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1

Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers: evidence for an extracellular form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes.\\u000a Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton\\u000a (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We show here, based on immunoreactivity, that the enzyme is a Cu\\/Zn-SOD (CSD). Immunogold localization shows that\\u000a CSD localizes to secondary cell walls of developing cotton fibers.

Hee Jin Kim; Naohiro Kato; Sunran Kim; Barbara Triplett

2008-01-01

2

COTTON FIBER CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual cotton production exceeds 25 million metric tons and accounts for more than 40 percent of the textile fiber consumed worldwide. A key textile fiber for over 5000 years, this complex carbohydrate is also one of the leading crops to benefit from genetic engineering. Cotton Fiber Chemistry and...

3

Evidence that high activity of vacuolar invertase is required for cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root elongation through osmotic dependent and independent pathways, respectively.  

PubMed

Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-08-10

4

Cytochemistry of developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing lint fibers from normally developing seeds and from motes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Acala SJ2 and cv Acala Maxxa) were compared with respect to cell wall cytochemistry. Fibers from motes (unfertilized ovules or aborted seeds) were used as a model for non-dyeing fibers, a contributor to poor quality textiles. Primary and secondary fiber walls were stained

Kitren G. Weis; Karin R. Jacobsen; Judith A. Jernstedt

1999-01-01

5

Spiral structures of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, data from the microscopic investigation of the morphological structure of a cellular wall and plasmalemma\\u000a of the Central Asian cotton fiber are given at different stages of their development. The objects under investigation were\\u000a live hairs of five middle-fiber cotton species (Tashkent-1, 108-F, Namangan-77, Margelan-3, G. llirsutum L.) and the coarse-fiber variety of G. arboreum L.,

V. A. Krakhmalev; A. A. Paiziev

2006-01-01

6

Evidence for the role of transfer cells in the evolutionary increase in seed and fiber biomass yield in cotton.  

PubMed

Transfer cells (TCs) are specialized cells exhibiting invaginated wall ingrowths (WIs), thereby amplifying their plasma membrane surface area (PMSA) and hence the capacity to transport nutrients. However, it remains unknown as to whether TCs play a role in biomass yield increase during evolution or domestication. Here, we examine this issue from a comparative evolutionary perspective. The cultivated tetraploid AD genome species of cotton and its A and D genome diploid progenitors displayed high, medium, and low seed and fiber biomass yield, respectively. In all three species, cells of the innermost layer of the seed coat juxtaposed to the filial tissues trans-differentiated to a TC morphology. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that these TCs are characterized by sequential formation of flange and reticulate WIs during the phase of rapid increase in seed biomass. Significantly, TCs from the tetraploid species developed substantially more flange and reticulate WIs and exhibited a higher degree of reticulate WI formation than their progenitors. Consequently, the estimated PMSA of TCs of the tetraploid species was about 4 and 70 times higher than that of TCs of the A and D genome progenitors, respectively, which correlates positively with seed and fiber biomass yield. Further, TCs with extensive WIs in the tetraploid species had much stronger expression of sucrose synthase, a key enzyme involved in TC WI formation and function, than those from the A and D progenitors. The analyses provide a set of novel evidence that the development of TC WIs may play an important role in the increase of seed and fiber biomass yield through polyploidization during evolution. PMID:20864453

Pugh, Deborah A; Offler, Christina E; Talbot, Mark J; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-09-23

7

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

Van`t Hof, J.

1998-09-01

8

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

Van' t Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

1998-09-01

9

THE ORIGINAL COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mathematical form of the cotton fiber length distribution has been discovered. Cotton fiber length distributions are now known to belong to a specific family of mathematical curves. These types of probability density functions (Robert distributions) are defined by the mathematical property that...

10

Elemental analysis of white cotton fiber evidence using solution ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS).  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to investigate a method for the forensic elemental analysis of cotton fibers for the purpose of increasing the discrimination between otherwise similar cotton evidence using microwave digestion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A quadrupole ICP-MS and UV laser ablation (266 nm) instruments were used for the analysis. A cotton standard reference material (IAEA V-9) was used to validate the developed methods producing good accuracy with typically <10% bias and good precision (typically <5% RSD) for the element list: (25)Mg, (27)Al, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (88)Sr and (137)Ba. It was found that the LA-ICP-MS method resulted in improved precision over the solution ICP-MS method. Twenty-four raw cotton samples and five white cotton T-shirts were analyzed with the developed methods. It was also found that all the raw cotton samples from different sources were distinguishable from each other, as were all the cotton T-shirts resulting in zero type I errors and zero type II errors for the pairwise comparisons. The laser ablation method was slightly faster than the solution-based analysis, requiring approximately 3 h for the laser analysis of 10 samples vs. 3.5 h for the solution analysis, including sample preparation time. One additional advantage of the LA-ICP-MS method was the extremely low sample consumption (approximately 1.75 microg were consumed vs. 250 mg for the solution-based method) and the fact that the LA samples are amenable for reanalysis. PMID:19505781

Gallo, Jenny M; Almirall, Jose R

2009-06-07

11

PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS OF COTTON FIBER DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber yield and quality is affected by environmental, physiological, and developmental changes. We have formed a genomics consortium to study stress physiology and fiber development. The consortium has generated stress-induced, fiber-, stem-, ovule-, and boll-specific libraries that are poten...

12

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in cotton Fibers  

SciTech Connect

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

Preuss M. L.; Delmar, D.P.; Liu, Bo

2003-05-01

13

Nanostructured copper oxide-cotton fibers: synthesis, characterization, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently deposited onto surface of the cotton fibers by ultrasonic irradiation. The structure and morphology of the coated and un-coated cottons were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These methods revealed that of CuO nanoparticles are crystalline and corresponds to monoclinic phase, and that these nanoparticles are physically adsorbed onto the cotton fiber surface. They have an average crystallite size of 10 nm; the physical and chemical properties of the treated cotton fibers are markedly different from those of the untreated cotton fibers. The CuO-cotton fiber nanocomposites were tested against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) cultures and showed a significant antimicrobial activity; whereas its analogous CuS-coated cotton material formed by the reaction CuO-coated cotton fibers with H2S showed no activity.

El-Nahhal, Issa M.; Zourab, Shehata M.; Kodeh, Fawzi S.; Selmane, Mohamed; Genois, Isabelle; Babonneau, Florence

2012-07-01

14

IMPLICATIONS OF PECTIN ON COTTON FIBER PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

INCREASING SPEEDS OF COTTON YARN PRODUCTION IN THE TEXTILE MILL HAVE RENDERED TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL FIBER MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS LENGTH AND STRENGTH LESS RELIABLE AS PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY. WITH THE GOAL TOWARD ADDRESSING THIS PROBLEM, THIS WORK ATTEMPTS TO CHARACTERIZE THE PECTIN COM...

15

Spunlaced Cotton and Cotton Blend Cosmetic Pads and Bed Sheets: Study of Fiber Entanglement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonwoven webs containing five different blends of bleached cotton with Lyocell rayon, bicomponent core\\/sheath polyester\\/polyethylene, or cotton comber noil were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by spunlacing (hydroentanglement). We optically acquired fiber bundle size measurements to learn about the pre- needling process, the hydroentangling process and the influence of fiber blend composition on fiber entanglement. Fiber

Dharnidhar V. Parikh; U. Muenstermann; Alfred Watzl; LeGrand Crook; Don Gillespie

16

Effects of Mercerization of Cotton Fiber on the Absorption Properties of Cotton Nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript contains basic information on the laboratory mercerization and bleaching of greige cotton fibers and the use of mercerized cotton in nonwovens. Mercerization leads to an increase in water accessible regions of cotton fibers, resulting in improvements in moisture regain, water retenti...

17

Cotton Fiber Cells Are Arrested at G1 Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of cell-cycle genes during the very early stages of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development triggers specific epidermal cells in the ovule to stop cell division and then elongate into fiber cells. This characteristic is especially unique since the other ovule epidermal cells surrounding the cotton fiber cell undergo continuous division like all other cells in the plants as

Sukumar Saha; J. Vant Hof

2005-01-01

18

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

2012-10-01

19

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general....

2012-10-01

20

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general....

2011-10-01

21

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

2011-10-01

22

Recent Advances in Molecular Biology Research on Cotton Fiber Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) plants produce seed trichomes that are the most important textile fiber. Fiber cell initiation and elongation are two\\u000a key developmental stages that determine the final quality of fiber. A large number of genes have been isolated by transcriptome\\u000a analysis of these two stages. Here we sum up recent research progress in functional identification of cotton fiber genes,

X. X. Shangguan; N. Yu; L. J. Wang; X. Y. Chen

23

Functional genomics of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes of major economic importance. Factors that regulate the rate and duration of cell expansion control fiber morphology and important agronomic traits. For genetic characterization of rapid cell elongation in cotton fibers, ? 14,000 unique genes were assembled from 46,603 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developmentally staged fiber cDNAs of a cultivated diploid species (Gossypium

A. Bulak Arpat; Mark Waugh; John P. Sullivan; Michael Gonzales; David Frisch; Dorrie Main; Todd Wood; Anna Leslie; Rod A. Wing; Thea A. Wilkins

2004-01-01

24

Improving NIR model for the prediction of cotton fiber strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber strength is an important quality characteristic that is directly related to the manufacturing of quality consumer goods. Currently, two types of instruments have been implemented to assess cotton fiber strength, namely, the automation oriented high volume instrument (HVI) and the labora...

25

Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

2003-01-01

26

Quantitative trait loci affecting cotton fiber are linked to the t 1 locus in upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilose (T1), a dominant marker in upland cotton, has been associated with coarse, short fibers. Pilose was, thereby, considered to be pleiotropic on fiber fineness and length. However, a pilose-expressing line with a fiber of average fineness was recently identified. This finding does not support pleiotropy between T1 and fiber traits, but is indicative of linkage between pilose and loci

R. H. Kloth

1995-01-01

27

Phytohormone regulation of cotton fiber development in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our team is interested in the regulation of two time points in cotton fiber development: initiation of fiber growth from ovule epidermal cells and the transition from fiber elongation to secondary wall biogenesis. These two developmental phases determine key properties of fiber quality and yield. C...

28

Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: Biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber cells  

PubMed Central

Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, ?-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(?)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous ?-ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were selected based on marker gene, ?-glucuronidase (GUS), expression. Fibers of 10 transgenic plants expressed phaB gene, while eight plants expressed both phaB and phaC genes. Electron microscopy examination of fibers expressing both genes indicated the presence of electron-lucent granules in the cytoplasm. High pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry evidence suggested that the new polymer produced in transgenic fibers is PHB. Sixty-six percent of the PHB in fibers is in the molecular mass range of 0.6 106 to 1.8 106 Da. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes of thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics. The rate of heat uptake and cooling was slower in transgenic fibers, resulting in higher heat capacity. These data show that metabolic pathway engineering in cotton may enhance fiber properties by incorporating new traits from other genetic sources. This is an important step toward producing new generation fibers for the textile industry.

John, Maliyakal E.; Keller, Greg

1996-01-01

29

Invitro calcium phosphate growth over functionalized cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimetic growth of calcium phosphate compound on cotton sheets treated with tetraethoxy silane and soaked in simulated body fluid solution was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Micro-FTIR and EDAX results show that silicon was coupled to the cotton fiber when cotton was treated with tetra-ethoxy

H. K. Varma; Y. Yokogawa; F. F. Espinosa; Y. Kawamoto; K. Nishizawa; F. Nagata; T. Kameyama

1999-01-01

30

Predicting cotton stelometer fiber strength by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The strength of cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR models ...

31

Chitosan coated cotton fiber: preparation and physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cotton fiber with a chitosan coating (CCCF) was prepared by the oxidation of a cotton thread with potassium periodate at 60C in water and subsequent treatment with a solution of chitosan in aqueous acetic acid. Infrared spectra of the CCCF suggested the formation of Schiff's base between the chitosan and the oxidized cellulose. Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis of the

X. D Liu; N Nishi; S Tokura; N Sakairi

2001-01-01

32

DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF FIBER QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to high yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The present study was designed to identify genetic sources of variation in F2 populat...

33

MEASURING THE SPATIAL VARIABILITIES OF COTTON FIBER PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of spatial technologies, in particular yield-monitoring systems, has greatly enhanced our appreciation for the extent of spatial divergence in cotton production fields. Given the importance of fiber quality in determining the value of the cotton, there is considerable interest in underst...

34

Cell wall biosynthesis: glycan containing oligomers in developing cotton fibers, cotton fabric, wood and paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of oligomeric glycans can be extracted from the cell walls of developing cotton fibers with weak acid. Glycans that produce similar profiles on high pH anion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) are also found in a protein complex extracted from developing fibers and in amorphous aggregates found in association with immature fibers in developing, but not in

Allen K Murray; Robert L Nichols; Gretchen F Sassenrath-Cole

2001-01-01

35

USING COTTON FIBER DEVELOPMENT TO DISCOVER HOW PLANT CELL GROW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant biologists have been intrigued by cotton fibers, since the pioneering work of Balls (1905) who first described fiber growth in the scientific literature. By identifying daily growth rings in fiber cell walls (Balls 1919), and probing the nature of cellulose structure (Balls 1923), this early ...

36

Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

37

7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

2013-01-01

38

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibers of three cotton cultivars Gossypium hirsutum hybrid-4 (H-4), hybrid-8 (H-8), and G. arboreum G. Cot-15 were analyzed to study the role of auxin in fiber elongation, in vitro and in vivo. The cultivars exhibited variation in final fiber length. Fibers were analyzed for growth, free and conjugated indole acetic acid (IAA) content and phenyl acetic acid (PAA) content during

Sonal J Gokani; Vrinda S Thaker

2002-01-01

39

Role of abscisic acid in cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibers of three cotton cultivars varying widely in their final fiber length, i.e., long staple (Gossypium hirsutum H-4), middle staple (G. Hirsutum H-8), and short staple (G. Arboretum G. Cot-15) were analyzed to study the role of ABA in fiber elongation and dry matter accumulation, in vivo and in vitro. The fibers were analyzed for different growth parameters and endogenous

S. H. Dasani; V. S. Thaker

2006-01-01

40

Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

41

Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

42

Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-07-26

43

EXTRACELLULAR CU/ZN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN DEVELOPING COTTON FIBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes originating from the ovule epidermis. Fibers elongate to 26-30 mm in an unrestricted manner for about three weeks making these cells an attractive model for plant cell elongation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that converts superoxide...

44

Role of peroxidase and esterase activities during cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic and salt-extracted wall peroxidase and nonspecific esterase activities along with growth analysis were investigated during the entire period of cotton fiber development. Both the peroxidase fractions, when assayed with chlorogenic and ferulic acids as substrates, recorded low levels during the fiber elongation phase, and a close relationship between cessation of elongation growth and increase in peroxidase activity was discernible.

Vrinda S. Thaker; Sant Saroop; Pankaj P. Vaishnav; Yash Dev Singh

1986-01-01

45

Environmental Effects on Cotton Fiber Carbohydrate Concentration and Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

canopy. This hypothesis is further supported by evi- dence from shading studies where a 30% shade treat- Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown in reduced light environ- ment reduced the micronaire (Pettigrew, 1995, 1996) ments produces inferior fiber compared with that produced in abun- dant sunlight environments. This response to low light suggests that and a 70% shade treatment reduced fiber

W. T. Pettigrew

2001-01-01

46

Assessment of recovered cotton fiber and trash contents in lint cotton waste by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to reduce the non-lint materials to the smallest level with nminimal fiber damgae. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having equal quality to the fiber in the bale, and hence is of great concern for operating ...

47

The role of phytohormones in cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1974, when Beasley and Ting discovered that fertilized ovules of cotton can be cultured in media supplemented with GA\\u000a along with auxin, the effect of all types of phytohormones on fiber development has been widely studied. Many phytohormones,\\u000a including GA, IAA, brassinosteroid (Br), ABA, ethylene (Et), and cytokinins (Ck), all have been demonstrated to play important\\u000a roles during cotton

Wenbin Liao; Juan Zhang; Nanfei Xu; Ming Peng

2010-01-01

48

Ovule and suspension culture of a cotton fiber development mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryGrowth and development of cotton fibers in a developmental mutant, Ligon-lintless, and its near isogenic wild type, Texas\\u000a Marker-1, were compared in ovule and cell suspension cultures. In both organ and cell cultures the pattern of growth of fiber\\u000a cells from the two genotypes mimicked the pattern ofin vivo growth. The timing of fiber cell initiation soon after anthesis in

Barbara A. Triplett; William H. Busch; Wilton R. Goynes

1989-01-01

49

Production of micronucleoli and onset of cotton fiber growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Experiments focused on the early development of fiber cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. MD51 ne) ovules produced two novel findings: one biological, the other methodological. The first concerns a micronucleolus\\u000a in the nucleus of fibers. This developmental marker appears at or a little before 4 days postanthesis (dpa) in about 10% of\\u000a the fibers and increases thereafter

Jack Van't Hof

1998-01-01

50

Design systems for gear elements made of cotton fiber-reinforced plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look on the cotton fiber reinforced plastics as industrial gear materials, and have been developing design systems for industrial gears made of cotton fiber-reinforced plastics. In this report, we deal with a method estimating for tooth root stresses caused by bending movements under running conditions. The gear material used was cotton fiber plain woven cloth reinforced phenolic resin laminates.

Toshiki Hirogaki; Eiichi Aoyama; Tsutao Katayama; Shinya Iwasaki; Yoshinori Yagura; Kazuya Sugimura

2004-01-01

51

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold or...and any cotton or vegetable fibers. This wooden bulkhead must...compartment must be equipped with a carbon dioxide or overhead water sprinkler...unloading of cotton or vegetable fibers. (f) Upon...

2009-10-01

52

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold or...and any cotton or vegetable fibers. This wooden bulkhead must...compartment must be equipped with a carbon dioxide or overhead water sprinkler...unloading of cotton or vegetable fibers. (f) Upon...

2010-10-01

53

49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

2011-10-01

54

49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

2012-10-01

55

Cotton Fiber Growth and Development 2. Changes in Cell Diameter and Wall Birefringence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L, and G. barbadense L.) fiber perimeter is an important textile trait that directly affects quality properties, such as fiber length, strength, and micronaire. The literature is contradictory regarding whether or not fiber diameter changes during development. Changes in maximum fiber diameter, fiber length, and cell wall birefringence were measured throughout development in four cotton genotypes (G.

Robert W. Seagull; Vito Oliveri; Kim Murphy; Andrew Binder; Sushma Kothari

2000-01-01

56

Variability in Cotton Fiber Yield, Fiber Quality, and Soil Properties in a Southeastern Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

correlated with soil organic matter, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Fiber quality was correlated with soil Mg, K, Cu, To maximize profitability, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produc- and As. Elms et al. (1997) reported that yield in an ers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing irrigated cotton field in Texas displayed spatial correla- yield.

Richard M. Johnson; Robert G. Downer; Judith M. Bradow; Philip J. Bauer; E. John Sadler

2002-01-01

57

Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC) Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC) composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II) ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting

Mary Grace; Navin Chand; Sunil Kumar Bajpai

2009-01-01

58

HBP-NH 2 grafted cotton fiber: Preparation and salt-free dyeing properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve salt-free dyeing on cotton fiber with reactive dyes, an amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) grafted cotton fiber (HGCF) was prepared by the oxidation of cotton fiber with sodium periodate in water and subsequent grafted with an aqueous solution of HBP-NH2. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) of the HGCF indicated that all aldehyde groups of the oxidized cotton

Feng Zhang; Yuyue Chen; Hong Lin; Hao Wang; Bing Zhao

2008-01-01

59

Control of Plant Trichome Development by a Cotton Fiber MYB Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22- like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and

Shui Wang; Jia-Wei Wang; Nan Yu; Chun-Hong Li; Bin Luo; Jin-Ying Gou; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

2004-01-01

60

UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring no...

61

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Implications of Surface Chemistry on Cotton Fiber Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing speeds of cotton yarn production in the textile mill have made it necessary to de- velopment complementary methods to traditional measurements of physical fiber properties, such as length and strength, as predictors of yarn spinning efficiency. With the goal of investigating possible complementary measures to address this problem, this research attempts to quantify the pectin, wax, glucose, and surface

Gary R. Gamble

2004-01-01

62

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of fiber-related traits in cotton ( Gossypium )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton, the leading natural fiber crop, is largely produced by two primary cultivated allotetraploid species known as Upland or American cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Pima or Egyptian cotton ( G. barbadense L.). The allotetraploid species diverged from each other and from their diploid progenitors (A or Dgenome) through selection and domestication after polyploidization. To analyze cotton ADgenomes and

M. Mei; N. H. Syed; W. Gao; P. M. Thaxton; C. W. Smith; D. M. Stelly; Z. J. Chen

2004-01-01

63

Distribution and organization of gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is an extremely elongated cell derived from epidermal layer of cotton seed coat and it is an ideal model for studies of plant cell initiation/differentiation, cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Genetic improvement of cotton fiber yield and quality relies largely on the knowledge...

64

Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated.

Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

2012-01-01

65

UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV / visible / NIR technique was examined for its feasibility in determining the portions of cotton fiber and trash. Overall result indicated that NIR prediction was limited to screening purpose for probable reasons as heterogeneous trash distribution, relatively small sampling, and gravimetric reference method.

Liu, Yongliang; Gamble, Gary R.; Thibodeaux, Devron

2010-04-01

66

Analysis of gene expression in cotton fiber initials  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. Little is known about the developmental pathway causing fiber to differentiate from ovular epidermal cells even though limits on the number of cells that differentiate into fiber will limit yield. Results A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber initials 1 day post anthesis (dpa). Complementary DNA libraries representing 1 dpa fibers and other cotton tissues were sequenced and analyzed. Assembly of G. hirsutum Expressed Sequenced Tags (ESTs) identified over 11,000 sequences not previously represented in GenBank. New genes identified among these ESTs were represented on microarrays. The microarrays were used to identify genes enriched in fiber initials (1 dpa fibers) and elongating fibers. Analyses of Gene Ontologies (GO) of differentially expressed genes determined that terms associated with the "membranes" were statistically over represented among genes increased in expression in fiber initials and 10 dpa fibers. Staining ovules with a fluorescent dye confirmed an increase in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) occurred in fiber initials on the day of anthesis, persisted through 3 dpa and was absent in a fiberless mutant. Two genes similar to the CAPRICE/TRIPTYCHON (CPC) gene that inhibits differentiation of leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis were also characterized. Genes associated with novel regulation of brassinosterols, GTP mediated signal transduction and cell cycle control and components of a Ca+2 mediated signaling pathway were identified. Staining of cellular Ca+2 indicated that fiber initials had more Ca+2 than other ovule cells supporting a role for Ca+2 in fiber development. Conclusion Analysis of genes expressed in fiber initials identified a unique stage in fiber development characterized by an increase in ER and Ca+2 levels that occurred between 0 and 1 dpa. The gene similar to CPC has a MYB domain but appears to lack a transcription activating domain similar to the Arabisopsis gene. The method used to stain the ER also can be used to count fiber initials and showed fiber cells develop from adjacent cells unlike leaf trichomes.

Taliercio, Earl W; Boykin, Deborah

2007-01-01

67

Suppression of Sucrose Synthase Gene Expression Represses Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation, Elongation, and Seed Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is the most important textile crop as a result of its long cellulose-enriched mature fibers. These single-celled hairs initiate at anthesis from the ovule epidermis. To date, genes proven to be critical for fiber development have not been iden- tified. Here, we examined the role of the sucrose synthase gene ( Sus ) in cotton fiber and seed by

Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

2003-01-01

68

Brassinosteroids and Auxin Down-Regulate DELLA Genes in Fiber Initiation and Elongation of Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant hormones play important roles in cotton fiber growth and development. However, the interaction of phytohormones is largely unknown in fiber cells up to now. DELLA proteins are critical component in GA (gibberellic acid) signal transduction, which are also regulated by other phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene. To understand the regulation of DELLA genes in cotton fiber growth and

Ming-yu HU; Ming LUO; Yue-hua XIAO; Xian-bi LI; Kun-ling TAN; Lei HOU; Jing DONG; De-mou LI; Shui-qing SONG; Juan ZHAO; Zhen-le ZANG; Bao-li LI; Yan PEI

2011-01-01

69

REGISTRATION OF 14 PRIMITIVE DERIVED COTTON GERMPLASM LINES WITH IMPROVED FIBER STRENGTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fiber quality must be improved to meet textile mill requirements. Strength is an important component of fiber quality. Collections of primitive cotton accessions offer sources of genetic variability for fiber strength; however, many of the accessions are photoperiodi...

70

Genotypic differences in some physiological characteristics during cotton fiber thickening and its influence on fiber strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium L.) fiber strength is linked with many complex physiological and biochemical processes in the stage of secondary fiber cell\\u000a wall thickening. With the aim of further exploiting of the relationship between fiber strength and genotypic differences in\\u000a physiological characteristics, the experiment was implemented in Nanjing, China (in the lower reach of Yangtze River Valley\\u000a in China) at the

Wenjing Zhang; Hongmei Shu; Hongbiao Hu; Binglin Chen; Youhua Wang; Zhiguo Zhou

2009-01-01

71

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in cotton Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during

Preuss M. L; D. P. Delmar; Bo Liu

2003-01-01

72

QTL analysis of genotype environment interactions affecting cotton fiber quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is unusual among major crops in that large acreages are grown under both irrigated and rainfed conditions, making genotype 2 environment interactions of even greater importance than usual in designing crop-improvement strategies. We describe the impact of well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions on the genetic control of fiber quality, a complex suite of traits that collectively determine the utility

A. H. Paterson; Y. Saranga; M. Menz; C.-X. Jiang; R. Wright

2003-01-01

73

Isolation and characterization of cytoskeletons from cotton fiber cytoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryOver the last 25 yr, success in characterizing the individual protein components of animal cytoskeletons was possible, in\\u000a part, due to technical advances in the isolation and purification of anucleate cytoskeletons from animal cells. As a step\\u000a towards characterizing protein components of the plant cytoskeleton, we have isolated cytoskeletons from cytoplasts (anucleate\\u000a protoplasts) prepared from cotton fiber cells grown in

John M. Andersland; David C. Dixon; Robert W. Seagull; Barbara A. Triplett

1998-01-01

74

Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton\\u000a ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes\\u000a encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi)\\u000a construct. The RNAi according

Yunjing LiDiqiu; Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Xianlong Zhang; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Jiafu Tan; Fenglin Deng

2010-01-01

75

UDP-glucose: Glucan Synthetase in Developing Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

A uridine diphosphate(UDP)-glucose:glucan synthetase can be demonstrated in detached cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and in an isolated particulate fraction from such fibers. When assayed with detached fibers, the kinetics of the glucan synthetase activity with respect to variation in substrate concentration is complex and indicates activation of the enzyme by the substrate. Activity is stimulated by Ca2+ or Mg2+ and ?-linked glucosides; the effect of the ?-linked glucosides is to shift the range in which substrate activation occurs to lower concentrations of UDP-glucose. At concentrations of UDP-glucose below 50 ?m, addition of uridine triphosphate, in addition to ?-linked glucoside, results in significant stimulation of activity. This effect can be explained by the conversion of uridine triphosphate to UDP-glucose by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, thereby raising substrate concentration to the activating range. In detached fibers, glucan synthetase activity is high at all stages of fiber development. The properties of the glucan synthetase of the isolated particulate fraction closely resemble those of the enzyme assayed in detached fibers; however, in contrast to detached fibers, the ability to detect enzyme activity is more dependent on fiber age, showing maximal activity between 16 and 18 days postanthesis, coincident with the time of rapid onset of secondary wall cellulose deposition.

Delmer, Deborah P.; Heiniger, Ursula; Kulow, Carl

1977-01-01

76

QUANTITATION OF FIBER QUALITY AND THE COTTON PRODUCTION-PROCESSING INTERFACE: A PHYSIOLOGIST'S PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, ideal cotton (Gossypium ssp.) Fibers are said to be as white as snow, as strong as steel, as fine as silk and as long as wool. It is difficult to incorporate these specifications favored by cotton processors into a breeding program or to set them as quantitative goals for cotton prod...

77

Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas. Crop Science ... Cotton is the most important natural fiber used to produce apparel, home furnishing, and industrial products. The quality of th...

78

Systematic Application of DNA Fiber-FISH Technique in Cotton  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH) is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0%) were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb). A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton.

Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wenpan; Jiang, Yanqin; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

79

The Cotton ACTIN1 Gene Is Functionally Expressed in Fibers and Participates in Fiber Elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-celled cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum) provides a unique experimental system to study cell elongation. To investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton during fiber development, 15 G. hirsutum ACTIN (GhACT) cDNA clones were characterized. RNA gel blot and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhACT genes are differentially expressed in different tissues and can be classified into four groups. One group,

Xue-Bao Li; Xiao-Ping Fan; Xiu-Lan Wang; Lin Cai; Wei-Cai Yangb

2005-01-01

80

Influence of noncontractile motion of plasmalemma upon cotton fiber cell wall structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual noncontractile motion in vivo within the fibers growing on cotton ovules was found for four cotton genotypes. Structural\\u000a investigations have shown that, in addition to the active motion related to fiber cell growth, a simultaneous spiral rotation\\u000a of the cytoplasmic membrane occurs. Due to translational growth of the fiber cell apices and spiral rotation of plasmalemma,\\u000a the fibers of

Viktor Krakhmalev; Adkham Paiziev

2007-01-01

81

Metabolic Pathway Engineering in Cotton: Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate in Fiber Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, beta -ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous beta -ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by

Maliyakal E. John; Greg Keller

1996-01-01

82

Relationship of ginning energy use ginning rate and fiber quality in upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton genotypes that gin faster and with less energy presumably gin more gently with less stress on the fiber and less damage. The objective of this research was to determine if ginning energy and ginning rate affect the fiber qualities of Upland cotton genotypes. Thirty four conventional and twelv...

83

Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

84

COTTON YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATED TILLAGE SYSTEMS OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation can positively influence cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and fiber quality during periods of short - term drought. A cover crop in conjunction with conservation tillage can also benefit cotton yield and fiber quality by conserving soil moisture and potentially increasing plant available water. A split - plot experiment in a randomized complete block design was utilized to

Kipling S. Balkcom; D. Wayne Reeves; Joey N. Shaw; Larry M. Curtis; Charles H. Burmester

2006-01-01

85

GENETIC MAPPING OF NEW COTTON FIBER LOCI USING EST-DERIVED MICROSATELLITES IN AN INTERSPECIFIC RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE COTTON POPULATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve important fiber traits. Toward this goal, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellites, or simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat marker...

86

The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (''cotton fiber''). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of

Ran Hovav; Joshua A. Udall; Bhupendra Chaudhary; Einat Hovav; Lex Flagel; Guanjing Hu; Jonathan F. Wendel

2008-01-01

87

The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (cotton fiber). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of

Ran Hovav; Joshua A Udall; Bhupendra Chaudhary; Einat Hovav; Lex Flagel; Guanjing Hu; Jonathan F Wendel

2008-01-01

88

cDNA-AFLP-based genetical genomics in cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Genetical genomics, or genetic analysis applied to gene expression data, has not been widely used in plants. We used quantitative cDNA-AFLP to monitor the variation in the expression level of cotton fiber transcripts among a population of inter-specific Gossypium hirsutum G. barbadense recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two key fiber developmental stages, elongation (10 days post anthesis, dpa), and secondary cell wall thickening (22 dpa), were studied. Normalized intensity ratios of 3,263 and 1,201 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) segregating over 88 RILs were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for the 10 and 22 dpa fibers, respectively. Two-thirds of all TDFs mapped between 1 and 6 eQTLs (LOD > 3.5). Chromosome 21 had a higher density of eQTLs than other chromosomes in both data sets and, within chromosomes, hotspots of presumably trans-acting eQTLs were identified. The eQTL hotspots were compared to the location of phenotypic QTLs for fiber characteristics among the RILs, and several cases of co-localization were detected. Quantitative RT-PCR for 15 sequenced TDFs showed that 3 TDFs had at least one eQTL at a similar location to those identified by cDNA-AFLP, while 3 other TDFs mapped an eQTL at a similar location but with opposite additive effect. In conclusion, cDNA-AFLP proved to be a cost-effective and highly transferable platform for genome-wide and population-wide gene expression profiling. Because TDFs are anonymous, further validation and interpretation (in silico analysis, qPCR gene profiling) of the eQTL and eQTL hotspots will be facilitated by the increasing availability of cDNA and genomic sequence resources in cotton. PMID:22080217

Claverie, Michel; Souquet, Marlne; Jean, Janine; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Lepitre, Vincent; Pr, Martial; Jacobs, John; Llewellyn, Danny; Lacape, Jean-Marc

2011-11-13

89

Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber.  

PubMed

Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi) construct. The RNAi according to the sequence of GhAGP4 caused a significant reduction of its mRNA level, and the expression of other three FLAs (GhAGP2, GhAGP3, GhFLA1) were also partially suppressed. The fiber initiation and fiber elongation were inhibited in the transgenic plants. As for the mature fibers of transgenic cotton, the fiber length became significantly shorter and the fiber quality became worse. In addition, the RNAi of GhAGP4 also affected the cytoskeleton network and the cellulose deposition of fiber cells. Through ovule culture, it was found that the expression of cotton FLA genes were upregulated by GA(3), especially for GhAGP2 and GhAGP4. These results indicate that the FLAs are essential for the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber development. PMID:20041253

Li, Yunjing; Liu, Diqiu; Tu, Lili; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin

2009-12-30

90

Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. PMID:23718313

Ruan, Yong-Ling

2013-07-01

91

Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.  

PubMed

The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved. PMID:21478877

Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan

2011-04-10

92

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with cotton fiber development. VIII. Wall components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibers of three cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.) H-4, H-8 and (G. arboreum) G. Cot-15, which shows variation in staple length were analyzed for growth in terms of fiber length and fresh and dry mass.\\u000a From the growth analysis cotton fiber development is divided in four distinct phases i.e. (i) initiation (ii) elongation (iii) secondary thickening and (iv) maturation. Rate

S. J. Gokani; V. S. Thaker

2000-01-01

93

Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production.  

PubMed

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength, especially in crop species, based on mutational and gene suppression studies. It remains elusive, however, whether, or to what extent, increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development. We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development. Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development, which reduced seed abortion, hence enhanced seed set, and (3) promoted fiber elongation. In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines, fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas, in elongating fibers, both fructose and glucose levels were increased. Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves, in contrast to developing fibers, it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation, probably through sugar signaling. The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%. However, further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight, indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect. Finally, based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number, a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole, rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth. PMID:22115917

Xu, Shou-Min; Brill, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2011-11-24

94

How cotton fibers elongate: a tale of linear cell-growth mode.  

PubMed

Cotton fibers (cotton lint) are single-celled trichomes that differentiate from the ovule epidermis. Unidirectional and fast-growing cells generally expand at the dome-shaped apical zone (tip-growth mode); however, previous studies suggest that elongating fiber cells expand via a diffuse-growth mode. Tip-localized Ca(2+) gradient and active secretary vesicle trafficking are two important phenomena of tip-growth. Recently, a high Ca(2+) gradient is found in the cytoplasm of fast-elongating cotton fiber cells near the growing tip. Several protein coding genes participating in vesicle coating and transport are highly expressed in elongating fiber cells. Taken together with the observation that ethylene acts as a positive regulator for cotton fiber and several Arabidopsis tissues that are known to elongate via tip growth prompted us to propose a linear-growth mode for similar cell types. PMID:20943428

Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2010-10-11

95

Effect of cotton fiber properties on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven mechanically pre-cleaned greige cottons of significantly different fiber length, length uniformity or micronaire were processed into nonwoven fabrics using a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system of fabric formation. Results have shown that the pre-cleaned greige cotton of considerably di...

96

Global analysis of gene expression in cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Equally contributed to this study SUMMARY Gossypium barbadense is widely cultivated because of its extra-long staple cotton with superior luster, silkiness and high yield. These economically important traits were selected during initial domestication of an agronomically inferior wild ancestor, followed by millennia of human- mediated selection. To reveal the effects of this history on the cotton fiber transcriptome, we

Bhupendra Chaudhary; Ran Hovav; Ryan Rapp; Neetu Verma; Joshua A. Udall; Jonathan F. Wendela

2008-01-01

97

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR AGRONOMIC AND FIBER TRAITS IN DAY-NEUTRAL PRIMITIVE COTTON GERMPLASM ACCESSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important crop that is cultivated in warm climates through-out the world. Agronomic performance and fiber quality must continually be improved if cotton is to maintain economic viability. Genetic resources must be identified and utilized to enhance importan...

98

The Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Secondary Walls in Cotton Fibers1  

PubMed Central

H2O2 is a widespread molecule in many biological systems. It is created enzymatically in living cells during various oxidation reactions and by leakage of electrons from the electron transport chains. Depending on the concentration H2O2 can induce cell protective responses, programmed cell death, or necrosis. Here we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as a developmental signal in the differentiation of secondary walls in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion: (a) the period of H2O2 generation coincided with the onset of secondary wall deposition, (b) inhibition of H2O2 production or scavenging the available H2O2 from the system prevented the wall differentiation process, and (c) exogenous addition of H2O2 prematurely promoted secondary wall formation in young fibers. Furthermore, we provide support for the concept that H2O2 generation could be mediated by the expression of the small GTPase Rac, the accumulation of which was shown previously to be strongly induced during the onset of secondary wall differentiation. In support of Rac's role in the activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species, we transformed soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis cells with mutated Rac genes. Transformation with a dominantly activated cotton Rac13 gene resulted in constitutively higher levels of H2O2, whereas transformation with the antisense and especially with dominant-negative Rac constructs decreased the levels of H2O2.

Potikha, Tamara S.; Collins, Cheryl C.; Johnson, Douglas I.; Delmer, Deborah P.; Levine, Alex

1999-01-01

99

A novel cottong ovule culture: Induction, growth, and characterization of submerged cotton fibers ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe growth of submerged cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from cultured ovules has been investigated. The results indicate that exogenous plant hormone levels regulate\\u000a the induction of submerged fiber growth. The age of ovules at induction is also important. Cell diameter, wall thickness,\\u000a and cell length of submerged fibers were measured and compared with air-grown fibers and fibers grown in

Rong Feng

2000-01-01

100

A cotton fiber associated cyclin-dependent kinase A gene: Characterization and chromosomal location  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cotton fiber cell normally originates and elongates as a single ovular epidermal cell. The cessation of fiber cell division and ensuing elongation imply that the cell cycle is differentially regulated in fiber cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cy...

101

Inheritance of fiber quality and lint yield in a chemically mutated population of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrow germplasm base of the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), grown on the Texas high plains historically, has limited improvement of fiber quality. Chemical mutagenesis and subsequent selection have helped the development of lines with improved fiber quality in cultivars adapted to this region. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of improvements in fiber quality. M3 lines

Andy D. Herring; Dick L. Auld; M. Dean Ethridge; Eric F. Hequet; E. Bechere; Cary J. Green; Roy G. Cantrell

2004-01-01

102

Cotton cleanability: part II: effect of simple random breakage on fiber length distribution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following an approach reported earlier, random fiber breakage during processing and cleaning was studied by applying regulated degrees of random breaking damage in the form of fixed-gage cutting to an experimental cotton sliver substrate having a known fiber length distribution. A fiber-breakage mod...

103

Genetic Variation for Agronomic and Fiber Properties in an Introgressed Recombinant Inbred Population of Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation available for the improvement of fiber properties is restricted in commercial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Resources for fiber improvement exist in G. barbadense L., but intro- gression of traits has been a limited success. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variation and heritability of agro- nomic and fiber traits within a diverse recombinant

Richard G. Percy; Roy G. Cantrell; Jinfa Zhang

2006-01-01

104

SPS Over Expression in Cotton and Its Effect on Lint Yield and Fiber Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research indicated that cool night temperatures may cause lower cotton lint yields and immature fiber. Biochemical analyses of leaf (source) and fiber (sink) metabolism indicated that increasing sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity might increase lint yields and improve fiber quality a...

105

Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper  

SciTech Connect

Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

Hogue, M.G.

2002-02-07

106

Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved in regulation of fiber cell development is unknown. Results We adopted a deep sequencing approach developed by Solexa (Illumina Inc.) to investigate global expression and complexity of small RNAs during cotton fiber initiation and development. We constructed two small RNA libraries prepared from wild type (WT) and fuzz/lintless (fl Mutant in the WT background) cotton ovules, respectively. Each library was sequenced individually and generated more than 6-7 million short sequences, resulting in a total of over 13 million sequence reads. At least 22 conserved candidate miRNA families including 111 members were identified. Seven families make up the vast majority of expressed miRNAs in developing cotton ovules. In total 120 unique target genes were predicted for most of conserved miRNAs. In addition, we identified 2 cell-type-specific novel miRNA candidates in cotton ovules. Our study has demonstrated significant differences in expression abundance of miRNAs between the wild-type and mutant, and suggests that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially regulate transcripts distinctly involved in cotton fiber development. Conclusion The present study is the first to deep sequence the small RNA population of G. hirsutum ovules where cotton fibers initiate and develop. Millions of unique miRNA sequences ranging from 18~28 nt in length were detected. Our results support the importance of miRNAs in regulating the development of different cell types and indicate that identification of a comprehensive set of miRNAs in cotton fiber cells would facilitate our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for fiber cell initiation and elongation.

Kwak, Pieter Bas; Wang, Qin Qin; Chen, Xu Sheng; Qiu, Cheng Xiang; Yang, Zhi Min

2009-01-01

107

Genes expression analyses of sea-island cotton ( Gossypium barbadense L.) during fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness, luster, long staples, and high strength, but its fiber\\u000a development mechanism has not been surveyed comprehensively. We constructed a normalized fiber cDNA library (from ?2 to 25dpa)\\u000a of G. barbadense cv. Pima 3-79 (the genetic standard line) by saturation hybridization with genomic DNA.

Li-Li Tu; Xian-Long Zhang; Shao-Guang Liang; Di-Qiu Liu; Long-Fu Zhu; Fan-Chang Zeng; Yi-Chun Nie; Xiao-Ping Guo; Feng-Lin Deng; Jia-Fu Tan; Li Xu

2007-01-01

108

Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (?3cm in ?20days) without\\u000a mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1day before anthesis (DBA) to 2days post-anthesis (DPA),\\u000a that would be difficult to investigate via classical carbohydrate biochemistry were probed using a battery of antibodies that\\u000a recognize a large number

Andrew J. Bowling; Kevin Christopher Vaughn; Rickie B. Turley

109

Genes Encoding Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan Proteins are Specifically Expressed During Cotton Fiber Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium L.) fiber is a unique experimental system for studying plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Arabinogalactan proteins\\u000a (AGPs) are extracellular proteoglycans and play important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development. In the\\u000a present work, four AGP genes, GhAGP2, GhAGP3, GhAGP4, and GhFLA1, were cloned from cotton fiber through 5? and 3? rapid amplification of

Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Yunjing Li; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Xianlong Zhang

2008-01-01

110

Identification and quantification of glycerolipids in cotton fibers: Reconciliation with metabolic pathway predictions from DNA databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid profiles of cotton fiber cells were determined from total lipid extracts of elongating and maturing cotton fiber\\u000a cells to see whether the membrane lipid composition changed during the phases of rapid cell elongation or secondary cell wall\\u000a thickening. Total FA content was highest or increased during elongation and was lower or decreased thereafter, likely reflecting\\u000a the assembly of

Sylvia W. Wanjie; Ruth Welti; Robert A. Moreau; Kent D. Chapman

2005-01-01

111

An environment-friendly thermal insulation material from cotton stalk fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new environment-friendly thermal insulation materialbinderless cotton stalk fiberboard (BCSF) made from cotton stalk fibers with no chemical additives was developed using high frequency hot-pressing. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of board density, fiber moisture content (MC) and pressing time on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of BCSF. The results showed that the board with

Xiao-yan Zhou; Fei Zheng; Hua-guan Li; Cheng-long Lu

2010-01-01

112

Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes in cotton and their role in fiber elongation.  

PubMed

Plant cell wall extensibility is mediated, in part, by xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases (XTH) that are able to cleave and reattach xyloglucan polymers that make up the hemicelluloses matrix of type I cell walls. In Arabidopsis and other plants, XTHs are encoded by relatively large gene families that are regulated in specific spatial and temporal patterns. In silico screening of a cotton expressed sequence tag (EST) database identified 23 sequences with close sequence similarity to Arabidopsis XTH coding sequences. Analysis of full-length cotton cDNAs derived from these ESTs allow for the identification of three distinct GhXTH cDNAs (denoted GhXTH1, GhXTH2 and GhXTH3) based primarily on their 3' untranslated sequences. The three GhXTH genes were expressed differently with GhXTH1 predominantly expressed in elongating cotton fibers. The function of GhXTH1 in mediating cotton fiber elongation was analyzed in transgenic cotton plants that express a transgene consisting of the GhXTH1 coding sequence under transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Plants that over-expressed GhXTH1 had increased XTH activity and produced mature cotton fibers that were between 15 and 20% longer than wild-type cotton plants under both greenhouse and field growth conditions. Segregation analysis showed that the 35S::GhXTH1 transgene acts as a dominant fiber length allele in transgenic cotton. These results confirm that GhXTH1 is the predominant XTH in elongating fibers and its expression limits cotton fiber elongation. PMID:20711605

Lee, Joohyun; Burns, Teresa H; Light, Ginger; Sun, Yan; Fokar, Mohamed; Kasukabe, Yoshihisha; Fujisawa, Koichi; Maekawa, Yoshihiko; Allen, Randy D

2010-08-14

113

Molecular cloning and localization of a novel cotton annexin gene expressed preferentially during fiber development.  

PubMed

Annexins constitute a family of multifunction and structurally related proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, and are important calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins that participate in the polar development of different plant regions such as rhizoids, root caps, and pollen tube tips. In this study, a novel cotton annexin gene (designated as GhFAnnx) was isolated from a fiber cDNA library of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The full-length cDNA of GhFAnnx comprises an open reading frame of 945 bp that encodes a 314-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 35.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.49. Genomic GhFAnnx sequences from different cotton species, TM-1, Hai7124 and two diploid progenitor cottons, G. herbaceum (A-genome) and G. raimondii (D-genome) showed that at least two copies of the GhFAnnx gene, each with six exons and five introns in the coding region, were identified in the allotetraploid cotton genome. The GhFAnnx gene cloned from the cDNA library in this study was mapped to the chromosome 10 of the A-subgenome of the tetraploid cotton. Sequence alignment revealed that GhFAnnx contained four repeats of 70 amino acids. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that GhFAnnx is preferentially expressed in different developmental fibers but its expression is low in roots, stems, and leaves. Subcellular localization of GhFAnnx in onion epidermal cells and cotton fibers suggests that this protein is ubiquitous in the epidermal cells of onion, but assembles at the edge and the inner side of the apex of the cotton fiber tips with brilliant spots. In summary, GhFAnnx influences fiber development and is associated with the polar expansion of the cotton fiber during elongation stages. PMID:19885739

Wang, Li Ke; Niu, Xiao Wei; Lv, Yan Hui; Zhang, Tian Zhen; Guo, Wang Zhen

2009-11-03

114

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY The Impact of Carding Micro-climate on Cotton Moisture Content and Fiber and Yarn Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and relative humidity are important considerations for carding cotton in textile manufacturing. It has been suggested that high relative humidity decreases the stiffness of fibers and increases the moisture content of the fibers. With the recent interest in moisture addition at the gin, it is important to determine if increased fiber moisture content in the cotton bale will also

David D. McAlister; David T. W. Chun; Gary R. Gamble; Luther C. Godbey; Dean R. Cobb; Everett E. Backe

2005-01-01

115

Isolation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are differentiated epidermal cells originating from the outer integuments of the ovule. To identify genes involved in cotton fiber elonga- tion, we performed subtractive PCR using cDNA prepared from 10 days post anthesis (d.p.a.) wild-type cotton fiber as tester and cDNA from a fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant as driver. We recovered 280 independent cDNA fragments including most of the

Sheng-Jian Ji; Ying-Chun Lu; Jian-Xun Feng; Gang Wei; Jun Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Qiang Fu; Di Liu; Jing-Chu Luo; Yu-Xian Zhu

2003-01-01

116

Cotton PRP5 gene encoding a proline-rich protein is involved in fiber development.  

PubMed

Proline-rich proteins contribute to cell wall structure of specific cell types and are involved in plant growth and development. In this study, a fiber-specific gene, GhPRP5, encoding a proline-rich protein was functionally characterized in cotton. GhPRP5 promoter directed GUS expression only in trichomes of both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants with overexpressing GhPRP5 displayed reduced cell growth, resulting in smaller cell size and consequently plant dwarfs, in comparison with wild type plants. In contrast, knock-down of GhPRP5 expression by RNA interference in cotton enhanced fiber development. The fiber length of transgenic cotton plants was longer than that of wild type. In addition, some genes involved in fiber elongation and wall biosynthesis of cotton were up-regulated or down-regulated in the transgenic cotton plants owing to suppression of GhPRP5. Collectively, these data suggested that GhPRP5 protein as a negative regulator participates in modulating fiber development of cotton. PMID:23625445

Xu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, De-Jing; Wu, Yan-Feng; Qin, Li-Xia; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Juan; Li, Long; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-04-29

117

Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton is accused of being responsible for an increase of farmer suicides in India. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of evidence on Bt cotton and farmer suicides. Available data show no evidence of a resurgence of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India. Nevertheless, in specific districts and years, Bt

Guillaume Grure; Debdatta Sengupta

2011-01-01

118

Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

119

Substrate Supply for Cellulose Synthesis and its Stress Sensitivity in the Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on cotton fiber has figured prominently in the first steps toward understanding the metabolic control of cellulose biogenesis under normal and stressed conditions for at least two reasons. First, fiber secondary walls are composed of almost 100% cellulose that is deposited over a period of at least 20 days. Second, these extraordinary seed epidermal trichomes can be readily isolated

Candace H. Haigler

120

Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

121

Effects of abscisic acid on in vitro growth of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits in vitro growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber and is effective only when applied during the first four days of culture started on the day of anthesis. Abscisic acid causes a small increase in potassium uptake by the ovules and also enhances leakage of potassium from them. During their period of rapid growth, fibers produced

R. S. Dhindsa; C. A. Beasley; I. P. Ting

1976-01-01

122

Characterization of GhRac1 GTPase expressed in developing cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoskeleton assembly plays an important role in determining cotton fiber cell length and morphology and is developmentally regulated. As in other plant cells, it is not clear how cytoskeletal assembly in fibers is regulated. Recently, several Rac\\/Rop GTPases in Arabidopsis were shown to regulate isotropic and polar cell growth of root hairs and pollen tubes by controlling assembly of the

Hee Jin Kim; Barbara A. Triplett

2004-01-01

123

Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved

Pieter Bas Kwak; Qin Qin Wang; Xu Sheng Chen; Cheng Xiang Qiu; Zhi Min Yang

2009-01-01

124

Analysis of Flavonoids and the Flavonoid Structural Genes in Brown Fiber of Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Backgroud As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. Experimental Design Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3?H, and GhF3?5?H) were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. Result The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL). The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. Conclusions Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

Liu, Yongchang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Xinyu; Jones, Brian Joseph; Sun, Yuqiang; Sun, Jie

2013-01-01

125

SPS Over Expression in Cotton and Its Effect on Lint Yield and Fiber Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research indicated that cool night temperatures may cause lower cotton lint yields and immature fiber. Biochemical analyses of leaf (source) and fiber (sink) metabolism suggested that increasing sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity at temperatures below 20 C should increase lint yield...

126

YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insufficient nitrogen (N) or potassium (K) nutrition limits cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield, and may adversely affect fiber quality. A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effects of N and K deficiency on fiber yield and quality in five fruiting zones. Plants were grown outdoors in pots at...

127

Cotton Fiber Quality Characterization with Vis-NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: Toward an Optimal Sensor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this research are to (1) assess the performance of the Vis-NIR method for predicting cotton fiber quality parameters with different calibration methods, and (2) determine useful spectral wavebands and bandwidths for predicting various fiber quality parameters. This study is direct...

128

Gibberellin 20-oxidase promotes initiation and elongation of cotton fibers by regulating gibberellin synthesis.  

PubMed

Cotton is the leading natural fiber, and gibberellin (GA) is a phytohormone involved in the development of cotton fibers. However, it is largely unknown how the GA content in ovules and fibers is regulated and how the endogenous GA concentration affects fiber development. To address these questions, three GA 20-oxidase homologous genes (GhGA20ox1-3) were cloned and the endogenous bioactive GA content in developing ovules and fibers determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that GhGA20ox1 expressed preferentially in elongating fibers and that the expression level varied with the endogenous GA content consistently, while GhGA20ox2 and GhGA20ox3 transcripts accumulated mainly in ovules. The GA accumulation kinetics as well as the GhGA20ox expression differed in ovules and the attached fibers, suggesting relatively independent GA regulation system in these two sites. Transgenic cotton, over-expressing GhGA20ox1, showed GA over-production phenotypes with increased endogenous GA levels (especially GA(4)) in fibers and ovules. It also produced significantly more fiber initials per ovule, and fiber lengths was increased compared with the control, which demonstrates that up-regulation of the GhGA20ox1 gene promoted fiber initiation and elongation. Our results suggest that GA 20-oxidase is involved in fiber development by regulating GA levels, and corresponding genes might be employed as target genes for the manipulation of fiber initiation and elongation in cotton. PMID:20149476

Xiao, Yue-Hua; Li, De-Mou; Yin, Meng-Hui; Li, Xian-Bi; Zhang, Mi; Wang, Yan-Jun; Dong, Jing; Zhao, Juan; Luo, Ming; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Hou, Lei; Hu, Lin; Pei, Yan

2010-02-09

129

Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.  

PubMed

This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented. PMID:22524051

Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

2012-01-01

130

Cotton flavonoid structural genes related to the pigmentation in brown fibers.  

PubMed

Five flavonoid structural genes, encoding chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, and anthocyanidin reductase, were cloned from a brown-fiber cotton line (T586). The predicted proteins of these genes exhibit high sequence similarity with corresponding enzymes from various plants. RT-PCR analysis showed these genes are developmentally co-regulated and preferentially expressed in developing fibers of T586. Expression analyses and dimethylaminocinnaldehyde staining demonstrated that high transcript levels of these genes in developing fibers and presence of proanthocyanidins in mature fibers co-segregated with brown fiber in a recombination inbred line population. Our results indicated that the cloned flavonoid structural genes and proanthocyanidins were involved in the pigmentation in brown cotton fibers. PMID:17482578

Xiao, Yue-Hua; Zhang, Zheng-Sheng; Yin, Meng-Hui; Luo, Ming; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan

2007-04-25

131

Potential Role of Abscisic Acid in Cotton Fiber and Ovule Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Fibers and ovules of a cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L. Trambak-108) were analyzed for growth and free abscisic acid (ABA) content by indirect enzyme immunoassay. An inverse\\u000a correlation between fiber elongation and ABA content was observed. In the seed, accumulation of ABA was observed during secondary\\u000a thickening and the maturation phase. The potential role of ABA in fiber and

S. J. Gokani; R. Kumar; V. S. Thaker

1998-01-01

132

Transcriptome Profiling, Molecular Biological, and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Ethylene in Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) produces the most widely used natural fibers, yet the regulatory mechanisms governing fiber cell elongation are not well understood. Through sequencing of a cotton fiber cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found that ethylene biosynthesis is one of the most significantly upregulated biochemical pathways during fiber elongation. The 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase1-3 (ACO1-3) genes responsible for

Yong-Hui Shi; Sheng-Wei Zhu; Xi-Zeng Mao; Jian-Xun Feng; Yong-Mei Qin; Liang Zhang; Jing Cheng; Li-Ping Wei; Zhi-Yong Wang; Yu-Xian Zhua

2006-01-01

133

Isolation of genes preferentially expressed in cotton fibers by cDNA filter arrays and RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes derived from the outer integument cells of ovules. Recent studies showed that the rapid elongation of fibers was coordinated with the expression of a subset of fiber-specific genes. Here we report the use of filter arrays of cDNAs to identify genes preferentially expressed in cotton fibers. An array of 1536 clones was hybridized with cDNA

Chun-Hong Li; Yong-Qing Zhu; Yu-Ling Meng; Jia-Wei Wang; Ke-Xiang Xu; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Xiao-Ya Chen

2002-01-01

134

Isolation by suppression-subtractive hybridization of genes preferentially expressed during early and late fiber development stages in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a main natural fiber source, cotton plays an important role in human life. To identify genes preferentially expressed during\\u000a early and late cotton fiber development, we constructed two fiber subtracted libraries on the basis of PCR-selected subtraction\\u000a using a pool of nonfiber tissues as the same driver and 10 days postanthesis (DPA) and 20 DPA fiber cells as testers,

D. Liu; X. Zhang; L. Tu; L. Zhu; X. Guo

2006-01-01

135

The R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor GhMYB109 Is Required for Cotton Fiber Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single highly elongated cells derived from the outer epidermis of ovules. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but so far, little is known about how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development. Here we examine the role of the cotton-fiber-specific R2R3 MYB gene GhMYB109 in

Li Pu; Qun Li; Xiaoping Fan; Weicai Yang; Yongbiao Xue

2008-01-01

136

19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10...Preference Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

2013-04-01

137

Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutan...

138

GbPDF1 is involved in cotton fiber initiation via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber cells are seed trichomes derived from the epidermal layer of the cotton seed coat. The molecular components responsible for regulating fiber cell differentiation have not been fully elucidated. A cotton PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 gene (GbPDF1) was found to be expressed preferentially during fiber initiation and early elongation, with highest accumulation in fiber cells 5 d post anthesis. PDF1 silencing caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentage compared with the wild type, indicating that the gene is required for cotton fiber development. Further analysis showed that a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide occurred in the RNA interference transgenic cotton lines. Meanwhile, the expression of several genes related to ethylene and pectin synthesis or sugar transport during cotton fiber growth was found to be significantly reduced in the PDF1-suppressed cotton. Three proteins interacting with GbPDF1 in yeast and in planta might involve cellular signaling or metabolism. GbPDF1 promoter::GUS constructs in transgenic cotton were predominantly expressed in the epidermis of ovules and developing fibers. Progressive deletions of the GbPDF1 promoter showed that a 236-bp promoter fragment was sufficient for basal GbPDF1 transcription in cotton. Mutation of putative regulatory sequences showed that HDZIP2ATATHB2, an element within the fragment, was essential for PGbPDF1-1 expression. The binding activity between this cis-element and nuclear extracts from fiber-bearing cotton ovules at 5 d post anthesis was specific. We conclude that GbPDF1 plays a critical role together with interaction partners in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and steady biosynthesis of ethylene and pectin during fiber development via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2. PMID:22123900

Deng, Fenglin; Tu, Lili; Tan, Jiafu; Li, Yang; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2011-11-28

139

Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense.  

PubMed

Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is widely cultivated because of its long, strong seed trichomes ('fibers') used for premium textiles. These agronomically advanced fibers were derived following domestication and thousands of years of human-mediated crop improvement. To gain an insight into fiber development and evolution, we conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar and a wild accession. Analyses using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS technology identified 1317 proteins in fiber. Of these, 205 were differentially expressed across developmental stages, and 190 showed differential expression between wild and cultivated forms, 14.4% of the proteome sampled. Human selection may have shifted the timing of developmental modules, such that some occur earlier in domesticated than in wild cotton. A novel approach was used to detect possible biased expression of homoeologous copies of proteins. Results indicate a significant partitioning of duplicate gene expression at the protein level, but an approximately equal degree of bias for each of the two constituent genomes of allopolyploid cotton. Our results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic approaches for the study of the domestication process. They also provide a rich database for mining for functional analyses of cotton improvement or evolution. PMID:23795774

Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grupp, Kara; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

2013-06-25

140

Cotton-fiber germin-like protein. II: Immunolocalization, purification, and functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) contains a germin-like protein (GLP), GhGLP1, that shows tissue-specific accumulation in fiber. The fiber GLP is an oligomeric, glycosylated protein with a subunit size of approximately 25.5kDa. Accumulation of GhGLP1 occurs during the period of fiber elongation [414days post-anthesis (DPA)]. During early phases of fiber development (24DPA), GhGLP1 localizes to cytoplasmic vesicles as shown by

HeeJin Kim; Thomas C. Pesacreta; Barbara A. Triplett

2004-01-01

141

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic approach to the study of the secondary cell wall development in cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fiber maturity is a major yield component and an important fiber quality trait that is directly linked to the quantity\\u000a of cellulose deposited during the secondary cell wall (SCW) biogenesis. Cotton fiber development consists of five major overlapping\\u000a stages: differentiation, initiation, polar elongation, secondary cell wall development, and maturation. The transition period\\u000a between 16 and 21 dpa (days post

Noureddine Abidi; Luis Cabrales; Eric Hequet

2010-01-01

142

ZnO films grown on cotton fibers surface at low temperature by a simple two-step process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been synthesized and deposited onto cotton fiber surface using a simple two-step process. At first step, the cotton fiber surface was coated with a conductive layer of zinccellulose complex by rinsing the fibers in zinc chloride solution. After that, the growth of ZnO films was carried out in zinc acetate aqueous solution at room temperature,

Hongjun Wang; Anvar Zakirov; Shavkat U. Yuldashev; Jaechun Lee; Dejun Fu; Taewon Kang

2011-01-01

143

Cotton flavonoid structural genes related to the pigmentation in brown fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five flavonoid structural genes, encoding chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, and anthocyanidin reductase, were cloned from a brown-fiber cotton line (T586). The predicted proteins of these genes exhibit high sequence similarity with corresponding enzymes from various plants. RT-PCR analysis showed these genes are developmentally co-regulated and preferentially expressed in developing fibers of T586. Expression analyses and dimethylaminocinnaldehyde

Yue-Hua Xiao; Zheng-Sheng Zhang; Meng-Hui Yin; Ming Luo; Xian-Bi Li; Lei Hou; Yan Pei

2007-01-01

144

Stage-specific inhibition of cotton fiber development by adding ?-amanitin to ovule cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryWhen cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, DPL 90ne) ovules are removed from the carpel on the day of anthesis and placed on an appropriate medium, fiber cells will\\u000a differentiatein vitro from the ovule epidermis. Alpha-amanitin, an inhibitor of poly (A)+ RNA synthesis was added to ovule cultures at selected times after culture initiation to determine the timing of events in\\u000a fiber development.

Barbara A. Triplett

1998-01-01

145

Apyrase (Nucleoside Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase) and Extracellular Nucleotides Regulate Cotton Fiber Elongation in Cultured Ovules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectoapyrase enzymes remove the terminal phosphate from extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two ectoapyrases, AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, have been implicated as key modulators of growth. In fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), transcript levels for GhAPY1 and GhAPY2, two closely related ectoapyrases that have high sequence similarity to AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, are up-regulated when fibers enter their

Greg Clark; Jonathan Torres; S. Finlayson; X. Guan; C. Handley; J. Lee; J. E. Kays; Z. J. Chen; S. J. Roux

2010-01-01

146

Changes in sugar composition and cellulose content during the secondary cell wall biogenesis in cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cotton cultivars TX19 and TX55 (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv.) were planted in the greenhouse and fibers were harvested at different stages of development. The percentage of sugars\\u000a present on the fibers was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the cellulose content was determined using\\u000a the anthrone method. The percentage of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galacturonic acid) showed

Noureddine Abidi; Eric Hequet; Luis Cabrales

2010-01-01

147

Localization of sucrose synthase and callose in freeze-substituted secondary-wall-stage cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?Methods for cryogenic fixation, freeze substitution, and embedding were developed to preserve the cellular structure and protein localization of secondary-wall-stage cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers accurately for the first time. Perturbation by specimen handling was minimized by freezing fibers still attached to a seed fragment within 2?min after removal of seeds from a boll still attached to the plant. These

Vadim V. Salnikov; Mark J. Grimson; Robert W. Seagull; Candace H. Haigler

2003-01-01

148

Seasonal Dynamics of Bacterial Colonization of Cotton Fiber and Effects of Moisture on Growth of Bacteria within the Cotton Boll  

PubMed Central

A highly replicated 3-year field study was conducted to determine the seasonal patterns of bacterial colonization of cotton fiber from the time of dehiscence of the bolls (the point at which the bolls just begin to open) through harvest and commercial ginning. Bacterial numbers on fiber samples from 16 plots were determined by dilution pour plating with tryptic soy agar containing cycloheximide, and numbers of gram-negative bacteria were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar containing vancomycin and cycloheximide. Populations of bacteria varied from year to year, but in all three seasons the pattern of colonization was generally a pattern consisting of a rapid increase following opening of the bolls and a more or less stable number thereafter throughout the growing season. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 50% or more of the recoverable bacterial population. We hypothesized that the luxuriant bacterial flora developed as a result of the availability of sufficient free water in the bolls to allow bacterial proliferation with the carbon sources remaining after fiber maturation. Therefore, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the threshold moisture level allowing growth of bacteria on fiber in the bolls. Bacterial proliferation occurred when as little as 2% moisture was added to air-dried fiber. Using simulated bolls, we demonstrated bacterial growth resulting from dew formation on fiber held in controlled-humidity chambers.

Zuberer, D. A.; Kenerley, C. M.

1993-01-01

149

Fiber fly generation of 100% cotton yarns during warp preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of fiber fly generation during yarn preparation for either knitting or weaving operations has attracted the attention of many researchers for decades, due to either production inefficiencies or health reasons. Among all fiber properties, the fiber length and spinning types have the greatest effects on the amount of fiber fly generated during these processes. Additionally, unwinding speed, yarn

Mehmet E. Yuksekkaya

2010-01-01

150

Synthesis and antibacterial activity evaluation of a novel cotton fiber ( Gossypium barbadense) ampicillin derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared cellulose cotton fibers containing ampicillin moieties and evaluated their antibacterial activity. In spite of recent progress in experimental and clinical medicine, the problem of chronic wounds treatment remains to be solved. In fact conventional methods are based on solutions of antibiotics and antiseptics and ointment bandages but the efficacy of this method is low and so the idea

Roberta Cassano; Sonia Trombino; Teresa Ferrarelli; Rita Muzzalupo; Lorena Tavano; Nevio Picci

2009-01-01

151

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cotton Fibers: Modeling Using an Empirical Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of enzymes in wet-processing of textiles. Of the many enzymes suitable for textile applications, cellulase is one of the most impor- tant. Cellulase is used in biopolishing of cotton fibers to improve fabric smoothness and softness and in biofinishing denim garments to produce a worn look. To harness

Ajoy K. Sarkar; J. Nolan Etters

2004-01-01

152

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

153

Econometric Model of the World Cotton and Non-Cellulosic Fibers Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of the study was to specify and estimate an econometric model of the world fiber market, with emphasis on the cotton sector, and following testing and validation of the model, to forecast prices, production and consumption for the major w...

J. Celeman M. E. Thigpen

1991-01-01

154

Fiber and Yarn Properties of Smooth- and Hairy-Leaf Cotton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fiber and yarn properties of four hairy-leaf and four smooth-leaf cotton varieties were investigated after gin processing that included two lint cleaner treatments. Two stages of lint cleaning improved nonlint content, leaf and composite grades, trash...

E. P. Columbus S. T. Rayburn

1988-01-01

155

HERITABILITY AND CORRELATIONS OF AGRONOMIC AND FIBER TRAITS IN AN OKRA-LEAF UPLAND COTTON POPULATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the cost and time to develop and evaluate appropriate genetic populations have limited the number of intensive and complete heritability studies. Herein, three agronomic and 17 fiber quality traits were assessed for heritability and correlation analyses on progeny ...

156

Localization of ?-glycerophosphatase activity in cotton fiber during differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The distribution of -glycerophosphatase activity in the outer integument of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ovules was determined histochemically at the electron microscope level. Both a linted cultivar and a lintless mutant line were examined from 1 day preanthesis to 3 days postanthesis. No enzyme activity was observed in the lintless line at any stage. In the linted cultivar there

P. A. Joshi; J. McD Stewart; E. T. Graham

1985-01-01

157

AUTOMATED COTTON SAMPLER FOR DETERMINATION OF FIBER QUALITY SPATIAL VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of accurate prescription maps for site-specific management of crops requires knowledge of the spatially registered crop profitability. In cotton (Gossypium L. sps.), the quality of the crop alters the price paid for the lint, and hence is an important determinant of the net profit. Cotto...

158

Respiratory symptoms and dust exposure in Lancashire cotton and man-made fiber mill operatives.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of work-related symptoms and cotton dust exposure was made in 404 man-made fiber and 1,048 cotton operatives in Lancashire spinning mills; 39 cotton-exposed operatives (3.7%) had symptoms of byssinosis. This was associated on regression analysis with cumulative lifetime cotton dust exposure (p < 0.001), total years spent carding (p < 0.001), and currently working in the carding area (p = 0.0041). Smoking habit did not differ significantly between byssinotic and nonbyssinotic workers. Other work-related symptoms were common: chronic bronchitis (CB) and persistent cough. The prevalence of CB correlated positively with dust exposure (r = 0.59). Cotton dust sampling was performed in the work area (SDPRES) and personal breathing zone (PD1). A retrospective estimate of lifetime cotton dust exposure based on SDPRES correlated best with the prevalence of byssinosis (r = 0.797), although correlations with PD1 (r = 0.709) and SDPRES (r = 0.594) were also significant. PMID:8049827

Fishwick, D; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A; Niven, R M; Faragher, E B

1994-08-01

159

Characterization of PROFILIN genes from allotetraploid ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cotton and its diploid progenitors and expression analysis in cotton genotypes differing in fiber characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin-binding protein profilin (PRF) plays an important role in cell growth and expansion by regulating the organization\\u000a of the actin filaments. Recent studies have reported association between fiber elongation in cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and PRF expression. In the present study, we cloned four genomic clones from allotetraploid cotton (G. hirsutum) and its putative diploid progenitors (G. arboreum and

Anagnostis Argiriou; Apostolos Kalivas; Georgios Michailidis; Athanasios Tsaftaris

160

Effects of harvesting methods on foreign matter content, fiber quality, and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the high plains.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvest treatments were compared for a variety of cotton commonly grown on the High Plains of Texas. Foreign matter, fiber quality, and yarn quality were compared for cotton harvested using a spindle picker, a brush-roll stripper with a field cleaner, and the same stripper harvester without a field ...

161

NOTICE OF RELEASE OF 14 UPLAND COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L., PRIMITIVE DERIVED GERMPLASM LINES WITH IMPROVED FIBER STRENGTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To meet modern textile mill requirements and producer demands cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fiber quality must be improved. Genetic sources for fiber quality improvement must be identified and enhanced. Primitive race accessions offer sources to improve fiber quality. The utilization of race acce...

162

Elevated growing degree days influence transition stage timing during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development and result in increased fiber strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing degree days required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development were recorded for four growing seasons and compared with fiber quality measurements and gene expression data indicative of different stages of fiber development. Comparative fiber bundle strength differences betw...

163

Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

1999-10-01

164

Nanofibrillation of cotton fibers by disc refiner and its characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofibrils of cellulose were prepared from short staple cotton by refining process using a lab disc refiner that exerts a\\u000a combination of shear and frictional forces. The nanofibrils were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic\\u000a force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From SEM and AFM, it\\u000a was found that starting average diameter of

V. S. Karande; A. K. Bharimalla; G. B. Hadge; S. T. Mhaske; N. Vigneshwaran

2011-01-01

165

Cloning and characterization of a gene for an LRR receptor-like protein kinase associated with cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fiber is an ideal model for studying plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis, but the genes that are critical for the regulation of fiber development are largely unknown. We report here the cloning and characterization of a receptor-like kinase gene (designated GhRLK1), expression of which is induced during the period of active secondary wall synthesis in the cotton

Yuan-Li Li; Jie Sun; Gui-Xian Xia

2005-01-01

166

Digital image analysis of expansion growth of cultured cotton ovules with fibers and their responses to ABA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton ovule cultures have obvious advantages over whole plants when experimental protocols call for inhibitors, radio-labeled\\u000a precursors or controlled environmental conditions to be tested. The responses of ovule expansion growth and attached fiber\\u000a elongation to external factors require accurate measurement techniques. This paper presents a new method for digital image\\u000a analysis of the growth area of cotton ovules with fibers

Ling Fan; Meng L; Zhi-Yong Ni; Wen-Ran Hu; Juan Wang

2011-01-01

167

Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to low temperature stress.  

PubMed

Low temperature stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the formation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber qualities, especially fiber length. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanisms of cotton fiber elongation to low temperature stress, two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 (low temperature-tolerant) and Sumian 15 (low temperature-sensitive), were planted in the field at two sowing dates (25 April and 10 June). The two sowing dates resulted in different growing conditions and the main environmental difference between them was temperature, particularly the mean daily minimum temperature (MDTmin). When the sowing date was delayed, the MDTmin decreased from 26.9C (25 April) to 20.6C (10 June). Low temperature stress (MDTmin of 20.6C) shortened the fiber length significantly in two cultivars, but the decreased extent was larger in Sumian 15 than that in Kemian 1. Proteomic analysis of three developmental stages (10, 15 and 20 days post-anthesis [DPA]) showed that 37 spots changed significantly (p<0.05) in abundance under low temperature stress and they were identified using mass spectrometry. These proteins were involved in malate metabolism, soluble sugar metabolism, cell wall loosening, cellulose synthesis, cytoskeleton, cellular response, and redox homeostasis. The results suggest that the enhancement of osmoticum maintenance, cell wall loosening, cell wall components biosynthesis, and cytoskeleton homeostasis plays important roles in the tolerance of cotton fibers to low temperature stress. Moreover, low levels of PEPCase, expansin, and ethylene signaling proteins may potentially lead to the low temperature sensitivity of Sumian 15 at the proteomic level. PMID:22244703

Zheng, Mi; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Kang; Shu, Hongmei; Zhou, Zhiguo

2012-01-12

168

Apyrase (nucleoside triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase) and extracellular nucleotides regulate cotton fiber elongation in cultured ovules.  

PubMed

Ectoapyrase enzymes remove the terminal phosphate from extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two ectoapyrases, AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, have been implicated as key modulators of growth. In fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), transcript levels for GhAPY1 and GhAPY2, two closely related ectoapyrases that have high sequence similarity to AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, are up-regulated when fibers enter their rapid growth phase. In an ovule culture system, fibers release ATP as they grow, and when their ectoapyrase activity is blocked by the addition of polyclonal anti-apyrase antibodies or by two different small molecule inhibitors, the medium ATP level rises and fiber growth is suppressed. High concentrations of the poorly hydrolyzable nucleotides ATPgammaS and ADPbetaS applied to the medium inhibit fiber growth, and low concentrations of them stimulate growth, but treatment with adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate causes no change in the growth rate. Both the inhibition and stimulation of growth by applied nucleotides can be blocked by an antagonist that blocks purinoceptors in animal cells, and by adenosine. Treatment of cotton ovule cultures with ATPgammaS induces increased levels of ethylene, and two ethylene antagonists, aminovinylglycine and silver nitrate, block both the growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory effects of applied nucleotides. In addition, the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, lowers the concentration of nucleotide needed to promote fiber growth. These data indicate that ectoapyrases and extracellular nucleotides play a significant role in regulating cotton fiber growth and that ethylene is a likely downstream component of the signaling pathway. PMID:20018604

Clark, Greg; Torres, Jonathan; Finlayson, Scott; Guan, Xueying; Handley, Craig; Lee, Jinsuk; Kays, Julia E; Chen, Z Jeffery; Roux, Stanley J

2009-12-16

169

[Phosphorescence quenching as an approach for estimating localization of triplet label in cotton fibers].  

PubMed

The method based on the qualitative investigation of chromophore fluorescence (phosphorescence) quenching for instance, by stable nitroxide radical was first used to measure the depth of immersion of triplet label in cotton fiber as a molecular object. The concept of dynamic quenching of fluorescence in solutions and the empirical dependence of the parameters of static quenching between centers with fixed distances were used. The erythrosine triplet labels were incorporated in cotton fibers with subsequent measurement of the efficiency of label phosphorescence quenching and determination of temperature dependence of phosphorescence duration. Using above mentioned approach it became possible for the first time to estimate the depth of immersion of chromophore fragment of the labels (7.4-7.8 A) and study their molecular dynamics in the millisecond range of correlation times. Subtle differences in microstructure and molecular dynamics of the investigated samples were revealed. The proposed approach can be used for investigation of widespread biological and nonbiological objects. PMID:22594286

Iusupov, I Kh; Likhtenshte?n, G I

170

Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus nidulans : application in the biosoftening of cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of the cellulase activity of Aspergillus nidulans by combinational optimization technique and the usage of cellulase for the biofinishing of cotton fibers were investigated\\u000a in this study. The strain isolated from decayed, outer shell of Arachis hypogaea was compared for the first time for its ability to produce cellulolytic enzyme in shaken cultures using the optimized media\\u000a formulated

S. Anuradha Jabasingh; C. ValliNachiyar

2011-01-01

171

Stimulation of membrane-associated polysaccharide synthetases by a membrane potential in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions which induce a transmembrane electrical potential, positive with respect to the inside of membrane vesicles, result in a substantial (412-fold) stimulation of the activity of membrane-associated -glucan synthetases in a membrane preparation derived from the developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber. Induction of electrical potentials which are negative with respect to the inside of the membrane vesicle results in

Antony Bacic; Deborah P. Delmer

1981-01-01

172

Characterization of mRNA for a proline-rich protein of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mRNA (H6) is expressed pre- dominantly in fiber cells and is present during early primary cell wall formation. However, H6 protein is found to accumulate during later stages, when active secondary cell wall formation occurs, indicating possible regulation at the translational leve1 and function in the secondary cell wall assembly. lhe nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of

Maliyakal E. John; Creg Keller

1995-01-01

173

Cloning and characterization of a calcium dependent protein kinase gene associated with cotton fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene GhCPK1 encoding a calcium dependent protein kinase was identified from cotton. Transcripts of GhCPK1 accumulated primarily in the elongating fiber, and Arabidopsis plants transformed with GhCPK1 promoter-GUS construct exhibited GUS activity mainly in the developing trichomes, roots, young leaves and sepals. In the bombarded onion\\u000a epidermal cells, GhCPK1-GFP fusion proteins showed a subcellular distribution in the plasma membrane.

Quan-Sheng Huang; Hai-Yun Wang; Peng Gao; Guo-Ying Wang; Gui-Xian Xia

2008-01-01

174

Molecular cloning and localization of a novel cotton annexin gene expressed preferentially during fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexins constitute a family of multifunction and structurally related proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant\\u000a kingdom, and are important calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins that participate in the polar development of different\\u000a plant regions such as rhizoids, root caps, and pollen tube tips. In this study, a novel cotton annexin gene (designated as\\u000a GhFAnnx) was isolated from a fiber cDNA

Li Ke Wang; Xiao Wei Niu; Yan Hui Lv; Tian Zhen Zhang; Wang Zhen Guo

2010-01-01

175

Specific expression of a ?-tubulin gene ( GhTub1 ) in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -115 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a ?-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis\\u000a using 3-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the

Yuanli Li; Jie Sun; Chunhong Li; Yongqing Zhu; Guixian Xia

2003-01-01

176

Preparations of meiotic pachytene chromosomes and extended DNA fibers from cotton suitable for fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

Peng, Renhai; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

2012-03-19

177

Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established.

Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

2012-01-01

178

A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein, GhFLA1, is involved in fiber initiation and elongation of cotton.  

PubMed

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in many aspects of plant development. In this study, biochemical and genetic approaches demonstrated that AGPs are abundant in developing fibers and may be involved in fiber initiation and elongation. To further investigate the role of AGPs during fiber development, a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene (GhFLA1) was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Overexpression of GhFLA1 in cotton promoted fiber elongation, leading to an increase in fiber length. In contrast, suppression of GhFLA1 expression in cotton slowed down fiber initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibers of the transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of the wild type. In addition, expression levels of GhFLAs and the genes related to primary cell wall biosynthesis were remarkably enhanced in the GhFLA1 overexpression transgenic fibers, whereas the transcripts of these genes were dramatically reduced in the fibers of GhFLA1 RNA interference plants. An immunostaining assay indicated that both AGP composition and primary cell wall composition were changed in the transgenic fibers. The levels of glucose, arabinose, and galactose were also altered in the primary cell wall of the transgenic fibers compared with those of the wild type. Together, our results suggested that GhFLA1 may function in fiber initiation and elongation by affecting AGP composition and the integrity of the primary cell wall matrix. PMID:23349362

Huang, Geng-Qing; Gong, Si-Ying; Xu, Wen-Liang; Li, Wen; Li, Peng; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Deng-Di; Zheng, Yong; Li, Fu-Guang; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-01-24

179

Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth.  

PubMed

The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (?3 cm in ?20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via classical carbohydrate biochemistry were probed using a battery of antibodies that recognize a large number of different wall components. In addition, ovules from these same stages were investigated in three fiberless lines. Most antibodies reacted with at least some component of the ovule, and several of the antibodies reacted specifically with the epidermal layer of cells that may give clues as to the nature of the development of the fibers and the neighboring, nonfiber atrichoblasts. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) labeled the epidermal layers more strongly than other ovular tissue, even at 1 DBA. One of the AGP antibodies, CCRC-M7, which recognizes a 1-->6 galactan epitope of AGPs, is lost from the fiber cells by 2 DPA, although labeling in the atrichoblasts remained strong. In contrast, LM5 that recognizes a 1-->4 galactan RGI side chain is unreactive with sections until the fibers are produced and only the fibers are reactive. Dramatic changes also occur in the homogalacturonans (HGs). JIM5, which recognizes highly de-esterified HGs, only weakly labels epidermal cells of 1 DBA and 0 DPA ovules, but labeling increases in fibers cells, where a pectinaceous sheath is produced around the fiber cell and stronger reaction in the internal and external walls of the atrichoblast. In contrast, JIM7-reactive, highly esterifed HGs are present at high levels in the epidermal cells throughout development. Fiberless lines displayed similar patterns of labeling to the fibered lines, except that all of the cells had the labeling pattern of atrichoblasts. That is, CCRC-M7 labeled all cells of the fiberless lines, and LM5 labeled no cells at 2 DPA. These data indicate that a number of polysaccharides are unique in quantity or presence in the epidermal cell layers, and some of these might be critical participants in the early stages of initiation and elongation of cotton fibers. PMID:20878194

Bowling, Andrew J; Vaughn, Kevin Christopher; Turley, Rickie B

2010-09-28

180

Deep Sequencing Reveals Differences in the Transcriptional Landscapes of Fibers from Two Cultivated Species of Cotton  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton.

Lacape, Jean-Marc; Claverie, Michel; Vidal, Ramon O.; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Guimaraes Pereira, Goncalo A.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pre, Martial; Llewellyn, Danny; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Jacobs, John; Dereeper, Alexis; Huguet, Stephanie; Giband, Marc; Lanaud, Claire

2012-01-01

181

Deep sequencing reveals differences in the transcriptional landscapes of fibers from two cultivated species of cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton. PMID:23166598

Lacape, Jean-Marc; Claverie, Michel; Vidal, Ramon O; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Guimares Pereira, Gonalo A; Ruiz, Manuel; Pr, Martial; Llewellyn, Danny; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Jacobs, John; Dereeper, Alexis; Huguet, Stphanie; Giband, Marc; Lanaud, Claire

2012-11-15

182

HISTORICAL REVIEW OF MOISTURE CONTENT EFFECT ON FIBER LENGTH AND MOISTURE ADDITION TO SEED COTTON BEFORE GINNING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed cotton drying equipment was adopted in the U. S. during the 1940's. Problems with fiber length associated with excessive drying were observed almost immediately. At first, high drying temperatures were blamed for the damage but later it appeared that the fiber moisture content (mc) was the mo...

183

Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

184

Isolation and culture of anucleate protoplasts from cotton fiber; assessment of viability and analysis of regenerated wall polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures were developed for the isolation and culture of an anucleate protoplast system from cotton fibers actively undergoing secondary wall synthesis. Because the fibers at this stage are elongated single cells (30 m 12 cm), most of the cellular vesicles released in the process of isolation are anucleate. After purification, the protoplast population was nuclei-free. When transferred to culture

Jean H. Gould; R. L. Palmer; W. M. Dugger

1986-01-01

185

Isolation and Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Raw Baled Cotton and Synthetic Textile Fibers with Special Reference to Environmental GNB and Endotoxin Concentrations of Textile Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the gram-negative bacterial (GNB) content of Indian raw baled cotton fibers and to compare with the U.S. cottons. Airborne endotoxin also was estimated in the different work places of the mill. On comparison with data on U.S. cottons, GNB content was found to be as high as in U.S. cottons. Moreover, endotoxin

V. N. GOKANI; P. B; S. K. GHOSH

1987-01-01

186

Characterization of an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit gene expressed in developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers.  

PubMed

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGp, EC 2.7.7.27) is a tetrameric protein composed of two small and two large subunits that catalyzes the biosynthesis of ADP-glucose from glucose-phosphate which is used to provide the glucose subunits for starch biosynthesis. A second cotton gene encoding an ADPGp small subunit has been cloned and characterized. The gene contains eight introns similar to previously reported potato and cotton ADPGp small subunit genes. The deduced translation of the gene contained a poorly conserved transit peptide and well conserved catalytic and regulatory elements typical of other plant ADPGps. The 5' end of the mRNA was cloned and sequenced to identify the transcriptional start site (TSS). The promoter region upstream of the TSS did not contain the core promoter sequence in the typical positions indicating this gene may not use a standard core promoter. Other sequence motifs associated with tissue specific expression and phytohormone response were present. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with gene specific primers identified the sites of expression of this gene. Expression was most abundant in the meristem region, and immature stem and relatively lower in starch accumulating roots demonstrating that this gene has a different pattern of expression than the previously reported cotton ADPGp small subunit gene. Additionally this gene was differentially expressed in cotton fibers. The presence of starch was confirmed in developing cotton fibers suggesting that starch metabolism plays a role in cotton fiber development. PMID:20140709

Taliercio, Earl

2010-02-07

187

Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins

Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

2005-01-01

188

19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. (a)...

2013-04-01

189

GbPDF1 Is Involved in Cotton Fiber Initiation via the Core cis-Element HDZIP2ATATHB21[W  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber cells are seed trichomes derived from the epidermal layer of the cotton seed coat. The molecular components responsible for regulating fiber cell differentiation have not been fully elucidated. A cotton PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 gene (GbPDF1) was found to be expressed preferentially during fiber initiation and early elongation, with highest accumulation in fiber cells 5 d post anthesis. PDF1 silencing caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentage compared with the wild type, indicating that the gene is required for cotton fiber development. Further analysis showed that a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide occurred in the RNA interference transgenic cotton lines. Meanwhile, the expression of several genes related to ethylene and pectin synthesis or sugar transport during cotton fiber growth was found to be significantly reduced in the PDF1-suppressed cotton. Three proteins interacting with GbPDF1 in yeast and in planta might involve cellular signaling or metabolism. GbPDF1 promoter::GUS constructs in transgenic cotton were predominantly expressed in the epidermis of ovules and developing fibers. Progressive deletions of the GbPDF1 promoter showed that a 236-bp promoter fragment was sufficient for basal GbPDF1 transcription in cotton. Mutation of putative regulatory sequences showed that HDZIP2ATATHB2, an element within the fragment, was essential for PGbPDF1-1 expression. The binding activity between this cis-element and nuclear extracts from fiber-bearing cotton ovules at 5 d post anthesis was specific. We conclude that GbPDF1 plays a critical role together with interaction partners in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and steady biosynthesis of ethylene and pectin during fiber development via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2.

Deng, Fenglin; Tu, Lili; Tan, Jiafu; Li, Yang; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2012-01-01

190

Specific and direct measurement of the ? -1,3-glucan in developing cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of N,N-diethylaziridinium chloride with raw cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed fibers to introduce N,N-diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) substituents at a low degree of substitution was used for demonstrating the presence of O(4)H, characteristic of a -1,3-glucan. The derivatized 1,3-glucan\\/cellulose was hydrolyzed to DEAE-glucoses that were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Capillary columns proved effective for measuring the small amounts of 4-O-DEAE-glucose

Stanley P. Rowland; Phyllis S. Howley; W. Stanley Anthony

1984-01-01

191

Variations and transmission of QTL alleles for yield and fiber qualities in upland cotton cultivars developed in China.  

PubMed

Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

2013-02-27

192

[Physiological mechanisms of growth regulators 6-BA and ABA in mitigating low temperature stress of cotton fiber development].  

PubMed

A field trial with high fiher quality cotton cultivar Kemian 1 was conducted in Nanjing (lower reaches of Yangtze River) in 2006-2007 to study the effects of growth regulators 6-BA and ABA on the boll and fiber development and related physiological mechanisms under low temperature stress. The cotton seeds were sown on April 25 and May 25, respectively, which could result in different temperature for the bolls on the same positions, and the growth regulators were sprayed at flowering stage. Spraying 6-BA increased the boll weight and fiber quality under both normal and low temperature conditions; whereas spraying ABA induced the decrease of fiber quality under normal temperature but decreased the reduction magnitude of fiber quality under low temperature condition. 6-BA increased significantly the boll sucrose content and sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities, while ABA only increased boll beta-1, 3-glucanase activity. Both 6-BA and ABA had less effects on the activity of sucrose invertase, a key enzyme for fiber development. Under low temperature condition, spraying 6-BA or ABA improved fiber quality, but the action mechanisms were different. 6-BA improved fiber quality via enhancing the activities of relevant enzymes; while ABA improved fiber quality via increasing the stress resistance of cotton plants. PMID:21812300

Wang, You-Hua; Liu, Jia-Jie; Chen, Bing-Lin; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2011-05-01

193

Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.  

PubMed

Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1) that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY). Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2), a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ?8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ?10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs) in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular. PMID:21779324

Guan, Xueying; Lee, Jinsuk J; Pang, Mingxiong; Shi, Xiaoli; Stelly, David M; Chen, Z Jeffrey

2011-07-11

194

A Potential Role for CHH DNA Methylation in Cotton Fiber Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H?=?A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August.

Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

2013-01-01

195

GTPase Activity and Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant Cotton Fiber Annexin1  

PubMed Central

A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. We then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on ?-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg2+ was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca2+ was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

Shin, Heungsop; Brown, R. Malcolm

1999-01-01

196

Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

197

A potential role for CHH DNA methylation in cotton fiber growth patterns.  

PubMed

DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H?=?A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August. PMID:23593241

Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

2013-04-12

198

GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on [beta]-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg[sup 2+] was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca[sup 2+] was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

Shin, H.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Botany)

1999-03-01

199

Overexpression of a profilin (GhPFN2) promotes the progression of developmental phases in cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber development at the stages of elongation and secondary wall synthesis determines the traits of fiber length and strength. To date, the mechanisms controlling the progression of these two phases remain elusive. In this work, the function of a fiber-preferential actin-binding protein (GhPFN2) was characterized by cytological and molecular studies on the fibers of transgenic green-colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) through three successive generations. Overexpression of GhPFN2 caused pre-terminated cell elongation, resulting in a marked decrease in the length of mature fibers. Cytoskeleton staining and quantitative assay revealed that thicker and more abundant F-actin bundles formed during the elongation stage in GhPFN2-overexpressing fibers. Accompanying this alteration, the developmental reorientation of transverse microtubules to the oblique direction was advanced by 2 d at the period of transition from elongation to secondary wall deposition. Birefringence and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that earlier onset of secondary wall synthesis occurred in parallel. These data demonstrate that formation of the higher actin structure plays a determinant role in the progression of developmental phases in cotton fibers, and that GhPFN2 acts as a critical modulator in this process. Such a function of the actin cytoskeleton in cell phase conversion may be common to other secondary wall-containing plant cells. PMID:20558432

Wang, Juan; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Han, Li-Bo; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zheng, Yi-Yan; Huang, Shan-Jin; Xia, Gui-Xian

2010-06-17

200

Hormonal regulation of cotton ovule and fiber growth: Effects of bromodeoxyuridine, AMO1618 and p -chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BUdR, thymidine analogue), AMO-1618 (2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride), a growth retardant, and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB, an antiauxin) on growth (dry weight increase) and fiber development in unfertilized cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ovules grown in vitro have been studied. BUdR (5 M) causes about 70% inhibition of fiber production, with little effect on ovule growth, if applied

Rajinder S. Dhindsa

1978-01-01

201

Cotton Benzoquinon Reductase: Up-Regulation During Early Fiber Development and Heterologous Expresson and Characterization in Pichia Pastoris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Benzoquinone reductase (BR) is an enzyme which catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage. These proteins were excis...

202

Biosynthesis of (1. -->. 3)-and (1. -->. 4)-. beta. -D-glucans in cotton fibers (Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed hairs of whole intact cotton fruits, at the stage of secondary cell wall formation, synthesize two ..beta..-glucans: callose and cellulose. The callose shows a turnover, and its absolute quantity never exceeds about 1 mg in the fibers of one seed, whereas the weight of cellulose reaches 50 mg or more at the end of growth. With short-term feeding

1983-01-01

203

Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber development undergoes rapid and dynamic changes in a single cell type, from fiber initiation, elongation, primary and secondary wall biosynthesis, to fiber maturation. Previous studies showed that cotton genes encoding putative MYB transcription factors and phytohormone responsive factors were induced during early stages of ovule and fiber development. Many of these factors are targets of microRNAs (miRNAs)

Mingxiong Pang; Andrew W Woodward; Vikram Agarwal; Xueying Guan; Misook Ha; Vanitharani Ramachandran; Xuemei Chen; Barbara A Triplett; David M Stelly; Z Jeffrey Chen

2009-01-01

204

Degradation of the sealing properties of a zinc oxide-calcium sulfate-based temporary filling material by entrapped cotton fibers.  

PubMed

During root canal therapy cotton may be placed in the pulp chamber before placement of a temporary filling. This study evaluated the effect on the sealing of a zinc oxide-calcium sulfate-based temporary filling material when fibers of the internal cotton passed through the filling material and reached the external surface of the temporary filling. Glass tubes were filled with a 3.5 mm thickness of the temporary filling incorporating a bundle of cotton fibers that passed from the inner surface of the restoration to the outer surface. The time for methylene blue stain to penetrate the filling was compared among four groups. Group 1 (large bundles of fibers) had 20 to 40 fibers, group 2 (medium bundles) had 10 to 15 fibers, group 3 (small bundles) had 3 to 5 fibers, and group 4 (negative controls) had no cotton fibers. All samples with cotton fibers leaked within 12 min. None of the negative controls leaked within the 21 -day observation time. These results demonstrate that even a very small amount of cotton trapped between the wall of the tube and the filling material dramatically reduced the sealing quality of the temporary restoration. PMID:11771593

Newcomb, B E; Clark, S J; Eleazer, P D

2001-12-01

205

Effect of harvesting methods on fiber and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the High Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over a fourth of the cotton bales produced in the United States since 2002 have been produced in Texas, with most of that cotton coming from the stripper harvested High Plains region, and in recent years, Texas cotton production has represented almost half of all the US cotton production. As irrigat...

206

Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation  

SciTech Connect

Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

2008-06-12

207

Near-isogenic cotton germplasm lines that differ in fiber-bundle strength have temporal differences in fiber gene expression patterns as revealed by comparative high-throughput profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expression profiles of developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from two near-isogenic lines (NILs) that differ in fiber-bundle strength, short-fiber content, and in fewer than\\u000a two genetic loci were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray. Fiber gene expression was compared at five time points\\u000a spanning fiber elongation and secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. Fiber samples were collected from field plots

Doug J. Hinchliffe; William R. Meredith; Kathleen M. Yeater; Hee Jin Kim; Andrew W. Woodward; Z. Jeffrey Chen; Barbara A. Triplett

2010-01-01

208

DEVELOPMENT OF PCR-BASED MARKERS FROM FIBER ESTS AND BAC-END SEQUENCES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CONSENSUS COTTON GENETIC MAP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new set of molecular markers known as microsatellites or SSRs were developed from cotton fiber genes (EST) and genomic DNA inserted in bacteria artificial chromosomes (BAC-end sequences). Cotton genomics is in its infancy in that a high density PCR-based molecular map to facilitate marker-assisted...

209

Effect of Boron on the Incorporation of Glucose from UDP-Glucose into Cotton Fibers Grown in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Boron is required for fiber growth and development in cotton ovules cultured in vitro. Incorporation of [14C]glucose by such fiber from supplied UDP-[14C]glucose into the hot alkali-insoluble fraction is rapid and linear for about 30 minutes. Incorporation of [14C]glucose from such substrate by fibers grown in boron-deficient ovule cultures is much less than in the case with fibers from ovules cultured with boron in the medium. Total products (alkali-soluble plus alkali-insoluble fractions) were also greater in fibers from ovules cultured with boron. The fraction insoluble in acetic-nitric reagent was a small part of the total glucans; however, in the boron-sufficient fibers, there was significantly more of this fraction than in fibers from boron-deficient ovule cultures. The hot water-soluble glucose polymers from the labeled fibers had a significant fraction of the total [14C]glucose incorporated from UDP-[14C]glucose. Both ?-1,4- and ?-1,3- water-soluble polymers were formed in the boron-sufficient fibers, whereas the same water-soluble fraction from the boron-deficient fibers was predominantly ?-1,3-polymers. The incorporation of [14C]glucose from GDP-[14C]glucose by the fibers attached to the ovules was insignificant.

Dugger, W. M.; Palmer, R. L.

1980-01-01

210

Apyrase (Nucleoside Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase) and Extracellular Nucleotides Regulate Cotton Fiber Elongation in Cultured Ovules1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Ectoapyrase enzymes remove the terminal phosphate from extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two ectoapyrases, AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, have been implicated as key modulators of growth. In fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), transcript levels for GhAPY1 and GhAPY2, two closely related ectoapyrases that have high sequence similarity to AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, are up-regulated when fibers enter their rapid growth phase. In an ovule culture system, fibers release ATP as they grow, and when their ectoapyrase activity is blocked by the addition of polyclonal anti-apyrase antibodies or by two different small molecule inhibitors, the medium ATP level rises and fiber growth is suppressed. High concentrations of the poorly hydrolyzable nucleotides ATP?S and ADP?S applied to the medium inhibit fiber growth, and low concentrations of them stimulate growth, but treatment with adenosine 5?-O-thiomonophosphate causes no change in the growth rate. Both the inhibition and stimulation of growth by applied nucleotides can be blocked by an antagonist that blocks purinoceptors in animal cells, and by adenosine. Treatment of cotton ovule cultures with ATP?S induces increased levels of ethylene, and two ethylene antagonists, aminovinylglycine and silver nitrate, block both the growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory effects of applied nucleotides. In addition, the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, lowers the concentration of nucleotide needed to promote fiber growth. These data indicate that ectoapyrases and extracellular nucleotides play a significant role in regulating cotton fiber growth and that ethylene is a likely downstream component of the signaling pathway.

Clark, Greg; Torres, Jonathan; Finlayson, Scott; Guan, Xueying; Handley, Craig; Lee, Jinsuk; Kays, Julia E.; Chen, Z. Jeffery; Roux, Stanley J.

2010-01-01

211

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (IV. In Vitro Assembly of the Cellulose I Allomorph).  

PubMed Central

In vitro assembly of cellulose from plasma membrane extracts of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber was enriched by a combination of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid extraction buffer and two independent digitonin solubilization steps consisting of 0.05% digitonin (SE1) followed by 1% digitonin (SE2). Glucan synthase activity assays revealed that, although the SE2 fraction possessed higher activity, only 8.6% of the in vitro product survived acetic/nitric acid treatment. On the other hand, the SE1 fraction was less active, but 32.1% of the total glucan in vitro product was resistant to acetic/nitric acid. In vitro products synthesized from the SE1 fraction contained [beta]-1,3-glucan and fibrillar cellulose I, whereas the SE2 fraction produced [beta]-1,3-glucan and cellulose II. Both celluloses assembled in vitro were labeled with cellobiohydrolase I-gold complex, and the electron diffraction patterns of both products from SE1 and SE2 revealed cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively. Contamination of native cellulose was ruled out by extensive evidence from autoradiography of the ethanol-insoluble and acetic/nitric acid-insoluble materials, including three different controls.

Kudlicka, K.; Brown, R. M.; Li, L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, H.; Kuga, S.

1995-01-01

212

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (IV. In Vitro Assembly of the Cellulose I Allomorph).  

PubMed

In vitro assembly of cellulose from plasma membrane extracts of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber was enriched by a combination of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid extraction buffer and two independent digitonin solubilization steps consisting of 0.05% digitonin (SE1) followed by 1% digitonin (SE2). Glucan synthase activity assays revealed that, although the SE2 fraction possessed higher activity, only 8.6% of the in vitro product survived acetic/nitric acid treatment. On the other hand, the SE1 fraction was less active, but 32.1% of the total glucan in vitro product was resistant to acetic/nitric acid. In vitro products synthesized from the SE1 fraction contained [beta]-1,3-glucan and fibrillar cellulose I, whereas the SE2 fraction produced [beta]-1,3-glucan and cellulose II. Both celluloses assembled in vitro were labeled with cellobiohydrolase I-gold complex, and the electron diffraction patterns of both products from SE1 and SE2 revealed cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively. Contamination of native cellulose was ruled out by extensive evidence from autoradiography of the ethanol-insoluble and acetic/nitric acid-insoluble materials, including three different controls. PMID:12228346

Kudlicka, K.; Brown, R. M.; Li, L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, H.; Kuga, S.

1995-01-01

213

Relationship of Fiber Test Data and Other Factors, Affecting Prices Paid for Cotton, Southern Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication summarizes the findings of research conducted cooperatively by the Southern Regional Cotton Marketing Research Committee. The study points out the fact that if the classification of cotton is to be based on use value, additional measurabl...

J. Hudson D. Williams

1976-01-01

214

Creation of a set of reference material for cotton fiber maturity measurements.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It was the goal of the authors to create a set of reference cottons for maturity measurements. To achieve this they selected 104 cotton bales representing the two principal cultivated species. The vast majority of the bales orginated in the USA, but some foreign-grown cotton bales werew also selec...

215

HVI AND GLUCOSE ANALYSIS OF ACID TREATED, RINSED, AND, OR HEATED AND AUTOCLAVED COTTON FIBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It remains difficult to understand all chemical and physical cotton properties that are affected by production, processing, and utilization. Cotton differences are not well understood chemically and the protective exterior complexity of cotton further entangles matters. This study evaluates how cot...

216

DETERMINATION OF THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF COTTON FIBER QUALITY AND YIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The introduction of accurate, reliable cotton yield monitors has increased the value of spatial information pertaining to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. sps.) growth and yield potential, and contributed to the development and incorporation of site-specific methodologies in cotton production. While t...

217

Photocatalytic activity of anatase thin films coated cotton fibers prepared via a microwave assisted liquid phase deposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films in the anatase phase was successfully coated on cotton fibers via a simple microwave (MW) assisted liquid phase deposition (MW-LPD) process with hexafluorotitanate ammonium (NH4)2TiF6 as precursor. Compared with the conventional LPD processes, the MW-LPD technique could provide quickly high yield and crystallinity in a diluted precursor solution at a low temperature. Microwave irradiation penetrated

Zhang Liuxue; Wang Xiulian; Liu Peng; Su Zhixing

2007-01-01

218

Genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins analogous to mammalian rac are preferentially expressed in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals, the small GTP-binding proteins, Rac and Rho, of theras superfamily participate in the signal rransduction pathway that regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We\\u000a report here on the characterization of two distinct cDNA clones isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library that code for homologs\\u000a of animal Rac proteins. Using gene-specific probes, we have determined that amphidiploid

Deborah P. Delmer; Julie R. Pear; Andrawis Andrawis; David M. Stalker

1995-01-01

219

A ? -tubulin-like cDNA expressed specifically in elongating cotton fibers induces longitudinal growth of fission yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cDNA Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) techniques, we isolated a cDNA that was expressed specifically in cotton fibers but not in the ovules of a fuzzlesslintless mutant (fl). We designated it as Gh-BTubL for it shares high sequence identity with known plant and yeast ?-tubulins. RT-PCR and robotic cDNA dot blot analyses indicated that the expression of Gh-BTubL was correlated

Shengjian Ji; Yingchun Lu; Jun Li; Gang Wei; Xiujuan Liang; Yuxian Zhu

2002-01-01

220

The effects of microtubule and microfilament disrupting agents on cytoskeletal arrays and wall deposition in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of various cytoskeletal disrupting agents (cholchicine, oryzalin, trifluralin, taxol, cytochalasins B and D) on microtubules, microfilaments and wall microfibril deposition were monitored in developing cotton fibers, using immunocytochemical and fluorescence techniques. Treatment with 10-4 M colchicine, 10-6 M trifluralin or 10-6 M oryzalin resulted in a reduction in the number of microtubules, however, the drug-stable microtubules still

R. W. Seagull

1990-01-01

221

Near-isogenic cotton germplasm lines that differ in fiber-bundle strength have temporal differences in fiber gene expression patterns as revealed by comparative high-throughput profiling.  

PubMed

Gene expression profiles of developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from two near-isogenic lines (NILs) that differ in fiber-bundle strength, short-fiber content, and in fewer than two genetic loci were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray. Fiber gene expression was compared at five time points spanning fiber elongation and secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. Fiber samples were collected from field plots in a randomized, complete block design, with three spatially distinct biological replications for each NIL at each time point. Microarray hybridizations were performed in a loop experimental design that allowed comparisons of fiber gene expression profiles as a function of time between the two NILs. Overall, developmental expression patterns revealed by the microarray experiment agreed with previously reported cotton fiber gene expression patterns for specific genes. Additionally, genes expressed coordinately with the onset of SCW biosynthesis in cotton fiber correlated with gene expression patterns of other SCW-producing plant tissues. Functional classification and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes between the two NILs revealed that genes associated with SCW biosynthesis were significantly up-regulated in fibers of the high-fiber quality line at the transition stage of cotton fiber development. For independent corroboration of the microarray results, 15 genes were selected for quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of fiber gene expression. These analyses, conducted over multiple field years, confirmed the temporal difference in fiber gene expression between the two NILs. We hypothesize that the loci conferring temporal differences in fiber gene expression between the NILs are important regulatory sequences that offer the potential for more targeted manipulation of cotton fiber quality. PMID:20087569

Hinchliffe, Doug J; Meredith, William R; Yeater, Kathleen M; Kim, Hee Jin; Woodward, Andrew W; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Triplett, Barbara A

2010-01-20

222

The Discrimination of Colored Acrylic, Cotton, and Wool Textile Fibers Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Part 1: In situ Detection and Characterization of Dyes.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy has been applied to characterize fiber dyes and determine the discriminating ability of the method. Black, blue, and red acrylic, cotton, and wool samples were analyzed. Four excitation sources were used to obtain complementary responses in the case of fluorescent samples. Fibers that did not provide informative spectra using a given laser were usually detected using another wavelength. For any colored acrylic, the 633-nm laser did not provide Raman information. The 514-nm laser provided the highest discrimination for blue and black cotton, but half of the blue cottons produced noninformative spectra. The 830-nm laser exhibited the highest discrimination for red cotton. Both visible lasers provided the highest discrimination for black and blue wool, and NIR lasers produced remarkable separation for red and black wool. This study shows that the discriminating ability of Raman spectroscopy depends on the fiber type, color, and the laser wavelength. PMID:24147967

Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

2013-10-22

223

Comparative proteomics indicates that biosynthesis of pectic precursors is important for cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair elongation.  

PubMed

The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-L-rhamnose, UDP-D-galacturonic acid, or UDP-D-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-D-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-D-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-L-rhamnose and UDP-D-galacturonic acid synthesis. PMID:20525998

Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2010-06-06

224

Comparative Proteomics Indicates That Biosynthesis of Pectic Precursors Is Important for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Hair Elongation*  

PubMed Central

The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-l-rhamnose, UDP-d-galacturonic acid, or UDP-d-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-d-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-l-rhamnose and UDP-d-galacturonic acid synthesis.

Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L.; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2010-01-01

225

Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.  

PubMed

The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel. PMID:22420262

Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Jnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

2012-02-01

226

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 2 is phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 during cotton fiber elongation.  

PubMed

The reaction catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is proposed to be the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, which has been found as one of the most up-regulated metabolic pathways during cotton fiber development. However, the transcripts of the identified ACS genes did not increase in a similar manner as those of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes, implicating a possible post-transcriptional modification or regulatory mechanism. In this work, cotton ACS2 was shown to interact with Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase 1 (CPK1). Bacterially expressed and purified recombinant ACS2 was phosphorylated by CPK1 in vitro and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that ACS2 S460 is a possible phosphorylation site for CPK1. Phosphorylated ACS2 significantly increased ACS activity, leading to elevated ethylene production. We thus speculated that CPK1 is involved in cotton fiber growth regulation by phosphorylating ACS2, which results in enhanced ethylene production in vitro. PMID:21742672

Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Zhu, Yuxian

2011-07-08

227

Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers

Manuela Schmidt; Nadja Schilling

2007-01-01

228

Lint Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter is generated in large quantities in the same south- eastern U.S. states where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a domi- nant field crop, but is rarely used as a primary cotton fertilizer partly because of lack of adequate management recommendations. This re- search was conducted to determine adequate rates of broiler litter and whether supplementation with inorganic N

H. Tewolde; K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe; A. Adeli; J. R. Johnson

2007-01-01

229

Genome-wide transcriptional changes associated with allopolyploidy and fiber domestication in cotton (Gossypium spp. L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization and subsequent genome doubling (allopolyploidy) is a common phenomenon in flowering plant lineages. Within the cotton genus, Gossypium L., two diploid species merged 1-2 mya to form an allopolyploid species that would eventually give rise to 5 distinct species; two of which would be domesticated and dominate world cotton commerce. This series of experiments examines two facets of

Ryan Adam Rapp

2009-01-01

230

Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

231

The essential role of GhPEL gene, encoding a pectate lyase, in cell wall loosening by depolymerization of the de-esterified pectin during fiber elongation in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber elongation, largely achieved by cell wall loosening, is an important stage during cotton fiber development. In this present research, a fiber preferential cDNA encoding a pectate lyase (PEL) which could exclusively degrade the de-esterified pectin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. Subsequently, the corresponding PEL genes were isolated from four different cotton species and characterized. In vitro enzyme assays indicated that GhPEL really exhibited cleavage-activity against de-esterified pectin. The temporal-spatial expression analyses revealed that the GhPEL gene was preferentially expressed in fibers at 10 days-post anthesis (DPA). Antisense GhPEL transgenic cotton plants were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Six homozygous lines, each with one or two copies of the transgene inserted as determined by southern blot analysis of the NPTII gene, were selected for further functional analysis. The GhPEL expression during fiber elongation in these transgenic lines was significantly suppressed in various degrees. Furthermore, the reduction of GhPEL enzymatic activity by decreasing GhPEL transcripts severely affected the degradation of de-esterified pectin in primary cell walls of transgenic cotton fibers, which consequently blocked cell wall loosening in early fiber development. Ultimately, the fiber elongation of all these transgenic lines was repressed. These results suggested that GhPEL may play an important role in the process of normal fiber elongation in cotton. PMID:20131110

Wang, Haihai; Guo, Ying; Lv, Fenni; Zhu, Huayu; Wu, Shenjie; Jiang, Yanjie; Li, Feifei; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

2009-11-22

232

Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and

Wenqian Mei; Yongmei Qin; Wenqiang Song; Jun Li; Yuxian Zhu

2009-01-01

233

Mass spectrometric identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites of differentially expressed proteins in elongating cotton fiber cells.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics approach was applied to extensively explore the molecular basis of plant development and environmental adaptation. These proteomics analyses revealed thousands of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) closely related to different biological processes. However, little attention has been paid to how peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) data generated by the approach can be directly utilized for the determination of protein phosphorylation. Here, we used the software tool FindMod to predict the peptides that might carry the phosphorylation modification by examining their PMF data for mass differences between the empirical and theoretical peptides and then identified phosphorylation sites using MALDI TOF/TOF according to predicted peptide data from these DEP spots in the 2-D gels. As a result, a total of 48 phosphorylation sites of 40 DEPs were successfully identified among 235 known DEPs previously revealed in the 2-D gels of elongating cotton fiber cells. The 40 phosphorylated DEPs, including important enzymes such as enolase, transketolase and UDP-L-rhamnose synthase, are presumed to participate in the functional regulation of numerous metabolic pathways, suggesting the reverse phosphorylation of these proteins might play important roles in elongating cotton fibers. The results also indicated that some different isoforms of the identical DEP revealed in our 2-DE-based proteomics analysis could be annotated by phosphorylation events. Taken together, as the first report of large-scale identification of phosphorylation sites in elongating cotton fiber cells, our study provides not only an excellent example of directly identifying phosphorylation sites from known DEPs on 2-D gels but also provides a valuable resource for future functional studies of phosphorylated proteins in this field. PMID:23516553

Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jin-Yuan

2013-03-13

234

Facile and versatile preparation of silicalite-1 hollow structures using cotton threads as templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ hydrothermal synthesis of various silicalite-1 hollow structures with different morphologies by using cotton threads as the templates was presented. It was found that the cotton thread was composed of many cotton fibers twisted together. By using loosely cotton thread, bunchy silicalite-1 hollow fibers with inner diameter close to the cotton fibers composed of the cotton thread were formed

Weiwei Liu; Changfeng Zeng; Lixiong Zhang; Huanting Wang; Nanping Xu

2007-01-01

235

Whiteness and absorbency of hydroentangled cotton-based nonwoven fabrics of different constituent fibers and fiber blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript reports result of the research efforts devoted to the exploration and development of greige (non-bleached) cotton-containing nonwoven fabrics that likely could be made optimally competitive in cost, quality and performance to existing products that presently and predominantly use man...

236

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon\\u000a source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions.\\u000a To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS)

Candace H. Haigler; Bir Singh; Deshui Zhang; Sangjoon Hwang; Chunfa Wu; Wendy X. Cai; Mohamed Hozain; Wonhee Kang; Brett Kiedaisch; Richard E. Strauss; Eric F. Hequet; Bobby G. Wyatt; Gay M. Jividen; A. Scott Holaday

2007-01-01

237

The Control of Single-Celled Cotton Fiber Elongation by Developmentally Reversible Gating of Plasmodesmata and Coordinated Expression of Sucrose and K+ Transporters and Expansin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within z 16 days after an- thesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodes- mata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K

Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

2001-01-01

238

Characterization of attenuated total reflection infrared spectral intensity variations of immature and mature cotton fibers by two-dimensional correlation analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of immature and mature cotton fibers. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity of 660 cm-1 to ...

239

Analysis of Flax and Cotton Fiber Fabric Blends and Recycled Polyethylene Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing composites with polymers and natural fibers has traditionally been performed using chopped fibers or a non-woven\\u000a mat for reinforcement. Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric for composite formation. Fabric\\u000a directly impacts the composite because it contains various fiber types via fiber or

Jonn A. Foulk; Wayne Y. Chao; Danny E. Akin; Roy B. Dodd; Patricia A. Layton

2006-01-01

240

A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule\\/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid,\\u000a IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule\\/fiber units. To reach\\u000a these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined

Bir Singh; Hannah D. Cheek; Candace H. Haigler

2009-01-01

241

Cotton BCP genes encoding putative blue copper-binding proteins are functionally expressed in fiber development and involved in response to high-salinity and heavy metal stresses.  

PubMed

Copper is vitally required for plants at low concentrations but extremely toxic for plants at elevated concentrations. Plants have evolved a series of mechanisms to prevent the consequences of the excess or deficit of copper. These mechanisms require copper-interacting proteins involved in copper trafficking. Blue copper-binding proteins (BCPs) are a class of copper proteins containing one blue copper-binding domain binding a single type I copper. To investigate the role of BCPs in plant development and in response to stresses, we isolated nine cDNAs encoding the putative blue copper-binding proteins (GhBCPs) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Meanwhile, four corresponding genes (including GhBCP1-GhBCP4), which contain a single intron inserted in their conserved position, were isolated from cotton genome. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the nine GhBCP genes are differentially expressed in cotton tissues. Among them, GhBCP1 and GhBCP4 were predominantly expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of GhBCP2 and GhBCP3 were accumulated at relatively high levels in fibers. These four genes were strongly expressed in early fiber elongation, but dramatically declined with further fiber development. In addition, these GhBCP genes were upregulated in fibers by Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) , high-salinity and drought stresses, but downregulated in fibers by Al(3+) treatment. Overexpression of GhBCP1 and GhBCP4 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly increased the cell growth rate under Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) and high-salinity stresses. These results suggested that these GhBCPs may participate in the regulation of fiber development and in response to high-salinity and heavy metal stresses in cotton. PMID:21029107

Ruan, Xiang-Mei; Luo, Fang; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

2010-10-28

242

Thermal evaluation of transgenic cotton containing polyhydroxybutyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial genes responsible for the synthesis of the aliphatic polyester compound, poly-D-(-)-3- hydroxybutrate (PHB) were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Cv DP50) through particle bombardment. The resulting transgenic cotton contained PHB in the cotton fiber lumen. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes in thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics than natural

B Chowdhury; Maliyakal E John

1998-01-01

243

Efect of tri-species chromosome shuffling on agronomic and fiber traits in Upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypium barbadense (L.), G. tomentosum (Seem.), G. mustelinum (Watt.) and G. darwinii (Watt.) are in the primary gene pool of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). They share a common chromosome number (2n=52), similar AD-genome architecture, and form reasonably fertile F1 hybrids. However, reduced transm...

244

HVI color and UV/visible spectral response of cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classification of cotton color is assessed by both human classers and HVI measurements. However, there are demonstrated inconsistencies between them, partly due to the human classers subjective perception and partly due to HVIs 2-filter limitation. To improve the agreement, a number of attempts ha...

245

Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutant in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which exhibits an early cessation of fiber elongation resulting in very short fibers (< 6 mm) at maturity. This presents an excellent model system for studying the underlying molecular and cellular processes involved with cotton fiber elongation. Previous reports have characterized Li1 at early cell wall elongation and during later secondary cell wall synthesis, however there has been very limited analysis of the transition period between these developmental time points. Results Physical and morphological measurements of the Li1 mutant fibers were conducted, including measurement of the cellulose content during development. Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze transcript profiles at the critical developmental time points of 3 days post anthesis (DPA), the late elongation stage of 12 DPA and the early secondary cell wall synthesis stage of 16 DPA. The results indicated severe disruption to key hormonal and other pathways related to fiber development, especially pertaining to the transition stage from elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified several key pathways at the transition stage that exhibited altered regulation. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and primary cell wall rearrangement were affected, and a primary cell wall-related cellulose synthase was transcriptionally repressed. Linkage mapping using a population of 2,553 F2 individuals identified SSR markers associated with the Li1 genetic locus on chromosome 22. Linkage mapping in combination with utilizing the diploid G. raimondii genome sequences permitted additional analysis of the region containing the Li1 gene. Conclusions The early termination of fiber elongation in the Li1 mutant is likely controlled by an early upstream regulatory factor resulting in the altered regulation of hundreds of downstream genes. Several elongation-related genes that exhibited altered expression profiles in the Li1 mutant were identified. Molecular markers closely associated with the Li1 locus were developed. Results presented here will lay the foundation for further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of fiber elongation.

2013-01-01

246

Cotton AnnGh3 Encoding an Annexin Protein is Preferentially Expressed in Fibers and Promotes Initiation and Elongation of Leaf Trichomes in Transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The annexins are a multifamily of calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding proteins. To investigate the roles of annexins in fiber development, four genes encoding putative annexin proteins were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated AnnGh3, AnnGh4, AnnGh5, and AnnGh6. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that AnnGh3, AnnGh4, and AnnGh5 were preferentially expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of AnnGh6 were predominantly accumulated in roots. During fiber development, the transcripts of AnnGh3/4/5 genes were mainly accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers. With fiber cells further developed, their expression activity was dramatically declined to a relatively low level. In situ hybridization results indicated that AnnGh3 and AnnGh5 were expressed in initiating fiber cells (0-2 DPA). Additionally, their expression in fibers was also regulated by phytohormones and [Ca(2+) ]. Subcellular localization analysis discovered that AnnGh3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AnnGh3 in Arabidopsis resulted in a significant increase in trichome density and length on leaves of the transgenic plants, suggesting that AnnGh3 may be involved in fiber cell initiation and elongation of cotton. PMID:23651035

Li, Bing; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Li, Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-07-29

247

ANALYSIS OF FLAX AND COTTON FIBER FABRIC BLENDS AND RECYCLED POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MANUFACTURING COMPOSITIES WITH POLYMERS AND NATURAL FIBERS HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN PERFORMED USING CHOPPED FIBERS OR A NONWOVEN MAT FOR REINFORCEMENT. FIBERS FROM FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) ARE STIFF AND STRONG AND CAN BE PROCESSED INTO A YARN AND THEN MANUFACTURED INTO A FABRIC FOR COMPOSITE FOR...

248

MAPPING COTTON GENOME WITH MOLECULAR MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated cotton (G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.) is the leading natural fiber crop. Fiber strength is the main property of the fiber that is limiting in textile processing. Inheritance of cotton fiber strength, as measured by fiber bundles, displays additive quantitative nature. Classical ...

249

Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium)  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers") of cotton (Gossypium), using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum) antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

2009-01-01

250

Characterization of attenuated total reflection infrared spectral intensity variations of immature and mature cotton fibers by two-dimensional correlation analysis.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectral intensity fluctuations of immature and mature cotton fibers. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm(-1) and then were normalized at the peak intensity of 660 cm(-1) to subjectively correct the variations resulting from ATR sampling. Next, normalized spectra were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), and two clusters of immature and mature fibers were confirmed on the basis of the first principal component (PC1) negative and positive scores, respectively. The normalized spectra clearly demonstrated the intensity increase or decrease of the bands ascribed to different C-O confirmations of primary alcohols in the 1050-950 cm(-1) region, which was not apparent from raw ATR spectra. The PC1 increasing-induced 2D correlation analysis revealed remarkable differences between the immature and mature fibers. Of interest were that: (1) Both intensity increase of two bands at 968 and 956 cm(-1) and the shifting of 968 cm(-1) in immature fibers to 956 cm(-1) in mature fibers, together with the intensity decreasing and shifting of the 1048 and 1042 cm(-1) bands, are the characteristics of cotton fiber development and maturation. (2) Intensities of most bands in the 1800-1200 cm(-1) region decreased with the fiber growth, suggesting they are from either noncellulosic components or CH and OH fractions in amorphous celluloses. (3) The reverse sequence of intensity variations of the bands in the 1100-1000 cm(-1) and 1000-900 cm(-1) region of asynchronous spectra indicated a different mechanism of compositional and structural changes in developing cotton fibers at different growth stages. PMID:22449284

Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary

2012-02-01

251

Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase\\/hydrolase genes in cotton and their role in fiber elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell wall extensibility is mediated, in part, by xyloglucan endotransglycosylases\\/hydrolases (XTH) that are able to\\u000a cleave and reattach xyloglucan polymers that make up the hemicelluloses matrix of type I cell walls. In Arabidopsis and other\\u000a plants, XTHs are encoded by relatively large gene families that are regulated in specific spatial and temporal patterns. In\\u000a silico screening of a cotton

Joohyun Lee; Teresa H. Burns; Ginger Light; Yan Sun; Mohamed Fokar; Yoshihisha Kasukabe; Koichi Fujisawa; Yoshihiko Maekawa; Randy D. Allen

2010-01-01

252

Evidence for alternative splicing of MADS-box transcripts in developing cotton fibre cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MADS-box family of genes encodes transcription factors that have widely ranging roles in diverse aspects of plant development.\\u000a In this study, four cotton MADS-box cDNA clones of the type II (MIKC) class were isolated, with phylogenetic analysis indicating\\u000a that the cotton sequences are of the AGAMOUS subclass. The corresponding transcripts were detected in developing cotton fibre\\u000a cells as well

Damien J. Lightfoot; Katharine M. Malone; Jeremy N. Timmis; Sharon J. Orford

2008-01-01

253

Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO3, followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces.

Mohammad Shateri Khalil-Abad; Mohammad E. Yazdanshenas

2010-01-01

254

Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. It's proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

255

Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. Its proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

256

Effect of hormones on nucleolar growth and vacuolation in elongating cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rather precise combination of the three phytohormones, gibberellic acid, auxin, and abscisic acid, is necessary for the considerable growth of fiber nucleoli in Gossypium hirsutum L. for about 8 days after anthesis and for nucleolar vacuolation in the second half of that period. Nucleolar growth and vacuolation must occur in a precise sequence for the fiber to reach a

E. De Langhe; S. Kosmidou-Dimitropoulou; L. Waterkeyn

1978-01-01

257

First evidence of trans -resveratrol production in cell suspension cultures of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, trans-resveratrol, a stilbene, has been identified in cotton cell suspensions. Cell suspensions of Coker 312, a cultivar which produces embryogenic structures, acccumulate trans-resveratrol contrary to those of cultivar R405-2000, which do not. This stilbene may be a good phenolic marker for induction of somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou; Pierre Waffo Tguo; Josep Valls; Yatty Justin Kouadio; Alain Decendit; Jean-Michel Mrillon

2006-01-01

258

Washed Cotton: Washing Techniques, Processing Characteristics, and Health Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of papers described washing cotton to remove potential health effects, the evaluation of acute human airway toxicity of standard and washed cotton dusts, microbiology of the fiber and airborne dust from washed cotton, differentiation of was...

P. J. Wakelyn R. R. Jacobs I. W. Kirk

1986-01-01

259

Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Yield and Fiber Properties as Affected by Plant Growth Retardants and Plant Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemicals may be used to reduce plant size in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), which can increase cotton yield by allowing an increased number of plants per unit area. Foliar sprays of growth retardants Cycocel and Alar were applied at concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm 105 days after planting (square and boll setting stage) to Egyptian cotton cultivar Giza

Zakaria M. Sawan; Mahmoud H. Mahmoud; Ashraf. H. Fahmy

2008-01-01

260

Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of poly(butylene succinate) composites reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was reinforced with cotton stalk bast fibers (CSBF) which had been pre-treated by the continuous steam explosion method. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, crystalline structure and spherulitic morphology of neat PBS and CSBF\\/PBS composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Moreover, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties of

Tan Bin; Jin-ping Qu; Li-ming Liu; Yan-hong Feng; Song-xi Hu; Xiao-chun Yin

2011-01-01

261

7 CFR 28.303 - Standards for length of staple for American upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determined by the Suter-Webb Duplex Cotton Fiber Sorter in accordance... 1.400-1.420 (b) Cotton selected for the preparation of practical forms of staple...Length and Length Distribution of Cotton Fibers...

2009-01-01

262

7 CFR 28.303 - Standards for length of staple for American upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determined by the Suter-Webb Duplex Cotton Fiber Sorter in accordance... 1.400-1.420 (b) Cotton selected for the preparation of practical forms of staple...Length and Length Distribution of Cotton Fibers...

2010-01-01

263

Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.  

PubMed

Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles. Implications for the evolution of new locomotor modes in primates are discussed. PMID:17289114

Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

2006-12-10

264

Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton

N. Jiang; J. Y. Chen; D. V. Parikh

2009-01-01

265

A novel filler for natural fiber polymer composites from cotton gin waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural fiber polymer composites market has significantly grown in the last decade. The majority of these composites are manufactured using wood flour as a principal component. The price and availability of quality wood flour is uncertain in several markets, therefore there is a great potential ...

266

Cotton and Protein Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

2006-06-30

267

Potential use of cutinase in enzymatic scouring of cotton fiber cuticle.  

PubMed

The present study characterized the ability of a bacterial cutinase to improve the wettability of raw cotton fabrics by specific hydrolysis of the cutin structure of the cuticle. The effect of cutinase was studied alone and in coreaction with pectin lyase. The changes in both the fabric and the reaction fluid were measured and compared to enzymatic hydrolysis with polygalacturonase, and to chemical hydrolysis with boiling NaOH. Water absorbancy, specific staining, fabric weight loss, and evaporative light-scattering reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of chloroform extract of the reaction fluid were measured to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cuticle waxy layer. The pattern and extent of hydrolysis of the major cuticle constituents depended on the enzyme type and titers employed and paralleled the degree of wettability obtained. The combination of cutinase and pectin lyase resulted in a synergistic effect. The use of detergents improved enzymatic scouring. The major products released to the reaction medium by the cutinase treatment were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis as C:16 and C:18 saturated fatty acid chains. PMID:12396130

Degani, Ofir; Gepstein, Shimon; Dosoretz, Carlos G

268

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01

269

Effects of a Short-term Corn Rotation on Cotton Dry Matter Partitioning, Lint Yield, and Fiber Quality Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has traditionally been grown under a continuous monoculture production system in the Mississippi Delta, some cotton producers have begun rotating their land with corn (Zea mays L.) because of economic and agronomic factors. Because of the lack of knowledge re...

270

Free radical generation upon plasma treatment of cotton fibers and their initiation efficiency in surface-graft polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature plasma was used to activate mercerized cotton fabrics, to be followed by grafting with various methacrylates. Careful analysis of the experimental electron spin resonance (ESR) lineshapes of cotton samples treated at different RF powers made it possible to recognize and quantify four different species of free radicals still persistent 30 h after irradiation in the samples maintained under inert

Laura Andreozzi; Valter Castelvetro; Gianluca Ciardelli; Leopoldo Corsi; Massimo Faetti; Enrico Fatarella; Fabio Zulli

2005-01-01

271

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

2007-02-08

272

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN ORGANIC FARMING: EVIDENCE FROM COTTON FARMS IN VIOTIA, GREECE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using recent advances in the stochastic production frontier framework, this paper presents an empirical analysis of technical, allocative and economic efficiency of a sample of organic and conventional cotton farms located in Greece. The results suggest that both farm types in the sample examined are technically, allocatively and economically inefficient. Farmer's age and education and farm size are important factors

Vangelis Tzouvelekas; Christos J. Pantzios; Christos Fotopoulos

2001-01-01

273

Cotton versus Polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy requirements for the production of fibers, for the manufacture of cloth and clothing items, i.e., a shirt, for the maintenance of the finished product by washing, drying, and ironing, and for replacement due to wear, i.e., the comparative durability, of cotton clothing and clothing made from polyester or polyester--cotton blends, are compared giving details for the energy requirements

T. Leo van Winkle; John Edeleanu; Elizabeth Ann Prosser; Charles A. Walker

1978-01-01

274

Effects of ozone fumigation on cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L .) morphology, anatomy, physiology, yield and qualitative characteristics of fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of high ozone concentrations on two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. Two cotton cultivars (Romanos and Allegria) were exposed to control (CF<4ppbO3) and 100ppbO3. Plant exposure to ozone began eight days after emergence and was interrupted one day before removing the leaves, to calculate the leaf area. Plants were exposed to ozone

Demetrius Zouzoulas; Spyridon D. Koutroubas; George Vassiliou; Emmanuel Vardavakis

2009-01-01

275

Transcriptome profiling of early developing cotton fiber by deep-sequencing reveals significantly differential expression of genes in a fuzzless/lintless mutant.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber as a single-celled trichome is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of its gene expression and regulatory mechanism allows only marginal progress. Here, we report the high-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis using Solexa Genome Analyzer platform on transcriptome of -2 to 1 (fiber initiation, stage I) and 2-8 (fiber elongation, stage II) days post anthesis (DPA) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) ovules (wild type: WT; Xuzhou 142 and its mutant: fuzzless/lintless or flM, in the same background). To this end, we sequenced 3.5-3.8 million tags representing 0.7-1.0 million unique transcripts for each library (WT1, WT2, M1, and M2). After removal of low quality tags, we obtained a total of 2,973,104, 3,139,306, 2,943,654, and 3,392,103 clean sequences that corresponded to 357,852, 280,787, 372,952, and 382,503 distinct tags for WT1, WT2, M1, and M2, respectively. All clean tags were aligned to the publicly available cotton transcript database (TIGR, http://www.tigr.org). About 15% of the distinct tags were uniquely mapped to the reference genes, and 31.4% of existing genes were matched by tags. The tag mapping to the database sequences generated 23,854, 24,442, 23,497, and 19,957 annotated genes for WT1, WT2, M1, and M2 libraries, respectively. Analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed the substantial changes in gene type and abundance between the wild type and mutant libraries. Among the 20 most differentially expressed genes in WT1/M1 and WT2/M2 libraries were cellulose synthase, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase, all of which are involved in the fiber cell development. Overall, the deep-sequencing analyses demonstrate the high degree of transcriptional complexity in early developing fibers and represent a major improvement over the microarrays for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale. PMID:20828606

Wang, Qin Qin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xu Sheng; Ma, Xiao Jie; Zeng, Hou Qing; Yang, Zhi Min

2010-09-07

276

STICKY COTTON - CAUSES, IMPACTS AND PREVENTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton has been called a miracle fiber, and cotton textiles where made in antiquity. As with other innovations, general acceptance of the cotton products resulted in the need for increased production, improved quality, and established product standards. Differences in color, strength, cleanliness ...

277

Chapter 25: anaylsis of cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fineness, maturity and micronaire measurements were the first application in the development of near-infrared (NIR) instruments and methodologies to assess cotton fiber quality. Because no review already exists on both the reference methods and the application of NIR ...

278

Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

279

NANOTECHNOLOGY OPENS NEW ROUTES FOR THE FUNCTIONAL FINISHING OF COTTON-RICH TEXTILES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although cotton fiber has excellent moisture absorption, transportation and dissipation characteristics, which essentially contribute to the so-called comfort properties of cotton fabrics, it also has certain deficiencies. For example, untreated cotton fabrics easily shrink (on laundering), burn, ...

280

SINGLE FIBER TESTING VIA FAVIMAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is usually tested in bulk form utilizing a mass or beard of fibers to be presented to a test instrument for measurement. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is that handling single cotton fibers is tedious and time consuming. Cotton breeders are being pushed to mak...

281

Meta-analysis of Polyploid Cotton QTL Shows Unequal Contributions of Subgenomes to a Complex Network of Genes and Gene Clusters Implicated in Lint Fiber Development  

PubMed Central

QTL mapping experiments yield heterogeneous results due to the use of different genotypes, environments, and sampling variation. Compilation of QTL mapping results yields a more complete picture of the genetic control of a trait and reveals patterns in organization of trait variation. A total of 432 QTL mapped in one diploid and 10 tetraploid interspecific cotton populations were aligned using a reference map and depicted in a CMap resource. Early demonstrations that genes from the non-fiber-producing diploid ancestor contribute to tetraploid lint fiber genetics gain further support from multiple populations and environments and advanced-generation studies detecting QTL of small phenotypic effect. Both tetraploid subgenomes contribute QTL at largely non-homeologous locations, suggesting divergent selection acting on many corresponding genes before and/or after polyploid formation. QTL correspondence across studies was only modest, suggesting that additional QTL for the target traits remain to be discovered. Crosses between closely-related genotypes differing by single-gene mutants yield profoundly different QTL landscapes, suggesting that fiber variation involves a complex network of interacting genes. Members of the lint fiber development network appear clustered, with cluster members showing heterogeneous phenotypic effects. Meta-analysis linked to synteny-based and expression-based information provides clues about specific genes and families involved in QTL networks.

Rong, Junkang; Feltus, F. Alex; Waghmare, Vijay N.; Pierce, Gary J.; Chee, Peng W.; Draye, Xavier; Saranga, Yehoshua; Wright, Robert J.; Wilkins, Thea A.; May, O. Lloyd; Smith, C. Wayne; Gannaway, John R.; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2007-01-01

282

Evidence for Light-Dependent Recycling of Respired Carbon Dioxide by the Cotton Fruit 1  

PubMed Central

Conservation of respired CO2 by an efficient recycling mechanism in fruit could provide a significant source of C for yield productivity. However, the extent to which such a mechanism operates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is unknown. Therefore, a combination of CO2 exchange, stable C isotope, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence techniques were used to examine the recycling of respired CO2 in cotton fruit. Respiratory CO2 losses of illuminated fruit were reduced 15 to 20% compared with losses for dark-incubated fruit. This light-dependent reduction in CO2 efflux occurred almost exclusively via the fruit's outer capsule wall. Compared with the photosynthetic activity of leaves, CO2 recycling by the outer capsule wall was 35 to 40% as efficient. Calculation of 14CO2 fixation on a per Chl basis revealed that the rate of CO2 recycling for the capsule wall was 62.2 micromoles 14CO2 per millimole Chl per second compared with an assimilation rate of 64.6 micromoles 14CO2 per millimole Chl per second for leaves. During fruit development, CO2 recycling contributed more than 10% of that C necessary for fruit dry weight growth. Carbon isotope analyses (?13C) showed significant differences among the organs examined, but the observed isotopic compositions were consistent with a C3 pathway of photosynthesis. Pulse-modulated Chl fluorescence indicated that leaves and fruit were equally efficient in photochemical and nonphotochemical dissipation of light energy. These studies demonstrated that the cotton fruit possesses a highly efficient, light-dependent CO2 recovery mechanism that aids in the net retention of plant C and, therein, contributes to yield productivity.

Wullschleger, Stan D.; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.; Hurren, Robert G.; Hanson, Paul J.

1991-01-01

283

A Customized Microscopic System for High Volume Measurements of Cotton Maturity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton maturity, which refers to the degree of development of the fiber wall, is one of the determinants of cotton quality because it affects many properties of cotton fibers. Mature fibers usually possess greater strength and better resilience. The presence of immature fibers may cause excessive d...

284

Oil removal from water by sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 2. Study of sorption properties in dynamic mode.  

PubMed

The recovery of oil from an oil-in-water emulsion, during a flow through a bed of cotton rendered hydrophobic by acylation of cellulose was defined by sorption and coalescence phenomena. During percolation, the column "hold-up" (difference between injected and rejected oil) became constant at the equilibrium volume, i.e., as soon as the instant oil concentration in the effluent (C) was equal to the oil concentration in the initial emulsion (C0). This equilibrium permitted the measurement of the cotton sorption capacity (SC), which increased with C0 up to the cotton saturation. The oil-water separation improved at a lower temperature, lower flow, a deeper medium, and larger oil drops. The system was modeled as a piston flow-through in order to generalize the results. PMID:14620835

Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Albasi, Claire; Riba, Jean-Pierre; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

2003-11-01

285

Cotton Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) cotton altered for insect and herbicide resistance released into commercial production in 1996 to 1997 now accounts for the lion's share of cotton acreage in the U.S. The rapid increase in transgenic cotton acreage in such a short period of time attests to the overall success of agricultural biotechnology. Grower satisfaction with transgenic cotton is largely due

Thea A. Wilkins; Kanniah Rajasekaran; David M. Anderson

2000-01-01

286

Polyploidization Altered Gene Functions in Cotton (Gossypium spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes

Zhanyou Xu; John Z. Yu; Jaemin Cho; Jing Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Richard G. Percy; Simon Joly

2010-01-01

287

Superoleophobic cotton textiles.  

PubMed

Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

2009-02-17

288

Molecular Identification and Expression Analysis of GhCYP51G1 Gene, a Homologue of Obtusifoliol-14Alpha-Demethylase Gene, from Upland Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

For understanding the effects of phytosterols on the development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers and the molecular basic of sterol signaling in cotton fiber growth, a gene encoding a homologue of obtusifoliol 14?-demethylase from developing fibers of upland cotton cultivar Xuzhou 142 was cloned through screening cotton fiber express sequence tag (EST) database and contigging the candidate ESTs. The

Kun-Ling TAN; Ming-Yu HU; Xian-Bi LI; Shan QIN; De-Mou LI; Xiao-Ying LUO; Juan ZHAO; Zhen-Le ZANG; Bao-Li LI; Yan PEI; Ming LUO

2009-01-01

289

Development of Simple Algorithms in Direct, Non-destructive, and Rapid Determination of Cotton Fiber Maturity from FT-IR/ATR Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

FT-IR/ATR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 re...

290

HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

291

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

292

FIAS fiber maturity measurement based on ribbon width and Fiber Density  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

293

Study of Color Fastness Properties onto Bleached Sulfonated Jute -cotton Blended Fabrics with Basic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw jute fiber has been sulfonated with sodium sulfite in presence of ethylinediamine (EDA) and blended with 40% cotton for production of fine yarn and fabric. Bleached raw jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute -cotton blended fabric and bleached cotton fabric has been dyed with basic dyes (e.g. Crystal Violet, Chrysodine Y, Auramine O and Magenta). The

M. A. Salam

294

Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro fiber development from unfertilized and fertilized Egyptian cotton ovules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfertilized and fertilized ovules of Gossypium barbadense Giza 45 (extra long staple variety) were used to study the effect of plant growth substances (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins) on in vitro fiber initiation and development. Kinetin, alone did not increase total fiber unit (TFU) of unfertilized ovules, while an increase in TFU value occurred when a constant level of IAA and

Osama A. Momtaz

1998-01-01

295

THE MICROCRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSE IN CELL WALLS OF COTTON, RAMIE, AND JUTE FIBERS AS REVEALED BY NEGATIVE STAINING OF SECTIONS  

PubMed Central

With a new technique of negative staining of sections, it has been possible to observe directly, in ultrathin sections under the electron microscope, the original microcrystalline and microfibrillar structure of cellulose as it occurs in living cells. This method has advantages over the study of isolated fibers used so far by others, in that the original arrangement of microfibrils is better preserved, and their collapse into larger fibrillar units is prevented. With this method, the cell walls of ramie, jute, and cotton fibers have been studied. The size (diameter, 25 to 40 A) and the longitudinal periodicity observed in the single microfibrils and the orientation and spatial arrangement of the microcrystallite within the microfibrils are found to correspond with the latest models derived by others from data obtained by indirect methods such as X-ray diffraction. The microfibril size of about 35 A, found by measuring these structures in sections, agrees with the latest conclusions reached by others in recent work with isolated fibrils.

Heyn, A. N. J.

1966-01-01

296

Molecular cloning and characterization of GhAPm, a gene encoding the ? subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex that is associated with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development.  

PubMed

The clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the primary clathrin adaptors that contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The GhAPm gene (GenBank accession number: GU359054), which encodes the medium subunit of the AP complexes, was cloned from cotton by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA was 1590 bp in size and encoded an open reading frame (ORF) of 416 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. The GhAPm protein shared 81-85% identity at the amino acid level with the AP complex ? subunits isolated from Vitis vinifera, Glycine max, Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The corresponding genomic DNA, containing eight exons and seven introns, was isolated and analyzed. Also, a 5'-flanking region was analyzed, and a group of putative cis-acting elements were identified. DNA gel blot analysis showed that there is only one GhAPm gene in the cotton genome. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhAPm is expressed in the root, stem, leaf, petal, ovule, and fiber. However, the interesting finding is that GhAPm expression level was shown to increase steadily as the cotton fiber develops. In 30 DPA fibers, expression increases sharply and arrives at a peak then the expression levels decrease rapidly. Based on these data, we propose that GhAPm has a critical role in cotton membrane trafficking and fiber development. PMID:21225463

Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Dawei; Guo, Sandui

2011-01-12

297

Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.  

PubMed

Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market. PMID:23143479

Zhang, Baohong

2013-01-01

298

Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

299

AN ALTERNATIVE MINIATURE COTTON SPINNING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian cotton is well known for its high and consistent quality, although agronomy, physiology and breeding research continues to ensure Australian cotton stays competitive from a quality standpoint. The testing of fiber in yarn and fabric form means the selection of new cultivars and field treatments is based on outcomes important to the end user. Such field experimentation inevitably produces

Marinus van der Sluijs; Robert Long; Stuart Gordon

2009-01-01

300

Characterizing the Pee Dee cotton germplasm resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the Pee Dee germplasm program represents one of the most historically significant Upland cotton breeding programs and is known as a key source of fiber quality genes for commercial cultivars. The foundation of the Pee Dee germplasm is known to represent a wi...

301

Effect of laundering hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study has been conducted to investigate, for the first time ever, the effect of household washing and drying of hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics (~70 gm/m2) made with several pre-cleaned greige (raw) cottons of considerably different fiber quality characteristics, such as the micronaire, len...

302

ROADMAP TO EVALUATION OF COTTON'S PROCESSING QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This purpose of this work is to lay down a technical research strategy by which the utility value of cotton as a raw material for textile processing cn be defined and predicted from measured fiber properties. From the time a cotton is harvested, a series of opening and cleaning mechanisms are appli...

303

Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acala 1517-08 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and LA887 and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber qualit...

304

Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acala 1517-08 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and LA 887 and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber quali...

305

Toward identification of complete set of aquaporin gene family in cotton - A possible way to improve cotton production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is the most important natural-fiber producing crop and is a significant global agricultural commodity. Because of the significance of water to the quantity and quality of cotton production, efforts to decrease the amount of water applied and improve cotton water use efficiency are being exten...

306

Relationship between external stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) boll-feeding symptoms and internal boll damage with respect to cotton lint gin-out and fiber quality.  

PubMed

Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., bolls from 17 field locations in northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, having 20% or greater internal boll damage, were studied to determine the relationship between external feeding symptoms and internal damage caused by stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding. In 2006 and 2007, two cohorts of 100 bolls each were sampled at all field locations. The first cohort was removed as bolls reached approximately quarter size in diameter (2.4 cm). External and internal symptoms of stink bug feeding were assessed and tabulated. Concurrent to when the first cohort was collected, a second cohort of quarter-size-diameter bolls was identified, tagged, examined in situ for external feeding symptoms (sunken lesions), and harvested at the black seed coat stage. Harvested bolls were assessed for internal damage and locks were categorized (undamaged, minor damage, or major damage), dried, and ginned. Lint samples from each damage category were submitted for high volume instrument and advanced fiber information system quality analyses. Significant, moderately strong Pearson correlation coefficients existed between number of external stink bug feeding lesions and internal damage. Pearson correlation of total external lesions with total internal damage was stronger than any correlation among the other single components compared. Predictability plots indicated a rapid increase in relationship strength when relating external stink bug lesions to internal damage as the number of external lesions increased. Approximately 90% predictability of internal damage was achieved with four (2006) or six (2007) external lesions per boll. Gin-turnout and fiber quality decreased with increasing intensity of internal stink bug damage. PMID:21309249

Blinka, Eric L; Herbert, Ames; Malone, Sean; Van Duyn, John W; Roberts, Phillip; Bradley, J R; Bacheler, Jack S

2010-12-01

307

COTTON (GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L.) FIBER EST-DERIVED COMPOUND SEQUENCE REPEAT (CSR) USED TO DEVELOP PCR BASED MARKERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new set of microsatellite or CSR markers was developed from the sequence information of a fiber EST database from the diploid species Gossypium arboreum. One thousand EST-CSR sequences were selected were selected based on motif length, gene function notation, and previously mapped EST. Primer desi...

308

GENETIC EFFECTS OF THIRTEEN GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE L. CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION LINES IN TOPCROSSES WITH UPLAND COTTON CULTIVARS: II. FIBER QUALITY TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen chromosome substitution lines (CS-B) lines with individual 3-79 Gossypium barbadense L. chromosome or arms substituted into TM-1, G. hirsutum L., were crossed with 5 upland cultivars and additive and dominance effects for fiber micronaire, elongation, length, and strength were measured over...

309

[beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro  

SciTech Connect

In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-04-01

310

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  

PubMed

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

2009-06-20

311

Maleated natural rubber prepared through mechanochemistry and its coupling effects on natural rubber\\/cotton fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maleated natural rubber (MNR) was prepared by blending natural rubber (NR) and maleic anhydride (MA) in an internal mixer\\u000a at 150C through mechanochemistry. The graft reaction of MA onto NR and the hydrogen bonding formed between fiber and MA\\u000a were confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The quantity of grafted MA increased with increasing\\u000a MA content. The composites showed

Zheng Zeng; Wentan Ren; Chi Xu; Weiqiang Lu; Yong Zhang; Yinxi Zhang

2010-01-01

312

Cotton. In: Kole, C. (Ed.) Genome Mapping & Molecular Breeding. Vol. 6: Technical Crops.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most important renewable natural textile fiber worldwide and the worlds sixth largest source of vegetable oil is cotton. After losing some ground to synthetic fibers in the past, the demand for cotton has been steadily growing. The cotton growers who survive through the next decade will be thos...

313

YIELD, QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY OF COTTON PRODUCED AT VARYING PLANT DENSITIES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modified fruit distribution through varying plant density may impact cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber quality. This study was conducted to determine how lint yield, fiber quality and profitability of cotton are manipulated through plant density. Two cotton cultivars were over seeded and hand ...

314

Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics  

PubMed Central

Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement.

Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

2008-01-01

315

CHANGES IN GIN STAND POWER CONSUMPTION FOR DIFFERENT COTTON VARIETIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gin stand power consumption was monitored while ginning the Stoneville Regional Cotton Variety Test. The electrical power required to separate the fiber from the cottonseed by the gin stand was evaluated as a potential indicator of the attachment force between cotton fibers and cottonseed. The...

316

Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fibers are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that a large set of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across the At and ...

317

Metabolic engineering of gossypol in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton has long been known as a fiber plant. Besides the cotton fiber, the cottonseed oil and cottonseed protein are two other major products of cotton plants. However, the applications of the cottonseed oil and protein are limited because of the presence of toxic gossypol, which is unsafe for human and monogastric animal consumption. Meanwhile, gossypol in cotton increases the plant defense response to insect herbivores and pathogens. Consequently, gossypol has been extensively used in clinical trials in biomedical science. Over the last few years, major advances have occurred in both understanding and practice with regard to molecular regulation of gossypol pathway in cotton plant or hairy root culture. This review highlights a few major recent and ongoing developments in metabolic engineering of gossypol, as well as suggestions regarding further advances needed. PMID:23775273

Zhou, Meiliang; Zhang, Chengcheng; Wu, Yanmin; Tang, Yixiong

2013-06-18

318

Genome Physical Mapping of Polyploids: A BIBAC Physical Map of Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L  

PubMed Central

Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

Huang, James J.; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M.; Zhang, Hong-Bin

2012-01-01

319

Comparison of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Harvester performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvester performance, fiber quality, and harvest system costs are important considerations when comparing cotton harvesting systems. Harvester performance was measured as a function of time-in-motion, harvest efficiency, foreign matter content of seed cotton, and lint turnout at the gin at seven ir...

320

Cotton Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton has been cultured in vitro for 37 years, yet even today, some of the culture difficulties that were seen when it was\\u000a first cultured, namely, a very long culture time and a limited number of cultivars that can be cultured, continue to pose\\u000a problems. These inherent tissue culture limitations have made transforming cotton an arduous process. Transforming embryogenic\\u000a callus

D. R. Duncan

321

The role of landmarks in cotton-top tamarin spatial foraging: evidence for geometric and non-geometric features  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We report experiments on captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) designed to explore two components of spatial foraging. First, do tamarins have the capacity to extract geometric information\\u000a concerning the spatial relationship between a landmark and a piece of food located above or below it? Second, when tamarins\\u000a use a landmark to find a target location, what non-geometric features of

Amy Deipolyi; Laurie Santos; Marc D. Hauser

2001-01-01

322

Cloning and characterization of homeologous cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 2 genes from allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) are the catalytic sites within a multisubunit complex for cellulose biosynthesis in plants. CesAs have been extensively studied in diploid plants, but are not well characterized in polyploid plants. Gossypium hirsutum is an allotetraploid cotton species producing over 90% of the world's cotton fibers. Although G. hirsutum CesAs (GhCesAs) are responsible for cellulose production in cotton fiber, very limited numbers of GhCesA genes have been identified. Here, we report isolating and characterizing a pair of homeologous CesA2 genes and their full-length cDNAs from allotetraploid cotton. The GhCesA2-A(T) gene from the A-subgenome and GhCesA2-D(T) gene from the D-subgenome were screened from a G. hirsutum BAC library. These genes shared 92% sequence similarity throughout the entire sequence. The coding sequences were nearly identical, and the deduced amino acid sequences from GhCesA2-A(T) (1,039 amino acids) and GhCesA2-D(T) (1,040 amino acids) were identical except four amino acids, whereas the noncoding sequences showed divergence. Sequence analyses showed that all exons of GhCesA2-A(T) contained consensus splice donor dinucleotides, but one exon in GhCesA2-D(T) contained nonconsensus splice donor dinucleotides. Although the nonconsensus splice donor dinucleotides were previously suggested to be involved in alternative splice or pseudogenization, our results showed that a majority of GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) transcripts consisted of functional and full-length transcripts with little evidence for alternative mRNA isoforms in developing cotton fibers. Expression analyses showed that GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) shared common temporal and spatial expression patterns, and they were highly and preferentially expressed during the cellulose biosynthesis stage in developing cotton fibers. The observations of higher expression levels of both GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) in developing fibers of one near-isogenic line (NIL) with higher fiber bundle strength over the other NIL with lower fiber bundle strength suggested that the differential expression of genes associated with secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing fiber might affect cotton fiber properties. PMID:22200568

Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara A; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Li, Ping; Fang, David D

2011-12-20

323

The effect of ionizing gamma radiation on natural and synthetic fibers and its implications for the forensic examination of fiber evidence.  

PubMed

Circumstances of criminal activities involving radioactive materials may mean fiber evidence recovered from a crime scene could have been exposed to materials emitting ionizing radiation. The consequences of radiation exposed fibers on the result of the forensic analysis and interpretation is explored. The effect of exposure to 1-1000 kGy radiation doses in natural and synthetic fibers was noticeable using comparative forensic examination methods, such as optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed no signs of radiation-induced chemical changes in any of the fiber structures. The outcome of the comparative methods highlights the risk of "false negatives" associated in comparing colors of recovered fibers that may have been exposed to unknown radiation doses. Consideration of such results supports the requirement to know the context, including the environmental conditions, as much as possible before undertaking a forensic fiber examination. PMID:21306372

Colella, Michael; Parkinson, Andrew; Evans, Tegan; Robertson, J; Roux, Claude

2011-02-09

324

A Transcript Profiling Approach Reveals an Abscisic Acid-Specific Glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) Induced in Developing Fiber of Ligon lintless-2 Mutant of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed in developing fibers of the mutant Ligon lintless-2 was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence showed ~53% similarity with Arabidopsis UGT73C sub-family members and the UDP-glycosyltransferase was designated as UGT73C14. When expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein with a maltose binding protein tag, UGT73C14 displayed enzymatic activity toward ABA and utilized UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose as the sugar donors. The recombinant UGT73C14 converted natural occurring isoform (+)-cis, trans-ABA better than (+)-trans, trans-ABA and (-)-cis, trans-ABA. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing UGT73C14 did not show phenotypic changes under standard growth conditions. However, the increased glycosylation of ABA resulted in phenotypic changes in post-germinative growth and seedling establishment, confirming in vivo activity of UGT73C14 for ABA. This suggests that the expression level of UGT73C14 is regulated by the observed elevated levels of ABA in developing fibers of the Li2 mutant line and may be involved in the regulation of ABA homeostasis.

Gilbert, Matthew K.; Bland, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Cao, Heping; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Fang, David D.; Naoumkina, Marina

2013-01-01

325

Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.).  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7% of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results suggested a new functional hypothesis for tetraploid cotton. After the merging of the two diploid Gossypium genomes, the At subgenome has provided most of the genes for fiber development, because it continues to function similar to its fiber producing diploid A genome ancestor. On the other hand, the Dt subgenome, with its non-fiber producing D genome ancestor, provides more transcription factors that regulate the expression of the fiber genes in the At subgenome. This hypothesis would explain previously published mapping results. At the same time, this integrated map of fiber development genes would provide a framework to clone individual full-length fiber genes, to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the fiber differentiation, elongation, and maturation, and to systematically study the functional network of these genes that interact during the process of fiber development in the tetraploid cottons. PMID:21179551

Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, John Z; Cho, Jaemin; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G

2010-12-16

326

Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

2006-11-01

327

Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

2013-10-01

328

Homogeneous Cotton solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

Calvio-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vzquez-Lorenzo, R.

2013-07-01

329

Registration of MD25-26ne, MD25-27, and MD25-87 germplasm lines of cotton with superior yield, fiber quality, and pest resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three non-commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines which were released by the USDA-ARS are MD25-26ne (PI 666042), MD25-27 (PI 666043), and MD25-87 (PI 666044). The three lines are reselections out of MD25 (Reg. No GP-929; PI 659505). The objective of this research was to select lines that h...

330

Impact of starter fertilizer on cotton growth, development, lint yield, and fiber quality production for an early planted no-till system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved yield potentials occur when planting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) early, but cool conditions often associated with early planting can hamper early seedling growth. Starter fertilizers could be good source of P for seedling growth under cool conditions due to reduced soil P mineralizatio...

331

Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

332

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton bre...

333

Growth Prospects for India's Cotton and Textile Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demand for cotton and manmade fibers in India will likely strengthen in response to rising consumer demand in India and increased exports of textiles and apparel following the removal of the Multifiber Arrangement quotas. The pace of growth in cotton dema...

M. Landes S. MacDonald S. K. Singh T. Vollrath

2005-01-01

334

The Effect of Solvents on Some Properties of Cotton Cellulose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of cotton duck were immersed in pyridine, aqueous methylamine solutions, and a variety of other solvents. Pyridine and methylamine caused swelling of the cellulose fibers and an increase in the moisture content of the fabric. Pyridine also increas...

D. M. Wiles J. D. Cooney B. A. Gingras

1966-01-01

335

A thaumatin-like protein gene involved in cotton fiber secondary cell wall development enhances resistance against Verticillium dahliae and other stresses in transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, a sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) thaumatin-like protein gene (GbTLP1) with a potential role in secondary cell wall development has been overexpressed in tobacco to elucidate its function. The presence of the transgene was verified by Southern blotting and higher expression levels of GbTLP1 in transgenic tobacco plants were revealed by reverse-transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase

M. Farooq Hussain Munis; Lili Tu; Fenglin Deng; Jiafu Tan; Li Xu; Shicheng Xu; Lu Long; Xianlong Zhang

2010-01-01

336

EXPANDING COTTON'S GENETIC BASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic base of cultivated cottons is narrow due to a shortage of effective tools to hunt for new genes in the cotton germplasm and to transfer useful genes into elite cotton cultivars. This article is an invited viewpoint to present a strategy for exploring the 99% untapped U.S. cotton germplasm. ...

337

DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages.  

PubMed

We have determined the DNA sequence of the bacteriophage P2 tail genes G and H, which code for polypeptides of 175 and 669 residues, respectively. Gene H probably codes for the distal part of the P2 tail fiber, since the deduced sequence of its product contains regions similar to tail fiber proteins from phages Mu, P1, lambda, K3, and T2. The similarities of the carboxy-terminal portions of the P2, Mu, ann P1 tail fiber proteins may explain the observation that these phages in general have the same host range. The P2 H gene product is similar to the products of both lambda open reading frame (ORF) 401 (stf, side tail fiber) and its downstream ORF, ORF 314. If 1 bp is inserted near the end of ORF 401, this reading frame becomes fused with ORF 314, creating an ORF that may represent the complete stf gene that encodes a 774-amino-acid-long side tail fiber protein. Thus, a frameshift mutation seems to be present in the common laboratory strain of lambda. Gene G of P2 probably codes for a protein required for assembly of the tail fibers of the virion. The entire G gene product is very similar to the products of genes U and U' of phage Mu; a region of these proteins is also found in the tail fiber assembly proteins of phages TuIa, TuIb, T4, and lambda. The similarities in the tail fiber genes of phages of different families provide evidence that illegitimate recombination occurs at previously unappreciated levels and that phages are taking advantage of the gene pool available to them to alter their host ranges under selective pressures. PMID:1531648

Haggrd-Ljungquist, E; Halling, C; Calendar, R

1992-03-01

338

DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the DNA sequence of the bacteriophage P2 tail genes G and H, which code for polypeptides of 175 and 669 residues, respectively. Gene H probably codes for the distal part of the P2 tail fiber, since the deduced sequence of its product contains regions similar to tail fiber proteins from phages Mu, P1, lambda, K3, and T2. The similarities of the carboxy-terminal portions of the P2, Mu, ann P1 tail fiber proteins may explain the observation that these phages in general have the same host range. The P2 H gene product is similar to the products of both lambda open reading frame (ORF) 401 (stf, side tail fiber) and its downstream ORF, ORF 314. If 1 bp is inserted near the end of ORF 401, this reading frame becomes fused with ORF 314, creating an ORF that may represent the complete stf gene that encodes a 774-amino-acid-long side tail fiber protein. Thus, a frameshift mutation seems to be present in the common laboratory strain of lambda. Gene G of P2 probably codes for a protein required for assembly of the tail fibers of the virion. The entire G gene product is very similar to the products of genes U and U' of phage Mu; a region of these proteins is also found in the tail fiber assembly proteins of phages TuIa, TuIb, T4, and lambda. The similarities in the tail fiber genes of phages of different families provide evidence that illegitimate recombination occurs at previously unappreciated levels and that phages are taking advantage of the gene pool available to them to alter their host ranges under selective pressures.

Haggard-Ljungquist, E; Halling, C; Calendar, R

1992-01-01

339

Spinning performance and antibacterial activity of SeaCell active\\/cotton blended rotor yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms can lead to functional, hygienic and aesthetic (e.g. deterioration, staining) problems on textile products.\\u000a Natural fibers especially cotton are more easily affected by microorganisms. Blending of cotton fibers with antimicrobial\\u000a fibers can enhance the protective properties of products against microorganisms. Demand of antimicrobial performance from\\u000a the products changes depending on the application area. Therefore determination of suitable antimicrobial fiber

Mustafa E. reyen

2009-01-01

340

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].  

PubMed

Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber. PMID:22586965

Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-02-01

341

TRANSCRIPTION PROFILING OF DROUGHT STRESS-INDUCED EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS DURING COTTON BOLL FORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is one of the world's major crops and is grown in more than 80 countries worldwide. One of the major factors limiting fiber yield and lint quality in cotton is drought stress following bloom. Many genes are expressed specifically during fiber initiation, development, and maturation. As drough...

342

Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. These reserves are not available to produce seed and fiber when cott...

343

Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.  

PubMed

An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF. PMID:19664919

Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

2009-08-06

344

Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

345

Differentially expressed genes in drought stressed cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable crop production. Many efforts have been incorporated using genetic and genomic approaches to identify valuable molecular resources. Cotton, the worlds primary fiber crop, provides major economic value to farmers and ind...

346

IMPACT OF FIBER MOISTURE ON MEASURED FIBER STRENGTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current interest in global standardization of instrument classification of cotton has focused attention on the impact of environmental conditioning on moisture content and consequently on fiber properties such as strength and length. This article reviews related research. All cottons do not equili...

347

Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cottonization. There was a monotonically decreasing relationship between the strength and the number of processing steps, which was

Anders Thygesen; Bo Madsen; Anne Belinda Bjerre; Hans Lilholt

2011-01-01

348

Cotton-Oxime, Cotton-Semicarbazone, and Cotton-Hydantoin-Textile Products of High Nitrogen Content.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the patent application, poly(methyl vinyl ketone)-cotton copolymers are prepared by graft copolymerization and subsequently reacted through abundant ketone groups thereby producing new cotton-oximes, cotton-semicarbazones, and cotton-hydantoins. The ch...

N. A. Portnoy A. H. Reine J. C. Arthur

1973-01-01

349

Dietary fiber and coronary disease: Does the evidence support an association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, prospective, epidemiologic studies show a protective effect of dietary fiber against coronary heart disease (CHD) and\\u000a form the basis for new recommendations from the National Academy of Science for fiber intake (38 and 25 g\\/d for young men\\u000a and women, respectively, based on an intake of 14 g of fiber per 1000 kcal). Mechanisms by which fibers may protect

Joanne R. Lupton; Nancy D. Turner

2003-01-01

350

Lignification in the flax stem: evidence for an unusual lignin in bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of our research on cell wall formation and maturation in flax (Linum usitatissimum L) bast fibers, we (1) confirmed the presence of lignin in bast fibers and (2) quantified and characterized the chemical nature of this lignin at two developmental stages. Histochemical methods (Weisner and Male reagents and KMnO4-staining) indicating the presence of lignin in bast fibers

Arnaud Day; Katia Ruel; Godfrey Neutelings; David Crnier; Hlne David; Simon Hawkins; Brigitte Chabbert

2005-01-01

351

The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.  

PubMed

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-07-27

352

The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China  

PubMed Central

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this halo effect against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

353

Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell.  

PubMed

Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. PMID:21078209

Gross, Briana L; Strasburg, Jared L

2010-11-15

354

Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber compared to cotton underwear in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis: a double-blind randomized study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of underwear made of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Twenty-one AD children (11 EVOH group and 10 control group) were studied for 4 weeks. Their AD severity based on the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and physiological functions were assessed. The objective SCORAD significantly decreased in both groups. However, the SCORAD score (P<0.01) and urinary cortisol levels (P<0.05) were decreased only in EVOH group. It was concluded that EVOH fiber underwear might be useful for children with atopic dermatitis. PMID:19430059

Yokoyama, Yoko; Kimata, Hajime; Mitarai, Sachiko; Hirano, Shoichi; Shirakawa, Taro

2009-07-01

355

Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus diverse additional symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, which precludes definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by the dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established causes, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, eg, diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled as having fibromyalgia have unrecognized SFPN that is causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, neurological examinations, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 patients with fibromyalgia and in 30 matched normal controls. Patients with fibromyalgia had to satisfy the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present evidence of a physician's actual diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The study's instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). We found that 41% of skin biopsies from subjects with fibromyalgia vs 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher in patients with fibromyalgia than in control subjects (all P?0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent, suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from subjects with fibromyalgia and SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into causes. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but 8 subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and 1 family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as fibromyalgia have unrecognized SFPN, a distinct disease that can be tested for objectively and sometimes treated definitively. PMID:23748113

Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather M; Klein, Max M

2013-06-05

356

Nematode Management in Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

357

Cotton Dust Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for sampling dust from lint cotton is disclosed. Air is blown through a known sample of lint cotton positioned in a holding fixture to remove the dust. A suction means is provided to move and direct the dust removed from the lint cotton sampl...

J. D. Anderson R. V. Baker

1978-01-01

358

Evaluation of Thermal Treatments to Improve Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bio-composites Made from Cotton Byproducts and Other Agricultural Fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Demand for wood products continues to grow at levels that challenge the available resources. Alternative materials are sought to sustainably supplement the wood fiber industry. Experiments were conducted on composite boards made from agricultural residues. The boards were subjected to thermal tre...

359

Kinetics and mechanism studies of p-nitroaniline adsorption on activated carbon fibers prepared from cotton stalk by NH4H2PO4 activation and subsequent gasification with steam.  

PubMed

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared for the removal of p-nitroaniline (PNA) from cotton stalk by chemical activation with NH(4)H(2)PO(4) and subsequent physical activation with steam. Surface properties of the prepared ACFs were performed using nitrogen adsorption, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The influence of contact time, solution temperature and surface property on PNA adsorption onto the prepared ACFs was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic rates at different temperatures were modeled by using the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Morris's intraparticle diffusion and Boyd's film-diffusion models, respectively. It was found that the maximum adsorption of PNA on the ACFs was more than 510 mg/L, and over 60% adsorption occurred in first 25 min. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was related to the contacting time and the micropore structure of the adsorbents. And the increase of micropore surface area favored the adsorption process. Kinetic rates fitted the pseudo-second-order model very well. The pore diffusion played an important role in the entire adsorption period, and intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step in the beginning 20 min. The Freundlich model provided a better data fitting as compared with the Langmuir model. The surface micrograph of the ACF after adsorption showed a distinct roughness with oval patterns. The results revealed that the adsorption was in part with multimolecular layers of coverage. PMID:20202747

Li, Kunquan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng

2010-02-01

360

Evaluation of composites made from blends of cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine: Heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties and rot resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted on composite board blends of cotton burs (B), cotton stalks (S), kenaf (K), flax, (F), and southern yellow pine (P). The composite boards were subjected to heat treatments and rot resistance testing. Heat treatments consisted of heating fibers either pre- or post-board fab...

361

A thaumatin-like protein gene involved in cotton fiber secondary cell wall development enhances resistance against Verticillium dahliae and other stresses in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

For the first time, a sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) thaumatin-like protein gene (GbTLP1) with a potential role in secondary cell wall development has been overexpressed in tobacco to elucidate its function. The presence of the transgene was verified by Southern blotting and higher expression levels of GbTLP1 in transgenic tobacco plants were revealed by reverse-transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Transgenic plants with constitutively higher expression of the GbTLP1 showed enhanced resistance against different stress agents, particularly, its performance against Verticillium dahliae was exceptional. Transgenic tobacco plants also exhibited considerable resistance against Fusarium oxysporum and some abiotic stresses including salinity and drought. In this experiment, transgenic plants without GbTLP1 expression were also used as controls, which behaved similar to non-transgenic control plants. Overexpression of GbTLP1 had no significant deleterious effect on plant growth except that flowering was delayed for 3-5 weeks. The apparent pleiotropic effect of this novel gene has given us insight to the plant defense mechanism. PMID:20097164

Munis, M Farooq Hussain; Tu, Lili; Deng, Fenglin; Tan, Jiafu; Xu, Li; Xu, Shicheng; Long, Lu; Zhang, Xianlong

2010-01-25

362

Biomimetic superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic cotton textiles.  

PubMed

We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939

Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W

2007-11-07

363

Subspecies discrimination in the Scandinavian beaver ( Castor fiber ): combining behavioral and chemical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic isolation is one of several models that has been proposed to explain the evolutionary course of speciation. In this study, we examined how geographical isolation may affect subspecies discrimination in the free- ranging Scandinavian beaver (Castor fiber fiber L., 1758) by simulating a territorial intrusion by using scent (castoreum and anal gland secretion) from a con-subspecific (N = 8

Frank Rosell; yvind Steifetten

2004-01-01

364

Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers.  

PubMed

In contrast to Yb/Al-doped fibers, the influence of very low Tm(2)O(3) concentrations (? 0.1 mol-ppm) on photodarkening (PD) is clearly detectable in Yb/P-doped fibers that are known to show little degradation effects. For Tm(2)O(3) additions of more than 50 mol-ppm, the measured PD loss is even similar to Yb/Al-doped fibers with comparable rare earth concentrations. Our work reveals the risk of color center generation by pumping at wavelengths of 915 nm or 976 nm even in Al-free Yb-doped fibers and emphasizes the importance of high purity of raw materials for the preparation of Yb laser fibers with expected very low PD. PMID:23546142

Jetschke, Sylvia; Unger, Sonja; Schwuchow, Anka; Leich, Martin; Fiebrandt, Julia; Jger, Matthias; Kirchhof, Johannes

2013-03-25

365

Evidence that Colitis Is Initiated by Environmental Stress and Sustained by Fecal Factors in the Cotton-Top Tamarin (Saguinus oedipus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel changes in spontaneously occurring inflammation in colonic Thiry-Vella loops and the in-line colon of cotton-top tamarins were studied in a colitis-inducing environment at 8 and 15 months following surgical preparation of the loops. Gross disease severity and numbers of inflammatory\\/immune cells per unit area of lamina propria in histological sections from endoscopic biopsies were analyzed. Cell counts and severity

Jackie D. Wood; Owen C. Peck; Karen S. Tefend; Michael J. Stonerook; Donna A. Caniano; Khaled H. Mutabagani; rka Lhotk; Hari M. Sharma

2000-01-01

366

Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.  

PubMed

Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. PMID:23987402

Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

2013-06-25

367

Completing the Cotton Valley  

SciTech Connect

The Cotton Valley group in Panola and Rusk Counties, Texas, is one of the states newer plays. Made up of the Cotton Valley sandstone, Bossier shale and Cotton Valley limestone, the group was designated in 1980 as tight gas sands by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The Texas Railroad Commission has already received applications for Sect. 107 (C) (5) price increases. If approved, these applications would provide an incentive price 200% above the current going rate of approx. $2 per MCF.

Not Available

1981-03-01

368

Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types  

SciTech Connect

Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Mykles, D.L.

1986-01-01

369

Design, Preparation and Activity of Cotton Gauze for Use in Chronic Wound Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the rational design and chemical modification of cotton gauze, which is used widely in chronic wounds, to improve wound dressing fibers for application to chronic wound healing. Cotton gauze may be tailored to more effectively enhance the biochemistry of wound healing. The presence of elevated levels of elastase in non-healing wounds has been associated with the degradation of

J. V. Edwards; Dorne Yager; Alvin Bopp; Robert F. Diegelmann; Steven C. Goheen; I. K. Cohen

2001-01-01

370

PREDICTING YARN PROCESSING PERFORMANCE FROM THE NONCELLULOSIC CONTENT OF RAW COTTONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Noncellulosic materials on raw cottons can influence spinning performance. Chemical and physical tests were conducted on a series of non-sticky single season upland cottons originating from three U.S. growing areas. Relationships between yarn production performance and efficiency and fiber frictio...

371

Performance and combining ability in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations with diverse parents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving fiber quality properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is important for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing textiles, including enhancing yarn quality and spinning performance. This study was conducted to determine if we could identify useful cotton cultivars to use as parents ...

372

Polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in Gossypium (cotton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed restriction fragment length poly- morphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) segregating in a cross between cultivars of al- lotetraploid (AADD) Gossypium hirsutum (''Upland'' cotton) and Gossypium barbadense (''Sea Island,'' ''Pima,'' or ''Egyp- tian'' cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. Most

CHUN-XIAO JIANG; ROBERT J. WRIGHT; K AMAL M. EL-ZIK; ANDREW H. PATERSON

1998-01-01

373

USE OF ULTRASONIC ENERGY FOR INTENSIFICATION OF THE BIO-PREPARATION OF GREIGE COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raw unscoured cotton contains ~ 90% cellulose and various noncellulosic impurities such as waxes, pectins, proteins, and fats. To remove these hydrophobic noncellulosics and produce a highly absorbent fiber that can be dyed and finished uniformly, the greige cotton is traditionally processed with re...

374

A new approach for image processing in foreign fiber detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the textile industry, different types of foreign fibers may be mixed in cotton that need to be sorted out to ensure the quality of the final cotton textile products. Automated visual inspection (AVI) system is a popular tool at present for real time foreign fibers detection in lint. The image processing is one of the key techniques in the

Wenzhu Yang; Daoliang Li; Liang Zhu; Yuguo Kang; Futang Li

2009-01-01

375

Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome of major biological and economic importance. In recent years, genomic approaches such as microarray-based expression profiling were used to study fiber growth and development to understand the developmental mechanisms of fiber at the molecular level. The vast volume of microarray expression data generated requires a sophisticated means of data mining in order

Magdy S Alabady; Eunseog Youn; Thea A Wilkins

2008-01-01

376

Evidence for and implications of self-background of radon dosimeters with glass-fiber filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first national radon survey in the Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested that these dosimeters may give falsely elevated readings. A systematic contribution would be present due to alpha particles from natural radionuclides in the glass-fiber

L. W. Put; J. Lembrechts; E. R. van der Graaf; P. Stoop

2000-01-01

377

CELLULOSIC FIBERS AS REINFORCING AGENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cellulose obtained from a variety of agricultural sources was utilized as the fiber-reinforcing dispersed phase in biodegradable starch-based composites. Materials included rice straw, kenaf, linen, hemp, cotton, Whatman filter paper, and Avicel PH101. Fiber properties, such as crystallinity, partic...

378

Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of 1/f frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental evidence in support of the recent theoretical proposal that intrinsic 1/f frequency noise in short cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers is of thermal origin. We demonstrate that the power spectral density of frequency noise in distributed-feedback fiber lasers (DFB FL) exhibits predicted T{sup 2} temperature dependence across all frequencies over a temperature range of almost 200 K. This temperature dependence is observed both in direct interferometric measurements of frequency noise in a single mode DFB FL and noninterferometric measurements of polarization-beat-frequency noise in a dual frequency DFB FL. It is also shown that frequency noise of orthogonal polarization modes in the dual frequency DFB FL is substantially correlated providing a strong indication of a common origin.

Foster, Scott; Tikhomirov, Alexei [Maritime Operations Division, Defence Science and Technology Organization, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Cranch, Geoffrey A. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC (United States)

2009-05-15

379

Miniature Spinning Enzyme-Retted Flax Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn, and then manufactured into a fabric. Enzyme-retting is a new, experimental method that decomposes the pectinaceous and matrix substances to separate cellulose fibers from shives using pectinase-rich enzymes and chelators. Spinning tests were

Jonn A. Foulk; Danny E. Akin; Roy B. Dodd

2009-01-01

380

Cotton and Protein Interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was ...

381

Radial density distribution of chromatin: evidence that chromatin fibers have solid centers  

PubMed Central

Fiber diameter, radial distribution of density, and radius of gyration were determined from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of unstained, frozen-dried chromatin fibers. Chromatin fibers isolated under physiological conditions (ionic strength, 124 mM) from Thyone briareus sperm (DNA linker length, n = 87 bp) and Necturus maculosus erythrocytes (n = 48 bp) were analyzed by objective image-processing techniques. The mean outer diameters were determined to be 38.0 nm (SD = 3.7 nm; SEM = 0.36 nm) and 31.2 nm (SD = 3.6 nm; SEM = 0.32 nm) for Thyone and Necturus, respectively. These data are inconsistent with the twisted-ribbon and solenoid models, which predict constant diameters of approximately 30 nm, independent of DNA linker length. Calculated radial density distributions of chromatin exhibited relatively uniform density with no central hole, although the 4-nm hole in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) from the same micrographs was visualized clearly. The existence of density at the center of chromatin fibers is in strong disagreement with the hollow-solenoid and hollow-twisted-ribbon models, which predict central holes of 16 and 9 nm for chromatin of 38 and 31 nm diameter, respectively. The cross-sectional radii of gyration were calculated from the radial density distributions and found to be 13.6 nm for Thyone and 11.1 nm for Necturus, in good agreement with x-ray and neutron scattering. The STEM data do not support the solenoid or twisted-ribbon models for chromatin fiber structure. They do, however, support the double-helical crossed-linker models, which exhibit a strong dependence of fiber diameter upon DNA linker length and have linker DNA at the center.

1990-01-01

382

Evidence for adsorbate-enhanced field emission from carbon nanotube fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used residual gas analysis (RGA) to identify the species desorbed during field emission (FE) from a carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber. The RGA data show a sharp threshold for H2 desorption at an external field strength that coincides with a breakpoint in the FE data. A comprehensive model for the gradual transition of FE from adsorbate-enhanced CNTs at low bias to FE from CNTs with reduced H2 adsorbate coverage at high bias is developed which accounts for the gradual desorption of the H2 adsorbates, alignment of the CNTs at the fiber tip, and importance of self-heating effects with applied bias.

Murray, P. T.; Back, T. C.; Cahay, M. M.; Fairchild, S. B.; Maruyama, B.; Lockwood, N. P.; Pasquali, M.

2013-07-01

383

Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FT-IR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region, and such spectral distinctions formed the basis on which to develop simple three-band ratio algorithm for classification analysis. Next, an additional formula was created to assess the degree of cotton fiber maturity by converting the three-band ratios into an appropriate FT-IR maturity (MIR) index. Furthermore, the MIR index was compared with parameters derived from traditional image analysis (IA) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements. Results indicated strong correlations (R2 > 0.89) between MIR and MAFIS and between MIR and MIA among either International Cotton Calibration (ICC) standards or selected cotton maturity references. On the other hand, low correlations between the pairs were observed among regular cotton fibers, which likely resulted from the heterogeneous distribution of structural, physical, and chemical characteristics in cotton fibers and subsequent different sampling specimens for individual and independent measurement.

Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary R.

2011-05-01

384

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cotton sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of cotton is measured using time-domain spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, from 0.1 to 1.5 THz. An effective medium approximation is used to model the combined cotton and air comprising the samples, and the refractive index of cotton fibers determined. The imaginary part of the refractive index varies across this frequency range with corresponding attenuation coefficient increasing from 2 to 12 cm-1, while the real part remains constant at n 1.144. The effect of moisture content is systematically examined and absorption of the samples determined. Concealed material detection was tested by measuring the 1.44-THz absorption band of representative substance D-Glucose embedded in cotton sheets.

Zhu, Yanhan; Holtz, Mark; Bernussi, Ayrton

2012-10-01

385

Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.  

PubMed

Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:23190258

Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

2012-11-28

386

Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151/144 (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

2012-12-05

387

Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell  

PubMed Central

Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/139

2010-01-01

388

Cotton ovule culture: A tool for basic biology, biotechnology and cotton improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryNearly 30 years ago the conditions for culturing immature cotton ovules were established to serve as a working research tool\\u000a for investigating the physiology and biochemistry of fiber development. Not only has this tissue culture method been employed\\u000a to characterize the biochemistry of plant cell expansion and secondary cell wall synthesis, but ovule cultures have contributed\\u000a to numerous other aspects

Barbara A. Triplett

2000-01-01

389

SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF SIX A-EXPANSIN GENES IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A-Expansins are cell wall proteins that facilitate cell wall extension by disrupting noncovalent bonds between wall components. Some of the expansin genes play a very important role in cell wall extension during cotton fiber development. The objectives of this study were, (1) to discern the sequenc...

390

Treatments for Reducing Photochemical Degradation of Cotton Cellulose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was shown that simple immersion of cotton duck samples in water provides some protection against photodegradation of the fibers during subsequent exposure to radiation from a carbon-arc light source. This is explained in terms of the concept that the a...

D. M. Wiles J. D. Cooney

1969-01-01

391

Exotic germplasm introgression effects on adapted cotton genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our research is mainly focused on the objective of determining the effect of exotic germplasm introgression on agronomic and fiber properties of adapted cotton varieties. For this we studied eight populations derived by crossing two exotic parents (TX 245 and TX 1419) with four locally adapted culti...

392

X-Ray Crystallinity of Bleached and Crosslinked Cottons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An X-ray diffractometer was used to study the crystalline structure of cotton fibers after bleaching, crosslinking and a combination of bleaching and crosslinking treatments. Wet crosslinking was accomplished with formaldehyde (Form W) and dry crosslinking was carried out with either dimethyloldihyd...

393

Comparison of cotton and acrylic socks using a generic cushion sole design for runners.  

PubMed

A longitudinal single-blind study was conducted to test the friction blister prevention properties of synthetic acrylic socks in a generic construction. This study serves as a comparison with the authors' previous work comparing acrylic and cotton socks in a patented padded construction. Twenty-seven long-distance runners provided data regarding dampness, temperature, friction blister incidence, severity, and size. Two different socks were tested; each was identical in every aspect of construction except the fiber content. One test sock was composed of 100% synthetic acrylic fibers, and the other was composed of 100% natural cotton fibers. These results were unsuccessful at demonstrating any superiority of cotton or acrylic fibers when knitting produced a generic "cushion sole" sock. The superiority of acrylic fibers has thus far been demonstrated only when sock knitting provides adequate anatomical padding [corrected]. PMID:8289142

Herring, K M; Richie, D H

1993-09-01

394

7 CFR 1755.200 - RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cleaning solvent. (ii) A tissue or cotton ball shall be soaked in the recommended...one at a time using a clean tissue or cotton ball for each coated fiber. Caution...shall be wiped with a clean tissue or cotton ball soaked with the cleaning...

2009-01-01

395

7 CFR 1755.200 - RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cleaning solvent. (ii) A tissue or cotton ball shall be soaked in the recommended...one at a time using a clean tissue or cotton ball for each coated fiber. Caution...shall be wiped with a clean tissue or cotton ball soaked with the cleaning...

2010-01-01

396

Economic Policy and Cotton in Uzbekistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uzbekistan is the seventh largest global cotton producer and third largest cotton supplier for world markets. Uzbekistans Government policies largely shield cotton producers from world market price signals, and cotton area has changed little over the past...

S. MacDonald

2012-01-01

397

Nerve growth factor induces sensitization of nociceptors without evidence for increased intraepidermal nerve fiber density.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in the long-term sensitization of nociceptive processing linked to chronic pain. Functional and structural ("sprouting") changes can contribute. Thus, humans report long-lasting hyperalgesia to mechanical and electrical stimulation after intradermal NGF injection and NGF-induced sprouting has been reported to underlie cancer bone pain and visceral pain. Using a human-like animal model we investigated the relationship between the structure and function of unmyelinated porcine nociceptors 3weeks after intradermal NGF treatment. Axonal and sensory characteristics were studied by in vivo single-fiber electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry. C fibers recorded extracellularly were classified based on mechanical response and activity-dependent slowing (ADS) of conduction velocity. Intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) densities were assessed by immunohistochemistry in pigs and in human volunteers using the same NGF model. NGF increased conduction velocity and reduced ADS and propagation failure in mechano-insensitive nociceptors. The proportion of mechano-sensitive C nociceptors within NGF-treated skin areas increased from 45.1% (control) to 71% and their median mechanical thresholds decreased from 40 to 20mN. After NGF application, the mechanical receptive fields of nociceptors increased from 25 to 43mm(2). At the structural level, however, IENF density was not increased by NGF. In conclusion, intradermal NGF induces long-lasting axonal and mechanical sensitization in porcine C nociceptors that corresponds to hyperalgesia observed in humans. Sensitization is not accompanied by increased IENF density, suggesting that NGF-induced hyperalgesia might not depend on changes in nerve fiber density but could be linked to the recruitment of previously silent nociceptors. PMID:23891896

Hirth, Michael; Rukwied, Roman; Gromann, Alois; Turnquist, Brian; Weinkauf, Benjamin; Francke, Klaus; Albrecht, Philip; Rice, Frank; Hgglf, Bjrn; Ringkamp, Matthias; Engelhardt, Maren; Schultz, Christian; Schmelz, Martin; Obreja, Otilia

2013-07-26

398

Production and cross-synergistic action of cellulolytic enzymes from certain fungal mutants grown on cotton and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Significant levels of cellulase and -glucosidase, capable of saccharifying cotton fiber and wheat straw cellulose, were excreted by the selected mutantsAspergillus ustus M35 andTrichoderma harzianum M5 grown on these cellulosic materials. Cross-synergism was observed between the cellulolytic system of certain fungl upon hydrolysis of cotton. A maximum enhancement of 282% in the saccharification rate of cotton was obtained when

B. J. Macris; M. Paspaliari; D. Kekos

1985-01-01

399

Potential and K+ activity in skinned muscle fibers. Evidence against a simple Donnan equilibrium.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that potentials measured with conventional microelectrodes in chemically or mechanically skinned muscle fibers arise from a Donnan equilibrium due to myofilament fixed charges. This hypothesis was tested in mechanically skinned frog (Rana pipiens) semitendinosus fibers by measuring the distribution potential (Ed) between fiber and bath with 3 M KCl-filled microelectrodes and the K+ activity gradient (aik/aok) with K+ ion-selective microelectrodes (KISE). If skinned fibers are a Donnan system, Ed should become more positive as pH is decreased, altering the fixed charge on the myofilaments. Consistent with this expectation, Ed was -4.4, -0.6, and +4.8 mV in ATP-containing solutions and -6.5, -2.2, and +8.4 mV in ATP-free solutions at pH 7, 6, and 5, respectively. Donnan equilibrium also requires that all mobile ionic species be in electrochemical equilibrium. In ATP-containing solutions, this was true for K+ at pH 7. At pH 5, however, KISE indicated that K+ was not in equilibrium; average Ed was 5.9 mV positive to the K+ equilibrium potential, and aik/aok was 1.04, while the Donnan prediction was 0.83. In contrast, KISE measurements in ATP-free solutions indicated that K+ was in equilibrium at all pH studied. Skinned fibers in ATP-containing media are not equilibrium systems because ATPase reactions occur. Under our conditions, frog myofibrils hydrolyze 0.4 and 0.08 mumol ATP/min X mg myofibrillar protein at pH 7 and 5, respectively. It is suggested that in the presence of ATP, Ed is a superposition of Donnan and diffusion potentials, the latter arising from differences in the mobilities of anionic substrate and products that diffuse through the charged myofilament lattice. A coupling to diffusion of K+, the predominant counter ion, is required for macroscopic electroneutrality. This coupling may be the origin of the nonequilibrium K+ distribution.

Godt, R. E.; Baumgarten, C. M.

1984-01-01

400

Evidence of frontotemporal structural hypoconnectivity in social anxiety disorder: A quantitative fiber tractography study.  

PubMed

Investigation of the brain's white matter fiber tracts in social anxiety disorder (SAD) may provide insight into the underlying pathophysiology. Because models of pathological anxiety posit altered frontolimbic interactions, the uncinate fasciculus (UF) connecting (orbito-) frontal and temporal areas including the amygdala is of particular interest. Microstructural alterations in parts of the UF have been reported previously, whereas examination of the UF as discrete fiber tract with regard to more large-scale properties is still lacking. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied in 25 patients with generalized SAD and 25 healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. By means of fiber tractography, the UF was reconstructed for each participant. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), originating from the frontal cortex similarly to the UF, was additionally included as control tract. Volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) were compared between the groups for both tracts. Volume of left and right UF was reduced in patients with SAD, reaching statistical significance for the left UF. Bilateral IFOF volume was not different between groups. A similar pattern was observed for FA. Reduced volume of the left UF in SAD fits well into pathophysiological models of anxiety, as it suggests deficient structural connectivity between higher-level control areas in the orbitofrontal cortex and more basal limbic areas like the amygdala. The results point to a specific role of the left UF with regard to altered white matter volume in SAD. However, results should be replicated and functional correlates of altered UF volume be determined in future studies. PMID:22076860

Baur, Volker; Brhl, Annette Beatrix; Herwig, Uwe; Eberle, Tanja; Rufer, Michael; Delsignore, Aba; Jncke, Lutz; Hnggi, Jrgen

2011-11-11

401

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

402

Structure and properties of cotton-based biodegradable/compostable nonwovens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cotton-based biodegradable nonwoven products have been receiving increasing attention in recent years with the growing environmental awareness throughout the world. A majority of the cotton-based nonwoven products are processed by carding with the binder fibers, and then point-bonding using a thermal calender. In this work, different biodegradable binder fibers were used to produce cotton-based nonwovens. The structure and the properties of the resulting fabrics were studied. The effect of bonding temperature and binder fiber content on the bond morphology was investigated. The fracture and failure mechanisms of the fabrics produced with different binder fiber content and at different bonding temperature were analyzed. Binder fiber distribution was determined by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that DSC is a useful method to quantitatively characterize the binder fiber distribution in the carded cotton-based nonwovens. By determining the specific enthalpy from crystallization of one of the binder fiber components in the fabrics, it is possible to calculate the fiber composition. Tensile properties of the resultant nonwovens under different processing conditions were studied. The optimal processing conditions for the nonwovens processed using different binder fibers were determined based on their tensile properties. Consequently, effects of binder fiber type, binder fiber content, and bonding temperature on the tensile property of the nonwoven fabrics are discussed. The best binder fiber under the experimental conditions was selected based on the tensile property of the resulting fabrics. Based on the interactions of binder fiber composition and bonding temperature, empirical models have been developed to predict the breaking load of the webs bonded by the best binder fiber using the General Linear Models Procedure in JMP 5.0 statistical analysis software. The absorbent behavior and flexural rigidity of the nonwoven fabrics bonded by one of the binder fibers were investigated. The results indicate that the resultant fabrics have low flexural rigidity and good absorbency which show that the fabrics have potential applications as absorbent materials.

Rong, Haoming

403

CottonDB: A database for cotton research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

404

Critical periods of weed control in naturally green colored cotton BRS Verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton with naturally colored fiber is increasing as a commercial crop due specially to its textile processing with reduced environmental impact, as dying is not necessary. The critical period of weed control and the weed community were studied in a field with the naturally green colored fiber cv. BRS Verde cultivated in Misso Velha, Brazil. Without weed control during all

Gleibson D. Cardoso; Pedro L. C. A. Alves; Liv S. Severino; Leandro S. Vale

2011-01-01

405

Evaluation of 3 cotton trash measurement methods by visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, three types of instrumentals have been developed to assess the trash content in lint cotton fibers, namely, Shirley analyzer (SA), advanced fiber information system (AFIS), and high volume instrumentation (HVI). Each of these devices has its unique advantages, and comprehensive comparison...

406

A review of cotton quality fineness and maturity measurements by NIR HVI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been a successful research tool for analyzing a wide variety of cotton fiber properties. These include, from sugar content, moisture effects on strength, water status, trash content fiber fineness and maturity. Key findings of a literature review of this field ...

407

Mechanical Properties of Poly(Butylene Succinate) Reinforced with Continuously Steam-Exploded Cotton Stalk Bast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was reinforced by cotton stalk bast fibers (CSBF), which had been pretreated by the continuous steam explosion method. The influence of water content in CSBF during the explosion and fiber content on the mechanical properties of CSBF\\/PBS biocomposites was investigated. The results showed that the incorporation of CSBF decreased the tensile and impact strength, while significantly enhanced

Jin-ping Qu; Bin Tan; Yan-hong Feng; Song-xi Hu

2011-01-01

408

Current Intelligence Bulletin 56. Washed Cotton: A Review and Recommendations Regarding Batch Kier Washed Cotton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The information available regarding batch kier washed cotton was reviewed, including the 1978 OSHA Cotton Dust Standard, the 1978 complete exception for severly washed cotton, limitations of the 1978 exemption, washed cotton in the 1985 revision of the st...

1995-01-01

409

75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-CN-10-0027; CN-08-003] RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton- Producing States AGENCY: Agricultural...Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton...

2010-05-05

410

Superhydrophobic and ultraviolet-blocking cotton textiles.  

PubMed

Cotton textile was coated with ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods in order to obtain superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV)-blocking properties. The coating process was conducted in mild conditions, which involved the low-temperature preparation of ZnO seeds, hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods, bioinspired layer-by-layer deposition of a SiO(2) shell on the surface of ZnO nanorods, and hydrophobic modification of ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods with octadecyltrimethoxysilane. Despite the highly curved morphology of cotton fibers, the ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods coated the textile densely and uniformly. The treated cotton textile was found to have a large UV protection factor (UPF = 101.51) together with UV-durable superhydrophobicity, as determined by contact-angle measurement under long-term UV irradiation. The good UV-blocking property can be ascribed to the high UV absorbance and scattering properties of ZnO nanorods, and the UV-durable superhydrophobicity is a result of suppression of the photoactivity of ZnO nanorods by a SiO(2) shell. PMID:21438599

Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Sun, Panpan; Yang, Jikai; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun

2011-03-25

411

Evidence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Bromate is a carcinogenic disinfection by-product formed from bromide during ozonation or advanced oxidation. We previously observed bromate reduction in a hydrogen-based, denitrifying hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). In this research, we investigated the potential existence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), we compared the microbial ecology of two denitrifying MBfRs, one amended with nitrate as the electron acceptor and the other with nitrate plus bromate. The DGGE results showed that bromate exerted a selective pressure for a putative, specialized bromate-reducing bacterium, which developed a strong presence only in the reactor with bromate. To gain further insight into the capabilities of specialized, bromate-reducing bacteria, we explored bromate reduction in a control MBfR without any primary electron acceptors. A grown biofilm in the control MBfR reduced bromate without previous exposure, but the rate of reduction decreased over time, especially after perturbations resulting in biomass loss. The decrease in bromate reduction may have been the result of the toxic effects of bromate. We also used batch tests of the perchlorate-reducing pure culture, Dechloromonas sp. PC1 to test bromate reduction and growth. Bromate was reduced without measurable growth. Based on these results, we speculate bromate's selective pressure for the putative, specialized BRB observed in the DGGE was not growth related, but possibly based on resistance to bromate toxicity. PMID:19474491

Martin, K J; Downing, L S; Nerenberg, R

2009-01-01

412

Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber.  

PubMed

Using a combination of experimental techniques such as optical absorption, Raman scattering, continuous wave and pulse Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), we characterize a set of ?-irradiated Yb(3+) doped silica glass preforms with different contents of phosphorous and aluminum. We demonstrate that when P is introduced in excess compared to Al, nearly no radiodarkening is induced by ?-rays. On the other hand, when Al>P, a large absorption band is induced by radiation. Thermal annealing experiments reveal the correlation between the decrease of the optical absorption band and the decrease of the Al-Oxygen Hole Center (AlOHC) ESR signal, demonstrating the main role of AlOHC defects in the fiber darkening. HYSCORE (HYperfine Sublevel CORElation) pulse-ESR experiments show a high Al-P nuclear spin coupling when P>Al and no coupling when Al>P. This result suggests that both AlOHC and POHC creation is inhibited by Al-O-P linkages. Confronting our data with previous works, we show that the well-known photodarkening process, meaning losses induced by the IR pump, can also be explained in this framework. PMID:23571927

Deschamps, Thierry; Vezin, Herv; Gonnet, Cdric; Ollier, Nadge

2013-04-01

413

Earliest mechanical evidence of cross-bridge activity after stimulation of single skeletal muscle fibers.  

PubMed Central

The stiffness of single fibers from frog skeletal muscle was measured by the application of small 2-kHz sinusoidal length oscillations during twitch and tetanic contractions at a range of initial sarcomere lengths. The earliest mechanical signs of activation were a fall in tension (latency relaxation) and a rise in stiffness. The earliest stiffness increase and the earliest tension fall occurred simultaneously at all sarcomere lengths. This suggests a cross-bridge origin for the latency relaxation. The lead of stiffness over tension seen during the rise of tension was substantially established during the latent period. Reducing the size of the twitch by reducing calcium release with D-600 (methoxyverapamil) reduced the latency relaxation and the stiffness development during latency much less than it reduced the twitch tension. For very small twitches the peak of the stiffness response occurred during the latent period and the times of onset of both latency relaxation and stiffness rise were delayed, but remained coincident. This suggests a strong connection between the latency relaxation and the rise of stiffness during the latent period, whereas the connection between these events and positive tension generation appears to be less strong.

Claflin, D R; Morgan, D L; Julian, F J

1990-01-01

414

Evidence for myoblast-extrinsic regulation of slow myosin heavy chain expression during muscle fiber formation in embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate muscles are composed of an ar- ray of diverse fast and slow fiber types with different contractile properties. Differences among fibers in fast and slow MyHC expression could be due to extrinsic factors that act on the differentiated myofibers. Alter- natively, the mononucleate myoblasts that fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers could differ intrinsically due to lineage. To distinguish

Mildred Cho; Steven G. Webster; Helen M. Blau

1993-01-01

415

A NEW APPROACH TO ROLLER GINNING TO PRESERVE FIBER LENGTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was initiated to determine if roller ginning can differentiate between the long and short fibers of upland cotton. Separating the longer fibers may not only bring a higher price, but open up new markets for a higher-quality fiber. Also, new markets may arise for bales that contain only sho...

416

PERSPECTIVES ON COTTON GLOBAL TRADE REFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

World cotton prices fell to nearly unprecedented levels during the 2001\\/02 marketing year, causing distress to cotton producers and exporters worldwide. In a number of developing countries highly dependent on cotton for export earnings or where cotton is the primary cash crop, this distress was particularly acute. Global trade barriers to cotton are widespread, leading to some concern about the

Stephen MacDonald; Leslie A. Meyer; Agapi Somwaru

2003-01-01

417

Transcriptome profiling, sequence characterization, and SNP-based chromosomal assignment of the EXPANSIN genes in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of biological significance associated with DNA markers is very limited in cotton. SNPs are potential functional\\u000a marker to tag genes of biological importance. Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins that directly modify the\\u000a mechanical properties of cell walls, enable turgor-driven cell extension, and likely affect length and quality of cotton fibers.\\u000a Here, we report the expression

Chuanfu An; Sukumar Saha; Johnie N. Jenkins; Brian E. Scheffler; Thea A. Wilkins; David M. Stelly

2007-01-01

418

Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics prepared by sol gel coating of TiO2 and surface hydrophobization  

Microsoft Academic Search

By coating fibers with titania sol to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination, hydrophilic cotton fabrics were made superhydrophobic. The surface wettability and topology of cotton fabrics were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The UV-shielding property of the treated fabrics was also characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry.

Chao-Hua Xue; Shun-Tian Jia; Hong-Zheng Chen; Mang Wang

2008-01-01

419

Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics prepared by sol gel coating of TiO2 and surface hydrophobization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By coating fibers with titania sol to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination, hydrophilic cotton fabrics were made superhydrophobic. The surface wettability and topology of cotton fabrics were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The UV-shielding property of the treated fabrics was also characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry.

Xue, Chao-Hua; Jia, Shun-Tian; Chen, Hong-Zheng; Wang, Mang

2008-07-01

420

Recent Advances And Future Prospective in Molecular Breeding of Cotton For Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) is a major product in the world economy. It is a botanically unique plant as it is a perennial allotetraploid derived from\\u000a diploid Gossypium species, one of which does not produce lint, which is grown as an annual row crop. Cotton is an especially appropriate system\\u000a for research into the molecular basis

Edward L. Lubbers; Peng W. Chee; Yehoshua Saranga; Andrew H. Paterson

421

INTERNATIONAL COTTON GENOME INITIATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The last decade has seen unprecedented advances in the use of DNA technology to unravel the genetic secrets of plants and animals, and to genetically engineer hybrid or transgenic organisms. Cotton has been a leader in the research and commercialization of transgene technology, but future success in...

422

World Cotton Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1981/82 world cotton situation remains essentially unchanged from last month. An upward revision in consumption offset a portion and estimated stocks increased marginally. Prices moved upward during the later part of April and held at this level throu...

1982-01-01

423

AFLP MAPPING IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amplified Fragment Length PolymorphismTM has proven to be a rapid and reliable source of genetic markers. We have used this method to develop an AFLP linkage map of cotton genome using an F2 population from an interspecific cross between Gossypium hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense acc. 3-79. The ...

424

AUTOMATION IN COTTON GINNING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

THIS PAPER DISCUSSES A FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF A MCHINE-VISION SYSTEM FOR ON-LINE IDENTIFICATION OF TRASH OBJECTS COMMONLY FOUND IN COTTON. SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES SUCH AS NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEMS CAN CLASSIFY TRASH OBJECTS INTO INDIVIDUAL CATEGORIES SUCH AS BARK, STICK...

425

Cotton Pickin' Good Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)|

Gentry, Carol

2000-01-01

426

Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B irradiance on cotton yield and qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratospheric ozone depletion and enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance may have adverse impacts on the productivity of agricultural crops. The effect of UVB enhancements on agricultural crops includes reduction in yield, alteration in species competition, decrease in photosynthetic activity, susceptibility to disease, and changes in structure and pigmentation. Many studies have examined the influence of supplementing UVB irradiance on different crops, but the effect of UVB irradiance on cotton crops has received little attention. The cotton crop is one of the most versatile of all the crops. It is a major fiber crop of the world and a major source of trade and economy in many countries. In this study we provide quantitative examination of the effects of elevated UVB irradiance on cotton. The tested cotton crop was grown under natural and supplemental levels of UVB irradiance in the cotton field. The results in this study showed that the supplemental UVB irradiance has negative impacts on cotton growth, development, yield, and fiber quality. A brief discussion is included on how the impacts on cotton contrast with impacts that have been observed in other studies on other plants, including trees.

Gao, Wei; Zheng, Youfei; Slusser, James R.; Heisler, Gordon M.

2002-01-01

427

Genome-wide analysis of the Sus gene family in cotton.  

PubMed

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism. In cotton, Sus (EC 2.4.1.13) is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat. This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L., G. raimondii Ulbr., and G. hirsutum L., contained 8, 8, and 15 Sus genes, respectively. Their structural organizations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles were characterized. Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns, the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species. Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species, suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G. hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors. One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution. Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species. These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family, and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development. PMID:23691964

Zou, Changsong; Lu, Cairui; Shang, Haihong; Jing, Xinrui; Cheng, Hailiang; Zhang, Youping; Song, Guoli

2013-07-01

428

Cast or fiber posts a summary of evidence from vitro studies.  

PubMed

Data sourcesMedline, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and China Biology Medicine disc were searched.Study selectionOnly randomised studies were included.Data extraction and synthesisData were independently extracted. Standardised mean differences were combined and analysed using meta-analysis.ResultsThirteen studies were included; premolars were used as specimens in six studies, central incisors in five studies and canines in three articles. There was considerable variation in both alloy and fibre materials used between studies. The standardised mean difference of the combined data was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-1.20; P < .001), indicating that the cast post group displayed significantly higher fracture resistance than the fibre post group.ConclusionsOn the basis of the current best available evidence, we concluded that cast posts had higher fracture resistance than fibre posts. PMID:24071678

Balevi, Ben

2013-09-01

429

A study of pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of flame-retardant cotton fabrics by DSC, TGA, and PYGCMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of thermal decompositions of cotton and flame-retardant cotton fabrics can assist understanding of fire-resistant functions of the materials. In this research, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysisgas chromatographymass spectroscopy (PYGCMS) were employed to investigate decomposition processes and decomposed products of flame-retardant treated (using an organo-phosphorus compound) and untreated cotton fibers in the pyrolysis. The thermal decomposition

Ping Zhu; Shuying Sui; Bing Wang; Kai Sun; Gang Sun

2004-01-01

430

Influence of moisture on wettability and sizing properties of raw cotton yarns treated with He\\/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The He\\/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively improve the wettability and sizing properties of raw cotton yarns. However, the treatment effects may be greatly influenced by the moisture regain (MR) of the cotton yarn. In this study, raw cotton fibers, yarns and rovings with three different MRs (0.5%, 9.3% and 26.4%) are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

Shiyuan Sun; Yiping Qiu

431

Manufacturing Techniques and Problems of Cotton Textiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This set of four research notes discuss different stages of cotton textile production. The reports concern the use of sodium sulphite in scouring of white cotton textiles, the effect of periodate oxidation and borohydride reduction of cotton fabrics on th...

1964-01-01

432

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

433

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

434

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

435

7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

436

77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7 CFR Part 1427 RIN 0560-AI16 Upland Cotton Base Quality AGENCY: Commodity Credit...Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations...uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World Price...

2012-04-03

437

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

438

7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

439

Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography  

PubMed Central

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

440

DETERMINATION OF FIBER AND PRODUCT QUALITY THROUGH SMALL SCALE PROCESSING TRIALS: FIBER TO YARN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much attention has been focused on measuring the physical properties of raw cotton fiber. There properties have been used for decades to predict the performance of the fiber in processing and of the resultant materials. The Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) has recently begun a new research...

441

The determination of porosity and cellulose content of plant fibers by density methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant fibers often arranged in fiber bundles, for example hemp and jute are comprised of four main chemical components namely cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. These are chemical components, which make the solid morphological structure of plant fibers together with the air filled lumen. In some cases the lumen contains protoplasm for example in cotton single fibers [1]. The absolute

L. Y. Mwaikambo; M. P. Ansell

2001-01-01

442

Effect on modified nanoclay on dynamic mechanical and thermomechanical properties of natural fiber\\/polypropylene biocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nanoclay addition on thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) biocomposites reinforced with bleached red algae fiber (BRAF), kenaf fiber (KF), and cotton pulp fiber (CPF). The nano-biocomposites were fabricated with 40?wt.% loading of all natural fibers and addition of nanoclay at 5 or 10?wt.% loading by the melting compounding

I Na Sim; Seong Ok Han

2012-01-01

443

Rotation and contraction of native and regenerated cellulose fibers upon swelling and dissolution: the role of morphological and stress unbalances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon swelling and dissolution, native cellulose fibers such as cotton hairs or wood fibers are rotating and contracting. Regenerated\\u000a cellulose fibers are only contracting, not rotating. Cotton hairs show two rotation mechanisms, a well known untwisting, not\\u000a seen in wood fibers, due to the unwinding of the twists initially induced by the desiccation that occurs at the end of the

Nicolas Le Moigne; Jrme Bikard; Patrick Navard

2010-01-01

444

Feeding cotton products to cattle.  

PubMed

Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

2002-07-01

445

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I.; Bounioux, Cline; Katz, Eugene A.; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel; Zussman, Eyal

2012-03-01

446

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

SciTech Connect

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba 84105 (Israel); Bounioux, Celine [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Katz, Eugene A. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel [Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zussman, Eyal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-03-12

447

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early mature cotton region of Northeast China].  

PubMed

Taking two cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCOTN 33B with different growth periods as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 240 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) and different planting densities (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the cotton biomass, nitrogen accumulation, and accumulative nitrogen utilization in the planting region of extremely early mature cotton in Northeast China. The dynamics of cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation of the two cultivars with their growth process followed Logistic model. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the cotton nitrogen accumulation dynamics and the cotton yield and quality. In all treatments, the beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen was about 13 d earlier than that of biomass. In treatment plant density 97500 plants x hm(-2) and nitrogen fertilization rate 240 kg x hm(-2), the eigenvalues of the dynamic accumulation models of nitrogen and biomass for the two cultivars were most harmonious, lint yield was the highest, fiber quality was the best, and accumulative nitrogen utilization efficiency was the highest. In the study region, the earlier beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen and biomass and their higher accumulation rates were benefit to the formation of higher cotton yield. PMID:22384593

Wang, Zi-Sheng; Xu, Min; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Jin, Lu-Lu; Shan, Ying; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2011-12-01

448

Molecular cloning and characterization of GhAPm , a gene encoding the ? subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex that is associated with cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) fiber development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the primary clathrin adaptors that contribute to the formation\\u000a of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The GhAPm gene (GenBank accession number: GU359054), which encodes the medium subunit of the AP complexes, was cloned from cotton by\\u000a rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA was 1590bp in size and encoded\\u000a an open

Tao Zhou; Rui Zhang; Dawei Yang; Sandui Guo

2011-01-01

449

UV / Visible / Near-Infrared Reflectance Models for the Rapid and Non-Destructive Prediction and Classification of Cotton Color and Physical Indices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High volume instrumentation (HVI), utilized in the cotton industry to determine the qualities and classifications of cotton fibers, is time consuming, and prone to day-to-day and location-to-location variations. UV / visible / NIR spectroscopy, a rapid and easy sampling technique, was investigated a...

450

Friction blisters and sock fiber composition. A double-blind study.  

PubMed

A longitudinal double-blind study was conducted to determine the effect of sock fiber composition on the frequency and size of blistering events in long-distance runners. Thirty-five long-distance runners participated in this study. Two different socks were tested, which were identical in every aspect of construction except fiber composition. One test sock was composed of 100% acrylic fibers, and the other test sock was composed of 100% natural cotton fibers. The results showed that acrylic fiber socks were associated with fewer blistering events and smaller blisters (mm2), when compared directly to cotton fiber socks. PMID:2304016

Herring, K M; Richie, D H

1990-02-01

451

Functional analysis of Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis and cotton tissues.  

PubMed

Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 (GhCesA4) plays an important role in cellulose biosynthesis during cotton fiber development. The transcript levels of GhCesA4 are significantly up-regulated as secondary cell wall cellulose is produced in developing cotton fibers. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of GhCesA4, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity regulated by a GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) or progressively deleted promoters were determined in both cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. The spatial regulation of GhCesA4 expression was similar between cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. GUS activity regulated by the GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) was found in trichomes and root vascular tissues in both cotton and transgenic Arabidopsis. The -2574/-1824 region was responsible for up-regulation of GhCesA4 expression in trichomes and root vascular tissues in transgenic Arabidopsis. The -1824/-1355 region negatively regulated GhCesA4 expression in most Arabidopsis vascular tissues. For vascular expression in stems and leaves, the -898/-693 region was required. The -693/-320 region of the GhCesA4 promoter was necessary for basal expression of GhCesA4 in cotton roots as well as Arabidopsis roots. Exogenous phytohormonal treatments on transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that phytohormones may be involved in the differential regulation of GhCesA4 during cotton fiber development. PMID:21421377

Kim, Hee Jin; Murai, Norimoto; Fang, David D; Triplett, Barbara A

2010-10-12

452

Superhydrophobic conductive textiles with antibacterial property by coating fibers with silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced on cotton fibers by reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ complex with glucose. Further modification of the fibers coated by Ag NPs with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane led to superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Scanning electron microscopy images of the textiles showed that the treated fibers were covered with uniform Ag NPs, which generate a dual-size roughness on the textiles favouring the

Chao-Hua Xue; Jia Chen; Wei Yin; Shun-Tian Jia; Jian-Zhong Ma

453

Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

454

Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and

Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

2011-01-01

455

An integrated genetic and physical map of homoeologous chromosomes 12 and 26 in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Genetic improvement of fiber quality and yield is facilitated by a variety of genomics tools. An integrated genetic and physical map is needed to better characterize quantitative trait loci and to allow for the positional cloning ...

456

MOLECULAR GENETIC DIVERSITY OF G. HIRSUTUM COTTON ACCESSION FROM UZBEK COTTON GERMPLASM REVEALED BY A CORE SET AND CHROMOSOME SPECIFIC MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of marker-assisted breeding for the incorporation of superior-fiber-quality genes in elite cultivars would assist in the development of new cultivars adapted for different growing conditions. However, the narrow genetic base of currently available cotton cultivars makes it difficult...

457

EM measurements define the dimensions of the "30-nm" chromatin fiber: Evidence for a compact, interdigitated structure  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structure plays a fundamental role in the regulation of nuclear processes such as DNA transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Despite considerable efforts during three decades, the structure of the 30-nm chromatin fiber remains controversial. To define fiber dimensions accurately, we have produced very long and regularly folded 30-nm fibers from in vitro reconstituted nucleosome arrays containing the linker histone and with increasing nucleosome repeat lengths (10 to 70 bp of linker DNA). EM measurements show that the dimensions of these fully folded fibers do not increase linearly with increasing linker length, a finding that is inconsistent with two-start helix models. Instead, we find that there are two distinct classes of fiber structure, both with unexpectedly high nucleosome density: arrays with 10 to 40 bp of linker DNA all produce fibers with a diameter of 33 nm and 11 nucleosomes per 11 nm, whereas arrays with 50 to 70 bp of linker DNA all produce 44-nm-wide fibers with 15 nucleosomes per 11 nm. Using the physical constraints imposed by these measurements, we have built a model in which tight nucleosome packing is achieved through the interdigitation of nucleosomes from adjacent helical gyres. Importantly, the model closely matches raw image projections of folded chromatin arrays recorded in the solution state by using electron cryo-microscopy.

Robinson, Philip J. J.; Fairall, Louise; Huynh, Van A. T.; Rhodes, Daniela

2006-01-01

458

Microwave drying of seed cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

459

Drying cotton with waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the use of waste heat by cotton gin managers to help dry cotton. The managers relocated air intake vents from the ground level to near the top of buildings where a large pool of hot air collected from heat losses from the drying system itself and heat losses from the motor cooling system. The recovering of this

Carriere

1986-01-01

460

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2013-01-01

461

7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

2012-01-01

462

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2013-01-01

463

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2012-01-01

464

Biogas production potential from cotton wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of three different cotton wastes namely, cotton stalks, cotton seed hull and cotton oil cake were determined in batch reactors. In addition, the effects of nutrient and trace metal supplementation were also investigated. To this purpose biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were performed for two different waste concentrations, namely 30 and 60g\\/l. The

A. Isci; G. N. Demirer

2007-01-01

465

PROFIT AND YIELD OF TILLAGE IN COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adoption of conservation tillage for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) increased a modest 5.5% from 1992-1998 despite the evidence of the benefits to erosion control, soil health, and associated natural resources derived from conservation tillage. The Monsanto Centers of Excellence (COEs) were establi...

466

Mode of action of cellulases on dyed cotton with a reactive dye.  

PubMed

Cotton woven fabrics which were previously dyed with a reactive dye were treated with a commercial cellulase preparation. Dyeing with a reactive dye for cotton apparently inhibited the weight loss activity and saccharification activity of cellulase. In addition, dyed cotton was treated with highly purified cellulases which were exo-type cellulases (Cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) and Cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II)) and endo-type cellulase (Endoglucanase II (EG II)). Exo-type cellulases were inhibited more than endo-type cellulase by dyeing in the case of saccharification activity. CBH I was severely inhibited by dyeing as compared with CBH II or EG II from the viewpoint of morphological changes in the fiber surface. Dyes on the cellulose substrates severely influenced CBH I in spite of the rare modification, because CBH I hydrolyzed cellulose with true-processive action. The change in the activity of each cellulase component on dyed cotton can affect the synergistic action of cellulases. PMID:15665466

Yamada, Minoru; Amano, Yoshihiko; Horikawa, Eisuke; Nozaki, Kouichi; Kanda, Takahisa

2005-01-01

467

Use of ultrasonic energy in the enzymatic treatment of cotton fabric  

SciTech Connect

Application of enzymes in the textile industry is becoming increasingly popular because of mild processing conditions and the capability for replacing harsh organic/inorganic chemicals. The combination of ultrasound with conventional enzymatic treatment of cotton offers significant advantages such as less consumption of expensive enzymes, shorter processing time, less fiber damage, and better uniformity of enzymatic treatment. Laboratory research has shown that introduction of ultrasonic energy during enzymatic treatment resulted in significant improvement in the performance of cellulase enzyme (CELLUSOFT L). It was established that ultrasound does not inactivate the complex structure of the enzyme molecules and weight loss of cotton fabric sonicated and treated with cellulase enzyme increased up to 25--35%. The experimental data indicate that the maximum benefit provided by sonification occurs at relatively low enzyme concentrations. Ultrasonic energy significantly intensified the enzymatic treatment of the cotton fabrics but did not contribute to a decrease in tensile strength of the cotton textiles.

Yachmenev, V.G.; Blanchard, E.J.; Lambert, A.H. [Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-10-01

468

Fabrication of super-repellent cotton textiles with rapid reversible wettability switching of diverse liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By in situ introducing polyaniline (PANI) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to cotton fibers, normally hydrophilic and oleophilic cotton textile has easily turned superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic. This super-repellent cotton fabric exhibits a high contact angle (>150) and low contact angle hysteresis, even with liquids possessing significantly low surface tension. The water or oil repellent property is ascribed to the combination of a dual-size surface roughness and low-surface-energy material. In particular, a reversible wettability switching of various low-surface-tension liquids on the PANI-fabric can be simultaneously observed, when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with sodium hydroxide via a simple dipping method. This transition can be explained by the conversion of fluorine content and hydrophilic groups on the surface during the doping/dedoping process. Besides, this doping polymerization and dedoping process can slightly affect the mechanical strength of the cotton fabrics, even with harsh chemicals like acid and base.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhu, Xiaotao

2013-07-01

469

Biolistic transformation of cotton zygotic embryo meristem.  

PubMed

Biolistic transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meristems, isolated from mature seed, is detailed in this report. A commercially available, helium-driven biolistic device (Bio-Rad PDS1000/He) was used to bombard gold particles coated with a marker gene (uidA or "?-glucuronidase") into the shoot meristem. The penetration of gold particles was dependent on bombardment parameters and it was mostly one to two cell layers deep. Stable transformation of epidermal L1 layer was consistently observed in approximately 5% of the seedlings. Germ line transformation was observed in up to 0.71% of bombarded meristems by several laboratories. Using this method identification of germ line transformation is laborious and time-consuming. However, the protocol described here represents a simple and efficient method for generating germ line transformation events. In addition, this procedure offers a quick method to evaluate gene constructs in cotton tissues (embryos, cotyledons, leaf), especially fibers which originate as single cells from the maternal epidermis layer. PMID:23143482

Rajasekaran, Kanniah

2013-01-01

470

Aberrant Expression of Critical Genes during Secondary Cell Wall Biogenesis in a Cotton Mutant, Ligon Lintless-1 (Li-1)  

PubMed Central

Over ninety percent of the value of cotton comes from its fiber; however, the genetic mechanisms governing fiber development are poorly understood. Due to their biochemical and morphological diversity in fiber cells cotton fiber mutants have been useful in examining fiber development; therefore, using the Ligon Lintless (Li-1) mutant, a monogenic dominant cotton mutant with very short fibers, we employed the high throughput approaches of microarray technology and real time PCR to gain insights into what genes were critical during the secondary cell wall synthesis stage. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the normal TM-1 genotype and the near isogenic Li-1 revealed that over 100 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold during secondary wall biogenesis, although the genetic profile of the expansion phase showed no significant differences in the isolines. Of particular note, we identified three candidate gene families-expansin, sucrose synthase, and tubulinwhose expression in Li-1 deviates from normal expression patterns of its parent, TM-1. These genes may contribute to retarded growth of fibers in Li-1 since they are fiber-expressed structural and metabolic genes. This work provides more details into the mechanisms of fiber development, and suggests the Li gene is active during the later stages of fiber development.

Bolton, James J.; Soliman, Khairy M.; Wilkins, Thea A.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

2009-01-01

471

U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes recent structural changes in the world cotton industry and develops a statistical model that reflects current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes in 2008 authorized USDA to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for t...

O. Isengildina-Massa S. MacDonald

2009-01-01

472

75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Corporation 7 CFR Parts 1423 and 1427 RIN 0560-AH81 Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders...implemented the 2008 Farm Bill provisions for the cotton program. The correction removes definitions...

2010-08-18

473

Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as conventional tillage {CT}, RT with two inter-row cultivations {RT1} and RT with no inter-row cultivation {RT2} were conducted for 11 years. At the end of the study, an improvement in the soil physical properties such as water stable aggregates and mean weight diameter were observed in the RT system and the plots amended with green manure (GM) cover crop compared to those without. Further, available soil moisture content was greater in the GM mulched plots up to 0.60 m depth compared to the without GM treatment. The RT systems, too, had a higher SOM content than the CT probably due to less soil disturbance and greater retention of crop residues. INM and conservation tillage are strategies to sequester C and reduce emissions. It can also mitigate green house gas emissions because less of fertiliser would be used in the INM treatments. Studies conducted, thus far, have not indicated any adverse effect of Bt cotton cultivation. However, there could be a possibility, of nutrient depletion with the cultivation of Bt transgenic hybrids because of higher biomass and nutrient removal increasing the nutrient demand. Studies on these aspects are needed to understand how long-term cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids will alter the soil properties.

Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

2012-04-01

474

Cotton pistil drip transformation method.  

PubMed

Conventional plant transformation typically includes preparation of competent plant cells or tissues, delivery of foreign genes into cells, transformed cell selection with stable incorporated foreign genes, and regeneration of transformed cells into intact plants. This process traditionally relies on tissue culture, and cotton has not been an exception to this paradigm. Though the commercialization of transgenic cotton is a resounding success, cotton transformation, which is the first step in producing transgenic cotton, is a burdensome process since there is a very long tissue culture process and a limited number of cultivars t