame-retardant finish on cotton, were tested for mutagenicity in strains TA100, TA98, TA1535, and TA1537, using quantitative incorporation assays. All were nonmutagenic. Two of three bromoalkyl-substituted triazine flame retardants were mutagenic in strains TA100 and TA1535. It is unknown whether this activity is due to impurities or to the parent compound. The flame retardants tested were either in actual commercial use or in experimental development for potential commercial processes. These results indicate the need for early testing of potential fabric-finishing agents and processes. PMID:7032902

  13. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of poly(butylene succinate) composites reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Bin; Jin-ping Qu; Li-ming Liu; Yan-hong Feng; Song-xi Hu; Xiao-chun Yin

    2011-01-01

    Degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers (CSBF) which had been pre-treated by the continuous steam explosion method. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, crystalline structure and spherulitic morphology of neat PBS and CSBF\\/PBS composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Moreover, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties of

  14. Determination of ultra-trace gold in natural water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after in situ enrichment with thiol cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muqing Yu; Daowei Sun; Rui Huang; Wei Tian; Wanbin Shen; Hucheng Zhang; Ning Xu

    2003-01-01

    A simple method of determining ultra-trace Au in natural water was presented by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) after in situ enrichment with thiol cotton fiber (TCF). The sample solution was adjusted to pH 1.5–2.0 with HCl, then the water sample was passed through a column packed with 0.10–0.20g TCF and the flow rate was controlled at 20–40mlmin?1.

  15. Nondestructive Identification of Dye Mixtures in Polyester and Cotton Fibers Using Raman Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-02-01

    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia. PMID:25588115

  16. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Goheen; J. Vincent Edwards; Alfred R. Rayburn; Kari A. Gaither; Nathan J. Castro

    2006-01-01

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption\\u000a of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption\\u000a of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid\\u000a components with cotton fibers.

  17. Flame Retardant Cotton Blend Highlofts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Parikh; N. D. Sachinvala; A. P. S. Sawhney; K. Q. Robert; E. E. Graves; T. A. Calamari; Y. Chen; O. Jirsak

    2003-01-01

    Highloft nonwovens are low density fabrics characterized by a high ratio of thickness to weight per unit area, which means that highlofts contain considerable void volume. They are usually made of synthetic fibers. The present research effort was directed to study cotton blended highlofts. The major problems with using cotton in highlofts are cotton's high flammability and lack of resiliency.

  18. Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture

    E-print Network

    Ge, Yufeng

    2009-05-15

    - and GPS-based system was fabricated and developed for automated module-level fiber quality mapping. The system is composed of several subsystems distributed among harvest vehicles, and the main components of the system include a GPS receiver, wireless...

  19. Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Yield and Fiber Properties as Affected by Plant Growth Retardants and Plant Density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakaria M. Sawan; Mahmoud H. Mahmoud; Ashraf. H. Fahmy

    2008-01-01

    Chemicals may be used to reduce plant size in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), which can increase cotton yield by allowing an increased number of plants per unit area. Foliar sprays of growth retardants Cycocel and Alar were applied at concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm 105 days after planting (square and boll setting stage) to Egyptian cotton cultivar Giza

  20. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  1. Commercial cotton variety spinning study quality indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  2. Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

    2007-04-01

    Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles. Implications for the evolution of new locomotor modes in primates are discussed. PMID:17289114

  3. Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes

    E-print Network

    Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

    1993-01-01

    (SBOLL) , f ibers per seed (FS), lint yield per seed (LYS), fibers per unit seed surface area (FSA) , and lint yield per unit seed surface area (LYSA) . Parents and Fi I s from a diallel mating scheme, excluding reciprocals, were space planted in 1989...

  4. Protein and fiber profiles of cottonseed from upland cotton with different fertilizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cottonseed and its derived products can be used as human food, animal feed, and industrial raw material. Chemical composition of cottonseed is one of the critical parameters for evaluating its quality and potential end use. Especially, protein and dietary fibers are two desirable nutritional ...

  5. The Control of Single-Celled Cotton Fiber Elongation by Developmentally Reversible Gating of Plasmodesmata and Coordinated Expression of Sucrose and K ? Transporters

    E-print Network

    Expansin; Yong-ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within ?16 days after anthesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodesmata and the expression of the cell wall–loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K ? , the major osmotic solutes imported into fibers. Confocal imaging of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent solute carboxyfluorescein (CF) revealed that the fiber plasmodesmata were initially permeable to CF (0 to 9 DAA), but closed at ?10 DAA and re-opened at 16 DAA. A developmental switch from simple to branched plasmodesmata was also observed in fibers at 10 DAA. Coincident with the transient closure of the plasmodesmata, the sucrose and K ? transporter genes were expressed maximally in fibers at 10 DAA with sucrose transporter proteins predominately localized at the fiber base. Consequently, fiber osmotic and turgor potentials were elevated, driving the rapid phase of elongation. The level of expansin mRNA, however, was high at the early phase of elongation (6 to 8 DAA) and decreased rapidly afterwards. The fiber turgor was similar to the underlying seed coat cells at 6 to 10 DAA and after 16 DAA. These results suggest that fiber elongation is initially achieved largely by cell wall loosening and finally terminated by increased wall rigidity and loss of higher turgor. To our knowledge, this study provides an unprecedented demonstration that the gating of plasmodesmata in a given cell is developmentally reversible and is coordinated with the expression of solute transporters and the cell wall–loosening gene. This integration of plasmodesmatal gating and gene expression appears to control fiber cell elongation.

  6. A comprehensive meta QTL analysis for fiber quality, yield, yield related and morphological traits, drought tolerance, and disease resistance in tetraploid cotton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed. Results In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots. Conclusions Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date. PMID:24215677

  7. X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

    2006-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

  8. The cotton fiber zinc-binding domain of cellulose synthase A1 from Gossypium hirsutum displays rapid turnover in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Wilk, Debora; Kurek, Isaac; Hogan, Patrick; Delmer, Deborah P.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the assembly and turnover of cellulose synthase complexes commonly called rosettes. Recent work indicates that rosette assembly could involve the dimerization of CesA (cellulose synthase catalytic subunit) proteins regulated by the redox state of the CesA zinc-binding domain (ZnBD). Several studies in the 1980s led to the suggestion that synthase complexes may have very short half-lives in vivo, but no recent work has directly addressed this issue. In the present work, we show that the half-life of cotton fiber GhCesA1 protein is <30 min in vivo, far less than the average membrane protein. We also show that the reduced monomer of GhCesA1 ZnBD is rapidly degraded when exposed to cotton fiber extracts, whereas the oxidized dimer is resistant to degradation. Low rates of degradation activity were detected in vitro by using extracts from fibers harvested during primary cell-wall formation, but activity increased markedly during transition to secondary cell-wall synthesis. In vitro degradation of reduced GhCesA1 ZnBD is inhibited by proteosome inhibitor MG132 and also by E64 and EGTA, suggesting that proteolysis is initiated by cysteine protease activity rather than the proteosome. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify a putative cotton fiber metallothionein and to confirm it as a protein that could interact with the GhCesA1 ZnBD. A model is proposed wherein active cellulose synthase complexes contain CesA proteins in dimerized form, and turnover and degradation of the complexes are mediated through reductive zinc insertion by metallothionein and subsequent proteolysis involving a cysteine protease. PMID:16873546

  9. Potential use of cutinase in enzymatic scouring of cotton fiber cuticle.

    PubMed

    Degani, Ofir; Gepstein, Shimon; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2002-01-01

    The present study characterized the ability of a bacterial cutinase to improve the wettability of raw cotton fabrics by specific hydrolysis of the cutin structure of the cuticle. The effect of cutinase was studied alone and in coreaction with pectin lyase. The changes in both the fabric and the reaction fluid were measured and compared to enzymatic hydrolysis with polygalacturonase, and to chemical hydrolysis with boiling NaOH. Water absorbancy, specific staining, fabric weight loss, and evaporative light-scattering reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of chloroform extract of the reaction fluid were measured to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cuticle waxy layer. The pattern and extent of hydrolysis of the major cuticle constituents depended on the enzyme type and titers employed and paralleled the degree of wettability obtained. The combination of cutinase and pectin lyase resulted in a synergistic effect. The use of detergents improved enzymatic scouring. The major products released to the reaction medium by the cutinase treatment were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis as C:16 and C:18 saturated fatty acid chains. PMID:12396130

  10. Invited Review Article Cotton Omics in China

    E-print Network

    Xiangdong Chen; Wangzhen Guo; Tianzhen Zhang

    In the 21st century, advent of the omics era provides scientists with greater opportunities to dissect molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber development. Cotton contributes natural fiber for the worldwide textile industry; therefore, dissecting its biological properties is a very important scientific objective. Current Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to cotton omics, focusing on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics studies. Here, we review current applications to various omics in cotton, as well as future perspectives.

  11. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  12. An electrical resistance method for determining the fiber length distribution of cotton lint

    E-print Network

    Hartstack, Albert W

    1961-01-01

    its mean length of 3/16 inch a. -. d the number of fibers in the I/L to 3/R inch group would be multip ied '! ?- its mes!i length f 5/16 inch~ etc, This conversion was necessarv if comparisons to present weight-'. enfth . v thods were to be made...' Quartile . .ength of Varieties ! f Var'ous Lergths . , ~ 33 III ~ The Ff feet of Drawing Frame . ettings ard Runs on the Co- efficient of Variation of Varieties;f Various Lengths IV. Anal rais of Variance Ei'feet of DrawinL Frame Settings and Pens...

  13. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

    2007-04-01

    Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

  14. Effects of a Short-term Corn Rotation on Cotton Dry Matter Partitioning, Lint Yield, and Fiber Quality Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has traditionally been grown under a continuous monoculture production system in the Mississippi Delta, some cotton producers have begun rotating their land with corn (Zea mays L.) because of economic and agronomic factors. Because of the lack of knowledge re...

  15. Genetic variation for yield and fiber quality response to supplemental irrigation within the Pee Dee Upland cotton germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability is a major factor influencing the development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars and sustainable cotton production in the southeast USA because of endemic, intermittent drought events occurring in the region resulting from shallow, coarse textured soils and irregul...

  16. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  17. Integrating genomics and phenomics to improve abiotic stress tolerance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet the global demand for natural cotton fiber and clothe an ever-growing population, world cotton production systems must increase productivity. Simultaneously, cotton production systems must also improve the structural properties of cotton fiber to meet fiber quality demands of global...

  18. Evidence of guided acoustic waves propagating along a micrometric fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelfa, Haithem; Mounier, Denis; Poilâne, Christophe; Picart, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    We propose a contactless optical method to determine the dispersion curves of guided acoustic modes propagating along a micrometric fiber. Subnanosecond laser pulses are used to generate guided acoustic waves, and an optical probe is used for measuring the ultrasonic displacements at the fiber surface. The test sample is an aluminum fiber of diameter 33 ?m. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical dispersion curves is presented.

  19. Obtaining Cotton Fiber Length Distributions from the Beard Test Method Part 2 – A New Approach through PLS Regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fiber length measurement by the rapid method of testing fiber beards instead of testing individual fibers, only the fiber portion projected from the fiber clamp can be measured. The length distribution of the projecting portion is very different from that of the original sample. The Part 1 pape...

  20. The Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Secondary Walls in Cotton Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara S. Potikha; Cheryl C. Collins; Douglas I. Johnson; Deborah P. Delmer; Alex Levine

    1999-01-01

    H2O2 is a widespread molecule in many biological systems. It is created enzymatically in living cells during various oxidation reac- tions and by leakage of electrons from the electron transport chains. Depending on the concentration H2O2 can induce cell protective responses, programmed cell death, or necrosis. Here we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as a developmental signal in the

  1. Transcriptome profiling of early developing cotton fiber by deep-sequencing reveals significantly differential expression of genes in a fuzzless/lintless mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin Qin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xu Sheng; Ma, Xiao Jie; Zeng, Hou Qing; Yang, Zhi Min

    2010-12-01

    Cotton fiber as a single-celled trichome is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of its gene expression and regulatory mechanism allows only marginal progress. Here, we report the high-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis using Solexa Genome Analyzer platform on transcriptome of -2 to 1 (fiber initiation, stage I) and 2-8 (fiber elongation, stage II) days post anthesis (DPA) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) ovules (wild type: WT; Xuzhou 142 and its mutant: fuzzless/lintless or flM, in the same background). To this end, we sequenced 3.5-3.8 million tags representing 0.7-1.0 million unique transcripts for each library (WT1, WT2, M1, and M2). After removal of low quality tags, we obtained a total of 2,973,104, 3,139,306, 2,943,654, and 3,392,103 clean sequences that corresponded to 357,852, 280,787, 372,952, and 382,503 distinct tags for WT1, WT2, M1, and M2, respectively. All clean tags were aligned to the publicly available cotton transcript database (TIGR, http://www.tigr.org). About 15% of the distinct tags were uniquely mapped to the reference genes, and 31.4% of existing genes were matched by tags. The tag mapping to the database sequences generated 23,854, 24,442, 23,497, and 19,957 annotated genes for WT1, WT2, M1, and M2 libraries, respectively. Analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed the substantial changes in gene type and abundance between the wild type and mutant libraries. Among the 20 most differentially expressed genes in WT1/M1 and WT2/M2 libraries were cellulose synthase, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase, all of which are involved in the fiber cell development. Overall, the deep-sequencing analyses demonstrate the high degree of transcriptional complexity in early developing fibers and represent a major improvement over the microarrays for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale. PMID:20828606

  2. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  3. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  4. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  5. Preparation of activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and its application for oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Huang, Lihui; Yao, Fujiang; Xu, Xing

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this research is to produce high surface area-activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and to examine the feasibility of removing oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous solution. The cotton linter fibers activated carbon (CLAC) was characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CLAC had a predominantly microporous structure with a large surface area of 2143 m(2)/g. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and equilibrium was achieved within 24h. The equilibrium data were described well by Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic reaction at low concentration and became endothermic nature with the concentration increasing. Competitive adsorption took place in the weakly acidic to neutral conditions. Under the strong acidity or strong alkaline condition, the adsorption of the oxytetracycline was hindered by electrostatic repulsion. The adsorption mechanism depended on the pH of the solutions as well as the pK(a) of the oxytetracycline. PMID:22137171

  6. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diqiu Liu; Xianlong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber\\u000a and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile\\u000a technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially\\u000a expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned

  7. Conservation tillage, irrigation and variety selection impacts on cotton quality premiums, discounts and profitability: evidence from the gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluctuating market prices, increasing production costs, and shifting mill demand, has made cotton markets more uncertain, making cotton quality a more important aspect of the profitability of cotton. The purpose of this research project is to examine the effect conservation tillage systems and varie...

  8. Meta-analysis of polyploid cotton QTL shows unequal contributions of subgenomes to a complex network of genes and gene clusters implicated in lint fiber development.

    PubMed

    Rong, Junkang; Feltus, F Alex; Waghmare, Vijay N; Pierce, Gary J; Chee, Peng W; Draye, Xavier; Saranga, Yehoshua; Wright, Robert J; Wilkins, Thea A; May, O Lloyd; Smith, C Wayne; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Paterson, Andrew H

    2007-08-01

    QTL mapping experiments yield heterogeneous results due to the use of different genotypes, environments, and sampling variation. Compilation of QTL mapping results yields a more complete picture of the genetic control of a trait and reveals patterns in organization of trait variation. A total of 432 QTL mapped in one diploid and 10 tetraploid interspecific cotton populations were aligned using a reference map and depicted in a CMap resource. Early demonstrations that genes from the non-fiber-producing diploid ancestor contribute to tetraploid lint fiber genetics gain further support from multiple populations and environments and advanced-generation studies detecting QTL of small phenotypic effect. Both tetraploid subgenomes contribute QTL at largely non-homeologous locations, suggesting divergent selection acting on many corresponding genes before and/or after polyploid formation. QTL correspondence across studies was only modest, suggesting that additional QTL for the target traits remain to be discovered. Crosses between closely-related genotypes differing by single-gene mutants yield profoundly different QTL landscapes, suggesting that fiber variation involves a complex network of interacting genes. Members of the lint fiber development network appear clustered, with cluster members showing heterogeneous phenotypic effects. Meta-analysis linked to synteny-based and expression-based information provides clues about specific genes and families involved in QTL networks. PMID:17565937

  9. FLAME RETARDANT COTTON BLEND HIGHLOFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highloft nonwovens are low density fabrics characterized by a high ratio of thickness to weight per unit area. They are usually made of synthetic fibers. Incorporating cotton into highloft fabrics is the focus of the present research effort. The major problems with cotton are its high flammabilit...

  10. FIAS fiber maturity measurement based on ribbon width and Fiber Density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  11. HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

  12. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  13. MODERN COLOR MEASUREMENTS for COTTON— FUNDAMENTALS and ISSUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are key and critical quality and process measurements. Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cotton have been performed on the Uster High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Color measurements of cotton tex...

  14. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  15. Raw Cotton Requirements of Textile Mills: Implications for Southwestern Cotton.

    E-print Network

    Graves, James W. (James Wilson)

    1967-01-01

    of 1965, 98 representative textile firms were surveyed to determine major factors affecting domestic textile demands for raw cotton. Current fiber utilization, opinions as to desirable fiber qualities and characteristics of the cotton marketing system... . . . . ..... .. ...-.--.-.-----..--.-.---------...---.-------- 9 .i.apendix Tables .. .. ...... ...-......-.....------------------ 12 I OTTON FUNDAnzalu AALLY IS USED as a raw material by C the textile industry. As such, it must compete in price and quality with other raw materials such as wool, flax...

  16. MATURITY-RELATED STRUCTURAL CORRELATION OF COTTON MOISTURE PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture in cotton fibers affects physical properties such as length, strength, and processing properties. It is also a major factor in cotton garment comfort. Moisture absorption is improved by removing hydrophobic chemicals from the fiber primary wall. Cottons from various lots (varieties, grow...

  17. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  18. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  19. Commercial cotton variety spinning study classic/supplementary measurement relationahips.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  20. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

  1. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  2. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  3. Different planting date and potassium fertility effects on cotton yield and fiber properties in the Çukurova region, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Gormus; C Yucel

    2002-01-01

    Late planting causes the crop to flower later and pushes boll development into the cooler weather, resulting in reduced yields. Potassium deficiency associated with the 0kg K treatment elicits some of the same responses in cotton as delayed planting. Together, these stresses may affect the yield and quality beyond the individual effects of late planting and K deficiency. The objective

  4. Preliminary examinations for the identification of U.S. domestic and international cotton fibers by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick rel...

  5. Development of immortal introgression populations; genome wide Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) for cotton

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    ) for cotton Rahul Chandnani Crop and Soil Sciences Seminar Wednesday March 9, 2011 at 3:35 pm Room 2401, Miller Plant Sciences Building Cotton is the world's foremost textile fiber crop and contributes to a multibillion textile industry. Cotton fiber has been the focal point of most research efforts in cotton

  6. Direct photolabeling with ( sup 32 P)UDP-glucose for identification of a subunit of cotton fiber callose synthase. [Gossypium hirsutum

    SciTech Connect

    Delmer, D.P.; Solomon, M.; Read, S.M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1991-02-01

    The authors have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1{r arrow}3)-{beta}-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, {alpha}-({sup 32}P)UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca{sup 2+}, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the K{sub m} of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase.

  7. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

  8. Cotton, fleece, and beads

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-05-22

    Texas researchers are exploring two types of environmentally friendly spilled oil-cleanup products. These new nontoxic products not only sop up oil but also facilitate the breakdown of that oil. One group is looking at microscopic glass bubbles coated with titanium dioxide, which functions as a photocatalyst for the breakdown of chemical including hydrocarbons. The surface reactions yield far fewer toxic material and a more complete breakdown than sunlight-only decomposition. Another group is looking at cotton fiber. In its raw form poor quality cotton, rejected by fabric manufactures and weavers, makes a superior mop for spilled oil and, unlike synthetic materials, is biodegradable. The oil absorbed on cotton fibers could also be recovered for further fermentation or reuse. Relatively little oil-cleanup research is being done worldwide. The USA, a world leader in this area, recent federal spending on R D has averaged only about $30 million.

  9. 60The Journal of Cotton Science 17:6068 (2013) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2013

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Quality and Aflatoxin Contamination of Cotton in South Texas. Ramon Jaime, Jeff McKamey, and Peter J fibers all contribute to fiber quality. Cottonseed is used as food (primarily oil) and is a preferred contamination and fiber quality. Standard fiber quality measurements, including lint color and spot, were

  10. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  11. Salt-free dyeability of thiourea grafted cotton fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Liu; Jinbo Yao

    2011-01-01

    In this study salt-free dyeing cotton fabric was achieved by grafting thiourea to cotton fibers, where the thiourea grafted\\u000a cotton fabric (TUGCF) was prepared by epoxidizing cotton fibers with epichlorohydrin in water and subsequently grafting in\\u000a aqueous solution of thiourea. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and XPS of the TUGCF indicated that a great amount\\u000a of epoxy groups from the

  12. Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kesanakurti Divya; S. K. Jami; P. B. Kirti

    2010-01-01

    Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca2+ dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions.\\u000a We generated transgenic cotton plants expressing mustard annexin (AnnBj1), which showed enhanced tolerance towards different abiotic stress treatments like sodium chloride, mannitol, polyethylene\\u000a glycol and hydrogen peroxide. The tolerance to these treatments was associated with

  13. AN EST ANALYSIS OF GENES EXPRESSED DURING DROUGHT STRESS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors limiting fiber yield and lint quality in cotton. The economic importance of cultivated cotton has stimulated extensive studies of fiber development. Manipulation during domestication has resulted in modern cotton varieties in which the fiber is long...

  14. GENETIC STABILITY OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH AND ITS MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION IN UPLAND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic stability of a major QTL for fiber strength and its efficiency of marker-assisted selection were studied in 243 progenies in different generations of four combinations using 7235 as parent, which is characterized as good fiber quality, using two RAPD markers, FSR1933 and FSR41047, and a ...

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro fiber development from unfertilized and fertilized Egyptian cotton ovules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osama A. Momtaz

    1998-01-01

    Unfertilized and fertilized ovules of Gossypium barbadense Giza 45 (extra long staple variety) were used to study the effect of plant growth substances (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins) on in vitro fiber initiation and development. Kinetin, alone did not increase total fiber unit (TFU) of unfertilized ovules, while an increase in TFU value occurred when a constant level of IAA and

  16. Changes in the sup 14 C-labeled cell wall components with chase time after incorporation of UDP( sup 14 C)glucose by intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, W.M.; Palmer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Intact, in vitro-grown cotton fibers will incorporate ({sup 14}C)glucose from externally supplied UDP({sup 14}C)glucose into a variety of cell wall components including cellulose; this labeled fraction will continue to increase up to 4 hours chase time. In the fraction soluble in hot water there was no significant change in total label; however, the largest fraction after the 30 minute pulse with UDP({sup 14}C)glucose was chloroform-methanol soluble (70%) and showed a significant decrease with chase. The lipids that make up about 85% of this fraction were identified by TLC as steryl glucosides, acylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol. Following the pulse, the loss of label from acylated steryl glucosides and glucosylphophoryl-polyprenol was almost complete within 2 hours of chase; steryl glucosides made up about 85% of the fraction at that chase time. The total loss in the lipid fraction (about 100 picomoles per milligram dry weight of fiber) with chase times of 4 hours approximates the total gain in the total glucans.

  17. Comparative investigation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the determination of cotton fiber crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary; Bauer, Philip; VanDerveer, Don

    2012-08-01

    Despite considerable efforts in developing curve-fitting protocols to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI) from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, in its present state XRD can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline or amorphous fraction in a sample. The greatest barrier to establishing quantitative XRD is the lack of appropriate cellulose standards, which are needed to calibrate the XRD measurements. In practice, samples with known CI are very difficult to prepare or determine. In a previous study, we reported the development of a simple algorithm for determining fiber crystallinity information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hence, in this study we not only compared the fiber crystallinity information between FT-IR and XRD measurements, by developing a simple XRD algorithm in place of a time-consuming and subjective curve-fitting process, but we also suggested a direct way of determining cotton cellulose CI by calibrating XRD with the use of CI(IR) as references. PMID:22800914

  18. Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Herrmann; U. Griebner; N. Zhavoronkov; A. Husakou; D. Nickel; J. C. Knight; W. J. Wadsworth; P. St. J. Russell; G. Korn

    2002-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with low-intensity femtosecond pulses, which provides evidence for a novel spectral broadening mechanism. The observed results agree with our theoretical calculations carried out without making the slowly varying envelope approximation. Peculiarities of the measured spectra and their theoretical explanation demonstrate that the reason for the white-light generation

  19. Breeding potential of introgressions into cotton: genetic effects and heterosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As new technology in the textile industry demands higher quality fibers, improving cotton fiber quality has become increasingly important. Twelve cotton lines selected from different breeding programs with diverse fiber characteristics were used for this study. These lines and their F2 hybrids were ...

  20. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  1. CHARACTERIZAION OF G. HIRSUTUM WILD AND VARIETY ACCESSIONS FROM UZBEK COTTON GERMPLASM COLLECTION FOR MORPHOLOGICAL AND FIBER QUALITY TRAITS AND DATABASE DEVELOPEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uzbek cotton germplasm is one of the largest cotton collections worldwide, and that vast collection is “unknown” to the world research community. The main goal of this project was to select G. hirsutum ‘exotic’ and variety accessions from Uzbekistan cotton germplasm collection, evaluate them for ag...

  2. The effect of ionizing gamma radiation on natural and synthetic fibers and its implications for the forensic examination of fiber evidence.

    PubMed

    Colella, Michael; Parkinson, Andrew; Evans, Tegan; Robertson, J; Roux, Claude

    2011-05-01

    Circumstances of criminal activities involving radioactive materials may mean fiber evidence recovered from a crime scene could have been exposed to materials emitting ionizing radiation. The consequences of radiation exposed fibers on the result of the forensic analysis and interpretation is explored. The effect of exposure to 1-1000 kGy radiation doses in natural and synthetic fibers was noticeable using comparative forensic examination methods, such as optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed no signs of radiation-induced chemical changes in any of the fiber structures. The outcome of the comparative methods highlights the risk of "false negatives" associated in comparing colors of recovered fibers that may have been exposed to unknown radiation doses. Consideration of such results supports the requirement to know the context, including the environmental conditions, as much as possible before undertaking a forensic fiber examination. PMID:21306372

  3. Feasibility of Cotton as a Crop for Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    Polly S. Leonhard

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) is grown primarily in the southern and southwestern United States with an upper limit of about 37 ° latitude. A study was undertaken to determine if cotton might be adapted to Pennsylvania (40°–42°), specifically under the conditions of Lancaster County where farmers are seeking an alternate crop to replace or supplement tobacco which is currently under disease stress (blue mold) and price constraints. Although ordinary white cotton is a questionable crop under current pricing, higher prices can be obtained for colored, “organically grown ” cotton. The rationale for considering cotton production in this area is that (1) existing tobacco nursery transplant facilities could be used to start cotton plantings; and (2) there may be a niche market for organic, colored cotton. The lack of any cotton production in the area facilitates the production of naturally colored cotton, which cannot be grown in the presence of white cotton due to cross-pollination problems. EXPERIMENTAL In order to evaluate the feasibility of production of cotton in Pennsylvania, several types of cotton, including naturally colored cotton ones, were evaluated for three years in Akron, Pennsylvania to determine agronomic performance and cotton quality. These included white cotton originally from Arkansas, and brown, green, red, mocha, and natural cotton originally from Texas. Fiber analyses were carried out on all cotton

  4. 2235 BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek P. Whitelock; Michael D. Buser; Carlos B. Armijo; Gregory A. Holt; J. Clif Boykin; Dennis S. Findley; Edward M. Barnes; Michael D. Watson

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be made in preservation of fiber quality. This report discusses analysis of the first

  5. Saved-Ends Analysis of Fiber Breakage in Cotton Processing by use of Number-Based Averages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of USDA’s existing research data on fiber processing include mean values of length-distribution parameters, but not complete length histogram data. A specific goal of this work was to derive mathematically and demonstrate experimentally in the laboratory new engineering research tools that uti...

  6. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  7. [Analysis of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) in Chinese medicine by the system of porphyrin complexes and sulfhydryl cotton fiber].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zheng, Huai-li

    2004-02-01

    The reaction of alpha beta gamma delta-tetra(p-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS4) with Pb(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II) has been studied in this article, and the spectra of the Pb(II)-TPPS4, Cd(II)-TPPS4 and Cu(II)-TPPS4 show the spectral absorption of these complexes with high sensitivity. The molar absorptivities of Pb(II)-TPPS4, Cd(II)-TPPS4 and Cu(II)-TPPS4 are 2.5 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), 5.2 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) and 4.2 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), respectively. With the sulfhydryl cotton fiber separation-enrichment method, this analytical system of porphyrin complexes has been successfully applied to determining the trace amounts of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) in Ginkgo bilobal leaves and tea leaves. The RSD of determining 10(-6)-10(-7) g x g(-1) Pb(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II) in samples lies between 3.3%-9.6%, and the recovery of added standard lies between 90%-103%. The proposed analytical method has the advantage of high sensitivity, simplicity and high efficiency of interfere-resisting. PMID:15769016

  8. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (I. Identification of [beta]-1,4- and [beta]-1,3-Glucans Synthesized in Vitro).

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, K.; Li, L.; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg2+, Ca2+, cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose II. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase I. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. PMID:12231764

  9. [beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-04-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

  11. Nano Res (2010) 3: 452458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Nano Res (2010) 3: 452­458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton Mauro Pasta1,2 , Fabio the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network

  12. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  13. High Plains Cotton Harvest Aid Update October 8, 2004

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    High Plains Cotton Harvest Aid Update October 8, 2004 Dr. Randy Boman Extension Agronomist-Cotton conditions for most cotton producers in the region. Over the last several years, we have been fortunate to cooler, wetter conditions, and this might cause some concerns over fiber maturity. It is difficult

  14. Fiber Chemistry Effects on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dyeing efficiency of cotton knits was investigated as a function both of metal contents native to the cotton fiber as well as the presence of sugar-protein reaction products which contribute to +b. Results indicate that aged cotton fiber exhibits both a higher +b value and a tendency to incorpor...

  15. Toward identification of complete set of aquaporin gene family in cotton - A possible way to improve cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the most important natural-fiber producing crop and is a significant global agricultural commodity. Because of the significance of water to the quantity and quality of cotton production, efforts to decrease the amount of water applied and improve cotton water use efficiency are being exten...

  16. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye. PMID:25699701

  17. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber qualit...

  18. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  19. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  20. Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Associated with a Natural Leaf Defoliation Trait in Tetraploid Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Y. Abdurakhmonov; A. A. ABDULLAEV; S. SAHA; Z. T. BURIEV; D. ARSLANOV; Z. KURYAZOV

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research

  1. be encouraged to self-fumigate their nests, we placed 30 cotton dispensers

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    of (interspersed) dispensers: experimental dispensers, which contained cotton treated with a % permethrin solution of the nests contained more than one type of cotton. Thirteen nests had experimental (permethrin) cotton be encouraged to `self-fumigate' nests with cotton fibers that have been treated with permethrin. Nests

  2. Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA, Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

  3. Evaluation of Harvest Aid Chemical Treatments on Late-Season Hail Damaged Cotton -100% Defoliated

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and in tank mixes, on yield, fiber quality and economic return when applied to cotton after a late season hailEvaluation of Harvest Aid Chemical Treatments on Late-Season Hail Damaged Cotton - 100% Defoliated-IPM, Dawson/Lynn Counties, Extension Program Specialist-Cotton, Extension Agronomist-Cotton, and Extension

  4. Evaluation of Harvest Aid Chemical Treatments on Late-Season Hail Damaged Cotton -60% Defoliated

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Evaluation of Harvest Aid Chemical Treatments on Late-Season Hail Damaged Cotton - 60% Defoliated/Lynn Counties Extension Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist-Cotton, and Extension Assistant-Cotton value, and HVI fiber properties of micronaire, uniformity, strength and +b (yellowness) (Tables 1 and 2

  5. 1370 EFFECT OF BLENDING EGYPTIAN AND UPLAND COTTONS ON O.E. YARN QUALITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souzan Sanad; Mohamed El-Sayed; Ahmed Mostafa

    The importance of cotton in the economic development is significant in both agriculture and industrial sectors in Egypt. Giza 90 Egyptian cotton variety, was chosen and blended with Sudanese Upland cotton (Acala) and also, with Greek upland cotton. Ten different combinations of blend levels including the 100 % fiber types were performed for two different yarn counts of 15 Ne

  6. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (II. Regulation and Kinetic Properties of [beta]-Glucan Synthases.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.; Brown, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The regulation and kinetic properties of cellulose synthase as well as [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase have been studied. The cellulose was detected using acetic/nitric acid insolubility as an indicator of cellulose (this product contained only [beta]-1,4-linked glucans; K. Okuda, L. Li, K. Kudlicka, S. Kuga, R.M. Brown, Jr. [1993] Plant Physiol 101: 1131-1142). These studies reveal that (a) [beta]-1,3-glucan synthesis is enhanced up to 31-fold by cellobiose with a Ka of 1.16 mM; (b) cellulose synthesis is increased 12-fold by a combination of cellobiose (Ka = 3.26 mM) and cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP (Ka = 100 [mu]M); (c) the common components in the reaction mixture required by both enzymes are cellobiose, calcium, and digitonin; (d) cellulose synthase has an essential requirement for magnesium (Ka = 0.89 mM); (e) cellulose synthase also requires a low concentration of calcium (Ka = 90 [mu]M); (f) the optimal pH for cellulose synthase (7.6-8.0) is slightly higher than that for [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase (7.2-7.6); (g) the Km for UGP-Glc for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cellulose synthase is 0.40 mM; (h) the Km for UDP-Glc for for [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase is 0.43 mM. PMID:12231765

  7. Investigation of fiber maturity effect on saw-type lint cleaner fiber damage and yarn properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-half of plots of two cotton cultivars with similar mature fiber length were harvested after two defoliation treatments (early/late) to get less and more mature cottons. These seed cotton lots were ginned with the same seed cotton cleaning but with 0, 1, or 3 saw-type lint cleaners with low dryi...

  8. Structure and properties of silk fibroin modified cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lin; L. R. Yao; Y. Y. Chen; H. Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this research, a novel cotton fiber with a silk fibroin (SF) coating was prepared by the oxidation of a cotton thread with\\u000a sodium periodate and subsequent treatment in a solution of silk fibroin. The structures of both the oxidized cotton samples\\u000a and the SF modified cotton samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) in combination with X-ray photoelectron

  9. Identification of cotton microRNAs and their targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baohong Zhang; Qinglian Wang; Kunbo Wang; Xiaoping Pan; Fang Liu; Tenglong Guo; George P. Cobb; Todd A. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in cotton although cotton is one of the most important fiber and economic crops around the world. In this study, we found 30 potential cotton miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach based on genomic survey sequence analysis and miRNA secondary structure. These cotton miRNAs belong to 22 miRNA

  10. 2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    ,145 bcd 11 g 0.485 521.54 bcd Beltwide Cotton Genetics 520R 1.38 abc 1,177 bc 14 efg 0.517 537.33 b Fiber2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings for Verticillium Wilt Dr. Terry Wheeler Research 2326RR, FiberMax (FM) 960 BR, FM 989 BR, FM 989B2R, and DeltaPine 455BR. The best Roundup Ready Flex

  11. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that a large set of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across the At and ...

  12. Effect of Varying Levels of Boll Feeding Bug Damage on Fiber Quality of Machine Picked Cotton Processed at the UGA MicroGin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Roberts; A. Knowlton; J Ruberson; J. Bacheler; D. Mott; D. Morrison; T. Pegram; J. Greene; D. Robinson; T. Walker; S. Turnipseed; M. Sullivan; R. Smith; C. Bednarz

    Field trials were conducted in southeastern cotton producing states which included aggressively sprayed and untreated plots and in some locations one or more intermediate treatments for control of boll feeding bugs. Seedcotton from the 24 trials were machine picked and ginned at the University of Georgia MicroGin which processes cotton consistent with commercial ginning practices. Lint samples were submitted to

  13. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  14. Recent advances in cotton genomics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  15. Electrical insulated paper from cotton linter.

    PubMed

    El-Saied, Houssni; El-Meligy, Magda G; Mohamed, Samar H; El-Mongy, S Abd

    2012-09-01

    Insulated paper had been prepared from cotton linter containing certain additives. Strength properties had been studied for all paper prepared from cotton linter, before and after impregnating in the linseed oil. Also, the dielectric constant (?) and AC electrical conductivity with frequencies over the range (100 kHz to 3 MHz) and at different temperatures were studied. Blended cotton linter with glass fiber or polyester fiber increased the dielectric constant. Since the glass fibers lowered the power factor from 0.63 to 0.28% and enhanced dielectric constant. The addition of hydrophilic fibers such as rayon or polyester fiber can be made paper of low porosity, low density and high dielectric resistance. Also, the addition of lead sulphate improved dielectric constant of paper since it has dielectric coefficient >20. The dielectric constant in sample which dipped in oil is higher than the sample without oil. PMID:24751023

  16. A Transcript Profiling Approach Reveals an Abscisic Acid-Specific Glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) Induced in Developing Fiber of Ligon lintless-2 Mutant of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Matthew K.; Bland, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Cao, Heping; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Fang, David D.; Naoumkina, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed in developing fibers of the mutant Ligon lintless-2 was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence showed ~53% similarity with Arabidopsis UGT73C sub-family members and the UDP-glycosyltransferase was designated as UGT73C14. When expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein with a maltose binding protein tag, UGT73C14 displayed enzymatic activity toward ABA and utilized UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose as the sugar donors. The recombinant UGT73C14 converted natural occurring isoform (+)-cis, trans-ABA better than (+)-trans, trans-ABA and (-)-cis, trans-ABA. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing UGT73C14 did not show phenotypic changes under standard growth conditions. However, the increased glycosylation of ABA resulted in phenotypic changes in post-germinative growth and seedling establishment, confirming in vivo activity of UGT73C14 for ABA. This suggests that the expression level of UGT73C14 is regulated by the observed elevated levels of ABA in developing fibers of the Li2 mutant line and may be involved in the regulation of ABA homeostasis. PMID:24086489

  17. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...applied to products having reinforcing fibers added to a particular area or section, are as follows: 55% Cotton 45% Rayon Except 5% Nylon added to toe and heel. All Cotton except 1% Nylon added to...

  18. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...applied to products having reinforcing fibers added to a particular area or section, are as follows: 55% Cotton 45% Rayon Except 5% Nylon added to toe and heel. All Cotton except 1% Nylon added to...

  19. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...applied to products having reinforcing fibers added to a particular area or section, are as follows: 55% Cotton 45% Rayon Except 5% Nylon added to toe and heel. All Cotton except 1% Nylon added to...

  20. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...applied to products having reinforcing fibers added to a particular area or section, are as follows: 55% Cotton 45% Rayon Except 5% Nylon added to toe and heel. All Cotton except 1% Nylon added to...