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1

Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation  

E-print Network

include: Palmeri, Morilli, Richmondii, Yucatenanse, Punctatum, Marie galante and Latifolium (Iqbal et al., 2001 and Khadi et al., 2010). 8 Cotton fiber classing Cotton fiber is a variable product. Development of every single fiber on cotton...

Ng, Eng Hwa

2013-05-29

2

Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

3

PHOTOBIOLOGY IMPACT ON COTTON FIBER LENGTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single elongated cells that extend from the seed coat during development, and fiber length is important to textile quality. It was hypothesized that elongating cotton fibers would be as responsive to far-red light (FR) as elongating cells in seedling hypocot...

4

Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

5

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

Van`t Hof, J.

1998-09-01

6

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

Van't Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

1998-09-01

7

IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

8

Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

9

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers  

SciTech Connect

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

2003-05-01

10

Cotton fiber moisture measurements: a comparative evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A commonly used standard method for measuring cotton fiber moisture is the oven drying method (moisture content equal weight loss). However, several commercial instruments are available for measuring fiber moisture content. A comparative evaluation program was implemented to determine the capabili...

11

Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

12

Natural cotton and flax fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

13

Effects of Deferred Ginning of Cotton on Cotton Fiber Quality as Reflected in Certain Fiber Properties.  

E-print Network

on moisture content and selected fiber properties of machine-picked cotton. The harvest periods and ginning treatments were (1) morning harvest followed by either immediate or deferred ginning and (2) after- noon harvest followed by either immediate... or deferred ginning. Fiher samples were obtained at the lint slide throughout the ginning of each bale of cotton in each of the four ginning treatment periods. Statistical analyses of moisture and fiber property measurements made on these samples revealed...

Ward, James M.; Graves, James W.

1965-01-01

14

COTTON FIBER NONWOVENS FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With increasing demand for automobiles in the global mareket, and a simultaneous pressure to address the issue of sustainability, there is continuing need for the incorporation of natural fiber based materials into automotives. The focus of recent research has been to produce compostable cotton fibe...

15

IMPLICATIONS OF PECTIN ON COTTON FIBER PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

INCREASING SPEEDS OF COTTON YARN PRODUCTION IN THE TEXTILE MILL HAVE RENDERED TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL FIBER MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS LENGTH AND STRENGTH LESS RELIABLE AS PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY. WITH THE GOAL TOWARD ADDRESSING THIS PROBLEM, THIS WORK ATTEMPTS TO CHARACTERIZE THE PECTIN COM...

16

Within Bale Variations of Cotton Fiber Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve bales of cotton having a wide range of lengths were selected for testing. Each bale was systematically sectioned so as to collect twenty-five individual fiber samples from each bale. HVI and AFIS measurements were carried out on each bale to determine the variability of the various measured...

17

TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND  

E-print Network

analysis of source (photosynthetic) and sink (fiber cellulose synthesis) metabolism (to be described483 TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND INCREASED FIBER Incorporated Raleigh, NC Abstract We set out to use genetic engineering to make cotton crop yield and fiber

Strauss, Richard E.

18

FIAS Longitudinal Measurements Modified - More Accurate Cotton Fiber Maturity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A projected 2-D image of a cotton fiber has large variations in fiber width due to the convolutions along the longitudinal axes. The ratio of the maximum width to the minimum width of a fiber ribbon could be used as a maturity indicator. Another important factor related to cotton maturity is fibers ...

19

Fiber and yarn properties improve with new cotton variety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cottons containing two different parents (FM832 and MD51neOK) and their progeny were selected to cover a cotton breeding succession and to determine breeding influences on fiber results. The objective of this study was to evaluate fibers produced by cotton parents and their progeny using results ge...

20

Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

21

Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

22

A fast segmentation method for high-resolution color images of foreign fibers in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign fibers in cotton seriously affect the quality of cotton products. The identification of foreign fibers in cotton is a critical step in the automated inspection of foreign fibers in cotton; image segmentation is crucial in this identification process. This paper presents a new approach for segmenting images of foreign fibers in cotton. Firstly, color images were captured, and the

Xin Zhang; Daoliang Li; Wenzhu Yang; Jinxing Wang; Shuangxi Liu

2011-01-01

23

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubules in Cotton Fibers1  

PubMed Central

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus our results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants. PMID:12746521

Preuss, Mary L.; Delmer, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

2003-01-01

24

Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*  

PubMed Central

Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

2013-01-01

25

COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

26

Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

27

Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton  

E-print Network

contributes to reduced yield and reduced fiber length, thus minimizing the profitability for the grower and the competitiveness of the fiber for the textile industry. For dryland cotton to remain a viable commodity for Texas producers its quality properties...

Braden, Chris Alan

2012-06-07

28

Recent Advances in Molecular Biology Research on Cotton Fiber Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) plants produce seed trichomes that are the most important textile fiber. Fiber cell initiation and elongation are two\\u000a key developmental stages that determine the final quality of fiber. A large number of genes have been isolated by transcriptome\\u000a analysis of these two stages. Here we sum up recent research progress in functional identification of cotton fiber genes,

X. X. Shangguan; N. Yu; L. J. Wang; X. Y. Chen

29

Functional genomics of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes of major economic importance. Factors that regulate the rate and duration of cell expansion control fiber morphology and important agronomic traits. For genetic characterization of rapid cell elongation in cotton fibers, ? 14,000 unique genes were assembled from 46,603 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developmentally staged fiber cDNAs of a cultivated diploid species (Gossypium

A. Bulak Arpat; Mark Waugh; John P. Sullivan; Michael Gonzales; David Frisch; Dorrie Main; Todd Wood; Anna Leslie; Rod A. Wing; Thea A. Wilkins

2004-01-01

30

Inheritance of Cotton Fiber Length and Strength  

E-print Network

processing speeds leading to lower labor costs and more efficient yarn production. However, the international market primarily employs a slower yet more versatile technology, ring spinning. Ring frames can spin yarns ranging from 147.6 tex to 2.5 tex (one... tex = number of grams of cotton fiber required to produce one kilometer of yarn), while open-end spinning effectively can produce yarn sizes from 118.1 tex to 16.9 tex (El Mogahzy, 1998). In 2009, 246.8 million ring spindles were installed worldwide...

Joy, Kolbyn Seth

2014-04-23

31

Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: Biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber?cells  

PubMed Central

Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, ?-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(?)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous ?-ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were selected based on marker gene, ?-glucuronidase (GUS), expression. Fibers of 10 transgenic plants expressed phaB gene, while eight plants expressed both phaB and phaC genes. Electron microscopy examination of fibers expressing both genes indicated the presence of electron-lucent granules in the cytoplasm. High pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry evidence suggested that the new polymer produced in transgenic fibers is PHB. Sixty-six percent of the PHB in fibers is in the molecular mass range of 0.6 × 106 to 1.8 × 106 Da. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes of thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics. The rate of heat uptake and cooling was slower in transgenic fibers, resulting in higher heat capacity. These data show that metabolic pathway engineering in cotton may enhance fiber properties by incorporating new traits from other genetic sources. This is an important step toward producing new generation fibers for the textile industry. PMID:11038522

John, Maliyakal?E.; Keller, Greg

1996-01-01

32

Bridging classical and molecular genetics of cotton fiber quality and development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is the single most important natural fiber in the world and represents a vital agricultural commodity in the global economy. Ninety percent of cotton’s value resides in the lint fiber. Cotton fiber quality, defined by the physical properties of the lint fibers, is an important part of the cot...

33

Phytohormone regulation of cotton fiber development in vitro.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our team is interested in the regulation of two time points in cotton fiber development: initiation of fiber growth from ovule epidermal cells and the transition from fiber elongation to secondary wall biogenesis. These two developmental phases determine key properties of fiber quality and yield. C...

34

DISTRIBUTION OF FIBER ELONGATION GENES IN THE UPLAND COTTON GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on cotton fiber transcriptome EST analysis, at least 36,000 genes are needed to produce a fiber. To understand where these genes are located in chromosomes and how they interact is crucial for improving fiber yield and quality. Our goals were to put all the fiber ESTs into integrated genetic...

35

A Cotton Annexin Protein AnxGb6 Regulates Fiber Elongation through Its Interaction with Actin 1  

PubMed Central

Annexins are assumed to be involved in regulating cotton fiber elongation, but direct evidence remains to be presented. Here we cloned six Annexin genes (AnxGb) abundantly expressed in fiber from sea-island cotton (G. barbadense). qRT-PCR results indicated that all six G. barbadense annexin genes were expressed in elongating cotton fibers, while only the expression of AnxGb6 was cotton fiber-specific. Yeast two hybridization and BiFC analysis revealed that AnxGb6 homodimer interacted with a cotton fiber specific actin GbAct1. Ectopic-expressed AnxGb6 in Arabidopsis enhanced its root elongation without increasing the root cell number. Ectopic AnxGb6 expression resulted in more F-actin accumulation in the basal part of the root cell elongation zone. Analysis of AnxGb6 expression in three cotton genotypes with different fiber length confirmed that AnxGb6 expression was correlated to cotton fiber length, especially fiber elongation rate. Our results demonstrated that AnxGb6 was important for fiber elongation by potentially providing a domain for F-actin organization. PMID:23750279

Huang, Yiqun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lida; Zuo, Kaijing

2013-01-01

36

Predicting cotton stelometer fiber strength by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The strength of cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR models ...

37

Obtaining Cotton Fiber Length Distribution from Beard Test Method Part 1 - Theoretical Distribution of Cotton Fiber Length  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By testing a tapered fiber beard, certain fiber length parameters can be obtained rapidly. This study is aimed at exploring the possibility to obtain the entire length distribution of a sample from the beard test method. In Part 1, the mathematical function describing cotton fiber length was searc...

38

Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

39

Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

40

Fiber properties of first and second sympodial position cotton bolls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the nature of fiber properties variation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopies is critical for designing production systems that will provide more uniform fiber to textile mills. Our objective was to compare first branch node position bolls (FP1) and second branch node position bo...

41

A study of programmed cell death in cotton (gosypium hirsutum) fiber  

E-print Network

Ages............... 7 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of Isolated Cotton Fiber DNA??.??? 14 2. 5 DPA Cotton Fiber and Ovule Tissue... by another method. As nuclei extraction methods for cotton had already proven successful, I attempted to extract nuclei from cotton fiber at set 5 DPA increments and used the extracted nuclei for DNA isolation, followed by visualization with agarose gel...

Roche, Meghan C.

2009-05-15

42

Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability  

E-print Network

The temporal system of fruiting on the cotton plant lends itself to bolls at different fruiting sites developing under different environmental conditions and with varied source-sink relationships. To investigate this, intra-plant fiber quality...

Kothari, Neha

2012-10-19

43

Rapid measurement of cotton fiber maturity and fineness by image analysis microscopy using the Cottonscope®  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two of the important cotton fiber quality and processing parameters are fiber maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity is the degree of development of the fiber’s secondary wall, and fiber fineness is a measure of the fiber’s linear density and can be expressed as mass per unit length. A well-known m...

44

The R3-MYB Gene GhCPC Negatively Regulates Cotton Fiber Elongation  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in ?1–5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

2015-01-01

45

Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

46

Effect of Machine-Fiber Interaction on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to the Fiber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in fiber quality and attachment forces between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied at multi stages from the time of harvest through lint cleaning to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 sam...

47

COTTON VARIETY ASSESSMENT FOR FIBER MATURITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year scientists at the LSU AgCenter test cotton varieties at various locations throughout the state. Varieties are grown using practices that follow AgCenter recommendations and conformto commercial operations as closely as possible. One location is the Macon Ridge Research Station in Winnsbo...

48

Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated. PMID:22661979

Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

2012-01-01

49

Gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is an economically important seed trichome and the world's leading natural fiber used in the manufacture of textiles. As a step towards elucidating the genomic organization and distribution of gene networks responsible for cotton fiber development, we investigated the distribution of f...

50

Analysis of gene expression in cotton fiber initials  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. Little is known about the developmental pathway causing fiber to differentiate from ovular epidermal cells even though limits on the number of cells that differentiate into fiber will limit yield. Results A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber initials 1 day post anthesis (dpa). Complementary DNA libraries representing 1 dpa fibers and other cotton tissues were sequenced and analyzed. Assembly of G. hirsutum Expressed Sequenced Tags (ESTs) identified over 11,000 sequences not previously represented in GenBank. New genes identified among these ESTs were represented on microarrays. The microarrays were used to identify genes enriched in fiber initials (1 dpa fibers) and elongating fibers. Analyses of Gene Ontologies (GO) of differentially expressed genes determined that terms associated with the "membranes" were statistically over represented among genes increased in expression in fiber initials and 10 dpa fibers. Staining ovules with a fluorescent dye confirmed an increase in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) occurred in fiber initials on the day of anthesis, persisted through 3 dpa and was absent in a fiberless mutant. Two genes similar to the CAPRICE/TRIPTYCHON (CPC) gene that inhibits differentiation of leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis were also characterized. Genes associated with novel regulation of brassinosterols, GTP mediated signal transduction and cell cycle control and components of a Ca+2 mediated signaling pathway were identified. Staining of cellular Ca+2 indicated that fiber initials had more Ca+2 than other ovule cells supporting a role for Ca+2 in fiber development. Conclusion Analysis of genes expressed in fiber initials identified a unique stage in fiber development characterized by an increase in ER and Ca+2 levels that occurred between 0 and 1 dpa. The gene similar to CPC has a MYB domain but appears to lack a transcription activating domain similar to the Arabisopsis gene. The method used to stain the ER also can be used to count fiber initials and showed fiber cells develop from adjacent cells unlike leaf trichomes. PMID:17506877

Taliercio, Earl W; Boykin, Deborah

2007-01-01

51

Advances in the measurement of cotton fiber maturity using near infrared (NIR) instruments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maturity is an important property of cotton fiber, as it can impact the fiber’s downstream processability and dye performance. Maturity is often indicated indirectly by the fiber’s micronaire, a combination of fiber maturity and fineness. Maturity can be measured directly, but most of these method...

52

Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton\\u000a ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes\\u000a encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi)\\u000a construct. The RNAi according

Yunjing LiDiqiu; Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Xianlong Zhang; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Jiafu Tan; Fenglin Deng

2010-01-01

53

Molecular mapping of QTLs for fiber qualities in three diverse lines in Upland cotton using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of cotton fiber quality is extremely important because of changes in spinning technology. The identification of the stable QTLs affecting fiber traits across different generations will be greatly helpful to be used effectively in molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of cotton cultivars in the future. Using three elite fiber lines of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; John Z. Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Tianzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

54

Dissecting Functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in Cotton Fiber Development by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Most of the world’s natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-01-01

55

Nonleaching antimicrobial cotton fibers for hyaluronic acid adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternary ammonium containing compounds (QACs) such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is commonly employed in hyaluronic acid (HA) production process as an HA precipitating agent. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, a Si containing QAC (Si-QAC) generally used to modify the surface of cotton fibers for the preparation of nonleaching antibacterial textiles, has a chemical structure very similar to CPC. Choline, a natural QAC,

David Wibowo; Cheng-Kang Lee

2010-01-01

56

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

2014-04-24

57

Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses Revealed a Detailed Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway in Brown Cotton Fiber  

PubMed Central

Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs). To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols) were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin), and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively). Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber. PMID:24466041

Xiao, Yue-Hua; Yan, Qian; Ding, Hui; Luo, Ming; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mi; Yao, Dan; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jia; Pei, Yan

2014-01-01

58

Comparison of nir methods for measuring cotton fiber maturity and fineness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maturity and fineness are important cotton fiber properties, as they can impact the fiber’s downstream processability and dye performance. Maturity and fineness are often indicated indirectly by the fiber’s micronaire. Maturity and fineness can be measured directly, but most available methods are ...

59

Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

2012-06-07

60

In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton*  

PubMed Central

Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers. The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of respiratory chain inhibitors, i.e., rotenone and thiourea, on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. After 1 d post-anthesis, ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d. The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions, and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea. Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton. In green cotton fiber, rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 ?mol/L, while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400, 600, 800, 1 000, and 2 000 ?mol/L). Both respiratory inhibitors, however, had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors. It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton. PMID:22661210

Yuan, Shu-na; Malik, Waqas; Hua, Shui-jin; Bibi, Noreen; Wang, Xue-de

2012-01-01

61

Cotton revenue apportioned between lint yield and fiber quality: a precision agriculture perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The issue of cotton fiber quality has been emphasized by breeders, ginners, and textile processors but has not aroused much attention among growers. Whereas many studies have shown in-field variation of cotton fiber quality, the variation observed is usually small compared to that of lint yield, ca...

62

A comparative study on cotton fiber length parameters’ effects on modeling yarn property  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fiber length is one of the key properties of cotton and has important influences on yarn production and yarn quality. Various parameters have been developed to characterize cotton fiber length in the past decades. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of these parameters and their ...

63

Distribution of fiber development genes and transcription factors between At and Dt subgenomes in tetraploid cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the worlds leading natural material used in the manufacture of textiles, cotton fibers are important seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fiber development is determined by large numbers of genes and transcription factors. However, little ...

64

Preliminary comparisons of portable near infrared (nir) instrumentation for laboratory measurements of cotton fiber micronaire  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micronaire is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber. A program was implemented to determine the capabilities of portable Near Infrared (NIR) instrumentation to monitor cotton fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and in/near the field. Previous evaluations on one NIR unit demon...

65

Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

66

Fiber Longitudinal Measurements for Predicting White Speck Contents of Dyed Cotton Fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fiber Image Analysis System (FIAS) was developed to provide an automatic method for measuring cotton maturity from fiber snippets or cross-sections . An uncombed cotton bundle is chopped and sprayed on a microscopic slide. The snippets are imaged sequentially on an microscope and measured with custo...

67

Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

68

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

2012-10-01

69

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

2011-10-01

70

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

2013-10-01

71

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

2010-10-01

72

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

2014-10-01

73

Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (~3 cm in ~20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via class...

74

Measurements of cotton fiber maturity and fineness: method comparisons and fiber growth analyses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maturity (degree of secondary wall development) and fineness (linear density) are important cotton fiber quality and processing properties. Most maturity and fineness measurements are slow, laborious, require chemicals, and/or require expensive instruments. The Cottonscope is a small-footprint instr...

75

Development of a Seed Cotton Fiber Quality Sensing System For Cotton Fiber Quality Mapping  

E-print Network

) wavebands. Both algorithms yielded similar results when used on seed cotton samples. The reflectivity measurement after removing the effects of foreign matter had a strong relationship to standard micronaire measurements (R^2= 0.73 and 0.74 for the ratio...

Schielack, Vincent Paul

2012-02-14

76

The role of fiber property testing in the operations of American cotton mills  

E-print Network

and the instruments for testing fiber properties common? ly used by the textile mills. Part 2 presents case histories of the use of instrument testing of cotton fiber properties in the manufacturing operations of several diversified cotton textile firms. Part 3... to the Census of Manufacturess 1947 there were 1,095 cotton textile establishments with a product value of 4.2 billions of plants had a product valued at 3*3 billions of dollars; 404 cotton yarn thread mills had a product valued at 154 millions of dollars...

Burns, William Henry

2013-10-04

77

Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production.  

PubMed

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength, especially in crop species, based on mutational and gene suppression studies. It remains elusive, however, whether, or to what extent, increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development. We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development. Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development, which reduced seed abortion, hence enhanced seed set, and (3) promoted fiber elongation. In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines, fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas, in elongating fibers, both fructose and glucose levels were increased. Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves, in contrast to developing fibers, it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation, probably through sugar signaling. The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%. However, further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight, indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect. Finally, based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number, a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole, rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth. PMID:22115917

Xu, Shou-Min; Brill, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2012-03-01

78

Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

2014-01-01

79

Understanding the Relationship between Cotton Fiber Properties and Non-Cellulosic Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength, elongation and micronaire were measured. The relationship between the two datasets was established in an integrative manner using linear regression methods. In the conducted analysis, we demonstrated the usefulness of regression based approaches in establishing a relationship between glycan measurements and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further experimental validation. PMID:25383868

Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William G. T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Selbig, Joachim

2014-01-01

80

VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

81

Comparison of NIR and FT-IR spectral models in the prediction of cotton fiber strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strength quality in cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR mod...

82

Effect of cotton fiber properties on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven mechanically pre-cleaned greige cottons of significantly different fiber length, length uniformity or micronaire were processed into nonwoven fabrics using a commercial-grade hydroentanglement system of fabric formation. Results have shown that the pre-cleaned greige cotton of considerably di...

83

13/IMPACT OP BARLY-SBASON APHID POPULATIONS ON COTTON MATURATION, YIBLD AND FIBER QUALITY  

E-print Network

13/IMPACT OP BARLY-SBASON APHID POPULATIONS ON COTTON MATURATION, YIBLD AND FIBER QUALITY L. R, Abstract Manipulative experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between early-season aphid further aug mented by chemical and manual removal of aphid preda tors. Cotton seedlings bearing large

Rosenheim, Jay A.

84

Genetic Variation for Agronomic and Fiber Properties in an Introgressed Recombinant Inbred Population of Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation available for the improvement of fiber properties is restricted in commercial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Resources for fiber improvement exist in G. barbadense L., but intro- gression of traits has been a limited success. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variation and heritability of agro- nomic and fiber traits within a diverse recombinant

Richard G. Percy; Roy G. Cantrell; Jinfa Zhang

2006-01-01

85

Improvement of Work-to-Break Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fibers and Yarn through Breeding and Selection for Improved Fiber Elongation  

E-print Network

The development of cottons with improved fiber quality has been a major objective in breeding programs around the world. Breeders have focused their attention on improving fiber strength and length, and have generally not used fiber elongation...

Osorio Marin, Juliana 1982-

2012-11-12

86

New Uses for Immobilized Enzymes and Substrates on Cotton and Cellulose Fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The design, preparation, and application of both immobilized enzymes and enzyme substrates on cotton fibers for biomedical and specialty applications includes antibacterial fabrics, decontamination wipes, debridement and chronic wound dressing prototypes, and protease detection devices. The molecula...

87

Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved in regulation of fiber cell development is unknown. Results We adopted a deep sequencing approach developed by Solexa (Illumina Inc.) to investigate global expression and complexity of small RNAs during cotton fiber initiation and development. We constructed two small RNA libraries prepared from wild type (WT) and fuzz/lintless (fl Mutant in the WT background) cotton ovules, respectively. Each library was sequenced individually and generated more than 6-7 million short sequences, resulting in a total of over 13 million sequence reads. At least 22 conserved candidate miRNA families including 111 members were identified. Seven families make up the vast majority of expressed miRNAs in developing cotton ovules. In total 120 unique target genes were predicted for most of conserved miRNAs. In addition, we identified 2 cell-type-specific novel miRNA candidates in cotton ovules. Our study has demonstrated significant differences in expression abundance of miRNAs between the wild-type and mutant, and suggests that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially regulate transcripts distinctly involved in cotton fiber development. Conclusion The present study is the first to deep sequence the small RNA population of G. hirsutum ovules where cotton fibers initiate and develop. Millions of unique miRNA sequences ranging from 18~28 nt in length were detected. Our results support the importance of miRNAs in regulating the development of different cell types and indicate that identification of a comprehensive set of miRNAs in cotton fiber cells would facilitate our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for fiber cell initiation and elongation. PMID:19788742

Kwak, Pieter Bas; Wang, Qin Qin; Chen, Xu Sheng; Qiu, Cheng Xiang; Yang, Zhi Min

2009-01-01

88

Isolation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are differentiated epidermal cells originating from the outer integuments of the ovule. To identify genes involved in cotton fiber elonga- tion, we performed subtractive PCR using cDNA prepared from 10 days post anthesis (d.p.a.) wild-type cotton fiber as tester and cDNA from a fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant as driver. We recovered 280 independent cDNA fragments including most of the

Sheng-Jian Ji; Ying-Chun Lu; Jian-Xun Feng; Gang Wei; Jun Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Qiang Fu; Di Liu; Jing-Chu Luo; Yu-Xian Zhu

2003-01-01

89

Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture  

E-print Network

of the journal Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2 jobs and a total business revenue estimated at 40 billion dollars. The consumers of raw cotton fibers are textile mills that process fibers into yarn and thread... AND ITS IMPORTANCE From a textile processing point of view, fiber quality is very important because many fiber properties are strongly correlated with the properties of finished yarns and fabrics and the ease with which these finished products...

Ge, Yufeng

2009-05-15

90

Comparison of the Transcriptome between Two Cotton Lines of Different Fiber Color and Quality  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca2+/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

2014-01-01

91

Comparison of the transcriptome between two cotton lines of different fiber color and quality.  

PubMed

To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca(2+)/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

Gong, Wenfang; He, Shoupu; Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

2014-01-01

92

A Study On The Hidden Portion Of The Fiber Beard In Cotton Lenght Measurements.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The beard method is used to make a fiber beard, and then this beard is scanned to generate a fibrogram. Cotton fiber length parameters can be derived from the fibrogram. The method used for making such a beard impacts the resulted fibrogram, hence could influence the derived length parameters. When ...

93

Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

94

THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN SEMI-DISPOSABLE BLANKETS FROM RECYCLED POLYESTER/COTTON FIBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were given carboxylic acid finish to improve structural stability during use and laundering. A Steady-State Heat Flow meter FOX ...

95

USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

96

Substrate Supply for Cellulose Synthesis and its Stress Sensitivity in the Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on cotton fiber has figured prominently in the first steps toward understanding the metabolic control of cellulose biogenesis under normal and stressed conditions for at least two reasons. First, fiber secondary walls are composed of almost 100% cellulose that is deposited over a period of at least 20 days. Second, these extraordinary seed epidermal trichomes can be readily isolated

Candace H. Haigler

97

Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

98

Analysis of Flavonoids and the Flavonoid Structural Genes in Brown Fiber of Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Backgroud As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. Experimental Design Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3?H, and GhF3?5?H) were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. Result The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL). The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. Conclusions Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers. PMID:23527031

Liu, Yongchang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Xinyu; Jones, Brian Joseph; Sun, Yuqiang; Sun, Jie

2013-01-01

99

Cotton Fiber Cell Walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense Have Differences Related to Loosely-Bound Xyloglucan  

PubMed Central

Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species. PMID:23457548

Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L.; Hahn, Michael G.; Haigler, Candace H.

2013-01-01

100

Regulation of cotton fiber elongation by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes.  

PubMed

Ligon lintless mutant (li1li1) with super-short fibers (5-8 mm in length) and its wild type (Li1Li1) with normal fibers (30 mm in length) were used to study the function of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes during fiber elongation in cotton. Wild-type cotton attained the fiber elongation stage earlier (5 days post-anthesis, DPA), than the Ligon lintless mutant (12 DPA) with a higher fiber elongation velocity of about 1.76 mm/day. Xyloglucan contents in Ligon lintless mutant fibers were 5-fold higher than the wild type during 9-15 DPA. It was also observed that the activity of XTH in wild-type cotton fibers was about 2-fold higher than that of the Ligon lintless mutant with a peak at 12 DPA. DNA blot analysis indicated that the XTH gene in the Ligon lintless mutant and its wild type belonged to a multiple allelic series. However, RNA blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR exhibited an earlier expression (10 DPA) of XTH in wild type as compared to delayed (15 DPA) expression in the Ligon lintless mutant. The study also revealed that 9-15 DPA might be a key phase for upregulation of fiber elongation via increasing XTH activity. Higher XTH activity can cleave down the xyloglucan-cellulose chains thus loosening fiber cell wall and promoting fiber cell elongation in wild type as compared to its mutant. PMID:22057988

Shao, M Y; Wang, X D; Ni, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Malik, W; Zhang, H P; Liu, Y X; Hua, S J

2011-01-01

101

Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and

Rongjun Qu; Changmei Sun; Fang Ma; Ying Zhang; Chunnuan Ji; Qiang Xu; Chunhua Wang; Hou Chen

2009-01-01

102

Adsorption of Au(III) from aqueous solution using cotton fiber\\/chitosan composite adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of cotton fiber\\/chitosan composite adsorbents (SCCH and RCCH) were employed to adsorb Au(III) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of the two fibers for Au(III) were investigated. The experimental results revealed that the adsorption kinetics of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Au(III) was described by the pseudo second-order reaction model. The adsorption isotherm data

Rongjun Qu; Changmei Sun; Minghua Wang; Chunnuan Ji; Qiang Xu; Ying Zhang; Chunhua Wang; Hou Chen; Ping Yin

2009-01-01

103

IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LIPID METABOLITES IN COTTON FIBERS: RECONCILIATION WITH METABOLIC PATHWAY PREDICTIONS FROM DNA DATABASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lipid profiles of cotton fiber cells were determined from total lipid extracts of elongating and maturing cotton fiber cells to see if the membrane lipid composition changed during the phases of rapid cell elongation or secondary cell wall thickening. Total fatty acid content increased during el...

104

A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber.  

PubMed

Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule/fiber units. To reach these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined microscopically. The differences in fiber from NAA and IAA culture were underpinned by changes in the expression patterns of marker genes for three fiber developmental stages (elongation, the transition stage, and secondary wall deposition), and these gene expression patterns were also analyzed quantitatively in plant-grown fiber. The results demonstrate that secondary wall cellulose synthesis: (1) is under strong transcriptional control that is influenced by auxin; and (2) must be specifically characterized in the cotton ovule/fiber culture system given the many protocol variables employed in different laboratories. PMID:19479259

Singh, Bir; Cheek, Hannah D; Haigler, Candace H

2009-07-01

105

Electrical and optical properties of air-stable, iodine-doped natural cotton fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of sodium-hydroxide treatment and iodine doping on the optical and the electrical properties of cotton fibers is investigated by using photoluminescence (PL), as well as photoconductivity, measurements. The iodine doping results in a quenching of the PL and an enhancement of the photoconductivity due to the photo-induced charge transfer between the dopants and the cotton fibers. The conductivity of the iodine-doped cellulose fibers shows a significant enhancement by more than five orders of magnitude as compared to that of the undoped samples. A good correlation is found between the changes in the fiber's morphology and the electrical and optical properties of the fiber, which opens interesting perspectives for molecular donor-acceptor device applications.

Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Jeon, H. C.; Kang, T. W.; Mamadalimov, A. T.

2014-02-01

106

Flame retardant cotton fibers produced using novel synthesized halogen-free phosphoramide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Flame retardant cotton fibers were successfully produced using five new nanosized phosphoramide compounds synthesized by ultrasonic method. The (1)H NMR spectra of compounds 1-3 illustrate (3)J(H,H)cis and (3)J(H,H)trans corresponding to the splittings of cis and trans protons present in the CHCH2 bond. Comparing the char lengths of cotton fibers treated with phosphoramides 1-5 indicates that the samples with greater degree of grafting (DG) provide smaller char lengths so that the least and the greatest char lengths are observed for the treated fibers with phosphoramides 1 and 5, respectively. The very close DG and char lengths of compounds 1 and 2 can be described based on their chemical structures containing 4-nitroaniline and 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl aniline groups that both can release electrons through their resonance effects to their corresponding PN bonds and enhance the PN system synergistic effect. The TGA/DSC analyses on the treated fibers revealed that the maximum weight losses at 800°C are occurred within the range 43.52% (for fiber treated with 1) to 56.37 (for fiber treated with 5) which are all smaller than that of the raw fiber (56.83%). The in vitro antibacterial activity experiments on phosphoramides 1-5 displayed the greatest and the least antibacterial activities for compounds 2 and 4, respectively. Furthermore, when these phosphoramides are applied on the cotton fibers, they also demonstrate the above order for the antibacterial activities. PMID:25542124

Shariatinia, Zahra; Javeri, Nasrin; Shekarriz, Shahla

2015-03-15

107

The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism  

PubMed Central

A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (“cotton fiber”). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with ?22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long spinnable fibers in cotton was accompanied by novel expression of genes assisting in the regulation of reactive oxygen species levels. Our data suggest a model for the evolutionary origin of a novel morphology through differential gene regulation causing prolongation of an ancestral developmental program. PMID:18248099

Hovav, Ran; Udall, Joshua A; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Hovav, Einat; Flagel, Lex; Hu, Guanjing; Wendel, Jonathan F

2008-01-01

108

Ultrastructural effects of cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides on developing cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Cotton fibers are often utilized as a model system to investigate cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall elongation. In this study, we grew cotton fibers in vitro, with ovules dissected at day zero post anthesis as the explant source, in the presence of three herbicides that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis. Cultures were sampled for electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry 1-2 days after beginning the treatments. After dichlobenil treatment, the fibers were much shorter than the controls and assumed a variety of abnormal shapes, from shortened versions of the control fiber to nearly spherical. The inner layers of the fiber wall often contained juxtaposed electron-translucent and -transparent areas; this layer reacted strongly with antibodies to callose. Cellulase-gold labeling in these newly developed fibers grown in the presence of dichlobenil was present at only about 3% of the control labeling. After treatment with either isoxaben or flupoxam, the fibers assumed spherical shapes and frequently (more than 60% of fibers) exhibited a new cell plate within the fiber, indicating that cell division had occurred, a process that rarely occurred in the controls. Unlike the dichlobenil-treated fibers, fibers grown in the presence of isoxaben or flupoxam contained an extensive accumulation of chiefly deesterified pectins, replacing the entire wall with an elaborated version of the pectin sheath found in control cotton fibers. These data indicate that all three herbicides are effective disrupters of cellulose biosynthesis and cause radical changes in cell wall structure and composition. Moreover, these data indicate that the composition of the walls may influence indirectly cell cycle kinetics, keeping these fiber cells in a more meristematic mode. PMID:11732201

Vaughn, K C; Turley, R B

2001-01-01

109

Molecular tagging of a major QTL for fiber strength in Upland cotton and its marker-assisted selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a Gossypium anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized by good fiber quality properties, to identify molecular markers linked to fiber-strength QTLs. By the use of F2 and

Tianzhen Zhang; Youlu Yuan; John Yu; Wangzhen Guo; Russell J. Kohel

2003-01-01

110

Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.  

PubMed

Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated. PMID:16075204

Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H

2005-10-01

111

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber quality and yield trait by RIL approach in Upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of cotton fiber quality has become more important because of changes in spinning technology. Stable quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality will enable molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of future cotton\\u000a cultivars. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map consisting of 156 loci covering 1,024.4 cM was constructed using\\u000a a series of recombinant inbred lines

Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Qiongxian Lu; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; Tianzhen Zhang

2007-01-01

112

Independent Control of Fiber Development and Nitrate Reduction in Cultured Cotton Ovules 1  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence implicate ammonium as an important factor in the growth and development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ovules cultured in vitro. For example, ovules cultured at 28 C require indoleacetic acid (IAA) and either ammonium or gibberellic acid (GA3) in the medium for fiber development, whereas ovules cultured at 34 C require only IAA. Because of this effect of ammonium supply, it seemed possible that hormones or increased temperature were also promoting the availability of reduced nitrogen by induction of increased nitrate reductase activity in the ovules. This possibility was tested. In vivo, where ovules received mostly reduced nitrogen and very little nitrate, they did not display appreciable nitrate reductase activity even when nitrate was forced into the ovary wall by transpiration. After initiation of culture, nitrate became freely available to ovules and their nitrate reductase activity increased rapidly. Treatment with ammonium, GA3, IAA, or increased temperature had no effect upon this induction. It is concluded that ammonium, hormone, and temperature effects on fiber development are independent of the availability of reduced nitrogen as a general substrate for growth. PMID:16660693

Beasley, Charles A.; Egli, Margaret A.; Chang, Shu-Ray; Radin, John W.

1979-01-01

113

A Precision Agriculture Approach to Managing Cotton Fiber Quality as a Function of Variable Soil Properties  

E-print Network

better understanding of how soil water holding capacity affects cotton lint yield and quality can result in improved management practices that can maximize fiber quality while minimizing inputs. The objectives of this study were to 1) create... management zones using a soil ECa map, 2) test the usefulness of this map using measurements of lint quality and lint quantity in both irrigated and dryland fields, and 3) determine a relationship between soil water holding capacity fiber quality...

Stanislav, Scott

2011-08-04

114

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

115

YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) deficiency decreases yield in cotton, and may thus influence fiber quality. Plants were grown outdoors in large pots using half-strength Hoagland's (control) solution via a drip-irrigation system until some three-row plots received a restricted supply of N. The five treatments were co...

116

Seasonal Dynamics of Bacterial Colonization of Cotton Fiber and Effects of Moisture on Growth of Bacteria within the Cotton Boll  

PubMed Central

A highly replicated 3-year field study was conducted to determine the seasonal patterns of bacterial colonization of cotton fiber from the time of dehiscence of the bolls (the point at which the bolls just begin to open) through harvest and commercial ginning. Bacterial numbers on fiber samples from 16 plots were determined by dilution pour plating with tryptic soy agar containing cycloheximide, and numbers of gram-negative bacteria were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar containing vancomycin and cycloheximide. Populations of bacteria varied from year to year, but in all three seasons the pattern of colonization was generally a pattern consisting of a rapid increase following opening of the bolls and a more or less stable number thereafter throughout the growing season. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 50% or more of the recoverable bacterial population. We hypothesized that the luxuriant bacterial flora developed as a result of the availability of sufficient free water in the bolls to allow bacterial proliferation with the carbon sources remaining after fiber maturation. Therefore, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the threshold moisture level allowing growth of bacteria on fiber in the bolls. Bacterial proliferation occurred when as little as 2% moisture was added to air-dried fiber. Using simulated bolls, we demonstrated bacterial growth resulting from dew formation on fiber held in controlled-humidity chambers. PMID:16348921

Zuberer, D. A.; Kenerley, C. M.

1993-01-01

117

AUTOMATED COTTON SAMPLER FOR DETERMINATION OF FIBER QUALITY SPATIAL VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of accurate prescription maps for site-specific management of crops requires knowledge of the spatially registered crop profitability. In cotton (Gossypium L. sps.), the quality of the crop alters the price paid for the lint, and hence is an important determinant of the net profit. Cotto...

118

Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

119

Measurements of seed coat fragments in cotton fibers and fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed coat fragments (SCF) are parts of a seed coat that have been broken from the surface of either mature or immature seeds during mechanical processing. SCF can cause spinning problems and fabric defects, which ultimately cause losses to the cotton industry. The objective of this study was to dev...

120

Stresses resulting from compression of bulk cotton lint fibers  

E-print Network

materials to determine if bale tie breakage would occur. Young's modulus of bulk lint cotton was found to be 9 MPa and the Poisson's ratio was 0. 1, while 12 MPa was recorded for the shear modulus. The FEA analysis showed that round steel ties, at six ties...

Chimbombi, Ezekiel Maswe

2012-06-07

121

MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND ITS MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a Gossypium anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized by good fiber quality...

122

USE OF PRIMITIVE ACCESSION OF COTTON AS SOURCES OF GENES FOR IMPROVING YIELD COMPONENTS AND FIBER PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The breeding of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to improve lint yield and fiber quality is an on going processes. To meet textile mill requirements and producer demands both fiber quality and lint yield must be increased. This study was conducted to compare yield and fiber properties when exotic li...

123

MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND INTO MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as good fiber quality properti...

124

Elevated growing degree days influence transition stage timing during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development and result in increased fiber strength  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing degree days required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development were recorded for four growing seasons and compared with fiber quality measurements and gene expression data indicative of different stages of fiber development. Comparative fiber bundle strength differences betw...

125

THE IMPACT OF COTTON FIBER WAX, METALS AND OTHER NATURALLY OCCURING NONCELLULOSIC MATERIALS ON YARN PROCESSING PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface extractable noncellulosic materials and metal contents on a series of single season domestically grown cottons that had been previously processing by ring and rotor yarn production systems were determined. Resultant concentrations were correlated with standard fiber High Volume Instrument (...

126

Molecular Basis of Quantitative Genetics Revealed by Cloning and Analysis of 474 Genes Controlling Fiber Length in Cotton  

E-print Network

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a leading textile crop in the world, generating an annual economic benefit of over hundred billion USD. However, few genes controlling fiber quality and yield traits have been cloned and characterized to date...

Liu, Yun Hua

2014-07-11

127

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

128

Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

1999-10-01

129

Molecular Characterization of the Cotton GhTUB1 Gene That Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber1  

PubMed Central

Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the ovule surface within about 16 d after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but so far, little is known about how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development. To investigate gene expression patterns in fiber, a cDNA, GhTUB1, encoding ?-tubulin was isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library. The analyses of RNA northern-blot hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that GhTUB1 transcripts preferentially accumulated at high levels in fiber, at low levels in ovules at the early stage of cotton boll development, and at very low levels in other tissues of cotton. The corresponding GhTUB1 gene including the promoter region was isolated by screening a cotton genomic DNA library. To demonstrate the specificity of the GhTUB1 promoter, the 5?-flanking region including the promoter and 5?-untranslated region was fused with the ?-glucuronidase reporter gene. The expression of the reporter chimera was examined in a large number of transgenic cotton plants. Histochemical assays demonstrated that GhTUB1::?-glucuronidase fusion genes were expressed preferentially at high levels in fiber and primary root tip of 1- to 3-d-old seedlings and at low levels in other tissues such as ovule, pollen, seedling cotyledon, and root basal portion. The results suggested that the GhTUB1 gene may play a distinct and required role in fiber development. In addition, the GhTUB1 promoter may have great potential for cotton improvement by genetic engineering. PMID:12376634

Li, Xue-Bao; Cai, Lin; Cheng, Ning-Hui; Liu, Jian-Wei

2002-01-01

130

Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile.  

PubMed

This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G(#)), enthalpy (?H(#)), and entropy (?S(#)) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9kJmol(-1) indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process. PMID:24882703

Ismail, L F M; Sallam, H B; Abo Farha, S A; Gamal, A M; Mahmoud, G E A

2014-10-15

131

Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G#), enthalpy (?H#), and entropy (?S#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

2014-10-01

132

Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

133

Molecular analysis of late-stage fiber development in upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is the world's most important textile and the number one value-added crop. It plays a crucial role in the economy of Texas – supporting close to 50,000 jobs and supplying $2 billion to the state economy. Its role is even more evident in the South Plains of Texas, which supplies approximately...

134

Deep Sequencing Reveals Differences in the Transcriptional Landscapes of Fibers from Two Cultivated Species of Cotton  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton. PMID:23166598

Lacape, Jean-Marc; Claverie, Michel; Vidal, Ramon O.; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Guimarães Pereira, Gonçalo A.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pré, Martial; Llewellyn, Danny; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Jacobs, John; Dereeper, Alexis; Huguet, Stéphanie; Giband, Marc; Lanaud, Claire

2012-01-01

135

Genes Involved in Osmoregulation during Turgor-Driven Cell Expansion of Developing Cotton Fibers Are Differentially Regulated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single-celled tri- chomes that synchronously undergo a phase of rapid cell expansion, then a phase including secondary cell wall deposition, and finally maturation. To determine if there is coordinated regulation of gene expression during fiber expansion, we analyzed the expression of components involved in turgor regulation and a cytoskeletal protein by measuring levels of

Lawrence B. Smart; Fakrieh Vojdani; Masayoshi Maeshima; Thea A. Wilkins

1998-01-01

136

Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

137

Assessment of the level of microbial contamination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

138

Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use. PMID:19201531

Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou

2009-08-15

139

High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO2 nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers.  

PubMed

In this study, TiO2 nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO2-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO2 was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (qm) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and qm of TiO2-CCFs-1000 (9.0mg/g) was 6-7 times higher than that of TiO2 nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu)4 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO2-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO2 immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO2-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron-hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO2 on carbon fibers for environmental remediation. PMID:24220193

Wang, Bin; Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Michael K H

2013-12-15

140

Rapid Cotton Fiber Micronaire Measurements with Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy-From the Laboratory to the Cotton Field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise. Most of the cotton produced in the U.S. today is exported globally, primarily to China. Improved and fast response quality measurement systems are needed in the global marketplace to assess the quality of cotton. One key need is the development of ...

141

GbPDF1 Is Involved in Cotton Fiber Initiation via the Core cis-Element HDZIP2ATATHB21[W  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber cells are seed trichomes derived from the epidermal layer of the cotton seed coat. The molecular components responsible for regulating fiber cell differentiation have not been fully elucidated. A cotton PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 gene (GbPDF1) was found to be expressed preferentially during fiber initiation and early elongation, with highest accumulation in fiber cells 5 d post anthesis. PDF1 silencing caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentage compared with the wild type, indicating that the gene is required for cotton fiber development. Further analysis showed that a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide occurred in the RNA interference transgenic cotton lines. Meanwhile, the expression of several genes related to ethylene and pectin synthesis or sugar transport during cotton fiber growth was found to be significantly reduced in the PDF1-suppressed cotton. Three proteins interacting with GbPDF1 in yeast and in planta might involve cellular signaling or metabolism. GbPDF1 promoter::GUS constructs in transgenic cotton were predominantly expressed in the epidermis of ovules and developing fibers. Progressive deletions of the GbPDF1 promoter showed that a 236-bp promoter fragment was sufficient for basal GbPDF1 transcription in cotton. Mutation of putative regulatory sequences showed that HDZIP2ATATHB2, an element within the fragment, was essential for PGbPDF1-1 expression. The binding activity between this cis-element and nuclear extracts from fiber-bearing cotton ovules at 5 d post anthesis was specific. We conclude that GbPDF1 plays a critical role together with interaction partners in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and steady biosynthesis of ethylene and pectin during fiber development via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2. PMID:22123900

Deng, Fenglin; Tu, Lili; Tan, Jiafu; Li, Yang; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2012-01-01

142

The Li2 Mutation Results in Reduced Subgenome Expression Bias in Elongating Fibers of Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to evaluate the effects of the Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) short fiber mutation on transcriptomes of both subgenomes of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as compared to its near-isogenic wild type. Sequencing was performed on 4 libraries from developing fibers of Li2 mutant and wild type near-isogenic lines at the peak of elongation followed by mapping and PolyCat categorization of RNA-seq data to the reference D5 genome (G. raimondii) for homeologous gene expression analysis. The majority of homeologous genes, 83.6% according to the reference genome, were expressed during fiber elongation. Our results revealed: 1) approximately two times more genes were induced in the AT subgenome comparing to the DT subgenome in wild type and mutant fiber; 2) the subgenome expression bias was significantly reduced in the Li2 fiber transcriptome; 3) Li2 had a significantly greater effect on the DT than on the AT subgenome. Transcriptional regulators and cell wall homeologous genes significantly affected by the Li2 mutation were reviewed in detail. This is the first report to explore the effects of a single mutation on homeologous gene expression in allotetraploid cotton. These results provide deeper insights into the evolution of allotetraploid cotton gene expression and cotton fiber development. PMID:24598808

Naoumkina, Marina; Thyssen, Gregory; Fang, David D.; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Florane, Christopher; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Page, Justin T.; Udall, Joshua A.

2014-01-01

143

Independent replication of mitochondrial genes supports the transcriptional program in developing fiber cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants exist both as a "master circle" chromosome and as numerous subgenomic sublimons that are generated by intramolecular recombination. Differential stability or replication of these sublimons allows individual mitochondrial gene copy numbers to vary independently between different cell types and developmental stages. Our objective was to determine the relationship between mitochondrial gene copy number and transcript abundance in the elongating fiber cells of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). We compared RNA and DNA from cotton fiber cells at five developmental time points from early elongation through secondary cell wall thickening from the Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) short fiber mutant and its wild type near isogenic line (NIL) DP5690. Mitochondrial gene copy number decreased from 3 to 8-DPA in the developing cotton fiber cells while transcript levels remained low. As secondary cell wall biosynthesis began in developing fibers, the expression levels and copy numbers of mitochondrial genes involved in energy production and respiration were up-regulated in wild type cotton DP5690. However, the short fiber mutant Li2, failed to increase expression of these genes, which include three subunits of ATP synthase, atp1, atp8 and atp9 and two cytochrome genes cox1 and cob. At the same time, Li2 failed to increase the copy numbers of these highly expressed genes. Surprisingly, we found that when mitochondrial genes were highly transcribed, they also had very high copy numbers. This observation suggests that in developing cotton fibers, increased mitochondrial sublimon replication may support increases in gene transcription. PMID:24768176

Thyssen, Gregory N; Song, Xianliang; Naoumkina, Marina; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fang, David D

2014-07-01

144

Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections  

PubMed Central

Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

2015-01-01

145

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ? Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ? The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

Zou, Yunling, E-mail: zouyunling1999@126.com [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

2012-11-15

146

Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton  

PubMed Central

Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from ?22 to ?61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

Edwards, J. Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

2014-01-01

147

Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton.  

PubMed

Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from -22 to -61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

Edwards, J Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

2014-01-01

148

A Potential Role for CHH DNA Methylation in Cotton Fiber Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H?=?A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August. PMID:23593241

Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

2013-01-01

149

BREEDING AND GENETICS Sources of Fiber Strength in the U.S. Upland Cotton Crop from 1980 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop had shown remarkable improvements in fiber strength until the late 1990s. At the same time, concerns about the lack of genetic diversity had been raised. The objective of this study was to discern the sources of improved fiber strength and decline during the 1980s and 1990s. Using data from the USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service

Daryl T. Bowman; Osman A. Gutiérrez

2003-01-01

150

Cotton Benzoquinon Reductase: Up-Regulation During Early Fiber Development and Heterologous Expresson and Characterization in Pichia Pastoris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Benzoquinone reductase (BR) is an enzyme which catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage. These proteins were excis...

151

Two-dimensional attenuated total reflection infrared correlation spectroscopy study of desorption process of water-soaked cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of native cotton fibers with various water contents. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity ...

152

Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

153

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 × G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

154

Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber development undergoes rapid and dynamic changes in a single cell type, from fiber initiation, elongation, primary and secondary wall biosynthesis, to fiber maturation. Previous studies showed that cotton genes encoding putative MYB transcription factors and phytohormone responsive factors were induced during early stages of ovule and fiber development. Many of these factors are targets of microRNAs (miRNAs)

Mingxiong Pang; Andrew W Woodward; Vikram Agarwal; Xueying Guan; Misook Ha; Vanitharani Ramachandran; Xuemei Chen; Barbara A Triplett; David M Stelly; Z Jeffrey Chen

2009-01-01

155

Identification and characterization of cotton genes involved in fuzz-fiber development.  

PubMed

Cotton fuzz fibers, like Arabidopsis trichomes, are elongated unicells. It is postulated that a transcriptional complex of GLABRA1 (GL1), GLABRA3 (GL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTAGLABRA1 (TTG1) might be in existence in Arabidopsis as evidenced by their physical interaction in yeast, and the complex regulates expression of GLABRA2 (GL2) controlling trichome cell differentiation; it is also assumed that TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC) counteract the complex formation in neighboring cells. Here, the homologs GaMYB23 (a homolog of GL1), GaDEL65 (a homolog of GL3), GaTTG1, GaCPC and GaTRY were identified in Gossypium arboreum. We show that GaMYB23 can bind to and activate the promoters of GaCPC, GaGL2 and GaTRY, and that GaMYB23, GaTRY and GaTTG1 could interact with GaDEL65 in yeast and in planta. In situ analysis showed that GaMYB23, GaGL2, GaDEL65, and GaTRY were predominantly expressed in fuzz fiber, but GaTRY proteins were primarily found in undeveloped epidermal cells. A G. arboreum fuzzless mutant with consistently high level GaMYB23 transcript has lost the detectable GaMYB23-promoter of GaGL2 complex, corresponding to sharply reduced transcription of GaGL2. Our results support that cotton homologs to the genetic molecules regulating Arabidopsis trichome differentiation interacted in the epidermis of ovules and the redundant GaMYB23 serves as a negative regulator in fuzz-fiber patterning. PMID:23710824

Wang, Gaskin; Zhao, Guo-Hong; Jia, Yin-Hua; Du, Xiong-Ming

2013-07-01

156

LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER AND TEXTILE QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE WRAPPED COTTON BALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

157

A transcript profiling approach reveals an abscisic acid specific glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) induced in developing fiber of Ligon lintless-2 mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed i...

158

The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W  

PubMed Central

LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

2013-01-01

159

Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Cotton-made Activated Carbon Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon (AC) is an important functional material due to its outstanding adsorption ability. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has many advantages over other types of AC: It mainly possesses micropores and has large surface area. Its fibrous structure assures fast intraparticle adsorption kinetics. Finally, it can be made into felt and fabric forms, which would not hinder gas flow and could be easily recollected after use. However, ACF is expensive due to the lack of low cost precursor so its application is restricted. This work aims to use low cost cotton fiber as an ACF precursor. In this work, ACF was successfully synthesized by using raw cotton via ZnCl2 activation. The effects of the sintering temperature during activation, the ZnCl2 concentration during infiltration and the post-treatment after activation on our samples were studied. Our ACF products were characterized via various methods. It was found that our samples retained the fibrous structure of cotton. They contained trace of carbon-oxygen surface groups and were mainly composed of micropores. Their BET surface area (SBET) and pore volume (Vpore) were up to ˜2050 m2/g and 1 cm3/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of our samples in the Methylene blue (MB) adsorption were studied. The adsorption was very fast and almost reached equilibrium after an hour. Because of their high SBET, the saturated MB capacity in our ACF was found to be 597 mg/g and higher than other commercial AC. The effect of solution pH value on MB adsorption capacity was studied. We found that the basic condition favored MB adsorption while acidic condition lowered the adsorption ability. Adsorption kinetics, saturated adsorption volume (Vads) and desorption process of moisture, ethanol vapor, methanol vapor and acetone vapor by our samples were also evaluated. The adsorption of methanol vapor, ethanol vapor and acetone vapor reached equilibrium within 10 minutes. Our sample also adsorbed moisture faster than commercial silica gel. Less than 200 °C was required for complete desorption of these adsorbed species. Vads of our samples was up to 1 cm3/g and higher than other related works.

Chiu, Ka Lok

160

Weight Increase of Cotton Fibers During Swelling in Alkali as a Sensitive Measure of Cellulose Degradation in Ruminal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Weight increase of cotton fiber in an 18% NaOH solution, termed “alkali-centrifuge” or “AC” value, was measured after incubation of either 1 g or 100 mg of the fiber in ruminal fluid. The AC response was a sensitive measure of cellulolytic activity. Thus, fiber incubated at 21 and 51°C exhibited major AC increases even when direct weight losses of the unswollen fiber were less than 2%. Similarly, progressive additions of acetic acid to ruminal fluid progressively depressed both AC response and direct weight loss, but the former was still easily measurable when the latter was not. In tightly closed, completely filled vials with high ratio of ruminal fluid to sample, AC increased greatly and rapidly, i.e., in 6 h. This time could be further reduced to 2 h by overnight “preincubation” of the ruminal fluid with cotton fiber before starting the test incubation. Certain surfactants used to aid wetting of the fiber had a low but measurable potency in inhibiting cellulose digestion, but other surfactants were non-inhibitory. The AC response was maintained when ruminal fluid was diluted with an equal amount of McDougall's “artificial saliva” solution. PMID:16345251

Simpson, Marion E.; Marsh, Paul B.; Merola, George V.

1977-01-01

161

Impact of Cotton Harvesting and Storage Methods on Seed and Fiber Quality  

E-print Network

, sticks, and leaves. Harvested cotton is placed in modules for storage prior to ginning. Recent developments in the industry include on-board module builders that package seed cotton as they harvest. This leads to three methods of storage: 1...

Hamann, Mark Thomas

2012-02-14

162

Carbon fiber aerogel made from raw cotton: a novel, efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils and organic solvents.  

PubMed

Twisted carbon fiber (TCF) aerogel with good selective sorption is produced in large scale by using raw cotton as the precursor. TCF aerogel shows highly efficient sorption of organic liquids (pump oil: up to 192 times its own weight; chloroform: up to 115 times its own weight). Moreover, it could be regenerated many times without decrease of sorption capacity by distillation, combustion or squeezing, which depends on the type of pollutants. PMID:24038404

Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Zongyou; Cao, Xiehong; Xie, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Bo; Chen, Fangtao; Yang, Qingling; Bu, Xinyang; Lu, Xuehong; Sun, Litao; Zhang, Hua

2013-11-01

163

Creation of a set of reference material for cotton fiber maturity measurements.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It was the goal of the authors to create a set of reference cottons for maturity measurements. To achieve this they selected 104 cotton bales representing the two principal cultivated species. The vast majority of the bales orginated in the USA, but some foreign-grown cotton bales werew also selec...

164

Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature seeds with no visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. The Li2 mutant phenotype provides an ideal model system to study fiber elongation. To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li2 mutant fibers were compared to wild-type fibers during development. Results Principal component analysis of metabolites from GC-MS data separated Li2 mutant fiber samples from WT fiber samples at the WT elongation stage, indicating that the Li2 mutation altered the metabolome of the mutant fibers. The observed alterations in the Li2 metabolome included significant reductions in the levels of detected free sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, and sugar phosphates. Biological processes associated with carbohydrate biosynthesis, cell wall loosening, and cytoskeleton were also down-regulated in Li2 fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as a signaling factor in many organisms, was significantly elevated in mutant fibers. Higher accumulation of 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate suggested higher nitrate assimilation in the Li2 line. Transcriptional activation of genes involved in nitrogen compound metabolism along with changes in the levels of nitrogen transport amino acids suggested re-direction of carbon flow into nitrogen metabolism in Li2 mutant fibers. Conclusions This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of metabolite and transcript changes in response to the Li2 mutation in elongating fibers. A number of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic processes of cotton fiber elongation. PMID:23497242

2013-01-01

165

A Specialized Outer Layer of the Primary Cell Wall Joins Elongating Cotton Fibers into Tissue-Like Bundles1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the world's dominant renewable textile fiber, and cotton fiber is valued as a research model because of its extensive elongation and secondary wall thickening. Previously, it was assumed that fibers elongated as individual cells. In contrast, observation by cryo-field emission-scanning electron microscopy of cotton fibers developing in situ within the boll demonstrated that fibers elongate within tissue-like bundles. These bundles were entrained by twisting fiber tips and consolidated by adhesion of a cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML). The fiber bundles consolidated via the CFML ultimately formed a packet of fiber around each seed, which helps explain how thousands of cotton fibers achieve their great length within a confined space. The cell wall nature of the CFML was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, including polymer epitope labeling. Toward the end of elongation, up-regulation occurred in gene expression and enzyme activities related to cell wall hydrolysis, and targeted breakdown of the CFML restored fiber individuality. At the same time, losses occurred in certain cell wall polymer epitopes (as revealed by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling) and sugars within noncellulosic matrix components (as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized neutral and acidic glycosyl residues). Broadly, these data show that adhesion modulated by an outer layer of the primary wall can coordinate the extensive growth of a large group of cells and illustrate dynamic changes in primary wall structure and composition occurring during the differentiation of one cell type that spends only part of its life as a tissue. PMID:19369592

Singh, Bir; Avci, Utku; Eichler Inwood, Sarah E.; Grimson, Mark J.; Landgraf, Jeff; Mohnen, Debra; Sørensen, Iben; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Willats, William G.T.; Haigler, Candace H.

2009-01-01

166

A rapid measurement for cotton breeders of maturity and fineness from developing and mature fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fiber’s maturity and fineness are important fiber properties that can impact the fiber’s downstream processing and the quality of yarn and fabric. The Cottonscope is a new instrument that simultaneously measures the fiber’s maturity and fineness using a very small amount of fiber sample. Previ...

167

Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.  

PubMed

The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel. PMID:22420262

Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

2012-02-01

168

Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes. PMID:19815688

Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

169

Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.  

PubMed

A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB. PMID:14740167

Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y

2004-04-01

170

Fiber Characteristics and Spinning Performance of Mechanically-Stripped Cotton on the High Plains.  

E-print Network

of the 1949 and 1951 crops were on -3 cotton machine-stripped after frost. The samples of the 1 crop also included cotton hand-pulled before frost. All samples of the 1949 crop and 60 percent of those of the crop were from field-stored machine...-stripped seed cotton. samples were obtained at or near the time of ginning n storage stocks. Hand pulling of cotton before frost is more selective and ~nc~udes only the more mature bolls. Stripping after frost is the kind of mechanical harvesting done...

Paulson, W. E.; Hessler, L. E.; Ward, J. M.

1953-01-01

171

Structural characterization of genes corresponding to cotton fiber mRNA, E6: reduced E6 protein in transgenic plants by antisense gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes, each corresponding to fiber mRNA E6, were isolated from cotton cultivars Coker 312 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Sea Island (G. barbadense L.). E6 is one of the predominant fiber-specific mRNAs present during early fiber development. The distinguishing feature of the nucleotide-derived E6 protein is the presence of a motif where a dimer, Ser-Gly, is repeated several times. Two

Maliyakal E. John

1996-01-01

172

Lint Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter is generated in large quantities in the same south- eastern U.S. states where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a domi- nant field crop, but is rarely used as a primary cotton fertilizer partly because of lack of adequate management recommendations. This re- search was conducted to determine adequate rates of broiler litter and whether supplementation with inorganic N

H. Tewolde; K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe; A. Adeli; J. R. Johnson

2007-01-01

173

Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

174

Genetic Improvement of Upper Half Mean Length and Short Fiber Content in Upland Cotton, Gosspium hirsutum  

E-print Network

Desired base upper half mean length (UHML) of upland cotton (G. hirsutum) in the U.S. has been set a 27.0 mm and is shorter than the standard set by the international community. Upland cotton genotypes from China, South Africa, West Africa...

Beyer, Benjamin

2012-10-19

175

COTTON PRODUCTION WITH COVER CROPS: ALDICARB AND NITROGEN AFFECT YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage with cover crops is gaining wide acceptance for cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) production, but little is known about the effects of habitat manipulation on thrips (Frankliniella sp.) populations and the effects of thrips damage on cotton yield and quality. The objectives of this...

176

Smith-Doxey Classification, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade.  

E-print Network

or we mailed a questionnaire in June 1955 and were asked the following questions: 1. To what extent are Texas cotton merchants buying cotton on the basis of Smith-Dox classification and what are their chief criticisms of this classing service? 2... shippers, f.0.b. merchants, spot brokers and mill buyers. Of the 65 firms, 53 indicated they purchase some cotton on Smith-Doxey classification and about 38 percent of their total purchases were made on the basis of "green cards" in 1951. Thirty...

Hunt, Robert L.

1956-01-01

177

Synthesis of highly conductive cotton fiber/nanostructured silver/polyaniline composite membranes for water sterilization application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive composite membranes (ECCMs) composed of cotton fibers, conductive polyaniline and silver nanostructures were prepared and utilized as electrifying filter membranes for water sterilization. Silver metal and polyaniline were formed in situ during the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of silver nitrate as weak oxidizing agent. The reaction was characterized by long induction period and the morphology of the obtained ECCMs contained silver nanoparticles and silver flakes of 500-1000 nm size giving a membrane electrical resistance in the range of 10-30 Ohm sq-1. However, when dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as an auxiliary reducing agent to trigger and speed up the polymerization reaction, silver nanostructures such as wires, ribbons, plates were formed and were found to be embedded between polyaniline coating and cotton fibers. These ECCMs exhibited a slightly lower resistance in the range of 2-10 Ohm sq.-1 and, therefore, were utilized for the fabrication of a bacteria inactivation device. When water samples containing 107-108 CFU mL-1 E. coli bacteria were passed through the prepared ECCMs by gravity force, with a filtration rate of 0.8 L h-1 and at an electric potential of 20 V, the fabricated device showed 92% bacterial inactivation efficiency. When the treated solution was passed through the membrane for a second time under the same conditions, no E. coli bacteria was detected.

Abu-Thabit, Nedal Y.; Basheer, Rafil A.

2014-09-01

178

QTL alleles for improved fiber quality from a wild Hawaiian cotton, Gossypium tomentosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen backcross-self families from crosses between two Gossypium hirsutum recurrent parent lines (CA3084, CA3093) and G. tomentosum were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. A total of 28 QTLs for fiber quality\\u000a traits were identified (P < 0.001), including four for fiber elongation, eight for fiber fineness, four for fiber length, four for fiber strength,\\u000a six for

Zhengsheng Zhang; Junkang Rong; Vijay N. Waghmare; Peng W. Chee; O. Lloyd May; Robert J. Wright; John R. Gannaway; Andrew H. Paterson

179

Two cotton fiber-associated glycosyltransferases, GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, function in hemicellulose glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during plant development.  

PubMed

Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent in dicot secondary cell walls. Cell wall composition of cotton fiber changes dynamically throughout development. Not only the amounts but also the molecular sizes of the hemicellulosic polysaccharides show substantial changes during cotton fiber development. However, none of the genes encoding glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for synthesizing xylan have been isolated and characterized in cotton fiber. In this study, we applied a bioinformatics approach and identified two putative GTs from cotton, designated GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, which belong to the CAZy GT43 family and are closely related to Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. We show that GhGT43A1 is highly and preferentially expressed in 15 and 20?days post-anthesis (dpa) cotton fiber, whereas GhGT43C1 is ubiquitously expressed in most organs, with especially high expression in 15 dpa fiber and hypocotyl. Complementation analysis demonstrates that GhG43A1 and GhGT43C1 are orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 in Arabidopsis results in increased xylan content. We also show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 leads to more cellulose deposition. These findings suggest that GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1 likely participate in xylan synthesis during fiber development. PMID:24641584

Li, Long; Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Lixia; Huang, Yuying; Zeng, Wei; Rao, Yue; Li, Juan; Li, Xuebao; Xu, Wenliang

2014-10-01

180

Down-regulating annexin gene GhAnn2 inhibits cotton fiber elongation and decreases Ca2+ influx at the cell apex.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber is a single cell that differentiates from the ovule epidermis and undergoes synchronous elongation with high secretion and growth rate. Apart from economic importance, cotton fiber provides an excellent single-celled model for studying mechanisms of cell-growth. Annexins are Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been reported to be localized in multiple cellular compartments and involved in control of vesicle secretions. Although several annexins have been found to be highly expressed in elongating cotton fibers, their functional roles in fiber development remain unknown. Here, 14 annexin family members were identified from the fully sequenced diploid G. raimondii (D5 genome), half of which were expressed in fibers of the cultivated tetraploid species G. hirsutum (cv. YZ1). Among them, GhAnn2 from the D genome of the tetraploid species displayed high expression level in elongating fiber. The expression of GhAnn2 could be induced by some phytohormones that play important roles in fiber elongation, such as IAA and GA3. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of GhAnn2 inhibited fiber elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis, resulting in shorter and thinner mature fibers in the transgenic plants. Measurement with non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode revealed that the rate of Ca(2+) influx from extracellular to intracellular was decreased at the fiber cell apex of GhAnn2 silencing lines, in comparison to that in the wild type. These results indicate that GhAnn2 may regulate fiber development through modulating Ca(2+) fluxes and signaling. PMID:24890373

Tang, Wenxin; He, Yonghui; Tu, Lili; Wang, Maojun; Li, Yang; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-08-01

181

Accumulation of genome-specific transcripts, transciption factors and phytohormonal regulators during early stages of fiber cell development in allotetraploid cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gene expression during early stages of cotton fiber development is poorly understood. Here we report the development of a full-length cDNA library derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. Texas Marker-1 (TM1) immature ovules (TMO) collected from 3 days pre-anthesis, the day of anthesis, and 3 days post-a...

182

Characterization of attenuated total reflection infrared spectral intensity variations of immature and mature cotton fibers by two-dimensional correlation analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of immature and mature cotton fibers. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity of 660 cm-1 to ...

183

Whiteness and absorbency of hydroentangled cotton-based nonwoven fabrics of different constituent fibers and fiber blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript reports result of the research efforts devoted to the exploration and development of greige (non-bleached) cotton-containing nonwoven fabrics that likely could be made optimally competitive in cost, quality and performance to existing products that presently and predominantly use man...

184

Adsorption isotherms of cellulose-based polymers onto cotton fibers determined by means of a direct method of fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present a novel method for the measurement of polymer adsorption on fibers by employing fluorescently labeled polymers. The method itself can be used for any compound that either shows fluorescence or can be labeled with a fluorescent dye, which renders it ubiquitously applicable for adsorption studies. The main advantage of the method is that the choice of adsorbent is not limited to flat surfaces, thereby allowing the investigation of fibrous and porous systems. As an example of high interest for application we determined the adsorption isotherms of various polysaccharide-based polymers with different charges and different substituents on cotton fibers. These experiments show that the extent of adsorption depends not only on the charge conditions but also very much on the specific interactions between the polymer and fiber. For instance, the cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose can become bound to an extent similar to that of the anionic alginate, while the anionic carboxymethyl cellulose of similar charge density adsorbs much less under these conditions. This shows that the adsorption of polymers depends subtly on the details of the interaction between the polymer and fiber but can be determined with good precision with our direct fluorescence method. PMID:22548507

Hoffmann, Ingo; Oppel, Claudia; Gernert, Ulrich; Barreleiro, Paula; von Rybinski, Wolfgang; Gradzielski, Michael

2012-05-22

185

Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutant in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which exhibits an early cessation of fiber elongation resulting in very short fibers (< 6 mm) at maturity. This presents an excellent model system for studying the underlying molecular and cellular processes involved with cotton fiber elongation. Previous reports have characterized Li1 at early cell wall elongation and during later secondary cell wall synthesis, however there has been very limited analysis of the transition period between these developmental time points. Results Physical and morphological measurements of the Li1 mutant fibers were conducted, including measurement of the cellulose content during development. Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze transcript profiles at the critical developmental time points of 3 days post anthesis (DPA), the late elongation stage of 12 DPA and the early secondary cell wall synthesis stage of 16 DPA. The results indicated severe disruption to key hormonal and other pathways related to fiber development, especially pertaining to the transition stage from elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified several key pathways at the transition stage that exhibited altered regulation. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and primary cell wall rearrangement were affected, and a primary cell wall-related cellulose synthase was transcriptionally repressed. Linkage mapping using a population of 2,553 F2 individuals identified SSR markers associated with the Li1 genetic locus on chromosome 22. Linkage mapping in combination with utilizing the diploid G. raimondii genome sequences permitted additional analysis of the region containing the Li1 gene. Conclusions The early termination of fiber elongation in the Li1 mutant is likely controlled by an early upstream regulatory factor resulting in the altered regulation of hundreds of downstream genes. Several elongation-related genes that exhibited altered expression profiles in the Li1 mutant were identified. Molecular markers closely associated with the Li1 locus were developed. Results presented here will lay the foundation for further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of fiber elongation. PMID:23767687

2013-01-01

186

Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

187

A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

2011-01-01

188

Thermal and flame retardant behaviors of cotton fiber treated with phosphoramidate derivatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this research, two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate were prepared in very high yield and purity by one step procedure and the cotton fabrics treated with them at different levels of add-on (5 - 20 wt %) were c...

189

DISCOVERY OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN SELECTED FIBER GENES IN CULTIVATED TETRAPLOID COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful for characterizing allelic variation, QTL mapping, and markerassisted selection. Information on the frequency and nature of SNPs in cotton, especially in coding DNA regions is lacking. This study was conducted to estimate the nucleotide diversity in ...

190

Hand-ginned cotton length distributions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Instrumentation such as the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS™) analyzes cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber length distributions because variations in fiber length distribution impacts spinning performance. AFIS provides mean length, upper quartile length, fineness, and maturity for fibers ...

191

Commercial cotton variety spinning study quality indices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

192

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Cotton Fuzz Fiber Development Having a Similar Molecular Model as Arabidopsis Trichome  

PubMed Central

The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

193

Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed cotton fuzz fiber development having a similar molecular model as Arabidopsis trichome.  

PubMed

The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

194

Nondestructive Identification of Dye Mixtures in Polyester and Cotton Fibers Using Raman Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Microspectrophotometry.  

PubMed

Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia. PMID:25588115

Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

2015-02-01

195

Cotton Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

as it invaded the Southern Cotton Belt from Mexico about 1901, and that of the pink bollworm from the early 1920's, the drier cli- mate and higher altitude of much of the Texas cot- ton-growing areas have resisted these and other in- sect pests. Some... the center of domestic cotton milling, with deep-water ports on the Gulf of Mexico, Texas early became an exporter of cotton. About 70 to 80 named cotton varieties and strains, ranging in fiber length from 7/8 to 1 7/8 inches, are grown commercially...

Reynolds, E. B.

1959-01-01

196

Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

197

The relative effectiveness of two systems of breeding for high and low fiber strength in cotton  

E-print Network

of Fiber Strength . . ? ? ? . ? * ? 28 Association of C h a r a c t e r s ........................ .... 33 Estimation of the Heritability of Fiber Strength .....................................................................41 DISCUSSION... proposed by Hull (14) to describe a system of corn improvement which involved the recombination of S]_ lines derived from SQ plants chosen on the basis of their perform? ance in crosses with a homozygous tester line. Hull proposed to repeat...

Fetooh, Anwar Abdel-Bary

2013-10-04

198

29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...handling or processing of cotton, which may contain a mixture of many substances including ground up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, non-cotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated with the...

2011-07-01

199

29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...handling or processing of cotton, which may contain a mixture of many substances including ground up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, non-cotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated with the...

2014-07-01

200

1901 Improving Upland Cotton by Introducing Desirable Genes from Pima Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrow genetic base of elite Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) germplasm has been a significant impediment to sustained progress in the development of cotton cultivars to meet the needs of cotton growers and industry in the recent years. The prospect of widening the genetic base of Upland cotton by accessing the genetic diversity and fiber quality of extra long staple

Jinfa Zhang; Richard Percy

2007-01-01

201

Cotton and Protein Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

2006-06-30

202

Protein and fiber profiles of cottonseed from upland cotton with different fertilizations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole cottonseed and its derived products can be used as human food, animal feed, and industrial raw material. Chemical composition of cottonseed is one of the critical parameters for evaluating its quality and potential end use. Especially, protein and dietary fibers are two desirable nutritional ...

203

A comprehensive meta QTL analysis for fiber quality, yield, yield related and morphological traits, drought tolerance, and disease resistance in tetraploid cotton  

PubMed Central

Background The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed. Results In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots. Conclusions Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date. PMID:24215677

2013-01-01

204

HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

205

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01

206

Letter to the Editor Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes  

E-print Network

and cellulose biosynthesis (Kim and Triplett, 2001). Each seed has approximately 25,000 cotton fibers, each is easily con- vertible to biofuels. Translational genomics of cotton fiber and cellulose may lead GENOMES? Cotton is the world's most important natural textile fiber (Fig. 1A) and a significant oilseed

Chee, Peng W.

207

Integrating genomics and phenomics to improve abiotic stress tolerance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to meet the global demand for natural cotton fiber and clothe an ever-growing population, world cotton production systems must increase productivity. Simultaneously, cotton production systems must also improve the structural properties of cotton fiber to meet fiber quality demands of global...

208

AFLP MARKER ASSOCIATIONS WITH AGRONOMIC AND FIBER TRAITS IN DAY-NEUTRAL PRIMITIVE ACCESSIONS AND COTTON CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A marker linked with QTL can be a useful tool for cotton (Gossypium spp.) genetics and breeding. We crossed four photoperiodic accessions of cotton with a cultivar, selected day-neutral plants and backcrossed four times to the photoperiodic accession, selecting day-neutral plants in each generation....

209

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

2007-04-01

210

Cotton: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp.), a leading natural fiber, is a major cash crop in the world and is grown commercially in more than 50 countries. China,\\u000a India, USA, Pakistan and Uzbekistan are the five major cotton growing countries, with China holding the highest productivity\\u000a (1,265 kg\\/ha). Out of 50 known species of Gossypium, 45 are diploids with 26 chromosomes and are

B. M. Khadi; V. Santhy; M. S. Yadav

211

FLAX FIBER IN TEXTILES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

REFINED, SHORT STAPLE FLAX FIBER CAN BE BLENDED WITH COTTON AND SPUN ON DRY SYSTEMS THAT ARE PREVALENT IN THE U.S. RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE THE FIBER PROPERTIES AND THE PROCESSING SYSTEMS TO MORE EFFICIENTLY BLEND FLAX WITH COTTON. INCLUSION OF FLAX WITH COTTON PROVIDES YARN AND FABRIC PROPE...

212

Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

213

SINGLE FIBER TESTING VIA FAVIMAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is usually tested in bulk form utilizing a mass or beard of fibers to be presented to a test instrument for measurement. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is that handling single cotton fibers is tedious and time consuming. Cotton breeders are being pushed to mak...

214

NANOTECHNOLOGY OPENS NEW ROUTES FOR THE FUNCTIONAL FINISHING OF COTTON-RICH TEXTILES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although cotton fiber has excellent moisture absorption, transportation and dissipation characteristics, which essentially contribute to the so-called “comfort properties” of cotton fabrics, it also has certain deficiencies. For example, untreated cotton fabrics easily shrink (on laundering), burn, ...

215

Preparation of activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and its application for oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption.  

PubMed

The objective of this research is to produce high surface area-activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and to examine the feasibility of removing oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous solution. The cotton linter fibers activated carbon (CLAC) was characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CLAC had a predominantly microporous structure with a large surface area of 2143 m(2)/g. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and equilibrium was achieved within 24h. The equilibrium data were described well by Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic reaction at low concentration and became endothermic nature with the concentration increasing. Competitive adsorption took place in the weakly acidic to neutral conditions. Under the strong acidity or strong alkaline condition, the adsorption of the oxytetracycline was hindered by electrostatic repulsion. The adsorption mechanism depended on the pH of the solutions as well as the pK(a) of the oxytetracycline. PMID:22137171

Sun, Yuanyuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Huang, Lihui; Yao, Fujiang; Xu, Xing

2012-02-15

216

MODERN COLOR MEASUREMENTS for COTTON— FUNDAMENTALS and ISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are key and critical quality and process measurements. Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cotton have been performed on the Uster High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Color measurements of cotton tex...

217

A Customized Microscopic System for High Volume Measurements of Cotton Maturity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton maturity, which refers to the degree of development of the fiber wall, is one of the determinants of cotton quality because it affects many properties of cotton fibers. Mature fibers usually possess greater strength and better resilience. The presence of immature fibers may cause excessive d...

218

HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

219

Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

220

Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

221

MATURITY-RELATED STRUCTURAL CORRELATION OF COTTON MOISTURE PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture in cotton fibers affects physical properties such as length, strength, and processing properties. It is also a major factor in cotton garment comfort. Moisture absorption is improved by removing hydrophobic chemicals from the fiber primary wall. Cottons from various lots (varieties, grow...

222

COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

223

Meta-analysis of Polyploid Cotton QTL Shows Unequal Contributions of Subgenomes to a Complex Network of Genes and Gene Clusters Implicated in Lint Fiber Development  

PubMed Central

QTL mapping experiments yield heterogeneous results due to the use of different genotypes, environments, and sampling variation. Compilation of QTL mapping results yields a more complete picture of the genetic control of a trait and reveals patterns in organization of trait variation. A total of 432 QTL mapped in one diploid and 10 tetraploid interspecific cotton populations were aligned using a reference map and depicted in a CMap resource. Early demonstrations that genes from the non-fiber-producing diploid ancestor contribute to tetraploid lint fiber genetics gain further support from multiple populations and environments and advanced-generation studies detecting QTL of small phenotypic effect. Both tetraploid subgenomes contribute QTL at largely non-homeologous locations, suggesting divergent selection acting on many corresponding genes before and/or after polyploid formation. QTL correspondence across studies was only modest, suggesting that additional QTL for the target traits remain to be discovered. Crosses between closely-related genotypes differing by single-gene mutants yield profoundly different QTL landscapes, suggesting that fiber variation involves a complex network of interacting genes. Members of the lint fiber development network appear clustered, with cluster members showing heterogeneous phenotypic effects. Meta-analysis linked to synteny-based and expression-based information provides clues about specific genes and families involved in QTL networks. PMID:17565937

Rong, Junkang; Feltus, F. Alex; Waghmare, Vijay N.; Pierce, Gary J.; Chee, Peng W.; Draye, Xavier; Saranga, Yehoshua; Wright, Robert J.; Wilkins, Thea A.; May, O. Lloyd; Smith, C. Wayne; Gannaway, John R.; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2007-01-01

224

Evidence of guided acoustic waves propagating along a micrometric fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a contactless optical method to determine the dispersion curves of guided acoustic modes propagating along a micrometric fiber. Subnanosecond laser pulses are used to generate guided acoustic waves, and an optical probe is used for measuring the ultrasonic displacements at the fiber surface. The test sample is an aluminum fiber of diameter 33 ?m. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical dispersion curves is presented.

Khelfa, Haithem; Mounier, Denis; Poilâne, Christophe; Picart, Pascal

2014-10-01

225

Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

226

Moisture in cotton by oven drying  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber properties are strongly dependent on the moisture content in the fiber matrix. The standard test methods for moisture in lint cotton are almost all based on oven drying. All of the loss in weight by oven drying, due to moisture and other volatiles, is attributable to moisture. The U....

227

Development of Simple Algorithms in Direct, Non-destructive, and Rapid Determination of Cotton Fiber Maturity from FT-IR/ATR Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

FT-IR/ATR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 re...

228

Preliminary examinations for the identification of U.S. domestic and international cotton fibers by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick rel...

229

Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

230

Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

231

Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

232

Tensile Properties of Cotton Polyethylene Blends: A Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton historically has been the fiber of choice for many textile applications, especially those for apparel and household fabrics. However, cotton is a relatively weak fiber when compared to today’s most commonly used synthetic fibers, such as polyester and nylon. Consequently, beneficial blending...

233

Cotton Insects.  

E-print Network

........................................................................ ................................................................................ Leafworms Cotton Leafworm ..................................................... Brown Cotton Leafworm .............................................. Cabbage Looper .............................................................. Hemipterous Insects (Plant... in this publication was obtnined from Federal and State Experiment Station publicntionc . The author is indebted to C . B . Spencer, Cotton Seed Crrrtlr- ers' Association. and J . A . Stillwell. Anderson. Clayton and Covzj~any. for certain illustrations . Thanks...

Gaines, J. C.

1965-01-01

234

Bayesian framework for the evaluation of fiber evidence in a double murder—a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber evidence found on a suspect vehicle was the only useful trace to reconstruct the dynamics of the transportation of two corpses.Optical microscopy, UV-Vis microspectrophotometry and infrared analysis were employed to compare fibers recovered in the trunk of a car to those of the blankets composing the wrapping in which the victims had been hidden.A “pseudo-1:1” taping permitted to reconstruct

Valerio Causin; Sergio Schiavone; Antonio Marigo; Pietro Carresi

2004-01-01

235

CHARACTERIZAION OF G. HIRSUTUM WILD AND VARIETY ACCESSIONS FROM UZBEK COTTON GERMPLASM COLLECTION FOR MORPHOLOGICAL AND FIBER QUALITY TRAITS AND DATABASE DEVELOPEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uzbek cotton germplasm is one of the largest cotton collections worldwide, and that vast collection is “unknown” to the world research community. The main goal of this project was to select G. hirsutum ‘exotic’ and variety accessions from Uzbekistan cotton germplasm collection, evaluate them for ag...

236

No correlation between the diversity and productivity of assemblages: evidence from the phytophage and predator assemblages in various cotton agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Biodiversity research has shown that primary productivity increases with plant species number, especially in many experimental grassland systems. Here, we assessed the correlation between productivity and diversity of phytophages and natural enemy assemblages associated with planting date and intercropping in four cotton agroecosystems. Twenty-one pairs of data were used to determine Pearson correlations between species richness, total number of individuals, diversity indices and productivity for each assemblage every five days from 5 June to 15 September 2012. At the same trophic level, the productivity exhibited a significant positive correlation with species richness of the phytophage or predator assemblage. A significant correlation was found between productivity and total number of individuals in most cotton fields. However, no significant correlations were observed between productivity and diversity indices (including indices of energy flow diversity and numerical diversity) in most cotton fields for either the phytophage or the predator assemblages. Species richness of phytophage assemblage and total individual numbers were significantly correlated with primary productivity. Also, species richness of natural enemy assemblage and total number of individuals correlated with phytophage assemblage productivity. A negative but not significant correlation occurred between the indices of numerical diversity and energy flow diversity and lower trophic-level productivity in the cotton-phytophage and phytophage-predator assemblages for most intercropped cotton agroecosystems. Our results clearly showed that there were no correlations between diversity indices and productivity within the same or lower trophic levels within the phytophage and predator assemblages in cotton agroecosystems, and inter-cropped cotton fields had a stronger ability to support the natural enemy assemblage and potentially to reduce phytophages. PMID:25129809

Gao, Feng; Men, XingYuan; Ge, Feng

2014-09-01

237

Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

238

Toward identification of complete set of aquaporin gene family in cotton - A possible way to improve cotton production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is the most important natural-fiber producing crop and is a significant global agricultural commodity. Because of the significance of water to the quantity and quality of cotton production, efforts to decrease the amount of water applied and improve cotton water use efficiency are being exten...

239

Cotton Lint Quality Measurements -- Global Scenario  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript is a concise review of modern high-volume-instrumentation (HVI) system for classification and grading of mass cotton production. Nowadays, almost the entire U.S. cotton lint production (after ginning) is mostly tested with automated instruments for important fiber characteristics and...

240

Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

241

Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

242

Atypical Ligon Lintless-2 Phenotype in Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mutant Li2 is reported to be a dominant single gene mutation in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. It has normal vegetative phenotypic morphology and the phenotype of the seed cotton is reported to be fuzzy seed with short fibers. The objective of this research was to report on atypical phenotypes ob...

243

Current and Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Regional Research Center  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

244

Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an experimental study of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with low-intensity femtosecond pulses, which provides evidence for a novel spectral broadening mechanism. The observed results agree with our theoretical calculations carried out without making the slowly varying envelope approximation. Peculiarities of the measured spectra and their theoretical explanation demonstrate that the reason for the white-light generation

J. Herrmann; U. Griebner; N. Zhavoronkov; A. Husakou; D. Nickel; J. C. Knight; W. J. Wadsworth; P. St. J. Russell; G. Korn

2002-01-01

245

[beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro  

SciTech Connect

In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-04-01

246

Cotton Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary history, domestication, and modern crop improvement practices.\\u000a As a nonfood crop subject to many pests and diseases, cotton was among the first beneficiaries of genetic engineering, broadening\\u000a its gene pool with genes from other organisms. Accelerating progress in cotton genomics promises to increase knowledge, and\\u000a utilization, of the intrinsic

A. H. Paterson

247

Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

248

Saved-Ends Analysis of Fiber Breakage in Cotton Processing by use of Number-Based Averages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many of USDA’s existing research data on fiber processing include mean values of length-distribution parameters, but not complete length histogram data. A specific goal of this work was to derive mathematically and demonstrate experimentally in the laboratory new engineering research tools that uti...

249

Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers.  

PubMed

We report on an experimental study of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with low-intensity femtosecond pulses, which provides evidence for a novel spectral broadening mechanism. The observed results agree with our theoretical calculations carried out without making the slowly varying envelope approximation. Peculiarities of the measured spectra and their theoretical explanation demonstrate that the reason for the white-light generation in photonic crystal fibers is fission of higher-order solitons into redshifted fundamental solitons and blueshifted nonsolitonic radiation. PMID:12005754

Herrmann, J; Griebner, U; Zhavoronkov, N; Husakou, A; Nickel, D; Knight, J C; Wadsworth, W J; Russell, P St J; Korn, G

2002-04-29

250

Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fibers are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that a large set of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across the At and ...

251

The impact of the removal of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement on textile and cotton trade of the United States and China  

E-print Network

an equilibrium displacement model to investigate the impact on textile and cotton sectors of different countries and country-groups of removing the MFA quota. The model specifies the basic linkages of textile and cotton markets in the United States, China...

Xia, Yan

2006-04-12

252

A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

253

In vitro hemostatic, hydrogen peroxide production and elastase sequestration properties of nonwoven ultra clean greige cotton dressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

254

A Transcript Profiling Approach Reveals an Abscisic Acid-Specific Glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) Induced in Developing Fiber of Ligon lintless-2 Mutant of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed in developing fibers of the mutant Ligon lintless-2 was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence showed ~53% similarity with Arabidopsis UGT73C sub-family members and the UDP-glycosyltransferase was designated as UGT73C14. When expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein with a maltose binding protein tag, UGT73C14 displayed enzymatic activity toward ABA and utilized UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose as the sugar donors. The recombinant UGT73C14 converted natural occurring isoform (+)-cis, trans-ABA better than (+)-trans, trans-ABA and (-)-cis, trans-ABA. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing UGT73C14 did not show phenotypic changes under standard growth conditions. However, the increased glycosylation of ABA resulted in phenotypic changes in post-germinative growth and seedling establishment, confirming in vivo activity of UGT73C14 for ABA. This suggests that the expression level of UGT73C14 is regulated by the observed elevated levels of ABA in developing fibers of the Li2 mutant line and may be involved in the regulation of ABA homeostasis. PMID:24086489

Gilbert, Matthew K.; Bland, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Cao, Heping; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Fang, David D.; Naoumkina, Marina

2013-01-01

255

Adverse health effects of fluoro-edenitic fibers: epidemiological evidence and public health priorities.  

PubMed

Subsequent to the detection of a cluster of mesothelioma cases in the Sicilian town of Biancavilla, located at the slopes of Etna volcano, ad hoc epidemiological studies and environmental monitoring suggested an etiological role of an asbestiform fiber present in a stone quarry. The fiber was shown to constitute a new mineral species named fluoro-edenite. Fluoro-edenitic fibers were found in the materials extracted from the quarry and used in the local building industry, as well as in soils. Besides the risk of mesothelioma, residents in Biancavilla showed a significantly increased mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which was particularly evident among women. In the light of these findings, Biancavilla was defined a site of national interest for environmental reclamation. The first preventive action involved termination of quarrying activity, covering with asphalt of roads previously paved with local soil materials, and removal of sources of dust in the urban area. Concurrent to the implementation of environmental cleanup, some specific "second generation" studies are now being designed and performed, namely morbidity surveys based on hospital discharge cards, monitoring of fibers in sputum and health surveillance in selected population groups. In this frame, special emphasis is given to the issue of communication, both to the general public and to target groups like family doctors, teachers, and media professionals. This experience could represent a useful basis for the elaboration of a strategy to approach similar environmental issues. PMID:17119254

Bruno, Caterina; Comba, Pietro; Zona, Amerigo

2006-09-01

256

Comparative transcriptome analysis between somatic embryos (SEs) and zygotic embryos in cotton: evidence for stress response functions in SE development.  

PubMed

As a product of asexual reproduction in plants, the somatic embryo (SE) differentiates into a new plantlet via a zygotic embryogenesis-like process. Here, we present the phenotypic and cellular differences between SEs and zygotic embryos (ZEs) revealed by histological section scanning using three parallel development stages of the two types of embryos of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. YZ1), including globular, torpedo and cotyledonary-stages. To identify the molecular characteristics of SE development in cotton, the digital gene expression system was used to profile the genes active during SE and ZE development. A total of 4242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in at least one developmental stage. Expression pattern and functional classification analysis based on these DEGs reveals that SE development exhibits a transcriptional activation of stress responses. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed enhanced expression levels of stress-related genes in SEs than in ZEs. Experimental stress treatment, induced by NaCl and ABA, accelerated SE development and increased the transcription of genes related to stress response, in parallel with decelerated proliferation of embryogenic calluses under stress treatment. Our data reveal that SE development involves the activation of stress responses, which we suggest may regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of SE development and suggest strategies that can be used for regulating the developmental processes of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24112122

Jin, Fangyan; Hu, Lisong; Yuan, Daojun; Xu, Jiao; Gao, Wenhui; He, Liangrong; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-02-01

257

Voltammetric study of absorption and reactivity of metal complexes in cotton immersed in aqueous buffer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is an excellent cellulose-based absorbent mainly due to amorphous cellulose regions in the nanocrystalline (cellulose-I) natural fiber structure. It is shown here for the case of a woven cotton textile with ca. 20?m fiber diameter and ca. 270?m thickness that cation and anion absorption and diffusion processes occur within cotton fibers. An electrochemical approach based on voltammetry is developed

Michael J. Bonné; James E. Taylor; Alan K. Carver; Matthew Helton; Frank Marken

2007-01-01

258

A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

2013-01-01

259

FIAS, A NEW METHOD OF FIBER MATURITY MEASUREMENT, IS IT A GOOD INDICATOR OF WHITE SPECK NEPS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

260

Effect of farm management practices in the Bt toxin production by Bt cotton: evidence from farm fields in China.  

PubMed

Based on farm field plot level survey data and laboratory test, we examine the determinants of the expression of Bt toxin in China's Bt cotton production. The results show that the expression of Bt toxin differs significantly among varieties. Even for the same variety the expression of Bt toxin also varies substantially among villages and among farmers in the same village. Econometric analyses show that after controlling for the effects of varieties and locations (or villages), farm management, particular applications of phosphate and potash fertilizers, and manure, has significant positive effects on Bt toxin expression in farmer's fields. In contrast to previous studies which showed that nitrogen fertilizer has a positive impact on expression of Bt toxin, this study shows that nitrogen fertilizer has no significant impact on expression of Bt toxin in farmer's fields. On the other hand, the expression of Bt toxin has a positive relationship with phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and manure application. PMID:24445856

Huang, Jikun; Mi, Jianwei; Chen, Ruijian; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming; Qiao, Fangbin; Hu, Ruifa

2014-06-01

261

Early Cottons  

E-print Network

it is understood, as Texas farmers understand it, that earliness is essen- tial in making a successful crop where boll weevils destroy all late fruit as fast as it is formed. The presence of boll weevils means a shortened fruiting season. While the work has.... Weevils appeared a few days after the cotton came above ground, and were so numerous as to stop all fruiting after July 20th; indeed they were so numerous that cotton planted June lid not grow an average count of one boll to the stalk, though the 4...

Bennett, R. L. (Robert Love)

1904-01-01

262

Guides in Cotton Irrigation on the High Plains.  

E-print Network

gives the results of studies conducted for several years at Lubbock and Tulia on the use of irrigation water by cotton. Cotton yields in pounds of lint per inch of water were about the same for all moisture levels studied. In general, the high... . .. Defln~t~on of Terms 2 Introduction --_--__--_--_-----A__---..-------- 3 Climate 3 High Plains Cotton Soils 3 Previous Work at Lubbock -__-_-_-_-_ 4 Test Near Tulia 4 Water Management 5 Cultural Practices 7 . . Methods of Irngat~on --_- 8 Fiber...

Swanson, N. P.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.

1956-01-01

263

EFFICIENCY OF CURRENT SEED-COTTON AND LINT CLEANING MACHINERY AT US ROLLER GINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pima cotton is roller ginned to minimize damage to the fiber. A survey was conducted of 24 US roller gins to better understand how current foreign matter removal practices affect Pima cotton quality. All gins used at least two stages of drying and two-thirds used three stages. For seed-cotton cle...

264

Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

265

CONSTRUCTION OF A COTTON BAC LIBRARY AND ITS APPLICATION TO GENE ISOLATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a leading natural fiber crop. This crop is also an excellent source of the oil and protein that are stored in its seed. As a major crop species in the world, cotton has a potentially broad genetic base, reflected in the collections of Gossypium species. Cotton breeders wou...

266

Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source of textile manufacturers. In the U.S., upland cotton is produced along the southern most portion of the country in sixteen states from California to Virginia. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cott...

267

Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead for Cotton Genome Mapping.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of genetic linkage mapping is to discover genes for improving trait performance. The process of manipulating the cotton genome is complex because the cotton fibers (lint) used in textiles are derived from the seed trichomes (hairs) of four Gossypium species. In just over a decade, our under...

268

Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

269

Enhancement and diversity of primitive cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., accessions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is an important cultivated crop that is grown throughout the world. Improvements in agronomic performance and fiber quality are needed to ensure its economic viability. Primitive accessions of cotton offer a wealth of genetic variability; however, since most of these...

270

The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii.  

PubMed

We have sequenced and assembled a draft genome of G. raimondii, whose progenitor is the putative contributor of the D subgenome to the economically important fiber-producing cotton species Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. Over 73% of the assembled sequences were anchored on 13 G. raimondii chromosomes. The genome contains 40,976 protein-coding genes, with 92.2% of these further confirmed by transcriptome data. Evidence of the hexaploidization event shared by the eudicots as well as of a cotton-specific whole-genome duplication approximately 13-20 million years ago was observed. We identified 2,355 syntenic blocks in the G. raimondii genome, and we found that approximately 40% of the paralogous genes were present in more than 1 block, which suggests that this genome has undergone substantial chromosome rearrangement during its evolution. Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao, are the only sequenced plant species that possess an authentic CDN1 gene family for gossypol biosynthesis, as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. PMID:22922876

Wang, Kunbo; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Fuguang; Ye, Wuwei; Wang, Junyi; Song, Guoli; Yue, Zhen; Cong, Lin; Shang, Haihong; Zhu, Shilin; Zou, Changsong; Li, Qin; Yuan, Youlu; Lu, Cairui; Wei, Hengling; Gou, Caiyun; Zheng, Zequn; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Kun; Wang, Bo; Song, Chi; Shi, Nan; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Yu, John Z; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Wang, Jun; Yu, Shuxun

2012-10-01

271

Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling, syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus other diverse symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, precluding definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established etiologies, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, e.g., diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled with “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized SFPN causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, signs, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 matched normal controls. Fibromyalgia subjects had to satisfy American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present documented evidence of a physician’s actual fibromyalgia diagnosis. Study instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). 41% of skin biopsies from fibromyalgia subjects vs. 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher among fibromyalgia than control subjects (all P ? 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from all 13 fibromyalgia subjects with SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into etiologies. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but eight subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and one family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized small-fiber polyneuropathy, a distinct disease that can be objectively tested for and sometimes definitively treated. PMID:23748113

Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather; Klein, Max M.

2013-01-01

272

Supervised Learning Approach for Predicting the Quality of Cotton Using WEKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cotton is the world’s most important natural fibre used in Textile manufacturing. Cotton fiber is processed into yarn and\\u000a fabric. Yarn strength depends extremely on the quality of cotton. The physical characteristics such as fiber length, length\\u000a distribution, trash value, color grade, strength, shape, tenacity, density, moisture absorption, dimensional stability, resistance,\\u000a thermal reaction, count, etc., contributes to the quality of

M. Selvanayaki; M. S. Vijaya; K. S. Jamuna; S. Karpagavalli

2010-01-01

273

CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

274

Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.  

PubMed

An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF. PMID:19664919

Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

2009-12-01

275

60The Journal of Cotton Science 17:6068 (2013) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2013  

E-print Network

Quality and Aflatoxin Contamination of Cotton in South Texas. Ramon Jaime, Jeff McKamey, and Peter J feed for dairy cows, with dairies paying a premium for cottonseed free of aflatoxin. Modules (14 aflatoxin content. Harvest date, gin date, leaf grade, and seed moisture were related with fiber quality

Cotty, Peter J.

276

Dietary fiber and coronary disease: Does the evidence support an association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, prospective, epidemiologic studies show a protective effect of dietary fiber against coronary heart disease (CHD) and\\u000a form the basis for new recommendations from the National Academy of Science for fiber intake (38 and 25 g\\/d for young men\\u000a and women, respectively, based on an intake of 14 g of fiber per 1000 kcal). Mechanisms by which fibers may protect

Joanne R. Lupton; Nancy D. Turner

2003-01-01

277

The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations  

E-print Network

: seed surface area (SA/S), lint percentage (LP), seeds per boll (S/13), lint weight per seed (L/S), fibers per seed (F/S), lint weight per unit seed surface area (L/SA), and fibers per unit seed surface area (F/SA). In population 1: micronaire...

Basal, Huseyin

2012-06-07

278

The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

279

HIGH SPEED ROLLER GINNING OF UPLAND COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to determine if upland cotton could be roller ginned at considerably higher rate than standard without compromising fiber properties, and at a rate comparable to saw ginning. A standard roller gin stand was modified to run at high speed by increasing the frequency of the ...

280

Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

281

HARVESTING AND GINNING STICKY COTTON (CHAPTER XI)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the U.S., honeydew-contaminated cottons have caused problems, mainly during manufacturing and processing of yarn. The honeydew causes fibers to stick to the equipment during carding, drawing, roving, and spinning. Stickiness problems can become so severe, either from whitefly or aphid infestati...

282

Evidence of Functional Mossy Fiber Sprouting in Hippocampal Formation of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rat hippocampal formation, degeneration of CA4- derived afferent fibers provokes the growth of mossy fiber collaterals into the fascia dentata. These aberrant fibers subsequently form granule cell-granule cell synapses. The hippocampal slice preparation was employed to determine whether these recurrent connections are electrophysiologi- tally functional. Hippocampal slices were prepared 12 to 21 days after the bilateral destruction of

DAVID L. TAUCK; J. VICTOR NADLERS

283

Surface coating for flame-retardant behavior of cotton fabric using a continuous layer-by-layer process  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than their synthetic counterparts. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-cl...

284

Rotation and contraction of native and regenerated cellulose fibers upon swelling and dissolution: the  

E-print Network

1 Rotation and contraction of native and regenerated cellulose fibers upon swelling and dissolution(0)492389752 Abstract. Upon swelling and dissolution, native cellulose fibers such as cotton hairs or wood fibers are rotating and contracting. Regenerated cellulose fibers are only contracting, not rotating. Cotton hairs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

An analysis of potential exports of United States cotton to the European economic community--projections to 1975  

E-print Network

Is of Total Mill Consumption of Fibers , . 22 2-3 Pasic Data On Imports and Exports of Cotton Products . Int-rnntional Trade in Cotton Yarn and Piece Goods in the 1954-1963 . 25 28 2-5 EEC M'll Consumption and United States Ham Cotton Exports to the EEC..., Cotton ? Nor~1 8tatis+ics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Mashington, D. C. , October, 1964), pp. 130-131. Trade in FLanufactured Cotton Products During the eleven-year period, 1953-1963, exports of cotton yarn and piece goods from the EEC ranged from a low of 167...

James, John B

1967-01-01

286

Ginning picker and stripper harvested high plains cotton - update  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and High Volume Instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

287

Comparisons of cotton maturity and fineness measurements (Cottonscope, AFIS, HVI™)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cottonscope, a new instrument for fiber maturity (MR) and fineness, utilizes polarized light microscopy and image analysis to measure longitudinal, weighted fiber snippets in water. Interest has been expressed by the Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton (CSITC) on the pote...

288

Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

289

Nematode Management in Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

290

Evaluation of Proxy Tests for SFSN: Evidence for Mixed Small and Large Fiber Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Though intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy (SFSN), we aimed to determine if novel threshold values derived from standard tests of small or large fiber function could serve as diagnostic alternatives. Methods Seventy-four consecutive patients with painful polyneuropathy and normal nerve conduction studies (NCS) were defined as SFSN cases or controls by distal IENFD <5.4 and ?5.4 fibers/mm, respectively. Diagnostic performance of small fiber [cooling (CDT) and heat perception (HP) thresholds, axon reflex-mediated neurogenic vasodilatation] and large fiber function tests [vibration perception thresholds (VPT) and sural nerve conduction parameters] were determined by receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Results The 26(35%) SFSN cases had mean IENFD 3.3±1.7 fibers/mm and the 48(65%) controls 9.9±2.9 fibers/mm. Male gender (p?=?0.02) and older age (p?=?0.02) were associated with SFSN cases compared to controls. VPT were higher and CDT lower in SFSN cases, but the largest magnitude of differences was observed for sural nerve amplitude. It had the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.75) compared to all other tests (p<0.001 for all comparisons) and the optimal threshold value of ?12 µV defined SFSN cases with 80% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Conclusion In patients presenting with polyneuropathy manifestations and normal NCS, though small fiber function tests were intuitively considered the best alternative measures to predict reduced IENFD, their diagnostic performance was poor. Instead, novel threshold values within the normal range for large fiber tests should be considered as an alternative strategy to select subjects for skin biopsy in diagnostic protocols for SFSN. PMID:22870304

Ebadi, Hamid; Perkins, Bruce A.; Katzberg, Hans D.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Bril, Vera

2012-01-01

291

Nonwovens manufacturing technologies and cotton’s realistic scope in nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton commodity continues to be under pressure from its low and depressed prices for decades, geo and political factors, competition with manufactured fibers, and, very importantly, its gradual decline in consumption by the U.S. domestic mills. In fact, the current domestic consumption of virgin co...

292

Evaluation of composites made from blends of cotton burs, cotton stalks, kenaf, flax, and southern pine: Heat treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties and rot resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted on composite board blends of cotton burs (B), cotton stalks (S), kenaf (K), flax, (F), and southern yellow pine (P). The composite boards were subjected to heat treatments and rot resistance testing. Heat treatments consisted of heating fibers either pre- or post-board fab...

293

Evaluation of thermal treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites made from cotton byproducts and other agricultural fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Demand for wood products continues to grow at levels that challenge the available resources. Alternative materials are sought to sustainably supplement the wood fiber industry. Experiments were conducted on composite boards made from agricultural residues. The boards were subjected to thermal tre...

294

Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types  

SciTech Connect

Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Mykles, D.L.

1986-01-01

295

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Isolation and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed in Fiber of Gossypium barbadense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton breeders face many problems, such as negative association between lint yield and fiber strength, in their efforts to improve fiber quality through conventional breeding methods. The primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes at the molecular level related to cotton fiber development. Messenger RNAs were isolated from fibers at 20 day-post- anthesis (dpa) of a

Zhengdao Wu; Khairy M. Soliman; Allan Zipf; Sukumar Saha; Govind C. Sharma; Johnie N. Jenkins

2005-01-01

296

Biomimetic superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic cotton textiles.  

PubMed

We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939

Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W

2007-12-18

297

An economic analysis of export sales and export shipments: the case for cotton  

E-print Network

expectations are that domestic mill use will rise. This will be a result of consumers' preferences shifting towards natural fibers, improved technology for using cotton, a fashion trend toward heavyweight denim, and a decline in the cotton/polyester price...AN ECONOMIC ANALTSIS OF EXPORT SALES AND EXPORT SHIPMENTS: THE CASE FOR COTTON A Thesis by ELIAS TAKOR AYUK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Ayuk, Elias Takor

1986-01-01

298

Flame retardant polymer-clay nanocoatings on cotton textile substrates using a newly developed, continuous layer-by-layer deposition process  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than most synthetic fabrics. In this study, a continuous layer-by-layer self-assembly technique was used to deposit polymer-clay nan...

299

A new approach for image processing in foreign fiber detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the textile industry, different types of foreign fibers may be mixed in cotton that need to be sorted out to ensure the quality of the final cotton textile products. Automated visual inspection (AVI) system is a popular tool at present for real time foreign fibers detection in lint. The image processing is one of the key techniques in the

Wenzhu Yang; Daoliang Li; Liang Zhu; Yuguo Kang; Futang Li

2009-01-01

300

Comparative Evaluation of Laboratory Fiber Moisture Measurement Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the global marketplace, the accurate and precise measurement of cotton fiber moisture is becoming more important. Moisture is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber, and several moisture measurement techniques and commercial instruments are readily available, but how well do they...

301

METHOD FOR DETERMINING BROKEN FIBER IN RING SPUN YARN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This project developed out of a more general study in which fiber breakage in cotton was tracked through various processes in yarn production in order to survey the Broken Fiber Content (BFC) in cotton at various stages of production and utilization. The specific task reported here was a student su...

302

Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L)  

E-print Network

of small RNAs in cotton Sequencing flow chart and sizein cotton. (a) Flow chat of small RNA library constructionRNA purification, adaptor ligation, cDNA preparation, and barcoding Pooled and sequenced in an Illumina 1G machine Figure 1 Sequencing flow

2009-01-01

303

Using the reactive dye method to covalently attach antibacterial compounds to cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The antibacterial compounds used were sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. A version of the reactive dye method was used to react these two compounds chemically with the cotton fiber molecule. The two compounds were activated and then covalently bonded to cotton fabric, either separately or together...

304

Physiological Responses of Cotton to Two-Spotted Spider Mite Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bondada et al. (1995) studied T. urticae damage to cot- ton grown in the field and found alterations to the sto- Spider mites are important pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum matal apparatus and internal damage to the mesophyll L.), capable of dramatically affecting growth, yield, and fiber quality. This study investigated the physiological response of cotton leaves to cells, which

A. Reddall; V. O. Sadras; L. J. Wilson; P. C. Gregg

2004-01-01

305

Performance and combining ability in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations with diverse parents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving fiber quality properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is important for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing textiles, including enhancing yarn quality and spinning performance. This study was conducted to determine if we could identify useful cotton cultivars to use as parents ...

306

Extensive and biased intergenomic nonreciprocal DNA exchanges shaped a nascent polyploid genome, Gossypium (cotton)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated cotton is composed of a tetraploid genome derived from two ancestral genomes that are related but divergent from each other. The “A” genome is derived from a cotton species that is used for low quality spinnable-fiber production in low production areas and has an African origin. The “D”...

307

Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper we reported dark pulse emission of an all-normal-dispersion-fiber laser [Zhang, Tang, Zhao, and Wu, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.045803 80, 045803 (2009)]. However, the formation mechanism of the dark pulse in the laser was unclear due to the limited temporal resolution of the measurement system. Using an improved detection system we have further investigated the phenomenon. We not only experimentally, unambiguously confirmed the existence of dark solitons in the fiber laser, but also identified that the dark pulses observed previously were bunches of the dark solitons. Moreover, we show that the dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers.

Tang, D. Y.; Li, L.; Song, Y. F.; Zhao, L. M.; Zhang, H.; Shen, D. Y.

2013-07-01

308

COTTON-POLYESTER FABRIC BLEND ANALYSIS BY NEAR INFRARED (NIR) SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near Infrared (NIR) techniques have been used extensively to measure key physical and chemical properties of textile materials and textile auxiliaries, including the fiber blending ratio in cotton-polyester (PET) blend fibers and yarns. Interest had grown in the measurement of the fiber blend conte...

309

Miniature spinning enzyme-retted flax fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

310

Keeping Cotton Green  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

311

$1+ Cotton? New Thresholds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

312

Agrometeorology and cotton production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

313

Raw Cotton Requirements of Textile Mills: Implications for Southwestern Cotton.  

E-print Network

in the 98 mills. It was estimated that total domestic mill consumption of cotton in 1964 was slightly over 9 million bales. Although total mill consumption of cotton has had an upward trend in recent years, it has not increased as rapidly as mill... in finding uses for its cotton. I Rnn~ Cotton [AMES W. GRAVES, Assistant Professor IItp.utment of Agricultural Economics and Sociology I Contents ion - 1c t .. - .. . 3 I !iluth\\vestern Cotton ....... I...

Graves, James W. (James Wilson)

1967-01-01

314

Evidence of thermal effects in high power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser  

E-print Network

We analyse the influence of heat generation by non radiative transitions in high power 1.55$\\mu$m double cladding Erbium-Ytterbium fiber laser. At strong pumping rates, 1$\\mu$m lasing can start due to parasitic reflections. We present a model including heat generation and its effect on the Stark level population using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays then a significant role and improves the 1.5$\\mu$m laser efficiency by increasing the 1$\\mu$m threshold.

Canat, Guillaume; Jaouen, Yves; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1364/OL.30.003030

2011-01-01

315

Silver nanowire-functionalized cotton fabric.  

PubMed

In this study, general functionalization of cotton fabric by loading silver nanowires (AgNWs) on cotton surface is reported. Initially, AgNWs were synthesized by a polyol process and then were conformal coated onto individual cotton fibers through a simple "dip and dry" process. SEM images revealed a thin and uniform AgNWs coating on the cotton microfibers which was supported by a surface chemical analysis by EDX. The average electrical surface resistivity of the fabric coated with conductive network of AgNWs was measured to be 27.4 ?/sq. Incubating the modified fabric with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that the fabric had substantial antimicrobial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (100% microbial death). The fabric also showed excellent UV-blocking ability with the UV protection factor of 113.14. The fluorosilane coated AgNWs-loaded fabric displayed stable superhydrophobicity with CA and SHA values of 156.2°±3.2° and 7°, respectively. PMID:25498621

Nateghi, Mohammad R; Shateri-Khalilabad, Mohammad

2015-03-01

316

Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

2012-12-18

317

Genome sequence of the cultivated cotton Gossypium arboreum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is one of the most economically important natural fiber crops in the world, and the complex tetraploid nature of its genome (AADD, 2n = 52) makes genetic, genomic and functional analyses extremely challenging. Here we sequenced and assembled 98.3% of the 1.7-gigabase G. arboreum (AA, 2n = 26...

318

SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF SIX A-EXPANSIN GENES IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A-Expansins are cell wall proteins that facilitate cell wall extension by disrupting noncovalent bonds between wall components. Some of the expansin genes play a very important role in cell wall extension during cotton fiber development. The objectives of this study were, (1) to discern the sequenc...

319

Commercial cotton variety spinning study HVI and AFIS spinning relationship.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2005, there were 22,638,247 upland cotton bales classed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) American Marketing Service (AMS). USDA-AMS uses the High Volume Instrument (HVI™) to class all bales for fiber length, length uniformity, micronaire, strength, color (Rd and +b), trash, ...

320

COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY HVI AND AFIS SPINNING RELATIONSHIP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2005, there were 22,638,247 Upland cotton bales classed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). USDA-AMS uses the High Volume Instrument (HVI) to class all bales for fiber length, length uniformity, micronaire, strength, color (Rd and +b), tras...

321

Glandless seed and glanded plant research in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently the world has become entangled by threatened shortage of food such as rice. This threatens the sustainable development of the world economy, and resulted in rising food prices. To address this issue, cotton (Gossypium) may offer a source of not only fiber, but also a source of food from co...

322

Genetic Characteristics of Cotton Varieties in Textile Variety Tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USA is losing its textile industry to foreign competition. In turn, the cotton grower is losing its best customer, the USA textile industry. A modern textile industry needs modern fiber that can only be obtained through improved varieties. The National Regional High Quality (RHQ) is a variety...

323

Comparison of Five Small-Scale Laboratory Gins to Seven Commercial Gins Sampled Across the Cotton Belt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In research, cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with laboratory scale gin stands is analyzed to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins. The objective of this experiment was to compare the fiber properties of lint from se...

324

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY. A & M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 469 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of seven years experiments with fertilizers on cotton at Troup, Nacogdoches, Angleton, College Station, Beeville, Tem- ple, and Denton, Texas, are reported in this Bulletin. The Kirvin fine sandy loam at Troup and the Nacogdoches and Ruston fine sandy...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

325

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section 1205.341... Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer...

2010-01-01

326

Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

327

Force enhancement after stretch in mammalian muscle fiber: no evidence of cross-bridge involvement.  

PubMed

Stretching of activated skeletal muscles induces a force increase above the isometric level persisting after stretch, known as residual force enhancement (RFE). RFE has been extensively studied; nevertheless, its mechanism remains debated. Unlike previous RFE studies, here the excess of force after stretch, termed static tension (ST), was investigated with fast stretches (amplitude: 3-4% sarcomere length; duration: 0.6 ms) applied at low tension during the tetanus rise in fiber bundles from flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) mouse muscle at 30°C. ST was measured at sarcomere length between 2.6 and 4.4 ?m in normal and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS)-added (10 ?M) Tyrode solution. The results showed that ST has the same characteristics and it is equivalent to RFE. ST increased with sarcomere length, reached a peak at 3.5 ?m, and decreased to zero at ?4.5 ?m. At 4 ?m, where active force was zero, ST was still 50% of maximum. BTS reduced force by ?75% but had almost no effect on ST. Following stimulation, ST developed earlier than force, with a time course similar to internal Ca(2+) concentration: it was present 1 ms after the stimulus, at zero active force, and peaked at ?3-ms delay. At 2.7 ?m, activation increased the passive sarcomere stiffness by a factor of ?7 compared with the relaxed state All our data indicate that ST, or RFE, is independent of the cross-bridge presence and it is due to the Ca(2+)-induced stiffening of a sarcomeric structure identifiable with titin. PMID:25298425

Nocella, Marta; Cecchi, Giovanni; Bagni, Maria Angela; Colombini, Barbara

2014-12-15

328

Evidence of Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy in Unexplained, Juvenile-Onset, Widespread Pain Syndromes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. RESULTS: Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). CONCLUSIONS: More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23478869

Klein, Max M.

2013-01-01

329

Thermal Insulation Properties of Non-woven Composite Materials Made from Naturally Colored Cottons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were finished with polycarboxylic acid to improve structural stability during use and laundering. In addition, four sets of comp...

330

IMPACT OF EXCESS MOISTURE ON COTTON BALES STORED IN POLYPROPYLENE BAGGING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of spraying moisture on cotton fiber at the lint slide, packaging the bales at universal density, and storing the bales for 149 days at atmospheric conditions was evaluated in this study. About 40, 38, 28, 19, 12, and 0 (control) pounds of water were sprayed on fiber at the lint slide to...

331

Preparation of silver-coated cotton fabrics using silver carbamate via thermal reduction and their properties.  

PubMed

In this study, cotton fabric was successfully coated with silver to have both antibacterial and conductive properties through a facile thermal reduction process at a low temperature using silver 2-ethylhexylcarbamate as the starting material. The cotton fabric modified with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane was padded with a solution of silver 2-ethylhexylcarbamate in methanol and then reduced for the in situ generation of Ag nanoparticles by only heating at 130°C. The silver-coated cotton fabrics (cotton/Ag) were examined by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The morphology of cotton/Ag nanocomposite fabrics conveyed a uniform and continuous layer of silver metal on the cotton surface. The results indicated that the silver nanoparticles were assembled on cotton fibers with a size range from 20 to 100 nm. The cotton/Ag imparts high conductivity to the textiles with electric resistance as low as 3.92±0.18 ?. The antibacterial effects of the treated cotton fabric against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43889) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) were examined and found to be excellent. PMID:25439900

Kwak, Wan-Gyu; Oh, Man Hwan; Gong, Myoung-Seon

2015-01-22

332

CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

333

Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through the seed cotton cleaning process in the cotton gin.  

PubMed

There is concern that gins located in boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, eradication zones may become points of reintroduction when they process cotton grown in a neighboring infested area. We estimated boll weevil survival through two typical machine sequences used in commercial cotton gins to clean and dry the seed cotton in advance of the gin stand, as well as separately through two incline cylinder cleaners or one or two tower dryers operating at different temperatures. Large numbers of laboratory-reared adult boll weevils were marked with fluorescent powder, fed into the test system, and recovered with the assistance of blacklights. We found no evidence of survival through the seed cotton cleaning systems even when the dryers were not heated, or when passed separately through the two incline cleaners alone. Upper confidence limits (95%) were calculated for the observed zero recoveries based on sample size and the binomial distribution, and these represent the statistical worst-case (i.e., highest) survival potential. Survival through heated tower dryers declined rapidly to zero at higher temperatures, especially when two dryers were running. Although we conclude that the potential for survival of weevils in the seed cotton to the gin stand is zero or close to zero, a small percentage of live weevils was recovered in the green boll/rock trap, which may represent the greatest threat of reintroduction at the gin. Escape of live weevils with the gin trash is also possible, and studies addressing this issue will be presented elsewhere. PMID:15384344

Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

2004-08-01

334

Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality - Initial findings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

335

Upland fiber changes due to ginning and lint cleaning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was done to determine how upland cotton fiber length distribution was affected during ginning and how possible length changes might affect subsequent textile processing. The full range of ginning treatments currently commercially available in the U. S. cotton industry were utilized. These ...

336

Cotton Planting Seed and Related Fiber Qualities.  

E-print Network

must be sterilized at the gins. Experience has indicated that unless seed treated in this manner are cooled by spread- ing or turning soon after heating, the germination is impaired. The ginning season is short with con- siderable volume... concentrated in a 50 to 60-day period. Growers are under pressure to harvest the crop quickly and have little opportunity to pre- serve the germination potential of the seed. The oil mill price for seed is usually attractive. The growers, therefore, depend...

Paulson, W. E.; Ward, J. M.

1956-01-01

337

Inactivation of calcium channel current in the calf cardiac Purkinje fiber. Evidence for voltage- and calcium-mediated mechanisms  

PubMed Central

We have studied the influence of divalent cations on Ca channel current in the calf cardiac Purkinje fiber to determine whether this current inactivates by voltage- or Ca-mediated mechanisms, or by a combination of the two. We measured the reversal (or zero current) potential of the current when Ba, Sr, or Ca were the permeant divalent cations and determined that depletion of charge carrier does not account for time- dependent relaxation of Ca channel current in these preparations. Inactivation of Ca channel current persists when Ba or Sr replaces Ca as the permeant divalent cation, but the voltage dependence of the rate of inactivation is markedly changed. This effect cannot be explained by changes in external surface charge. Instead, we interpret the results as evidence that inactivation is both voltage and Ca dependent. Inactivation of Sr or Ba currents reflects a voltage-dependent process. When Ca is the divalent charge carrier, an additional effect is observed: the rate of inactivation is increased as Ca enters during depolarizing pulses, perhaps because of an additional Ca-dependent mechanism. PMID:6096480

1984-01-01

338

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25416245

Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

2015-01-01

339

75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that amended the Cotton Research and Promotion Act (Cotton...Shethir M. Riva, Chief, Research and Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs telephone (202...Proposed Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Order...

2010-05-05

340

Effect of high night temperatures on cotton respiration, ATP levels and carbohydrate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

High night temperatures are considered to be one of the main environmental factors contributing to lowered yields in cotton and this has been attributed to a negative effect on respiration and carbohydrate accumulation, but the evidence for this is lacking. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of high night temperatures on cotton respiration, adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) levels and carbohydrates

D. A. Loka; D. M. Oosterhuis

2010-01-01

341

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I.; Bounioux, Céline; Katz, Eugene A.; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel; Zussman, Eyal

2012-03-01

342

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

SciTech Connect

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba 84105 (Israel); Bounioux, Celine [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Katz, Eugene A. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel [Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zussman, Eyal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-03-12

343

Darwin's finches combat introduced nest parasites with fumigated cotton.  

PubMed

Introduced parasites are a threat to biodiversity when naïve hosts lack effective defenses against such parasites [1]. Several parasites have recently colonized the Galápagos Islands, threatening native bird populations [2]. For example, the introduced parasitic nest fly Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) has been implicated in the decline of endangered species of Darwin's finches, such as the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) [3]. Here, we show that Darwin's finches can be encouraged to 'self-fumigate' nests with cotton fibers that have been treated with permethrin. Nests with permethrin-treated cotton had significantly fewer P. downsi than control nests, and nests containing at least one gram of cotton were virtually parasite-free. Nests directly fumigated with permethrin had fewer parasites and fledged more offspring than nests treated with water. PMID:24801182

Knutie, Sarah A; McNew, Sabrina M; Bartlow, Andrew W; Vargas, Daniela A; Clayton, Dale H

2014-05-01

344

Using molecular markers and field performance data to characterize the Pee Dee cotton germplasm resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic relationships in crop breeding programs provides valuable information that can be used by plant breeders\\u000a as a parental line selection tool. In Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the Pee Dee germplasm program represents one of the most historically significant Upland cotton breeding programs and\\u000a is known as a key source of fiber quality genes for commercial cultivars.

B. T. Campbell; V. E. Williams

2009-01-01

345

Recent Advances And Future Prospective in Molecular Breeding of Cotton For Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) is a major product in the world economy. It is a botanically unique plant as it is a perennial allotetraploid derived from\\u000a diploid Gossypium species, one of which does not produce lint, which is grown as an annual row crop. Cotton is an especially appropriate system\\u000a for research into the molecular basis

Edward L. Lubbers; Peng W. Chee; Yehoshua Saranga; Andrew H. Paterson

346

Promoter anchored amplified polymorphism based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (PAAP-RAPD) in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-coding sequences account for a majority of the higher plant genome, some of which have important effects in gene regulation\\u000a and plant development. In an effort to develop molecular marker systems to search for polymorphisms associated with high fiber\\u000a yield and quality in cotton, we have developed a methodology that could specifically target the regulatory regions of the\\u000a cotton genome.

Mingxiong Pang; R. G. Percy; Ed. Hughs; Jinfa Zhang

2009-01-01

347

Sequential water stress in cotton: yield response to stress in early and peak flowering stages  

E-print Network

. Stoneville 825) grown in a set of twelve field lysimeters. The lysimeters were covered by fiber-glass roofed permanent rainout shelters. The study was conducted to determine cotton's response to singular and sequential water deficit stresses. The study... that the end was nowhere in sight. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW Crop Modeling. Experimental Facilities . Cotton Water Deficit Studies. CHAPTER III: METHODS AND MATERIALS . Field Lysimeters . Weather...

Prochaska, James Frank

2012-06-07

348

Transcriptome profiling, sequence characterization, and SNP-based chromosomal assignment of the EXPANSIN genes in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of biological significance associated with DNA markers is very limited in cotton. SNPs are potential functional\\u000a marker to tag genes of biological importance. Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins that directly modify the\\u000a mechanical properties of cell walls, enable turgor-driven cell extension, and likely affect length and quality of cotton fibers.\\u000a Here, we report the expression

Chuanfu An; Sukumar Saha; Johnie N. Jenkins; Brian E. Scheffler; Thea A. Wilkins; David M. Stelly

2007-01-01

349

Influence of moisture on wettability and sizing properties of raw cotton yarns treated with He\\/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The He\\/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively improve the wettability and sizing properties of raw cotton yarns. However, the treatment effects may be greatly influenced by the moisture regain (MR) of the cotton yarn. In this study, raw cotton fibers, yarns and rovings with three different MRs (0.5%, 9.3% and 26.4%) are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

Shiyuan Sun; Yiping Qiu

350

A study of pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of flame-retardant cotton fabrics by DSC, TGA, and PY–GC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of thermal decompositions of cotton and flame-retardant cotton fabrics can assist understanding of fire-resistant functions of the materials. In this research, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (PY–GC–MS) were employed to investigate decomposition processes and decomposed products of flame-retardant treated (using an organo-phosphorus compound) and untreated cotton fibers in the pyrolysis. The thermal decomposition

Ping Zhu; Shuying Sui; Bing Wang; Kai Sun; Gang Sun

2004-01-01

351

[Effect of nitrogen fertilization and square loss on cotton aphid population, cotton leafhopper population and cotton yield].  

PubMed

The study on the effects of nitrogen fertilization (0-450 kg x hm(-2)) and square loss (0-12 x plant(-1)) on cotton aphid population, cotton leafhopper population and cotton yield showed that there were no significant differences in cotton aphid population, cotton leafhopper population, and numbers of effective bolls between transgenic Bt cotton and non-transgenic cotton. Cotton aphid populations on the two cottons were significantly influenced by nitrogen fertilization and by the interaction of nitrogen fertilization and square loss, while leafhopper populations were not significantly influenced by them. Nitrogen fertilization at squaring and flowering stage was one of important factors affecting cotton yield. There was a positive correlation between the application rate of nitrogen fertilizer and cotton yield, but a negative correlation between the number of lost square per plant and the yield of the two cottons. PMID:15574003

Men, Xingyuan; Ge, Feng; Yin, Xinming; Liu, Dongpo

2004-08-01

352

Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. PMID:25401149

Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-01-01

353

Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls  

PubMed Central

Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field. PMID:21816078

2011-01-01

354

Multifunctional cotton fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically conductive fabrics were produced by deposition of a thin film of doped polypyrrole on the surface of cotton fibres. In situ oxidative chemical polymerisation were carried out in aqueous solutions of pyrrole, oxidant and doping agents, at room temperature. Polypyrrole-coated fibres were characterized by Light Microscopy, SEM, EDX, FTIR and TGA. Moreover, fabric samples were also evaluated for moisture

Alessio Varesano; Annalisa Aluigi; Luca Florio; Riccardo Fabris

2009-01-01

355

QUICK SUMMARY OF THE LATEST MOISTURE RESTORATION AT THE GIN STUDY AND A MICROBIAL CHECK STUDY ON THE POPULATION DENSITIES ON "DISCOLORED" AND "CLEAN" COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of an ongoing investigation, a corroborative study was done to follow fiber quality, moisture content and microbial population of cotton bales that had been augmented with moderate amounts of moisture for target moisture contents of 5.1% (control untreated cotton), 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8....

356

UV / Visible / Near-Infrared Reflectance Models for the Rapid and Non-Destructive Prediction and Classification of Cotton Color and Physical Indices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High volume instrumentation (HVI), utilized in the cotton industry to determine the qualities and classifications of cotton fibers, is time consuming, and prone to day-to-day and location-to-location variations. UV / visible / NIR spectroscopy, a rapid and easy sampling technique, was investigated a...

357

Texas Guide for Growing Irrigated Cotton.  

E-print Network

IRRIGATED COTTON R. V. THURMOND JOHN BOX FRED C. ELLIOTT CXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER ASSISTANT EXTENSION AGRONOMIST EXTENSION COTTON WORK SPECIALIST -IRRIGATION- TEXAS A. M. COLLEGE SYSTEM THE SUCCESSFUL COTTON PRODUCER dependability of water...

Elliott, Fred C.; Box, John; Thurmond, R.V.

1958-01-01

358

Superhydrophobic conductive textiles with antibacterial property by coating fibers with silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced on cotton fibers by reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ complex with glucose. Further modification of the fibers coated by Ag NPs with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane led to superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Scanning electron microscopy images of the textiles showed that the treated fibers were covered with uniform Ag NPs, which generate a dual-size roughness on the textiles favouring the

Chao-Hua Xue; Jia Chen; Wei Yin; Shun-Tian Jia; Jian-Zhong Ma

359

Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-03-01

360

A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory me...

361

Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2013-01-01

362

Performance of Cotton Varieties in Texas, 1954- 1956.  

E-print Network

and other agronomic properties, fiber ~~y, disease and insect tolerance, suitability articular growing conditions and adaptation revailing production practices. ,'he principal purpose of the cotton variety testing program of the Texas Agricultural Exper... of more local interest. Generally, all varieties and strains, whether standard or supplemental, tested at a location were arranged in the same experimental design which permitted both inter- and intra-group com- parisons. TEST DESIGN AND ANALYSIS...

Elliott, J.C.; Richmond, J. R.; Niles, G. A.

1957-01-01

363

IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WEED CONTROL Common Pokeweed Biology and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Controlling Large Pigweeds in Peanuts

Watson, Craig A.

364

Cutinase treatment of cotton fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study proposes an enzymatic scouring method for cotton fabrics using the enzyme cutinase. We established cutinase treatment\\u000a conditions for cotton fabrics from their relative activity at different pH levels, temperatures, enzyme concentrations, and\\u000a treatment times. Weight loss, moisture regain, K\\/S value, tensile strength, and SEM micrographs of cotton fabrics were analyzed. We determined the optimum cutinase treatment\\u000a conditions to

So Hee Lee; Wha Soon Song; Hye Rim Kim

2009-01-01

365

An integrated genetic and physical map of homoeologous chromosomes 12 and 26 in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Genetic improvement of fiber quality and yield is facilitated by a variety of genomics tools. An integrated genetic and physical map is needed to better characterize quantitative trait loci and to allow for the positional cloning ...

366

Pressure chamber procedures for leaf water potential measurements of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of leaf water potential (?l) with a pressure chamber is usually regarded as a reliable and practical field technique. However, recent evidence indicates that results depend on the measurement techniques employed. Field experiments were conducted to identify the magnitude and sources of error affecting pressure chamber measurements of ?l in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and to develop an accurate

M. Meron; D. W. Grimes; C. J. Phene; K. R. Davis

1987-01-01

367

Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

2011-01-01

368

Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

369

Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root  

E-print Network

Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root rot has been one of the most destructive cotton diseases in Texas. Cotton root rot reduces yield to screen new classes of fungicides to control for cotton root rot. Beginning in 2005, AgriLife Extension

370

Molecular Orientation in Dry and Hydrated Cellulose Fibers: A Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy Study  

E-print Network

Molecular Orientation in Dry and Hydrated Cellulose Fibers: A Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering the molecular alignment in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers. Two types of cellulose were investigated: natural cellulose I in cotton fibers and regenerated cellulose II in rayon fibers. On the basis of the orientation

Potma, Eric Olaf

371

Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ?1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity. Microscopic characterization of the fiber surface using SEM and AFM reveals the deposition of GO sheets on the fiber surface as a conformal coating. Analysis of the fabric surface using UV-vis absorption allowed identification of the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic domains present on the GO coated cotton fabric surface. Hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric are ascribed to two dimensional amphiphilic properties of deposited GO nano sheets, which successfully lower the interfacial energy of the fabric surface.

Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; de Silva, K. M. Nalin; Amaratunge, Gehan A. J.

2015-01-01

372

Fabrication of super-repellent cotton textiles with rapid reversible wettability switching of diverse liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By in situ introducing polyaniline (PANI) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to cotton fibers, normally hydrophilic and oleophilic cotton textile has easily turned superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic. This super-repellent cotton fabric exhibits a high contact angle (>150°) and low contact angle hysteresis, even with liquids possessing significantly low surface tension. The water or oil repellent property is ascribed to the combination of a dual-size surface roughness and low-surface-energy material. In particular, a reversible wettability switching of various low-surface-tension liquids on the PANI-fabric can be simultaneously observed, when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with sodium hydroxide via a simple dipping method. This transition can be explained by the conversion of fluorine content and hydrophilic groups on the surface during the doping/dedoping process. Besides, this doping polymerization and dedoping process can slightly affect the mechanical strength of the cotton fabrics, even with harsh chemicals like acid and base.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhu, Xiaotao

2013-07-01

373

Aberrant Expression of Critical Genes during Secondary Cell Wall Biogenesis in a Cotton Mutant, Ligon Lintless-1 (Li-1)  

PubMed Central

Over ninety percent of the value of cotton comes from its fiber; however, the genetic mechanisms governing fiber development are poorly understood. Due to their biochemical and morphological diversity in fiber cells cotton fiber mutants have been useful in examining fiber development; therefore, using the Ligon Lintless (Li-1) mutant, a monogenic dominant cotton mutant with very short fibers, we employed the high throughput approaches of microarray technology and real time PCR to gain insights into what genes were critical during the secondary cell wall synthesis stage. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the normal TM-1 genotype and the near isogenic Li-1 revealed that over 100 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold during secondary wall biogenesis, although the genetic profile of the expansion phase showed no significant differences in the isolines. Of particular note, we identified three candidate gene families-expansin, sucrose synthase, and tubulin—whose expression in Li-1 deviates from normal expression patterns of its parent, TM-1. These genes may contribute to retarded growth of fibers in Li-1 since they are fiber-expressed structural and metabolic genes. This work provides more details into the mechanisms of fiber development, and suggests the Li gene is active during the later stages of fiber development. PMID:20148073

Bolton, James J.; Soliman, Khairy M.; Wilkins, Thea A.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

2009-01-01

374

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section 1205.342... Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer...

2010-01-01

375

Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

376

Exploring biomedical applications of cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

377

Microwave drying of seed cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

378

Marker-Assisted Breeding as Next-Generation Strategy for Genetic Improvement of Productivity and Quality: Can It Be Realized in Cotton?  

PubMed Central

The dawdling development in genetic improvement of cotton with conventional breeding program is chiefly due to lack of complete knowledge on and precise manipulation of fiber productivity and quality. Naturally available cotton continues to be a resource for the upcoming breeding program, and contemporary technologies to exploit the available natural variation are outlined in this paper for further improvement of fiber. Particularly emphasis is given to application, obstacles, and perspectives of marker-assisted breeding since it appears to be more promising in manipulating novel genes that are available in the cotton germplasm. Deployment of system quantitative genetics in marker-assisted breeding program would be essential to realize its role in cotton. At the same time, role of genetic engineering and in vitro mutagenesis cannot be ruled out in genetic improvement of cotton. PMID:21577317

Boopathi, N. Manikanda; Thiyagu, K.; Urbi, B.; Santhoshkumar, M.; Gopikrishnan, A.; Aravind, S.; Swapnashri, Gat; Ravikesavan, R.

2011-01-01

379

Biogas production potential from cotton wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of three different cotton wastes namely, cotton stalks, cotton seed hull and cotton oil cake were determined in batch reactors. In addition, the effects of nutrient and trace metal supplementation were also investigated. To this purpose biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were performed for two different waste concentrations, namely 30 and 60g\\/l. The

A. Isci; G. N. Demirer

2007-01-01

380

Pressing the nerve alters muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus in rats: Preliminary evidence for external anal sphincteroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have demonstrated that anal reconstruction with a gracilis graft pressing the dominant nerve could be used to treat fecal incontinence. However, the detailed mechanism by this remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated the alteration in muscle fiber types and contractility of the peroneus longus muscle in rats after pressing its dominant nerves. Material/Methods The rat soleus and peroneus longus were exposed during surgery. The superficial peroneal nerve was pressed so that the peroneus longus temporarily lost its innervation. The epimysium between the soleus and the peroneus longus was removed. The end point of the soleus was cut off and the epimysium of the contact surfaces of the soleus and the peroneus longus were sutured. Five months later, peroneus longus contractility was recorded by the myograph system, and types of muscle fibers were observed using the myosin ATPase staining method. Results The skeletal muscle fiber type underwent adaptive changes due to double innervations with both fast and slow muscle nerves. Compared with other groups, the percentage of type I fibers in the peroneus longus increased significantly in the group of rats with the pressure on the nerve and removal of the sarcolemma. The maximal contraction and relaxation time at the single twitch and complete tetanus of the peroneus longus were also increased. Conclusions Our results show that pressing dominant nerves alter the skeletal muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus, which lead to increased maximal contraction and relaxation time, and significantly improve the ability in resistance to fatigue in rats. This study provides a basis for future clinical studies for external anal sphincter reconstruction using gracilis grafts that are doubly innervated by pressing on its dominant nerve. PMID:24807024

Shi, Song; Liu, Hao; Bai, Xiaobin; Cao, Yongxiao

2014-01-01

381

Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as conventional tillage {CT}, RT with two inter-row cultivations {RT1} and RT with no inter-row cultivation {RT2} were conducted for 11 years. At the end of the study, an improvement in the soil physical properties such as water stable aggregates and mean weight diameter were observed in the RT system and the plots amended with green manure (GM) cover crop compared to those without. Further, available soil moisture content was greater in the GM mulched plots up to 0.60 m depth compared to the without GM treatment. The RT systems, too, had a higher SOM content than the CT probably due to less soil disturbance and greater retention of crop residues. INM and conservation tillage are strategies to sequester C and reduce emissions. It can also mitigate green house gas emissions because less of fertiliser would be used in the INM treatments. Studies conducted, thus far, have not indicated any adverse effect of Bt cotton cultivation. However, there could be a possibility, of nutrient depletion with the cultivation of Bt transgenic hybrids because of higher biomass and nutrient removal increasing the nutrient demand. Studies on these aspects are needed to understand how long-term cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids will alter the soil properties.

Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

2012-04-01

382

Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin

2014-04-01

383

Cloning of fiber-specific cDNAs and their structural variations in 4 fiber mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mRNA preferentially expressed in cotton fiber was cloned from fiber total RNA of normal upland cotton TM-1 (wild-type) by\\u000a using RT-PCR and corresponding cDNA (signed asTM-E6) was sequenced.TM-E6 gene had no intron and contained an open reading frame of 771 bp long, and might encode a peptide of 246 amino acids. Other\\u000a 4 genes,Fl-E6, Li-E6, N-E6 andBl-E6, which were

Xuede Wang; Yuxian Zhu; Daofan Ji; Shuli Jiang; Yueyou Li

2001-01-01

384

The Composition of Cotton Seed Meal and Cotton Seed.  

E-print Network

] THE COMPOSITION OF COTTONSEED MEAL AND COTTON SEED G. S. Fr,-\\r,s, ('11~111~~ 'l'0 THE ESZ-'ERIJTENT ST- TIO ON. This l~ulletin contains a discussion of tlie composition of cotton- seed n~eal so!d ill Texas ancl in other States, wit11 a description of tl~c... lnethocl of milling and with some discussion of the effect of niill- il1.r on the compo~ition of the meal. Some work on the compositioi~ of cotton seed is also given. ,4ccording to Bulletin 131, Bureau of the (2elecsus, in 1914 tl~erc \\-rere 885 c...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1916-01-01

385

Cottonscope fiber maturity fineness, and ribbon width measurements with different sample sizes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maturity and fineness of cotton fiber can impact the fiber’s quality and downstream processing, but their accurate and precise measurement is often difficult, laborious, and/or expensive to perform. A new instrument has recently been introduced—the Cottonscope®—that rapidly, accurately, and pre...

386

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY AND QUANTITY IN FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth regulators have an important role in the biosynthesis of fiber in different crops, affecting both the quality and elongation. In research on various fiber plants, Gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) promoted growth in hemp, jute and kenaf and in cotton, especially fiber pro...

387

Repeated polyploidization of Gossypium genomes and the evolution of spinnable cotton fibres  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emergent phenotypes are common in polyploids relative to their diploid progenitors, a phenomenon exemplified by spinnable cotton fibers. Following 15-18 fold paleopolyploidy, allopolyploidy 1-2 million years ago reunited divergent Gossypium genomes, imparting new combinatorial complexity that might ...

388

Design, Preparation and Assessment of Carbohydrate-Crosslinked Cotton Gauzes as Functional Wound Dressings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report both mono and polysaccharides on cotton wound dressing fibers as functional agents designed for a specific mode of action in chronic or burn wounds. Previously, carbohydrates as found in honey, sucrose and dextran have been used for their wound healing properties and have been either appl...

389

Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

390

Advent of Greige Cotton Nonwovens Made By Hydro-Entanglement Process  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using greige (scour/bleachless) cotton, a few nonwoven fabrics have been successfully produced by adopting conventional fiber opening, cleaning and (modified) carding machines followed by cross-lapping, pre/light needling, and hydro-entanglement (H-E) on modern commercial machinery and equipment. Us...

391

NIR Characterization and Measurement of the Cotton Content of Dyed Blend Fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used extensively for several years in the fiber, textiles, and textile auxiliaries industries. NIR techniques for the measurement of cotton-polyester (PET) blend content have concentrated on yarn slivers and greige fabrics rather than the more much difficult...

392

EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A UCP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE GENE IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UDPGp) along with Sucrose synthase (Susy) is a source of UDP-glucose in cotton fiber. Susy plays an important role in cellulose metabolism during rapid secondary cell wall biogenesis by providing UDP-glucose directly to cellulose synthase. The role of UDPGp is unclea...

393

Wireless tracking of cotton modules Part II: automatic machine identification and system testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mapping the harvest location of cotton modules is essential to practical understanding and utilization of spatial-variability information in fiber quality. A wireless module-tracking system was recently developed, but automation of the system is required before it will find practical use on the far...

394

General Tips of What Little This Author has Learned of Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article, under the following sub-headings, only lists a few very important tips that the author has experienced in his career involving processing of cotton in the traditional textile manufacturing: (1) Fiber Opening and Cleaning (2) Carding (3) Drawing (4) Combing, if necessary (5) Roving (6)...

395

CITRIC ACID TREATMENT OF FLAX, COTTON AND BLENDED NONWOVEN MATS FOR COPPER ION ABSORPTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The removal of metal ions from polluted water and wastewater with biodegradable, natural products is an area of current interest in the environmental arena. The objective of this study is to determine whether nonwoven mats made of biodegradable, natural fibers of flax and cotton can be used for rem...

396

Citric Acid Treatment of Flax, Cotton and Blended Nonwoven Mats for Copper Ion Absorption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The removal of metal ions from polluted wate and wastewater with biodegradeable, natural products is an area of current interest in the environmental arena. The objective of this study is to determine whether nonwoven mats made of biodegradeable, natural fibers of flax and cotton can be used for rem...

397

Comparison of high-speed roller and saw ginning on Texas high plains cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New high-quality cotton cultivars have been adopted in the Southern High Plains recently and, as a result, interest has grown in finding harvest and ginning practices that better preserve fiber quality. Advancements in roller ginning technology have increased the ginning rate of some roller gins to ...

398

Experimental evidence of Er³? ion reduction in the radiation-induced degradation of erbium-doped silica fibers.  

PubMed

The gain of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is damaged by irradiation partly because of creation of color centers responsible of excess absorption at pump and signal wavelengths. Based on the combination of thermally stimulated luminescence and spectrophotometry, this Letter demonstrates that a part of the gain loss should be associated with the reduction of the density of Er3+ ions by irradiation. PMID:25361302

Mebrouk, Yasmine; Mady, Franck; Benabdesselam, Mourad; Duchez, Jean-Bernard; Blanc, Wilfried

2014-11-01

399

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2013-01-01

400

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2012-01-01

401

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2014-01-01

402

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2010-01-01

403

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2011-01-01

404

Gas-exchange properties of developing cotton fruit  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted to document the photosynthetic and respiratory properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruit during ontogeny. Dark respiration by the developing boll averaged {minus}18.7 {mu}mol per meter squared per second for the first six days after anthesis and gradually declined to less than 16% of this value after 40 days. Diurnal patterns of respiration were age dependent and closely correlated with stomatal conductance of the capsule wall. Stomata of young fruit were highly responsive to diurnal signals but lost this capacity with increasing age. Radio-labeled carbon dioxide injected into the fruit was rapidly assimilated by the outer capsule wall in the light, while fiber and seed fixed significant carbon-14 activity in both the light and dark. These data indicate that cotton fruit are sites of carbon dioxide evolution, but also serve a role in the reassimilation of carbon dioxide and thereby, function as important sources of assimilate for reproductive development.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA))

1990-05-01

405

Evidence for a Trade-Off Strategy in Stone Oak (Lithocarpus) Seeds between Physical and Chemical Defense Highlights Fiber as an Important Antifeedant  

PubMed Central

Trees in the beech or oak family (Fagaceae) have a mutualistic relationship with scatter-hoarding rodents. Rodents obtain nutrients and energy by consuming seeds, while providing seed dispersal for the tree by allowing some cached seeds to germinate. Seed predation and caching behavior of rodents is primarily affected by seed size, mechanical protection, macronutrient content, and chemical antifeedants. To enhance seed dispersal, trees must optimize trade-offs in investment between macronutrients and antifeedants. Here, we examine this important chemical balance in the seeds of tropical stone oak species with two substantially different fruit morphologies. These two distinct fruit morphologies in Lithocarpus differ in the degree of mechanical protection of the seed. For ‘acorn’ fruit, a thin exocarp forms a shell around the seed while for ‘enclosed receptacle’ (ER) fruit, the seed is embedded in a woody receptacle. We compared the chemical composition of numerous macronutrient and antifeedant in seeds from several Lithocarpus species, focusing on two pairs of sympatric species with different fruit morphologies. We found that macronutrients, particularly total non-structural carbohydrate, was more concentrated in seeds of ER fruits while antifeedants, primarily fibers, were more concentrated in seeds of acorn fruits. The trade-off in these two major chemical components was more evident between the two sympatric lowland species than between two highland species. Surprisingly, no significant difference in overall tannin concentrations in the seeds was observed between the two fruit morphologies. Instead, the major trade-off between macronutrients and antifeedants involved indigestible fibers. Future studies of this complex mutualism should carefully consider the role of indigestible fibers in the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents. PMID:22457722

Chen, Xi; Cannon, Charles H.; Conklin-Brittan, Nancy Lou

2012-01-01

406

Antiquity of American Polyploid Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of a boll of Gossypium hirsutum L. from archeological excavations near Tehuacan, Mexico, prove that this species existed in 5800 B.C. No doubt remains that American tetraploid cotton species originated through natural hybridization.

C. Earle Smith Jr.; Richard S. MacNeish

1964-01-01

407

RELATIVE SHORT FIBER CONTENT MEASUREMENTS IS THIS THE SOLUTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Short Fiber Content(SFC) is defined as the weight percentage of fibers less than one-half inch in the U.S., but it is defined by 16 mm (about 5/8 inches)in China. Our results from ARIS data on selected cottons show that the SFC defined by 0.5 inches is a good indicator of short fibers based on the h...

408

Genome-Wide Functional Analysis of the Cotton Transcriptome by Creating an Integrated EST Database  

PubMed Central

A total of 28,432 unique contigs (25,371 in consensus contigs and 3,061 as singletons) were assembled from all 268,786 cotton ESTs currently available. Several in silico approaches [comparative genomics, Blast, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and pathway enrichment by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)] were employed to investigate global functions of the cotton transcriptome. Cotton EST contigs were clustered into 5,461 groups with a maximum cluster size of 196 members. A total of 27,956 indel mutants and 149,616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from consensus contigs. Interestingly, many contigs with significantly high frequencies of indels or SNPs encode transcription factors and protein kinases. In a comparison with six model plant species, cotton ESTs show the highest overall similarity to grape. A total of 87 cotton miRNAs were identified; 59 of these have not been reported previously from experimental or bioinformatics investigations. We also predicted 3,260 genes as miRNAs targets, which are associated with multiple biological functions, including stress response, metabolism, hormone signal transduction and fiber development. We identified 151 and 4,214 EST-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from contigs and raw ESTs respectively. To make these data widely available, and to facilitate access to EST-related genetic information, we integrated our results into a comprehensive, fully downloadable web-based cotton EST database (www.leonxie.com). PMID:22087239

Xie, Fuliang; Sun, Guiling; Stiller, John W.; Zhang, Baohong

2011-01-01

409

Characterization of cottonseed nutrients composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines for fuzzless seed trait under well-watered and water stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton mutant near isogenic lines (NILs) for fuzzless seed trait has been used to investigate cell biology, genetic, and molecular processes of fiber initiation, development, fiber yield and quality. However, there is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrie...

410

Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China.  

PubMed

In the past, scientific research has predicted a decrease in the effectiveness of Bt cotton due to the rise of secondary and other sucking pests. It is suspected that once the primary pest is brought under control, secondary pests have a chance to emerge due to the lower pesticide applications in Bt cotton cultivars. Studies on this phenomenon are scarce. This article furnishes empirical evidence that farmers in China perceive a substantial increase in secondary pests after the introduction of Bt cotton. The research is based on a survey of 1,000 randomly selected farm households in five provinces in China. We found that the reduction in pesticide use in Bt cotton cultivars is significantly lower than that reported in research elsewhere. This is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by recent studies that more pesticide sprayings are needed over time to control emerging secondary pests, such as aphids, spider mites, and lygus bugs. Apart from farmers' perceptions of secondary pests, we also assessed their basic knowledge of Bt cotton and their perceptions of Bt cotton in terms of its strengths and shortcomings (e.g., effectiveness, productivity, price, and pesticide use) in comparison with non-transgenic cotton. PMID:20437270

Zhao, Jennifer H; Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

2011-02-01

411

Dietary and hormonal evaluation of men at different risks for prostate cancer: fiber intake, excretion, and composition, with in vitro evidence for an association between steroid hormones and specific fiber components13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary fiber intake and fecal fiber excretion were investigated in 53 Seventh-day Adventist men: 18 non- vegetarians (NVs), 20 lactoovovegetanans (LOVs), and 15 veg- ans (Vs). Three-day composite diets and stools were analyzed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hemicellulose, cellulose, hg- nm, and pectin. In vitro binding ofestrone (El), estradiol-17fl (E2), and testosterone (T) to a water-insoluble fiber fraction obtained

Jane K Ross; Donald J Pusaleri; Terry D Shultz

412

Structural Changes in United States Cotton Supply  

E-print Network

functions and elasticities within the United States cotton industry. U.S. cotton yields appear to have been dramatically increased in recent years from newer varieties, boll weevil eradication, weather, and other technological improvements. Changes in both...

Mitchell, Donna Marie

2010-10-12

413

Perspectives of the International Cotton Genome Initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium spp.), an immensely important crop worldwide, has lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination, and it has lagged behind other major crops in genome research. For these reasons, the International Cotton...

414

Natural Lignocellulosic Fibers as Engineering Materials—An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations on the tensile properties of natural cellulose-based fibers revealed an increasing potential as engineering materials. This is particularly the case of very thin fibers of some species such as sisal, ramie, and curaua. However, several other commonly used fibers such as flax, jute, hemp, coir, cotton, and bamboo as well as less known bagasse, piassava, sponge gourde, and buriti display tensile properties that could qualify them as engineering materials. An overview of the strength limits attained by these fibers is presented. Based on a tensile strength vs density chart, it is shown that natural fibers stand out as a relevant class of engineering materials.

Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lopes, Felipe Perissé Duarte; Barbosa, Anderson Paula; Bevitori, Alice Barreto; Silva, Isabela Leão Amaral Da; Costa, Lucas Lopes Da

2011-10-01

415

INSECTICIDE RESIDUES IN COTTON CROP SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethoate, monocrotophos, triazophos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and endosulfan were applied to a cotton crop soil located at Nurpur village, Punjab, India. The insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages in cotton fields by foliar application in 1995, 1996 and 1998. Soil samples were collected from the cotton crop farms and extracted with acetone. The extracted material was analysed by a gas

Komal Vig; Dileep K. Singh; H. C. Agarwal; A. K. Dhawan; Prem Dureja

2001-01-01

416

Trash particle distribution measurements in ginned cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A beltwide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the USDA-ARS Southwester...

417

Impact of Bt Cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 283 cotton farmers in Northern China was surveyed in December 1999. Farmers that used cotton engineered to produce the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin substantially reduced the use of pesticide without reducing the output\\/ha or quality of cotton. This resulted in substantial economic benefits for small farmers. Consumers did not benefit directly. Farmers obtained the major share of

Jikun Huang; Fangbin Qiao

2001-01-01

418

SPINDLE DESIGN EFFECTS ON COTTON QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 - ...

419

Changes in cotton quality during ginning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland cotton gins across the cotton belt were sampled during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. Samples were taken at the module, feeder apron, and before and after lint cleaning at re...

420

Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

421

Cotton Worms - I.D. Guide  

E-print Network

Cotton producers and scouts can use this handy guide to identifying the most common "worms found in cotton. This shirt-pocket-size, laminated card features close-up color photos of cotton bollworm-tobacco budworm, fall armyworm, beet armyworm...

Bynum, Jr.; Edsel,Byrns; Steve,Fuchs; Thomas W.,Minzenmayer; Rick,Multer; Warren

2006-04-17

422

Natural cellulose fibers from soybean straw.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of natural cellulose technical fibers from soybean straw with properties similar to the natural cellulose fibers in current use. About 220 million tons of soybean straw available in the world every year could complement the byproducts of other major food crops as inexpensive, abundant and annually renewable sources for natural cellulose fibers. Using the agricultural byproducts as sources for fibers could help to address the concerns on the future price and availability of both the natural and synthetic fibers in current use and also help to add value to the food crops. A simple alkaline extraction was used to obtain technical fibers from soybean straw and the composition, structure and properties of the fibers was studied. Technical fibers obtained from soybean straw have high cellulose content (85%) but low% crystallinity (47%). The technical fibers have breaking tenacity (2.7 g/den) and breaking elongation (3.9%) higher than those of fibers obtained from wheat straw and sorghum stalk and leaves but lower than that of cotton. Overall, the structure and properties of the technical fibers obtained from soybean straw indicates that the fibers could be suitable for use in textile, composite and other industrial applications. PMID:19345577

Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2009-07-01

423

Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome of major biological and economic importance. In recent years, genomic approaches such as microarray-based expression profiling were used to study fiber growth and development to understand the developmental mechanisms of fiber at the molecular level. The vast volume of microarray expression data generated requires a sophisticated means of data mining in order to extract novel information that addresses fundamental questions of biological interest. One of the ways to approach microarray data mining is to increase the number of dimensions/levels to the analysis, such as comparing independent studies from different genotypes. However, adding dimensions also creates a challenge in finding novel ways for analyzing multi-dimensional microarray data. Results Mining of independent microarray studies from Pima and Upland (TM1) cotton using double feature selection and cluster analyses identified species-specific and stage-specific gene transcripts that argue in favor of discrete genetic mechanisms that govern developmental programming of cotton fiber morphogenesis in these two cultivated species. Double feature selection analysis identified the highest number of differentially expressed genes that distinguish the fiber transcriptomes of developing Pima and TM1 fibers. These results were based on the finding that differences in fibers harvested between 17 and 24 day post-anthesis (dpa) represent the greatest expressional distance between the two species. This powerful selection method identified a subset of genes expressed during primary (PCW) and secondary (SCW) cell wall biogenesis in Pima fibers that exhibits an expression pattern that is generally reversed in TM1 at the same developmental stage. Cluster and functional analyses revealed that this subset of genes are primarily regulated during the transition stage that overlaps the termination of PCW and onset of SCW biogenesis, suggesting that these particular genes play a major role in the genetic mechanism that underlies the phenotypic differences in fiber traits between Pima and TM1. Conclusion The novel application of double feature selection analysis led to the discovery of species- and stage-specific genetic expression patterns, which are biologically relevant to the genetic programs that underlie the differences in the fiber phenotypes in Pima and TM1. These results promise to have profound impacts on the ongoing efforts to improve cotton fiber traits. PMID:18570655

Alabady, Magdy S; Youn, Eunseog; Wilkins, Thea A

2008-01-01

424

Helicoverpa armigera baseline susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and resistance management for Bt cotton in India.  

PubMed

Transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), often referred to as Bt cotton, is widely grown in many countries. Bt cotton with a single cry1A gene and stacked also with cry2A gene has provided satisfactory protection against the damage by the lepidopteran bollworms, especially the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which is considered as a key pest. The baseline susceptibility of the larvae of H. armigera to Cry1Ac and other toxins carried out in many countries has provided a basis for monitoring resistance. There is no evidence of development of field-level resistance in H. armigera leading to the failure of Bt cotton crop anywhere in the world, despite the fact that Bt cotton was grown on the largest ever area of 12.1 million hectares in 2006 and its cumulative cultivation over the last 11 years has surpassed the annual cotton area in the world. Nevertheless, the Bt resistance management has become a necessity to sustain Bt cotton and other transgenic crops in view of potential of the target insects to evolve Cry toxin resistance. PMID:17475275

Gujar, G T; Kalia, V; Kumari, A; Singh, B P; Mittal, A; Nair, R; Mohan, M

2007-07-01

425

IMPACTS OF GLASS USE IN COTTON COLOR MEASUREMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton color is an important quality and processing property. In the U.S., cotton is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI). The color of cotton on the HVI is denoted by the parameters Rd and +b, which represent the cotton’s diffuse reflectance and yellowness, respectiv...

426

IMPACTS OF GLASS USE IN COTTON COLOR MEASUREMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton color is an important classification property. In the U.S., cotton is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI). The color of cotton on the HVI is denoted by the parameters Rd and +b, which represent the cotton’s diffuse reflectance and yellowness, respectively. Rd...

427

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...classification memoranda issued for such cotton. (c) Gin-cut cotton. Cotton that shows damage in ginning through cutting by the saws, to an extent that reduces its value more than two grades. (d) Reginned cotton. Cotton that has passed through...

2011-01-01

428

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...classification memoranda issued for such cotton. (c) Gin-cut cotton. Cotton that shows damage in ginning through cutting by the saws, to an extent that reduces its value more than two grades. (d) Reginned cotton. Cotton that has passed through...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...classification memoranda issued for such cotton. (c) Gin-cut cotton. Cotton that shows damage in ginning through cutting by the saws, to an extent that reduces its value more than two grades. (d) Reginned cotton. Cotton that has passed through...

2012-01-01

430

7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classification memoranda issued for such cotton. (c) Gin-cut cotton. Cotton that shows damage in ginning through cutting by the saws, to an extent that reduces its value more than two grades. (d) Reginned cotton. Cotton that has passed through...

2013-01-01

431

The Cotton Ginning Industry: Past, Present, and Future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cotton ginning industry has adopted many changes in cotton production, processing and marketing over the past years. Current trends show reduced cotton acreage, shifts in cotton production regions, and changes in cotton markets. To be competitive, gins must look for every opportunity to improv...

432

Silver-cotton nanocomposite via in-situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles in self-controlling microfibrillar reactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are effective antimicrobial agents, but their application on the surface of a fiber renders them ineffective because Ag NPs are washable. In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite was produced by the in-situ formation of Ag NPs in the microfibrillar ...

433

Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-healing Wound  

SciTech Connect

A comparative examination of two methods, the classical- and chromatographic, commonly used to study adsorption isotherms is presented. Both methods were used to study the solid/liquid interface of two different derivatives of cotton fiber and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Castro, Nathan J.; Goheen, Steven C.

2005-12-01

434

Compensation of Lygus hesperus induced preflower fruit loss in cotton.  

PubMed

A 3-yr field study quantified the compensatory ability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to preflower fruit damage by Lygus hesperus Knight in the Texas High Plains under limited irrigation. Experiments were designed to achieve varying levels of preflower fruit loss by augmenting Lygus bug populations using nymphal bugs reared in a laboratory colony. Treatments included 1) three bugs per plant (3PP), 2) one bug per plant (1PP), 3) naturally occurring background bug density or untreated control (NC), and 4) 0 bugs achieved through insecticide spray applications (SC). Lygus release treatments (3PP and 1PP) were initiated at early fruiting (squaring) and repeated weekly for a total of three consecutive weeks. Two levels of Lygus bug infestations, one insect per plant (1PP) and three insects per plant (3PP), inflicted fruit loss percentages of 24-38 during the maximum fruit set period. Observations on the number of fruit lost at the crop preharvest stage indicate that plants receiving the 3PP and 1PP treatments exhibited higher ability to restrain physiological fruit loss when compared with the two control treatments (NC and SC). Cotton plants could not fully compensate the yield loss because of fruit damage caused by Lygus bugs at the observed level of damage. The total lint yields in the 1PP and 3PP treatments were 114 and 118 kg/ha lower, respectively, compared with that in treatment SC. The reduction in yield was primarily because of the loss of first fruiting position bolls. However, lint yields from bolls other than first position of the cotton plant were similar across treatments. Fiber quality data indicated an increase in fiber length from insect release treatment plants compared with the two control treatments. PMID:23865185

Barman, Apurba K; Parajulee, Megha N

2013-06-01

435

Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the antibacterial cotton fabric was prepared using zinc oxide/silicon dioxide (ZnO/SiO2) nanocomposite. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized with an in situ approach using two different methods on the cotton fabric. One of the methods was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles into the prepared sol solution, and then coating on the cotton fabric. The other method was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide-coated cotton fabric. The morphological, structural, thermal, and antibacterial properties of ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite-coated cotton fabric was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermo gravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide coated cotton fabric sample resulted in agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fiber, while the spherical nanoparticles structure was formed by synthesizing them into the sol solution of silicon dioxide. The EDS results indicated presence of ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite on the surface of coated cotton fabric, and presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Barani, Hossein

2014-11-01

436

Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.  

PubMed

Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. PMID:25128346

Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

2014-11-01

437

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-05-01

438

Towards Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite rapidly decreasing costs and innovative technologies, sequencing of angiosperm genomes is not yet undertaken lightly. Generating larger amounts of sequence data more quickly does not address the difficulties of sequencing and assembling complex genomes de novo. The cotton genomes represent a...

439

CONSERVATION SYSTEMS FOR COTTON PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil compaction can suppress cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields by hindering root development. In southeastern US, soil compaction is often associated with soils that have a low organic matter content. A survey conducted in 2002 revealed that many soils in central Alabama have hard pans within th...

440

DISEASE RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC COTTONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic Upland cottons (Gossypium hirsutum L.) expressing the antifungal peptide D4E1 were evaluated for tolerance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 1 in a sandy soil field, also infected with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). A transgenic line...

441

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

442

78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...quality requirements and age parameters established...The implementation of ICE's Cotton Resolution No...S. cotton industry and ICE to request that the AMS...quality requirements and age parameters set by ICE for use in a cotton...

2013-09-09

443

78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...quality requirements and age parameters established...for the implementation of ICE's Cotton Resolution No...S. cotton industry and ICE to request that the AMS...quality requirements and age parameters set by ICE for use in a cotton...

2013-11-18

444

Superhydrophobic conductive textiles with antibacterial property by coating fibers with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced on cotton fibers by reduction of [Ag(NH 3) 2] + complex with glucose. Further modification of the fibers coated by Ag NPs with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane led to superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Scanning electron microscopy images of the textiles showed that the treated fibers were covered with uniform Ag NPs, which generate a dual-size roughness on the textiles favouring the formation of superhydrophobic surfaces, and the Ag NPs formed dense coating around the fibers rendering the intrinsic insulating cotton textiles conductive. Antibacterial test showed that the as-fabricated textiles had high antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. These multifunctional textiles might find applications in biomedical electronic devices.

Xue, Chao-Hua; Chen, Jia; Yin, Wei; Jia, Shun-Tian; Ma, Jian-Zhong

2012-01-01

445

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... operation and harvesting conditions. Mechanical stripping is confined to the period after frost has killed the plants. Open cotton left standing in the field is subject to weather damage. Therefore, hand harvested cotton before frost grades higher than...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

446

Cotton-supported graphene functionalized with aminosilica nanoparticles as a versatile high-performance extraction sorbent for trace organic analysis.  

PubMed

Cotton fibers were functionalized, following the coating of fibers with graphene oxide (GO), the covalent attachment of aminosilica nanoparticles and the reduction to the cotton-GR-aminosilica material. Employing the cotton-supported graphene (GR)-aminosilica material, a novel and easily applicable extraction mode was put forward. Several groups of analytes were employed such as PAHs, phthalates, musks, phenolic endocrine disrupters and haloacetic acids to test the applicability of the functionalized cotton for extraction purposes. The extraction yields ranged from 76% to 96% corroborating the high degree of affinity of the material for the above groups of compounds while the limits of detection were between 0.06 and 1.10 ?g/L using gas chromatography-electron capture detection for haloacetic acids and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rest of the analytes. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in fortified lake water at a spiking level of three to ten times the lowest quantifiable concentration and the recoveries varied from 86% to 104% for all the studied analytes. The ?-? and hydrophobic interactions, the hydrogen bonding between the functionalized cotton and analytes and the electron polarizability and ionizability of the chemical structures justify the extraction behavior. PMID:24581873

Cardador, Maria Jose; Paparizou, Efthymia; Gallego, Mercedes; Stalikas, Constantine

2014-04-01

447

Effects of Exogenously Applied Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) to Cotton  

E-print Network

for organizing and finding missing samples, and to Julie for financial encouragement. Finally, I thank B, for giving me the support I needed to finish strong. . vi NOMENCLATURE Abscisic Acid ABA Gibberellins GA3 IAA Indole-3-Acetic Acid Phytogen... for plant growth and development. They play a critical role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Cytokinins, and abscisic acid (ABA) are major hormones that inhibit cotton fiber development. Auxins, gibberellins, brassinosteriods...

Clement, Jenny D.

2011-08-08

448

Design and evaluation of a source sampling system for cotton harvesters - Seed cotton separation system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton producers in some states across the US cotton belt are facing increased regulatory pressure with regard to air quality permit compliance and reducing fugitive PM emissions. Little accurate emission factor data from cotton picking operations are available for use in the air pollution regulator...

449

KAOLIN PARTICLE FILM ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED COTTON APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) INFESTATIONS IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Highly reflective white kaolin-based particle film was sprayed on cotton plots in south Texas in order to observe its effect on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Populations of cotton aphids on the undersides of leaves in the kaolin treated plots were greater than in non-treated control plot...

450

Growth patterns and nuclear distribution in white muscle fibers from black sea bass, Centropristis striata: evidence for the influence of diffusion  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study investigated the influence of fiber size on the distribution of nuclei and fiber growth patterns in white muscle of black sea bass, Centropristis striata, ranging in body mass from 0.45 to 4840 g. Nuclei were counted in 1 ?m optical sections using confocal microscopy of DAPIand Acridine-Orange-stained muscle fibers. Mean fiber diameter increased from 36±0.87 ?m in the 0.45 g fish to 280±5.47 ?m in the 1885 g fish. Growth beyond 2000 g triggered the recruitment of smaller fibers, thus significantly reducing mean fiber diameter. Nuclei in the smaller fibers were exclusively subsarcolemmal (SS), whereas in larger fibers nuclei were more numerous and included intermyofibrillar (IM) nuclei. There was a significant effect of body mass on nuclear domain size (F=118.71, d.f.=3, P<0.0001), which increased to a maximum in fish of medium size (282–1885 g) and then decreased in large fish (>2000 g). Although an increase in the number of nuclei during fiber growth can help preserve the myonuclear domain, the appearance of IM nuclei during hypertrophic growth seems to be aimed at maintaining short effective diffusion distances for nuclear substrates and products. If only SS nuclei were present throughout growth, the diffusion distance would increase in proportion to the radius of the fibers. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in nuclear distribution and fiber growth patterns are mechanisms for avoiding diffusion limitation during animal growth. PMID:21430198

Priester, Carolina; Morton, Lindsay C.; Kinsey, Stephen T.; Watanabe, Wade O.; Dillaman, Richard M.

2011-01-01

451

A seed cotton drier for a mechanical cotton picker  

E-print Network

zegulation 1n the driers+ Temperature regulation of gin driers 1s neoes- sary to obtain the desired 7 per oent moisture content of the dried cotton for optimum ginning conditions (1)~ Tests oonducted by Noore and Nerkel (7) show that cotton when ginned...Lt e 0 88?' etts on? 7? Noore& V?P?q snd Nerkel? C, N, R 53t20?22?62? 1952? ess? 8? Power? B. K ~, W Ch plan, tg. E? t ~ Cot, on n snd ill Press? 59t7W? 1958? R11?X? J?A?y sgtd Willi?I?on? EiB? ~ N ssias pp AEr oultugal 'Facperiment Bulletin? 58...

Tupper, Gordon Richard

1961-01-01

452

Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced Alginate Fibers—Biomimicry Meets Polymer Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research takes a biomimetic approach to the design of polymer nanocomposites and demonstrates structure-property relationships that are controllable via processing conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) measuring 130 nm (length) × 20.4 nm (width) × 6.8 nm (height) were isolated from cotton by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and were incorporated in an alginate fiber wet spinning dope solution. Incorporating CNCs within the

Esteban E. Ureña-Benavides; Christopher L. Kitchens

2012-01-01

453

Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cotton by BTH has a negligible effect on phytophagous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not chemical changes in plants in response to pests (insects and pathogens) are general or specific remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that an induced response (IR) to arthropods via the octadecanoid pathway represents a distinct mechanism from the salicylic acid-based pathway of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogens. To further test this hypothesis, young cotton seedlings were activated

Moshe Inbar; Hamed Doostdar; Dan Gerling; Richard T. Mayer

2001-01-01

454

Microwave Imaging of Cotton Bales  

PubMed Central

Modern moisture restoration systems are increasingly capable of adding water to cotton bales. However, research has identified large variations in internal moisture within bales that are not readily monitored by current systems. While microwave moisture sensing systems can measure average bale moisture, this can be deceptive where water is unevenly distributed. In some cases, localized internal moisture levels exceed 7.5%, the upper safe limit for cotton bale storage, as determined by the USDA, as above this level, bales degrade and lose value. A high proportion of stored bales containing excess moisture have been discovered throughout the US in increasing numbers over the past several seasons, making the detection and prevention of this occurrence a critical goal. Previous research by the authors resulted in the development of microwave moisture-sensing technology. The current study examines an extension to this technology to allow for detailed cotton bale moisture imaging. The new technique incorporates a narrow beam imaging antenna coupled to a tomographic imaging algorithm. The imaging technique was able to resolve small (< 1 cm) high-permittivity structures against a low permittivity background. Moreover, the system was able to identify structures of known permittivity with high accuracy (coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.99). In preliminary testing on a wet commercial UD bale, the technique was able to accurately image and resolve the location of the pre-placed internal wet layer.

Pelletier, Mathew G.; Barnes, Edward M.

2008-01-01

455

Parallel up-regulation of the profilin gene family following independent domestication of diploid and allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium).  

PubMed

Cotton is remarkable among our major crops in that four species were independently domesticated, two allopolyploids and two diploids. In each case thousands of years of human selection transformed sparsely flowering, perennial shrubs into highly productive crops with seeds bearing the vastly elongated and abundant single-celled hairs that comprise modern cotton fiber. The genetic underpinnings of these transformations are largely unknown, but comparative gene expression profiling experiments have demonstrated up-regulation of profilin accompanying domestication in all three species for which wild forms are known. Profilins are actin monomer binding proteins that are important in cytoskeletal dynamics and in cotton fiber elongation. We show that Gossypium diploids contain six profilin genes (GPRF1-GPRF6), located on four different chromosomes (eight chromosomes in the allopolyploid). All but one profilin (GPRF6) are expressed during cotton fiber development, and both homeologs of GPRF1-GPRF5 are expressed in fibers of the allopolyploids. Remarkably, quantitative RT-PCR and RNAseq data demonstrate that GPRF1-GPRF5 are all up-regulated, in parallel, in the three independently domesticated cottons in comparison with their wild counterparts. This result was additionally supported by iTRAQ proteomic data. In the allopolyploids, there This usage of novel should be fine, since it refers to a novel evolutionary process, not a novel discovery has been novel recruitment of the sixth profilin gene (GPRF6) as a result of domestication. This parallel up-regulation of an entire gene family in multiple species in response to strong directional selection is without precedent and suggests unwitting selection on one or more upstream transcription factors or other proteins that coordinately exercise control over profilin expression. PMID:22160709

Bao, Ying; Hu, Guanjing; Flagel, Lex E; Salmon, Armel; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Paterson, Andrew H; Wang, Zining; Wendel, Jonathan F

2011-12-27

456

A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fiber length can potentially provide a valuable tool for cotton breeders to improve fiber length while maintaining high yields. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation Ligon lintless-2 is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) that results in significantly shorter fibers than a wild-type. In a near-isogenic state with a wild-type cotton line, Li2 is a model system with which to study fiber elongation. Results Two near-isogenic lines of Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) cotton, one mutant and one wild-type, were developed through five generations of backcrosses (BC5). An F2 population was developed from a cross between the two Li2 near-isogenic lines and used to develop a linkage map of the Li2 locus on chromosome 18. Five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were closely mapped around the Li2 locus region with two of the markers flanking the Li2 locus at 0.87 and 0.52 centimorgan. No apparent differences in fiber initiation and early fiber elongation were observed between the mutant ovules and the wild-type ones. Gene expression profiling using microarrays suggested roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cytokinin regulation in the Li2 mutant phenotype. Microarray gene expression data led to successful identification of an EST-SSR marker (NAU3991) that displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus. Conclusions In the field of cotton genomics, we report the first successful conversion of gene expression data into an SSR marker that is associated with a genomic region harboring a gene responsible for a fiber trait. The EST-derived SSR marker NAU3991 displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus on chromosome 18 and resided in a gene with similarity to a putative plectin-related protein. The complete linkage suggests that this expressed sequence may be the Li2 gene. PMID:21902843

2011-01-01

457

Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.  

PubMed

There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary. PMID:15568350

Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

2004-10-01

458

Lygus Control Decision Aids for Arizona Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in insecticide use, available pest control technologies, and local crop ecology together with severely depressed cotton prices place a renewed premium on Lygus control decision aids for Arizona cotton. As part of an on-going pro- gram to develop research-based Lygus management recommendations, we inves- tigated the impact of various timings of chemical controls on Lygus population dynamics, number of

Peter C. Ellsworth

459

Short-term storage of cotton pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods of storing cotton pollen (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were evaluated. A successful pollen storage method that maintains fertility would enhance the crossing of breeding materials. Storing pollen at ultra-low temperatures in liquid nitrogen or at 5°C was not successful. No storage method maintained pollen fertility for more than 72 h. Cotton pollen did maintain adequate fertility up to 24

B. Rodriguez-Garay; J. R. Barrow

1986-01-01

460

Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

461

Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

462

Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

463

Insights from the International Cotton Genome Initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an immensely important crop worldwide, it lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination. For this and many other reasons, cotton genome research has lagged behind other major crops. In...

464

Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

465

Varietal Variability for Cotton Ginning Efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Energy consumption is one of the largest expenses of a cotton gin. In light of the rising cost of energy, all avenues should be exploited to optimize energy use in modern cotton gins. One option is to study genetic variability within the available germplasm to look for varieties that gin faster and ...

466

Use of cotton gin trash and compatibilizers in polyethylene composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ginning of cotton produces 15-42% of foreign materials, called “cotton gin trash”, including cotton burr, stems, leaf fragment, and dirt. In this work we examined the mechanical properties of composites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cotton burr. The burr was ground into powder, and se...

467

Influence of crude fiber from two different sources and two levels of cobalt on the biotic potential of Haemonchus contortus in sheep  

E-print Network

by Sheep Fed Experimental Rations. Influence of 5% Crude Fiber (alfalfa) Versus 5% Crude Fiber (cotton seed hulls) on Production of Fertile H. contortus Eggs. Adult Worm Count at Necropsy. 14 14 14 14 20 22 28 28 28 32 Page Total number... Fed Rations A (5% Crude Fiber, A (5X Crude Fiber, Alfalfa Pellets) nfected with H. contortus. Two Groups of Cotton Seed Hulls) and Experimentally 31 VIII Comparison of Total Adult Worm Count Recovered from Each lamb at the End of Trial. 34 IX...

Njau, Barnabas Charles

2012-06-07

468

[Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on pest population and cotton production].  

PubMed

Field experiments were conducted from 1999 to 2000 to assess the effect of nitrogen fertilization levels (0.225 and 450 kg.hm-2) on the population dynamics of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and cotton aphid (Aphid gossypii), and on the numbers of cotton buds and bolls in North China. The population densities of cotton bollworm and cotton aphid increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization during 1999 to 2000, but the differences between treatments were not significant (P > 0.05). There were significant differences of cotton bollworm populations and no significant differences of cotton aphid populations between years. Nitrogen fertilization at flower-bud stage decreased the loss of cotton buds and flowers and increased the number of effective bolls and cotton yield, but the decrement and increment did not get to significant level (P < 0.05). No obvious correlations of nitrogen levels with main pest abundance and cotton production were observed. PMID:14986377

Ge, Feng; Liu, Xianghui; Li, Hongda; Men, Xingyuan; Su, Jianwei

2003-10-01

469

Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.  

PubMed

The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

2012-12-01

470

Initial fiber quality comparison testing of the power roll gin stand to three different makes of conventional gin stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The powered roll gin stand is a new saw-type ginning technology that has undergone numerous studies evaluating its use for ginning seed cotton. Past results have shown increased production and turnout without adversely affecting fiber properties. In some cases, improvements in fiber properties over ...

471

CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research  

PubMed Central

CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, visualization and data retrieval of cotton research data. CottonGen contains annotated whole genome sequences, unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), markers, trait loci, genetic maps, genes, taxonomy, germplasm, publications and communication resources for the cotton community. Annotated whole genome sequences of Gossypium raimondii are available with aligned genetic markers and transcripts. These whole genome data can be accessed through genome pages, search tools and GBrowse, a popular genome browser. Most of the published cotton genetic maps can be viewed and compared using CMap, a comparative map viewer, and are searchable via map search tools. Search tools also exist for markers, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), germplasm, publications and trait evaluation data. CottonGen also provides online analysis tools such as NCBI BLAST and Batch BLAST. PMID:24203703

Yu, Jing; Jung, Sook; Cheng, Chun-Huai; Ficklin, Stephen P.; Lee, Taein; Zheng, Ping; Jones, Don; Percy, Richard G.; Main, Dorrie

2014-01-01

472

A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF). A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT) and Vitis vinifera (VV) whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence. PMID:20569427

2010-01-01

473

The Differential Expression of Sucrose Synthase in Relation to Diverse Patterns of Carbon Partitioning in Developing Cotton Seed.  

PubMed Central

Developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed exhibits complex patterns of carbon allocation in which incoming sucrose (Suc) is partitioned to three major sinks: the fibers, seed coat, and cotyledons, which synthesize cellulose, starch, and storage proteins or oils, respectively. In this study we investigated the role of Suc synthase (SuSy) in the mobilization of Suc into such sinks. Assessments of SuSy gene expression at various levels led to the surprising conclusion that, in contrast to that found for other plants, SuSy does not appear to play a role in starch synthesis in the cotton seed. However, our demonstration of functional symplastic connections between the phloem-unloading area and the fiber cells, as well as the SuSy expression pattern in fibers, indicates a major role of SuSy in partitioning carbon to fiber cellulose synthesis. SuSy expression is also high in transfer cells of the seed coat facing the cotyledons. Such high levels of SuSy could contribute to the synthesis of the thickened cell walls and to the energy generation for Suc efflux to the seed apoplast. The expression of SuSy in cotyledons also suggests a role in protein and lipid synthesis. In summary, the developing cotton seed provides an excellent example of the diverse roles played by SuSy in carbon metabolism. PMID:12223814

Ruan, Y. L.; Chourey, P. S.; Delmer, D. P.; Perez-Grau, L.

1997-01-01

474

Application of fluorinated compounds to cotton fabrics via sol-gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was the study of the surface modification of cotton fibers to confer hydro and oil repellency to the fabrics. A surface treatment not involving the bulk of the fibers was chosen, so fabrics can maintain comfort properties. Moreover the study focused on an economical and environmental friendly process, in order to obtain an effective treatment with good fastness to washing. A modified silica based film was applied on fibers surface by sol-gel, comparing laboratory grade reagents with a commercial product as precursors and optimizing process parameters. From obtained results sol-gel can be indicated as a promising process to confer an effective and durable finishing to cotton fibers with low add-ons. Long impregnation times can significantly improve the treatment fastness, while ironing the washed samples can restore, at least partially, hydro and oil repellency lost after the washing. Obtained results were supported by a deep surface characterization of untreated, treated and washed samples. The best results were obtained using the commercial product as the only precursor. This is interesting for an industrial application, due to the low cost of this product if compared with the laboratory grade reagents investigated. Some applications of finished textiles can be for household use, technical garments, umbrellas or outdoor textiles.

Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica

2013-06-01

475

Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

2000-01-01

476

Characterization of the global transcriptome for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anther and development of SSR marker.  

PubMed

Cotton is an important fiber plant, and it's attractive to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anther development due to the close relationship between the anther fertility and boll-setting, and also fiber yield. In the present paper, 47.2 million paired-end reads with average length of 82.87 bp from the anthers of TM-1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a genetic standard line, were generated through transcriptome sequencing, and 210,965 unigenes of more than 100 bp were obtained. BLAST, KEGG, COG, and GO analyses showed that the genes were enriched in the processes of transcription, translation, and post-translation as well as hormone signal transduction, the transcription factor families, and cell wall-related genes mainly participating in cell expansion and carbohydrate metabolism. Further analysis identified 11,153 potential SSRs. A suit of 5122 primer pair sequences were designed, and 82 of 300 randomly selected primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 22 cotton accessions from G. hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium arboreum. The UPGMA clustering analysis further confirmed high quality and effectiveness of these novel SSR markers. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of the cotton and established a public information platform for functional genomics and molecular breeding. PMID:25178523

Zhang, Xianwen; Ye, Zhenwei; Wang, Tiankang; Xiong, Hairong; Yuan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Zhigang; Yuan, Youlu; Liu, Zhi

2014-11-10

477

An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

1931-01-01

478

Fiber Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students investigate how the index of refraction of materials is related to fiber optics: they explore the phenomenon of total internal reflection and learn how dispersion can affect fiber optics.

2011-05-02

479

Methods of foreign fiber detecting based on PCA analyzing of infrared spectral images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of near infrared high resolution spectral imaging system is set up, the infrared absorption properties of raw cotton and colorless foreign are analyzed through the system, and scheme of polypropylene fiber detection based on the near infrared spectral image is proposed; On this basis, reduce dimensions the spectral images through the principal component analysis, further improve the efficiency of colorless foreign detection. The experimental results show that the spectral images after reducing dimensions can be used to detect colorless or light color raw cotton fiber effectively.

Tian, LiXun; Fu, WeiSen; Liu, JieYu; Zhang, HongBo; Pan, Jin; Wang, YaPeng; Tong, Fei

2014-02-01

480

FLAX FIBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a versatile plant, supplying both fiber and seed for industrial uses. The long, strong fibers processed for linen are prized for comfort and appearance in textiles, while shorter fibers are used in textile blends and for specialty paper, reinforced composites, and a...

481

Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite  

PubMed Central

Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV]) and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB), both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB) from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant complementary-sense transcript was also confirmed for the betasatellite. Conclusions Overall, the transcription of CLCuBuV and the recombinant CLCuMuB is equivalent to earlier mapped begomoviruses/betasatellites. The recombination events that featured in the origins of these components had no detectable effects on transcription. The transcripts spanning the mutated C2 gene showed no evidence for involvement of splicing in restoring the ability to express intact C2 protein. PMID:23106938

2012-01-01

482

Bollworm Attack on Experimental Semidwarf Cottons.  

E-print Network

on Deltapine 16; square tended to be less on the compact cotton types. worms fed, they moved much less on the dim cottons in comparison to Deltapine 16. Studies that 9,000 worms per acre in three infestation per not produce severe effects on lint yields... on Cottons Planted in 6-Foot-ROW Plots The experiment was arranged in a split-plot de5ic1l with three replications - main plots were genot!,pes, and subplots were worm-infestation releases. Each suh- plot contained a 6-foot section of row. Each sl...

Baldwin, J. L.; Walker, J. K.; Gannaway, J. R.; Niles, G. A.

1974-01-01

483

Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)  

PubMed Central

The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations, both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgenic cotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism, decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size. PMID:21462389

Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Irfan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zafar; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Husnain, Tayyab

2011-01-01

484

Dominant resistance to Bt cotton and minor cross-resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in cotton bollworm from China  

PubMed Central

Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the long-term benefits of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work has detected increases in the frequency of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively for more than a decade. Confirming that trend, we report evidence from 2011 showing that the percentage of individuals resistant to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was significantly higher in two populations from different provinces of northern China (1.4% and 2.3%) compared with previously tested susceptible field populations (0%). We isolated two resistant strains: one from each of the two field-selected populations. Relative to a susceptible strain, the two strains had 460- and 1200-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, respectively. Both strains had dominant resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac in diet and to Bt cotton leaves containing Cry1Ac. Both strains had low, but significant cross-resistance to Cry2Ab (4.2- and 5.9-fold), which is used widely as the second toxin in two-toxin Bt cotton. Compared with resistance in other strains of H. armigera, the resistance in the two strains characterized here may be especially difficult to suppress. PMID:24478804

Jin, Lin; Wei, Yiyun; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yihua; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

2013-01-01

485

Helium/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment for hydrophilicity improvement of grey cotton knitted fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the hydrophilicity of grey cotton knitted fabric (GCKF) was investigated. For comparison, specimens which had undergone different treatments were tested by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results imply that helium/oxygen APPJ could improve the hydrophilicity of GCKF by modifying the surface properties. In addition, combining dewaxing processes with He/O 2 APPJ treatment was found to tremendously improve the hydrophilicity of GCKF. The mechanism of this was also confirmed by Ruthenium Red staining which showed most of pectic substances inside the cotton fiber existed beneath the waxy layer and on top of the cellulose microfibril.

Tian, Liqiang; Nie, Huali; Chatterton, Nicholas P.; Branford-White, Christopher J.; Qiu, Yiping; Zhu, Limin

2011-06-01

486

Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

2012-04-01

487

Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here, we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where Bt cotton was absent. We show that the contribution of non-cotton hosts as a source of moths was spatially and temporally variable, but at least equivalent to a 7.5% sprayed refuge of non-Bt cotton. Simulation models incorporating H. armigera biological parameters, however, indicate that planting non-Bt cotton refuges may be needed to significantly delay resistance to cotton producing the toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Specifically, when the concentration of one toxin (here Cry1Ac) declined seasonally, resistance to Bt cotton often occurred rapidly in simulations where refuges of non-Bt cotton were rare and resistance to Cry2Ab was non-recessive, because resistance was essentially driven by one toxin (here Cry2Ab). The use of biogeochemical markers to quantify insect movement can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying the evolution of H. armigera resistance to Bt cotton.

Brévault, Thierry; Nibouche, Samuel; Achaleke, Joseph; Carrière, Yves

2012-01-01

488

Determining gene flow in transgenic cotton.  

PubMed

Gene flow is one of the major concerns associated with the release of transgenic plants into the environment. Unrestricted gene flow can results in super weeds, reduction in species fitness and genetic diversity, and contamination of traditional plants and foods. Thus, it is important and also necessary to evaluate the extent of gene flow in the field for transgenic plants already released or being considered for a release. Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic crops for commercialization, which are widely cultivated around the world. In this chapter, we use transgenic insect resistant cotton and herbicide-tolerant cotton as two examples to present a field practice method for determining transgene flow in cotton. The procedure includes three major sections: (1) field design, (2) seed collection, and (3) field and lab bioassay. PMID:23143499

Pan, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

489

Characteristics of Cotton Varieties Grown in Texas.  

E-print Network

of Seed 106 Bibliography 108 FOREWORD In recent years, new cotton varieties have been developed continuously by public and private plant breeders. These new varieties generally represent progress toward reducing production hazards and increasing... seed companies who willingly provided descrip tive varietal information and submitted helpful reviews of this publication. A special acknowledgment is made to Dr. Levon Ray, cotton breeder with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Lubbock...

Metser, Robert B.; Supak, James R.

1980-01-01

490

Genotypic variation for drought tolerance in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing scarcity of irrigational water is a major threat to sustainable production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). It could be resolved by developing drought-tolerant cultivars. Osmotic adjustment and cellular membrane stability are\\u000a well-documented traits that help to sustain yield under drought in cereals. However, their utility in cotton is not well established.\\u000a Here, we studied genotypic variability and relationships among

M. Rahman; I. Ullah; M. Ahsraf; J. M. Stewart; Y. Zafar

2008-01-01

491

Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L  

PubMed Central

Background The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored. The objective of this work was to directly clone, annotate, and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA/microRNAs involved in cotton ovule and fiber development. Results We cloned small RNA sequences from 0–10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing cotton ovules. A total of 6691 individual colonies were sequenced from 11 ovule small RNA libraries that yielded 2482 candidate small RNAs with a total of 583 unique sequence signatures. The majority (362, 62.1%) of these 583 sequences were 24 nt long with an additional 145 sequences (24.9%) in the 21 nt to 23 nt size range. Among all small RNA sequence signatures only three mirBase-confirmed plant microRNAs (miR172, miR390 and ath-miR853-like) were identified and only two miRNA-containing clones were recovered beyond 4 DPA. Further, among all of the small RNA sequences obtained from the small RNA pools in developing ovules, only 15 groups of sequences were observed in more than one DPA period. Of these, only five were present in more than two DPA periods. Two of these were miR-172 and miR-390 and a third was identified as 5.8S rRNA sequence. Thus, the vast majority of sequence signatures were expressed in only one DPA period and this included nearly all of the 24 nt sequences. Finally, we observed a distinct DPA-specific expression pattern among our clones based upon sequence abundance. Sequences occurring only once were far more likely to be seen in the 0 to 2 DPA periods while those occurring five or more times were the majority in later periods. Conclusion This initial survey of small RNA sequences present in developing ovules in cotton indicates that fiber development is under complex small RNA regulation. Taken together, the results of this initial small RNA screen of developing cotton ovules is most consistent with a model, proposed by Baulcombe, that there are networks of small RNAs that are induced in a cascade fashion by the action of miRNAs and that the nature of these cascades can change from tissue to tissue and developmental stage to developmental stage. PMID:18793449

Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Devor, Eric J; Buriev, Zabardast T; Huang, Lingyan; Makamov, Abdusalom; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Bozorov, Tohir; Kushanov, Fakhriddin N; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

2008-01-01

492

Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

493

Evaluation of sticky traps for monitoring cotton fleahopper movement into cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were initiated in 2001 to determine the feasibility of using sticky or malaise traps to detect cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), movement into cotton. Yellow and white sticky traps were positioned at three heights (ground level, 1 and 2 m above the soil surface) o...

494

GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF COTTON ACCESSIONS FROM THE U.S. COTTON GERMPLASM COLLECTION, USDA-ARS (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. LANDRACES OF MEXICO).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Future improvement of cotton relies on introgression of genetic variability from wild cotton resources. Characterizing, understanding and adding to cotton germplasm collections is important for future cotton improvement. A set of 434 Gossypium hirsutum L. landraces of Mexico from the U.S. Cotton Ger...

495

Survey of the mycoflora and mycotoxins of cotton seeds and cotton seed products in Egypt.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine species and 16 fungal genera were isolated from Egyptian cotton seeds, cotton seed meal and cotton seed cake on 1% glucose-Czapek's agar medium incubated at 28 degrees C. Aspergillus was the most frequent genus and it emerged in 87-100% of the samples contributing 70-98% of total fungi in the three substrates tested. The most common species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer; A. niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium corylophilum; and A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Cotton seeds and cotton seed products were naturally contaminated by aflatoxin B1 and B2. About 16% of the different substrates tested were positive for aflatoxin contamination. No citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin or zearalenone were detected in the samples assayed. PMID:2388680

Mazen, M B; el-Kady, I A; Saber, S M

1990-06-01

496

SAP MINUTES NO. 2006-03 FINAL REPORT, A SET OF SCIENTIFIC ISSUES BEING CONSIDERED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGARDING: ANALYSIS OF A NATURAL REFUGE OF NON-COTTON HOSTS FOR MONSANTO'S BOLLGARD II COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are many uncertainties, caveats, and assumptions evident throughout the modeling and analyses presented by Monsanto and revealed by the Panel discussion around the questions posed by EPA. Most of these by themselves might not in fact prove dangerous to IRM for cotton bollworm (CBW) and tobacc...

497

Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types  

PubMed Central

Background Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Results Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (FST?=?0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean?=?0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r2) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Conclusions Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a true dual purpose crop. Our genomic scans provide the first insights into candidate regions affected by divergent selection in flax. In combination with AM, genomic scans have the ability to increase the power to detect loci influencing complex traits. PMID:23647851

2013-01-01

498

Phenotyping Drought Tolerance in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.)  

E-print Network

Cotton plant breeders need well-defined phenotypic parameters by which they can select drought tolerant lines as well as correlate phenotypes to allelic polymorphisms in the cotton genome. Soil-moisture availability is usually the most limiting...

Terhune, Austin Cates

2014-04-30

499

7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of...

2012-01-01

500

7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of...

2013-01-01