Sample records for cotton fibers evidence

  1. SINGLE COTTON FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE FIBERS PRODUCED BY COTTON PARENTS AND THEIR PROGENY USING RESULTS GENERATED VIA THE STELOMETER, PEYER AL101, FIBROGRAPH, HVI, AFIS, FAVIMAT, AND MINIATURE SPINNING. THE FAVIMAT, A SINGLE FIBER TESTING MACHINE, WAS USED TO MEASURE FIBERS FROM SAMPLES CONSI...

  2. Cotton Planting Seed and Related Fiber Qualities.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E.; Ward, J. M.

    1956-01-01

    Cotton Planting Seed and Related Fiber Qzlalities TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION-. TEXAS SUMMARY This bulletin gives the results of a study conducted on the procurement and distribution of cotton... planting seed in Texas. Cottonseed oil mills and cotton gins are the growers' principal source of planting seed in several of the major cotton growing areas. The oil mills are the wholesalers; the gin5 are the retailers. The quality of the cotton produced...

  3. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  4. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  5. Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2006-10-30

    Fiber quality data from five upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes, which were grown at College Station, TX during 2001 and 2002, were subjected to diallel and generation means analyses to determine the potential for improvement of fiber...

  6. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  7. The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

    2003-05-01

    Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

  8. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  9. Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution 

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2006-10-30

    Fiber quality data from five upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes, which were grown at College Station, TX during 2001 and 2002, were subjected to diallel and generation means analyses to determine the potential ...

  10. Stresses resulting from compression of bulk cotton lint fibers 

    E-print Network

    Chimbombi, Ezekiel Maswe

    1998-01-01

    The modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus of bulk cotton lint fibers were determined. The cotton lint was compressed in an MTS machine to a predetermined density, and the resilient forces induced by the cotton lint after being...

  11. TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    483 TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND INCREASED FIBER. Keating, N. G. Srinivas, C. Wu and A. S. Holaday Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX G. J. Jividen Cotton Incorporated Raleigh, NC Abstract We set out to use genetic engineering to make cotton crop yield and fiber

  12. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  13. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  14. Effects of Deferred Ginning of Cotton on Cotton Fiber Quality as Reflected in Certain Fiber Properties. 

    E-print Network

    Ward, James M.; Graves, James W.

    1965-01-01

    on moisture content and selected fiber properties of machine-picked cotton. The harvest periods and ginning treatments were (1) morning harvest followed by either immediate or deferred ginning and (2) after- noon harvest followed by either immediate... or deferred ginning. Fiher samples were obtained at the lint slide throughout the ginning of each bale of cotton in each of the four ginning treatment periods. Statistical analyses of moisture and fiber property measurements made on these samples revealed...

  15. FIAS Longitudinal Measurements Modified - More Accurate Cotton Fiber Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A projected 2-D image of a cotton fiber has large variations in fiber width due to the convolutions along the longitudinal axes. The ratio of the maximum width to the minimum width of a fiber ribbon could be used as a maturity indicator. Another important factor related to cotton maturity is fibers ...

  16. The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber developmentThe Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism Ran in Gossypium (``cotton fiber''). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how

  17. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing. Naturally colored cottons do not have the same fiber length and strength as white cotton cultivars. To determine the optimal ginning process for colored fiber two Upland (G. hirsutim) colors were r...

  18. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  19. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general....

  20. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  1. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general....

  2. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  3. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  4. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal....

  5. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stripper harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that cotton fiber quality begins to degrade with the opening of the boll. Mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to aid in fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  6. Genomic landscape of fiber genes in fibered and non-fibered cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the largest single cell in the plant kingdom. It is the best model to study cell function, differentiation, maturation, and cell death. Cotton fiber transcriptome can be clustered into two types of regions: conservative areas and recombination hotspots. This study was to investig...

  7. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation

    E-print Network

    Ng, Eng Hwa

    2013-05-29

    ability GxE Genotype by environment interaction HVI High volume instrument Mic Micronaire (HVI) SCA Specific combining ability Str-H Fiber strength (HVI) Str-S Fiber strength (Stelometer) UHML Upper-half mean length (HVI) UI Uniformity index... OF TABLES ....................................................................................................... viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 1 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW...

  8. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  9. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  10. Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    highly elongated, unicellular seed epider- mal trichomes, cotton is the world's largest sourceProteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense barbadense (Pima cotton), homoeolog expression, iTRAQ, polyploidy, proteomics. Summary Pima cotton

  11. BLENDING OF COTTON FIBER SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated the precision of laboratory sample-blending procedures for fiber length testing. It was built around a 2 x 2 x 2 cross-treatment design, comprising two sample-blending methods (hand blending and mechanical blending) and two specimen-extraction techniques (multiple pinch...

  12. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  13. Improving NIR model for the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber strength is an important quality characteristic that is directly related to the manufacturing of quality consumer goods. Currently, two types of instruments have been implemented to assess cotton fiber strength, namely, the automation oriented high volume instrument (HVI) and the labora...

  14. Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: Biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber?cells

    PubMed Central

    John, Maliyakal?E.; Keller, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, ?-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(?)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous ?-ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were selected based on marker gene, ?-glucuronidase (GUS), expression. Fibers of 10 transgenic plants expressed phaB gene, while eight plants expressed both phaB and phaC genes. Electron microscopy examination of fibers expressing both genes indicated the presence of electron-lucent granules in the cytoplasm. High pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry evidence suggested that the new polymer produced in transgenic fibers is PHB. Sixty-six percent of the PHB in fibers is in the molecular mass range of 0.6 × 106 to 1.8 × 106 Da. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes of thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics. The rate of heat uptake and cooling was slower in transgenic fibers, resulting in higher heat capacity. These data show that metabolic pathway engineering in cotton may enhance fiber properties by incorporating new traits from other genetic sources. This is an important step toward producing new generation fibers for the textile industry. PMID:11038522

  15. Bridging classical and molecular genetics of cotton fiber quality and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the single most important natural fiber in the world and represents a vital agricultural commodity in the global economy. Ninety percent of cotton’s value resides in the lint fiber. Cotton fiber quality, defined by the physical properties of the lint fibers, is an important part of the cot...

  16. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF FIBER ELONGATION GENES IN THE UPLAND COTTON GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on cotton fiber transcriptome EST analysis, at least 36,000 genes are needed to produce a fiber. To understand where these genes are located in chromosomes and how they interact is crucial for improving fiber yield and quality. Our goals were to put all the fiber ESTs into integrated genetic...

  18. Analysis of gene expression in cotton fiber initials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl W Taliercio; Deborah Boykin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. Little is known about the developmental pathway causing fiber to differentiate from ovular epidermal cells even though limits on the number of cells that differentiate into fiber will limit yield. RESULTS: A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber initials 1 day post anthesis (dpa).

  19. A Cotton Annexin Protein AnxGb6 Regulates Fiber Elongation through Its Interaction with Actin 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiqun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lida; Zuo, Kaijing

    2013-01-01

    Annexins are assumed to be involved in regulating cotton fiber elongation, but direct evidence remains to be presented. Here we cloned six Annexin genes (AnxGb) abundantly expressed in fiber from sea-island cotton (G. barbadense). qRT-PCR results indicated that all six G. barbadense annexin genes were expressed in elongating cotton fibers, while only the expression of AnxGb6 was cotton fiber-specific. Yeast two hybridization and BiFC analysis revealed that AnxGb6 homodimer interacted with a cotton fiber specific actin GbAct1. Ectopic-expressed AnxGb6 in Arabidopsis enhanced its root elongation without increasing the root cell number. Ectopic AnxGb6 expression resulted in more F-actin accumulation in the basal part of the root cell elongation zone. Analysis of AnxGb6 expression in three cotton genotypes with different fiber length confirmed that AnxGb6 expression was correlated to cotton fiber length, especially fiber elongation rate. Our results demonstrated that AnxGb6 was important for fiber elongation by potentially providing a domain for F-actin organization. PMID:23750279

  20. Properties and potential applications of natural cellulose fibers from the bark of cotton stalks.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-07-01

    Natural cellulose fibers have been obtained from the bark of cotton stalks and the fibers have been used to develop composites. Cotton stalks are rich in cellulose and account for up to 3 times the quantity of cotton fiber produced per acre. Currently, cotton stalks have limited use and are mostly burned on the ground. Natural cellulose fibers obtained from cotton stalks are composed of approximately 79% cellulose and 13.7% lignin. The fibers have breaking tenacity of 2.9 g per denier and breaking elongation of 3% and modulus of 144 g per denier, between that of cotton and linen. Polypropylene composites reinforced with cotton stalk fibers have flexural, tensile and impact resistance properties similar to jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. Utilizing cotton stalks as a source for natural cellulose fibers provides an opportunity to increase the income from cotton crops and make cotton crops more competitive to the biofuel crops. PMID:19327987

  1. Comparison of two reference methods for detemining cotton fiber moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is an important quality and processing property for the cotton industry. The standard reference method for determining the moisture content in cotton fiber is the ASTM oven method (gravimetric weight loss). Several concerns have expressed on its ability to measure the actual moisture cont...

  2. Attachment Mechanisms Between Cotton Fibers and Foreign-matter Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop a fundamental understanding of the requirements for removing foreign matter from bulk cotton fiber, a video microscope was used to collect images of foreign-matter particles in lint from smooth-leaf and hairy-leaf cottons. A method is given for categorizing the particles accordin...

  3. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  4. Differences among cotton genotypes for fiber-seed attachment force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are more loosely attached to seed for some genotypes, and genotypes with reduced fiber-seed attachment force have the potential to be ginned faster with less energy and less fiber damage. The objective of this paper was to evaluate 15 genotypes to determine how net gin stand energy us...

  5. Bridging Classical and Molecular Genetics of Cotton Fiber Quality and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng W. Chee; B. Todd Campbell

    Cotton is the single most important natural fiber in the world and represents a vital agricultural commodity in the global\\u000a economy. Ninety percent of cotton’s value resides in the lint fiber. Cotton fiber quality, defined by the physical properties\\u000a of the lint fibers, is an important part of the cotton manufacturing process from field harvest through ginning and textile\\u000a manufacturing

  6. Gene effects for cotton-fiber traits in cotton plant ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) under Verticillium conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aguado; B. De Los Santos; D. Gamane; L. F. García del Moral; F. Romero

    2010-01-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., has become one of the most serious problems in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The use of resistant cultivars has long been considered the most practical and effective means of control. The objective of this work was to study the quantitative genetic basis of fiber traits under Verticillium conditions in upland cotton by

  7. Cell wall biosynthesis: glycan containing oligomers in developing cotton fibers, cotton fabric, wood and paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen K Murray; Robert L Nichols; Gretchen F Sassenrath-Cole

    2001-01-01

    A series of oligomeric glycans can be extracted from the cell walls of developing cotton fibers with weak acid. Glycans that produce similar profiles on high pH anion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) are also found in a protein complex extracted from developing fibers and in amorphous aggregates found in association with immature fibers in developing, but not in

  8. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  9. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  10. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  11. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  12. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for...

  13. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  14. Comparisons of methods measuring fiber maturity and fineness of Upland cotton fibers containing different degree of fiber cell wall development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber maturity and fineness are important physical properties of cotton fibers affecting qualities of fibers and yarns. A number of direct and indirect methods are used for measuring fiber maturity and fineness from mature fibers that are thick secondary cell walls composed of almost pure cellulose....

  15. Fiber properties of first and second sympodial position cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the nature of fiber properties variation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopies is critical for designing production systems that will provide more uniform fiber to textile mills. Our objective was to compare first branch node position bolls (FP1) and second branch node position bo...

  16. A study of programmed cell death in cotton (gosypium hirsutum) fiber 

    E-print Network

    Roche, Meghan C.

    2009-05-15

    Cotton fiber has been postulated to undergo a process of programmed cell death (PCD) during the maturation phase of development. A parallel may exist between cotton fibers and xylem tracheary elements, which have periods of elongation, secondary...

  17. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  18. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

  19. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  1. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  2. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch...BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  3. INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON

    E-print Network

    Wendel, Jonathan F.

    INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER IN WILD AND CULTIVATED COTTON Kara M. Butterworth,1.S.A. Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild in cultivated cotton may have facilitated both yield and uniformity of the crop. However, for the taxa

  4. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch... Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles...Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or...

  5. Polyploidy and small RNA regulation of cotton fiber development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xueying; Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2014-08-01

    Cotton is not only the most important source of renewal textile fibers, but also an excellent model for studying cell fate determination and polyploidy effects on gene expression and evolution of domestication traits. The combination of A and D-progenitor genomes into allotetraploid cotton induces intergenomic interactions and epigenetic effects, leading to the unequal expression of homoeologous genes. Small RNAs regulate the expression of transcription and signaling factors related to cellular growth, development and adaptation. An example is miRNA-mediated preferential degradation of homoeologous mRNAs encoding MYB-domain transcription factors that are required for the initiation of leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis and of seed fibers in cotton. This example of coevolution between small RNAs and their homoeologous targets could shape morphological traits such as fibers during the selection and domestication of polyploid crops. PMID:24866591

  6. Variability in Cotton Fiber Yield, Fiber Quality, and Soil Properties in a Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Johnson; Robert G. Downer; Judith M. Bradow; Philip J. Bauer; E. John Sadler

    2002-01-01

    correlated with soil organic matter, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Fiber quality was correlated with soil Mg, K, Cu, To maximize profitability, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produc- and As. Elms et al. (1997) reported that yield in an ers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing irrigated cotton field in Texas displayed spatial correla- yield.

  7. Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To maximize profitability, cotton (GossypiumhirsutumL.) producers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing yield. The objective of this research was to measure the intrinsic variability present in cotton fiber yield and quality. The 0.5-ha experimental site was located in a...

  8. Fiber Characteristics and Spinning Performance of Mechanically-Stripped Cotton on the High Plains.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E.; Hessler, L. E.; Ward, J. M.

    1953-01-01

    of the High Plains has 8 fibers and relatively low tensile strength, This study cates the importance of fiber and spinning tests in mer- ndising High Plains cotton as such tests disclose the best ,_ization, Content. s Page... stages of maturity. Mechanically-stripped cotton usually contains more immature (theref ore finer) fibers than hand- harvested cotton. High Plains cottons vary widely in fineness because of variations in growing conditions due largely to differences...

  9. Rapid measurement of cotton fiber maturity and fineness by image analysis microscopy using the Cottonscope®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two of the important cotton fiber quality and processing parameters are fiber maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity is the degree of development of the fiber’s secondary wall, and fiber fineness is a measure of the fiber’s linear density and can be expressed as mass per unit length. A well-known m...

  10. Cell wall biosynthesis: glycan containing oligomers in developing cotton fibers, cotton fabric, wood and paper.

    PubMed

    Murray, A K; Nichols, R L; Sassenrath-Cole, G F

    2001-07-01

    A series of oligomeric glycans can be extracted from the cell walls of developing cotton fibers with weak acid. Glycans that produce similar profiles on high pH anion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) are also found in a protein complex extracted from developing fibers and in amorphous aggregates found in association with immature fibers in developing, but not in mature cotton bolls. The quantity and composition of the glycans recovered from the carbohydrate-protein complex varies significantly with the time of day when the bolls are harvested. This diurnal variation is consistent with the hypothesis that secondary cell walls are deposited primarily at night. Incubation of re-hydrated cotton fibers in the presence of exogenous oligosaccharides, myo-inositol and glycerol substantially alters the apparent quantity of the oligomers extracted from the fibers. The same and similar glycans have also been extracted from cotton fabric, marine algae, various paper products and wood. While many of the oligomers isolated from the various cellulose sources display the same peaks by HPAEC-PAD, the specific number of oligomers and their relative quantities appear unique for each source of cellulosic material. Oligomeric glycans, as described in the preceding, are present in all cellulose sources that have been investigated. Their relative abundance changes in response to source, stage of development and other physiological variables. We hypothesize that the glycans are intermediates in the biological assembly of cellulose, and that their incorporation in cellulose is mediated by physicochemical and enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:11423144

  11. The R3-MYB gene GhCPC negatively regulates cotton fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in -1-5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

  12. UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring no...

  13. Observation of fiber ultrastructure of Ligon lintless mutant in upland cotton during fiber elongation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaohua Cheng; Xuede Wang; Xiyuan Ni

    2005-01-01

    Lintless mutant is a super-short fiber mutant in upland cotton only 4–8 mm in fiber length and also named Ligon cotton controlled\\u000a by one dominant geneLi\\u000a 1. Fiber ultrastructure of the mutant (Li\\u000a 1) and its wild type (li\\u000a 1)in situ andin vitro was observed under an electron microscope to understand its cytological characteristics during the fiber cell elongation.\\u000a The

  14. Influence of low-weight seeds and motes on the fiber properties of other cotton seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Davidonis; A. Johnson; J. Landivar; O. Hinojosa

    1996-01-01

    Suboptimal growth conditions can hinder cotton fiber growth and development. Bolls were selected from cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.; Deltapine 50, 51) grown in Texas over a 3 yr period. Fiber samples from seeds located in the middle of the boll were analyzed using the advanced fiber information system (AFIS). Motes are developmentally arrested seeds and their associated fiber. By

  15. Canopy Photosynthesis and Fiber Properties of Normal and Late-Planted Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Bauer; James R. Frederick; Judith M. Bradow; E. John Sadler; Dean E. Evans

    2000-01-01

    the southeast USA, Porter et al. (1996) reported higher fiber strength, greater elongation, and lower micronaire Normal- and late-planted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) often for late-planted cotton. They found no effect of planting differ in fiber properties, especially those properties related to fiber date on fiber length. Cathey and Meredith (1988) found secondary wall characteristics. This field study was conducted

  16. Distribution and organization of gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is an extremely elongated cell derived from epidermal layer of cotton seed coat and it is an ideal model for studies of plant cell initiation/differentiation, cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Genetic improvement of cotton fiber yield and quality relies largely on the knowledge...

  17. Transgressive Segregation for Fiber Properties of Three Selected Populations in Cotton 

    E-print Network

    Meritt, Benjamin Tyler

    2014-12-16

    Improved fiber quality adds value to U.S. upland cotton and makes U.S. cotton more competitive in global markets. Improving characteristics like fiber length, strength, uniformity and elongation will allow American cotton to be used for a wider...

  18. Fiber Quality Response of Pima Cotton to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haile Tewolde; C. J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    Imposing a moderate level of nutrient deficiency may be an effective management strategy to limit vegetative growth and enhance maturity of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Whether such deficiency affects fiber quality of American Pima cotton, however, is not well known. A field study was conducted in 1991 and 1992 to determine the fiber quality responses of Pima cotton to

  19. Automation of a Wireless Cotton Module Tracking System for Cotton Fiber Quality Mapping

    E-print Network

    Sjolander, Andrew J.

    2010-10-12

    developed a wireless-GPS system that tracks where a module of cotton comes from within a field. This system is a necessary component in mapping fiber quality, which is a major determiner of price and thus profit. Three drawbacks to the previous wireless...

  20. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  1. Fiber Quality Evaluation - Current and Future Trends/Instrinsic Value of Fiber Quality in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main systems in the world for measuring basic cotton fiber quality parameters are described in this chapter. Definitions, working principles as well as the fiber parameters, which a given system can measure are presented. The measurement systems described in the chapters are, HVI, AFIS, Uster ...

  2. COTTON VARIETY ASSESSMENT FOR FIBER MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year scientists at the LSU AgCenter test cotton varieties at various locations throughout the state. Varieties are grown using practices that follow AgCenter recommendations and conformto commercial operations as closely as possible. One location is the Macon Ridge Research Station in Winnsbo...

  3. Gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is an economically important seed trichome and the world's leading natural fiber used in the manufacture of textiles. As a step towards elucidating the genomic organization and distribution of gene networks responsible for cotton fiber development, we investigated the distribution of f...

  4. Suppression of Sucrose Synthase Gene Expression Represses Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation, Elongation, and Seed Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    2003-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop as a result of its long cellulose-enriched mature fibers. These single-celled hairs initiate at anthesis from the ovule epidermis. To date, genes proven to be critical for fiber development have not been iden- tified. Here, we examined the role of the sucrose synthase gene ( Sus ) in cotton fiber and seed by

  5. Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunjing LiDiqiu; Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Xianlong Zhang; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Jiafu Tan; Fenglin Deng

    2010-01-01

    Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton\\u000a ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes\\u000a encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi)\\u000a construct. The RNAi according

  6. Nonleaching antimicrobial cotton fibers for hyaluronic acid adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wibowo; Cheng-Kang Lee

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium containing compounds (QACs) such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is commonly employed in hyaluronic acid (HA) production process as an HA precipitating agent. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, a Si containing QAC (Si-QAC) generally used to modify the surface of cotton fibers for the preparation of nonleaching antibacterial textiles, has a chemical structure very similar to CPC. Choline, a natural QAC,

  7. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  8. Distribution and evolution of cotton fiber development genes in the fibreless Gossypium raimondii genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Beavis, William D; Main, Dorrie; Yu, John Z

    2015-07-01

    Cotton fiber represents the largest single cell in plants and they serve as models to study cell development. This study investigated the distribution and evolution of fiber Unigenes anchored to recombination hotspots between tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) At and Dt subgenomes, and within a parental diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii) D genome. Comparative analysis of At vs D and Dt vs D showed that 1) the D genome provides many fiber genes after its merger with another parental diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) A genome although the D genome itself does not produce any spinnable fiber; 2) similarity of fiber genes is higher between At vs D than between Dt vs D genomic hotspots. This is the first report that fiber genes have higher similarity between At and D than between Dt and D. The finding provides new insights into cotton genomic regions that would facilitate genetic improvement of natural fiber properties. PMID:25796538

  9. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses Revealed a Detailed Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway in Brown Cotton Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yue-Hua; Yan, Qian; Ding, Hui; Luo, Ming; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mi; Yao, Dan; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jia; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs). To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols) were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin), and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively). Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber. PMID:24466041

  10. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in the prediction of cotton fiber strength indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite relatively low correlation between 2 cotton strength readings from the automation oriented HVI and laboratory based Stelometer device, the present study demonstrates the consistence of cotton fiber strength measurements between the two methods if the strength readings were modified by cotton...

  11. Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf content, seed moisture and module storage time of seed cotton influence cotton fiber quality and aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed in South Texas. Crop Science ... Cotton is the most important natural fiber used to produce apparel, home furnishing, and industrial products. The quality of th...

  12. Developing Fiber Specific Promoter-Reporter Transgenic Lines to Study the Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Burke, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality. PMID:26030401

  13. Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes 

    E-print Network

    Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

    1993-01-01

    High yielding cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars with improved fiber bundle strength are needed for today's spinning technology. This study was initiated to determine the effects of selection for improved fiber quality on within-boll yield...

  14. Smith-Doxey Classification, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade.

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Robert L.

    1956-01-01

    Smith-Doxi Class;fication, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS SUMMARY Members of the Texas Cotton Association were either interviewed personally... or we mailed a questionnaire in June 1955 and were asked the following questions: 1. To what extent are Texas cotton merchants buying cotton on the basis of Smith-Dox classification and what are their chief criticisms of this classing service? 2...

  15. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  16. Inheritance of Cotton Fiber Length and Strength

    E-print Network

    Joy, Kolbyn Seth

    2014-04-23

    to simultaneously improve fiber length and Str. The GMA was conducted on the parental, F_(1), F_(2), and backcross generations. Low levels of transgressive segregation for both UHML and Str were observed for some populations. Broad sense heritability ranged from 0...

  17. Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability

    E-print Network

    Kothari, Neha

    2012-10-19

    of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Steve Hague Committee Members, C. Wayne Smith Eric Hequet Hongbin Zhang Head of Department, David Baltensperger August 2012 Major Subject: Plant... Breeding iii ABSTRACT Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability. (August 2012) Nayankumar Kothari Neha, B.Sc., Gujarat University; M.S., Texas Tech University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Steve Hague...

  18. Cotton fiber germin-like protein. I. Molecular cloning and gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HeeJin Kim; Barbara A. Triplett

    2004-01-01

    The presence of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber transcripts coding for a germin-like protein (GLP) was revealed by differential display analysis in which early stages of cotton fiber development between a wild type line, Texas Marker-1 (TM1) and a near isogenic mutant, Naked Seed (N1) were compared. Transcripts of the cotton GLP ( GhGLP1) accumulated specifically in TM1, but

  19. Cleaning Quality of Raw Cotton as Affected by Physical Properties of Fibers.

    E-print Network

    Grimes, Mary Anna

    1947-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I R. D. LEWIS, Director College Station, Texas j BULLETIN NO. 697 OCTOBER 1947 I i Cleaning Quality of Raw Cotton as I/ Afected by Physical Properties I of Fibers I i / MARY ANNA GRIMES, Textile... by the Physical Properties of the Fibers MARY ANNA GRIMES, Textile and Clothing Specialist Department of Rural Home Research Efforts to lower the cost of producing cotton are resulting in greatly accelerated efforts to mechanize all phases of cotton produc...

  20. Relationship of ginning energy use ginning rate and fiber quality in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton genotypes that gin faster and with less energy presumably gin more gently with less stress on the fiber and less damage. The objective of this research was to determine if ginning energy and ginning rate affect the fiber qualities of Upland cotton genotypes. Thirty four conventional and twelv...

  1. A comparative study on cotton fiber length parameters’ effects on modeling yarn property

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber length is one of the key properties of cotton and has important influences on yarn production and yarn quality. Various parameters have been developed to characterize cotton fiber length in the past decades. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of these parameters and their ...

  2. Fiber Longitudinal Measurements for Predicting White Speck Contents of Dyed Cotton Fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber Image Analysis System (FIAS) was developed to provide an automatic method for measuring cotton maturity from fiber snippets or cross-sections . An uncombed cotton bundle is chopped and sprayed on a microscopic slide. The snippets are imaged sequentially on an microscope and measured with custo...

  3. PRIMITIVE ACCESSIONS OF COTTON AS GENETIC SOURCES FOR IMPROVING YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breeding of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to improve lint yield and fiber quality is an ongoing process. To meet textile mill requirements and producer demands both fiber quality and lint yield must be increased. The U. S. collection of primitive cotton accessions contains a broad range of va...

  4. Distribution and evolution of cotton fiber development genes in the fibreless Gossypium raimondii genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers represent the largest single cell in the plant kingdom, and they have been used as a model to study cell function, differentiation, maturation, and cell death. The cotton fiber transcriptome can be clustered into two genomic regions: conserved and recombination hotspots. Genetic link...

  5. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  6. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  7. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  8. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (c) Bales of cotton or vegetable fibers showing contact with oil or grease may not be accepted...by vessel. (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold...requirements: (1) All traces of oil or residue in the hold or...

  9. Distribution of fiber development genes and transcription factors between At and Dt subgenomes in tetraploid cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the worlds leading natural material used in the manufacture of textiles, cotton fibers are important seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fiber development is determined by large numbers of genes and transcription factors. However, little ...

  10. Registration of SJ-U86 Cotton Germplasm Line with High Yield and Excellent Fiber Quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm line SJ¬U86 (Reg. no. GP-868; PI 642414 and NSSL 441398.01) was developed by USDA-ARS and Cotton Incorporated, and jointly released with the University of California in 2006. This line possesses superior lint yield, fiber length, and competitive fiber str...

  11. GENETIC MAPPING OF NEW COTTON FIBER LOCI USING EST-DERIVED MICROSATELLITES IN AN INTERSPECIFIC RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE COTTON POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve important fiber traits. Toward this goal, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellites, or simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat marker...

  12. Development of a Seed Cotton Fiber Quality Sensing System For Cotton Fiber Quality Mapping

    E-print Network

    Schielack, Vincent Paul

    2012-02-14

    ) wavebands. Both algorithms yielded similar results when used on seed cotton samples. The reflectivity measurement after removing the effects of foreign matter had a strong relationship to standard micronaire measurements (R^2= 0.73 and 0.74 for the ratio...

  13. Smith-Doxey Classification, Fiber Testing and Problems of the Cotton Trade. 

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Robert L.

    1956-01-01

    . To what extent are Texas cotton merchants buying and selling cotton on the bat of laboratory testing of fibers? 3. What staple lengths are in greatest demand? 4. What specific problems associated with cotton need study and research? Approximately 150... fiber testing affects the pricing of cotton, it still is too new to give a defin set of discounts and premiums like those given for staple and grade differences. Only few firms have a clear-cut pricing system based on laboratory tests. Most...

  14. The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fox, S.V. [Natural Cotton Colours, Inc., Wickenburg, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

  15. Improvement of Work-to-Break Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fibers and Yarn through Breeding and Selection for Improved Fiber Elongation 

    E-print Network

    Osorio Marin, Juliana 1982-

    2012-11-12

    The development of cottons with improved fiber quality has been a major objective in breeding programs around the world. Breeders have focused their attention on improving fiber strength and length, and have generally not used fiber elongation...

  16. Comparison of NIR and FT-IR spectral models in the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strength quality in cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR mod...

  17. High Temperature Effects on Cotton Yield, Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with all biological processes, an optimum temperature range exists for cotton growth. This research tests the upper threshold of that optimum temperature range by investigating how cotton growth and development, lint yield production, yield components, and fiber quality were affected by higher t...

  18. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  19. EFFECT OF TILLAGE ON DOUBLE-CROPPPED FLAX/COTTON PRODUCTION AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are limited studies related to flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) double-cropped with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and physical properties of flax fiber related to soil conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if degree of cotton plant residue incorporated via various tillage and s...

  20. Reinforcement of cotton yarns with the nominal addition of high performance fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring- and rotor-spun yarns of predominantly cotton content have been produced by using a high performance, gel-spun polyethylene (PE) fiber, Dyneema, in intimate blend with selected white and naturally colored cottons of different qualities. Test results show that a nominal (10 to 15%) addition of ...

  1. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF 1 MAFOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. All the changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially for strength. We used a G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as having good fiber quality, develope...

  2. A cotton fiber associated cyclin-dependent kinase A gene: Characterization and chromosomal location

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cell normally originates and elongates as a single ovular epidermal cell. The cessation of fiber cell division and ensuing elongation imply that the cell cycle is differentially regulated in fiber cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cy...

  3. Genetic Variation for Agronomic and Fiber Properties in an Introgressed Recombinant Inbred Population of Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Percy; Roy G. Cantrell; Jinfa Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation available for the improvement of fiber properties is restricted in commercial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Resources for fiber improvement exist in G. barbadense L., but intro- gression of traits has been a limited success. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variation and heritability of agro- nomic and fiber traits within a diverse recombinant

  4. Genetic Improvement of Upper Half Mean Length and Short Fiber Content in Upland Cotton, Gosspium hirsutum

    E-print Network

    Beyer, Benjamin

    2012-10-19

    ......................................................... 17 Fiber Length Distribution ......................................................... 18 Textile Industry .................................................................................. 18 Ring Spinning... that elongates up to 1000-3000 times longer than its diameter and is one of the purest forms of cellulose. Cotton fibers consist of two distinct types; longer fibers that have commercial value because they can be spun into yarns and made into textiles...

  5. A comparison of two cotton cultivars differing in maturity for within-canopy fiber properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in spinning technologies require improvements in fiber quality. Both genotype and the environment under which cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bolls develop influence the physical characteristics of fibers. In addition, fiber surface sugar and salt content have recently been found to influenc...

  6. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  7. The inheritance, linkage, and fiber development of a new mutant allele in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. 

    E-print Network

    Narbuth, Edward Vernon

    1989-01-01

    THE INHERITANCE, LINKAGE, AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MUTANT ALLELE IN COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. A Thesis by EDWARD VERNON NARBUTH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Plant Breeding THE INHERITANCE, LINKAGE, AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MUTANT ALLELE IN COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. A Thesis by EDWARD VERNON NARBUTH Ap d as to st...

  8. Genetic mapping of new cotton fiber loci using EST-derived microsatellites in an interspecific recombinant inbred line cotton population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hoon Park; Magdy S. Alabady; Mauricio Ulloa; Brad Sickler; Thea A. Wilkins; John Yu; David M. Stelly; Russell J. Kohel; Osama M. El-Shihy; Roy G. Cantrell

    2005-01-01

    There is an immediate need for a high-density genetic map of cotton anchored with fiber genes to facilitate marker-assisted\\u000a selection (MAS) for improved fiber traits. With this goal in mind, genetic mapping with a new set of microsatellite markers\\u000a [comprising both simple (SSR) and complex (CSR) sequence repeat markers] was performed on 183 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a developed from the

  9. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  10. New molecular tools to study fiber develop and the effect of environmental stresses: development of transgenic cotton lines harboring fiber specific

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Cotton fibers are differentiated elongated epidermal cell of the seed coat. Fiber development consists of four distinct but overlapping stages, fiber initiation, cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, and matura...

  11. Isolation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Jian Ji; Ying-Chun Lu; Jian-Xun Feng; Gang Wei; Jun Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Qiang Fu; Di Liu; Jing-Chu Luo; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Cotton fibers are differentiated epidermal cells originating from the outer integuments of the ovule. To identify genes involved in cotton fiber elonga- tion, we performed subtractive PCR using cDNA prepared from 10 days post anthesis (d.p.a.) wild-type cotton fiber as tester and cDNA from a fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant as driver. We recovered 280 independent cDNA fragments including most of the

  12. A genetic and metabolic analysis revealed that cotton fiber cell development was retarded by flavonoid naringenin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Tu, Lili; Deng, Fenglin; Hu, Haiyan; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-05-01

    The cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber is a unique elongated cell that is useful for investigating cell differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of factors such as sugar metabolism, the cytoskeleton, and hormones, which are commonly known to be involved in plant cell development, while the secondary metabolites have been less regarded. By mining public data and comparing analyses of fiber from two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), we found that the flavonoid metabolism is active in early fiber cell development. Different flavonoids exhibited distinct effects on fiber development during ovule culture; among them, naringenin (NAR) could significantly retard fiber development. NAR is a substrate of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and silencing the F3H gene significantly increased the NAR content of fiber cells. Fiber development was suppressed following F3H silencing, but the overexpression of F3H caused no obvious effects. Significant retardation of fiber growth was observed after the introduction of the F3H-RNA interference segment into the high-flavonoid brown fiber G. hirsutum T586 line by cross. A greater accumulation of NAR as well as much shorter fibers were also observed in the BC1 generation plants. These results suggest that NAR is negatively associated with fiber development and that the metabolism mediated by F3H is important in fiber development, thus highlighting that flavonoid metabolism represents a novel pathway with the potential for cotton fiber improvement. PMID:23535943

  13. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Liem; L Y Yeung; J L Hu

    2007-01-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal–mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a

  14. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Liem; L. Y. Yeung; J. L. Hu

    2007-01-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a

  15. Comparison of the Transcriptome between Two Cotton Lines of Different Fiber Color and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca2+/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

  16. A Study On The Hidden Portion Of The Fiber Beard In Cotton Lenght Measurements.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beard method is used to make a fiber beard, and then this beard is scanned to generate a fibrogram. Cotton fiber length parameters can be derived from the fibrogram. The method used for making such a beard impacts the resulted fibrogram, hence could influence the derived length parameters. When ...

  17. Experience of the fibrotest for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fibrotest is a device developed by Textechno for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties. The Fibrotest provides abundant information, including more than 20 length and strength parameters in absolute and relative modes, and displays fibrogram, load-elongation curve, and fiber bea...

  18. THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN SEMI-DISPOSABLE BLANKETS FROM RECYCLED POLYESTER/COTTON FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were given carboxylic acid finish to improve structural stability during use and laundering. A Steady-State Heat Flow meter FOX ...

  19. Needlepunched Cotton Nonwovens and Other Natural Fibers as Oil Cleanup Sorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates a partial or complete replacement of synthetic sorbents by various biodegradable, natural sorbent materials. The sorbents examined are cotton, milkweed, kapok, wool, and kenaf fibers. It was found that (with the exception of kenaf) the oil sorption capacities of these natural sorbents (as loose fiber forms) were much greater than that of polypropylene. Nonwoven pads were prepared

  20. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  1. Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Bas Kwak; Qin Qin Wang; Xu Sheng Chen; Cheng Xiang Qiu; Zhi Min Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved

  2. Transcriptome Profiling, Molecular Biological, and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Ethylene in Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hui Shi; Sheng-Wei Zhu; Xi-Zeng Mao; Jian-Xun Feng; Yong-Mei Qin; Liang Zhang; Jing Cheng; Li-Ping Wei; Zhi-Yong Wang; Yu-Xian Zhua

    2006-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) produces the most widely used natural fibers, yet the regulatory mechanisms governing fiber cell elongation are not well understood. Through sequencing of a cotton fiber cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found that ethylene biosynthesis is one of the most significantly upregulated biochemical pathways during fiber elongation. The 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase1-3 (ACO1-3) genes responsible for

  3. Genetic Basis of Fiber Quality Attributes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD MASOOD AKHTAR; FAQIR MUHAMMAD AZHAR; ZULFQAR ALI

    Eight diverse cotton varieties were hybridized following diallel crossing system in order to investigate the genetic mechanism controlling variation in staple length, fiber strength and its fineness in varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Simple additive-dominance model was fond adequate for analyzing the F1 data sets. Non-significant deviation of regression coefficient from unity revealed that epistatic component was absent in the

  4. Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall sythesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber morphogenesis reflects extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation in an easily isolated single cell. Uncovering the cellular control mechanisms can lead to strategies for producing improved cotton fiber for textiles and other uses. To identify potential controls of the high...

  5. Cleaning Quality of Raw Cotton as Affected by Physical Properties of Fibers

    E-print Network

    Grimes, Mary Anna

    1947-01-01

    , and the percentage waste. Lengths were meas- ured from arrays made with a Suter-Webb sorter (2). An average of the results of 3 arrays was used for each cotton. Fineness, ---'-'-'- is expressed as weight per inch of fiber, was calculated either the weights... of grade and waste of cotton grown at College Station and Lubbock Grade Frequency Total No. Wssie removed from seed cotton I --- ,Frequencyl J3errent Co!lrge Both Ftatiotl Lubbock stations --- Total No. Percent Total No. Total waste Frequency...

  6. An electrical resistance method for determining the fiber length distribution of cotton lint

    E-print Network

    Hartstack, Albert W

    1961-01-01

    of @ax dastribution of fiber lengths w1thin a speciumn, These deter ~4xiat one ? ive cotton mill operators and merchants a means of selectixu; txm opthnum staple grouse available for their particular needs. Length dictri?ux. i. "n data are also... of great importance for studies in genetics, breeding, and cultural practices relating to ths cotton plant Fxu many years length has boon ixousured subgectively by cotton classers nr gradex's. This sub)ective evaluat1on of length~ usually referred...

  7. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    PubMed

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented. PMID:22524051

  8. Electrical and optical properties of air-stable, iodine-doped natural cotton fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Jeon, H. C.; Kang, T. W.; Mamadalimov, A. T.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of sodium-hydroxide treatment and iodine doping on the optical and the electrical properties of cotton fibers is investigated by using photoluminescence (PL), as well as photoconductivity, measurements. The iodine doping results in a quenching of the PL and an enhancement of the photoconductivity due to the photo-induced charge transfer between the dopants and the cotton fibers. The conductivity of the iodine-doped cellulose fibers shows a significant enhancement by more than five orders of magnitude as compared to that of the undoped samples. A good correlation is found between the changes in the fiber's morphology and the electrical and optical properties of the fiber, which opens interesting perspectives for molecular donor-acceptor device applications.

  9. The relative effectiveness of two systems of breeding for high and low fiber strength in cotton 

    E-print Network

    Fetooh, Anwar Abdel-Bary

    1955-01-01

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO SYSTEMS OF BREEDING FOR HIGH AND LOW FIBER STRENGTH IN COTTON A Dissertation By ANWAR ABDEL-BABY FETOOH Approved as to style and content by: (lieSidy/of DepartureJit) May 1955 THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TV.../O SYSTEMS OF BREEDING FOR HIGH AND LOW FIBER STRENGTH IN COTTON A Dissertation By ANWAR ABDEL-BAR# FETOOH Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  10. The evolution of spinnable cotton fiber entailed prolonged development and a novel metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hovav, Ran; Udall, Joshua A; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Hovav, Einat; Flagel, Lex; Hu, Guanjing; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2008-02-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium ("cotton fiber"). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with approximately 22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long spinnable fibers in cotton was accompanied by novel expression of genes assisting in the regulation of reactive oxygen species levels. Our data suggest a model for the evolutionary origin of a novel morphology through differential gene regulation causing prolongation of an ancestral developmental program. PMID:18248099

  11. Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2001-01-01

    Cotton is the leading agronomic crop in Texas and is important to the agricultural productivity and economic vitality of regions where it is grown. The production of high quality lint under dryland conditions is becoming of increased importance...

  12. Inter-comparison of unrelated fiber evidence.

    PubMed

    Houck, Max M

    2003-08-12

    The foreign textile fibers recovered from one item of evidence from each of 20 unrelated crimes in three categories (bank robbery, kidnapping, and homicide) were cross-compared. The items of evidence were scraped to remove the trace evidence and a sample of the collected fibers was examined using a standard scheme of analysis. The fibers were examined with light microscopy (including polarized light microscopy), fluorescence microscopy, and microspectrophotometry. The fibers were divided into natural and manufactured groups and then categorized by color and generic (polymer) class. Cross-comparing all 2083 fibers resulted in 2,168,403 comparisons, after removing duplicate (same fiber) comparisons. Colorless and denim fibers were excluded from this study. No two fibers were found to exhibit the same microscopic characteristics and analytical properties. Therefore, it is rare to find two unrelated items that have foreign fibers that are analytically indistinguishable. These results corroborate other population studies conducted in Europe and target fiber studies conducted both in the US and in Europe. PMID:12927416

  13. Seed coat and fiber constituents of cotton seeds that may influence aflatoxin analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Ashworth; John Mckinney; J. L. Mcmeans

    1967-01-01

    Normal constituents of seed coats and fibers of fuzzy cotton seeds were found which can interfere with aflatoxin analyses\\u000a of embryos (meats). Aflatoxins were partially or totally obscured in chromatograms prepared with extracts containing these\\u000a constituents. A blue fluorescing substance with an RF approximating that of aflatoxin B was found to be a normal constituent of seed coats and fibers.

  14. Yield and fiber quality of Upland cotton as influenced by nitrogen and potassium nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Read; K. Raja Reddy; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    Nutrient stress in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) depresses lint yield, particularly of late-season fruit (bolls), and may disrupt fiber development. A 2-year (1999 and 2000) study was conducted outdoors in large pots to determine individual effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) stress at flowering stage on lint yield and fiber quality. Treatments were half-strength nutrient solution from emergence

  15. Imaging the Detergency of Single Cotton Fibers with Confocal Microscopy: the Effect of Surfactants and Lipases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas W. Sonesson; Thomas H. Callisen; Ulla M. Elofsson; Hjalmar Brismar

    2007-01-01

    Detergency mechanisms of lipids from single cotton fibers were visualized by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).\\u000a Fibers were soiled with different types of lipids: olive oil, lard and tri-C10, and subsequently stained with the fluorescent probe Nile Red. A surfactant composition of 300 ?M C12E6\\/LAS (1:2 mol%) was used to mimic the surfactants used in a common washing solution. It

  16. Review of Fiber Quality Effects of Seed Cotton Moisture Restoration in Ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical data, mostly collected prior to 1980, has shown that the drying of seed cotton often correlates with reduced lint quality, especially fiber length, and yarn strength. This report discusses several studies conducted since 2003 which have examined in more detail the possibility of adding m...

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  18. The relationship between cotton canopy temperature and yield, fiber quality and water-use efficiency.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopy temperature (Tc) is associated with transpiration and Tc has been used in crop water stress detection. This study investigates the effect of surface drip and furrow irrigation regimes on cotton Tc. It outlines the relationship between Tc and lint yield, fiber quality and total water-use ...

  19. COTTON YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY FROM IRRIGATED TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN THE TENNESSEE VALLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been conducted to examine interactive effects of surface tillage, deep tillage, conservation tillage, and irrigation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and fiber quality. We conducted a field experiment from 2001-2003 with a split-plot treatment structure in a randomized ...

  20. Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2014-12-01

    Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution. PMID:25156487

  1. Mechanical, Thermal, and Microstructure Analysis of Silk and Cotton-Waste-Fiber-Reinforced High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilara Koçak; Münir Ta?demir; ?smail Usta; Nigar Merdan; Mehmet Akalin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, composite structures were produced using HDPE polymer with silk and cotton waste as reinforcement fibers in different ratios. Cotton and silk wastes were mixed in the ratios of HDPE\\/silk or cotton waste 100%\\/0%, 97%\\/3%, and 94%\\/6%. This mixture was prepared with double-screwed extruder. The tests were carried out in terms of tensile strength, % elongation, yield strength,

  2. Effects of harvesting methods on foreign matter content, fiber quality, and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the high plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest treatments were compared for a variety of cotton commonly grown on the High Plains of Texas. Foreign matter, fiber quality, and yarn quality were compared for cotton harvested using a spindle picker, a brush-roll stripper with a field cleaner, and the same stripper harvester without a field ...

  3. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND ITS MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a Gossypium anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized by good fiber quality...

  4. USE OF PRIMITIVE ACCESSION OF COTTON AS SOURCES OF GENES FOR IMPROVING YIELD COMPONENTS AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breeding of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to improve lint yield and fiber quality is an on going processes. To meet textile mill requirements and producer demands both fiber quality and lint yield must be increased. This study was conducted to compare yield and fiber properties when exotic li...

  5. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND INTO MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as good fiber quality properti...

  6. Characterization of PROFILIN genes from allotetraploid ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cotton and its diploid progenitors and expression analysis in cotton genotypes differing in fiber characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anagnostis Argiriou; Apostolos Kalivas; Georgios Michailidis; Athanasios Tsaftaris

    The actin-binding protein profilin (PRF) plays an important role in cell growth and expansion by regulating the organization\\u000a of the actin filaments. Recent studies have reported association between fiber elongation in cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and PRF expression. In the present study, we cloned four genomic clones from allotetraploid cotton (G. hirsutum) and its putative diploid progenitors (G. arboreum and

  7. The dual functions of WLIM1a in cell elongation and secondary wall formation in developing cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-11-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase-box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  8. Identification and quantification of glycerolipids in cotton fibers: reconciliation with metabolic pathway predictions from DNA databases.

    PubMed

    Wanjie, Sylvia W; Welti, Ruth; Moreau, Robert A; Chapman, Kent D

    2005-08-01

    The lipid profiles of cotton fiber cells were determined from total lipid extracts of elongating and maturing cotton fiber cells to see whether the membrane lipid composition changed during the phases of rapid cell elongation or secondary cell wall thickening. Total FA content was highest or increased during elongation and was lower or decreased thereafter, likely reflecting the assembly of the expanding cell membranes during elongation and the shift to membrane maintenance (and increase in secondary cell wall content) in maturing fibers. Analysis of lipid extracts by electrospray ionization and tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS) revealed that in elongating fiber cells (7-10 d post-anthesis), the polar lipids-PC, PE, PI, PA, phosphatidylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol-were most abundant. These same glycerolipids were found in similar proportions in maturing fiber cells (21 dpa). Detailed molecular species profiles were determined by ESI-MS/MS for all glycerolipid classes, and ESI-MS/MS results were consistent with lipid profiles determined by HPLC and ELSD. The predominant molecular species of PC, PE, PI, and PA was 34:3 (16:0, 18:3), but 36:6 (18:3,18:3) also was prevalent. Total FA analysis of cotton lipids confirmed that indeed linolenic (18:3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were the most abundant FA in these cell types. Bioinformatics data were mined from cotton fiber expressed sequence tag databases in an attempt to reconcile expression of lipid metabolic enzymes with lipid metabolite data. Together, these data form a foundation for future studies of the functional contribution of lipid metabolism to the development of this unusual and economically important cell type. PMID:16296396

  9. Molecular Basis of Quantitative Genetics Revealed by Cloning and Analysis of 474 Genes Controlling Fiber Length in Cotton 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yun Hua

    2014-07-11

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a leading textile crop in the world, generating an annual economic benefit of over hundred billion USD. However, few genes controlling fiber quality and yield traits have been cloned and characterized to date...

  10. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  11. Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton 

    E-print Network

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2001-01-01

    fiber length and a competitive yield when compared with Sphinx and Deltapine 50 (two standard commercial cultivars) under irrigated and dryland conditions. However, the data that initiated this research project is the fiber length of TAM 94L-25 when... grown under dryland conditions compared with the fiber length of Sphinx and Deltapine 50 grown under irrigated conditions. Averaged across multiple environments, TAM 94L-25, when grown without supplemental irrigation, produced fibers with an upper...

  12. PHYSICAL MAPPING OF FIBER DEVELOPMENT GENES IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large numbers of genes are involved in the regulation of fiber development. To understand where these genes located in chromosomes and how they interact is crucial for improving fiber yield and quality. Our goals are to develop integrated physical and transcript maps of fiber initiation, elongation,...

  13. Preparation and Characteristics of a New Antibacterial Cotton Fiber Bonding a Gemini-type Quaternary Ammonium Salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Zhou; Jian-Hua Zhang; Xian-Feng Sun; Qin-Qin Wang; Yu-Han Sun

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of antibacterial cotton fiber (called as C14 and Ct) were prepared by bonding a gemini-type quaternary ammonium compound with a hydroxyl group in their spacer chain (1,5-bis(tetradecyl dimethyl ammonium iodide)-3- pentanol (called as DAP14)) and a mono-type quaternary ammonium compound (N-tetradecyldimethyl (3-trimethoxysilylpropyl) ammonium chloride (called as TMMP)), respectively, to the surface of cotton fiber using a coupling agent,

  14. Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

  15. Relationships of cotton fiber properties to ring-spun yarn quality on selected High Plains cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the adequacy of High Volume Instruement (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) fiber quality parameters for predicting quality parameters of ring-spun yarns considering differences in harvest method. Fiber properties measured using the HVI (...

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms governing cotton fiber differentiation and initiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Han, Meiling; Zhang, Chaojun; Yao, Liangyu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes and provide an ideal model for studying plant cell patterning. At present, the molecular mechanisms of fiber differentiation and initiation are unclear. To determine the proteins involved in these processes, a comparative proteomic analysis based on 2-DE and MS/MS technology was conducted between the fuzzless-lintless mutant (fl) and its parental wild type (WT). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were identified in ovules at -3 and 0 days post-anthesis (DPA), at the times of cotton fiber differentiation and initiation, respectively. Most of the proteins (72%) were expressed at lower levels in the fl mutant than in the WT, suggesting deleterious effects of the mutant genes on ovule development. The consistency between protein levels and transcript levels was examined using quantitative PCR. The differentially expressed proteins had diverse putative functions related to redox homeostasis, stress responses, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, and carbohydrate, energy, protein, amino acid, and sterol metabolism. A strong burst of ROS was detected on the surface of -3 and -2 DPA fl ovules, and the concentrations of several carbohydrates at 0 DPA were lower in the fl mutant than in the WT ovules. These findings suggest that ROS homeostasis may be a central regulatory mechanism for cotton fiber morphogenesis and that post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation may be pivotal in this process. PMID:22015716

  17. Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mi; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Kang; Shu, Hongmei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2012-03-01

    Low temperature stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the formation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber qualities, especially fiber length. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanisms of cotton fiber elongation to low temperature stress, two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 (low temperature-tolerant) and Sumian 15 (low temperature-sensitive), were planted in the field at two sowing dates (25 April and 10 June). The two sowing dates resulted in different growing conditions and the main environmental difference between them was temperature, particularly the mean daily minimum temperature (MDTmin). When the sowing date was delayed, the MDTmin decreased from 26.9°C (25 April) to 20.6°C (10 June). Low temperature stress (MDTmin of 20.6°C) shortened the fiber length significantly in two cultivars, but the decreased extent was larger in Sumian 15 than that in Kemian 1. Proteomic analysis of three developmental stages (10, 15 and 20 days post-anthesis [DPA]) showed that 37 spots changed significantly (p<0.05) in abundance under low temperature stress and they were identified using mass spectrometry. These proteins were involved in malate metabolism, soluble sugar metabolism, cell wall loosening, cellulose synthesis, cytoskeleton, cellular response, and redox homeostasis. The results suggest that the enhancement of osmoticum maintenance, cell wall loosening, cell wall components biosynthesis, and cytoskeleton homeostasis plays important roles in the tolerance of cotton fibers to low temperature stress. Moreover, low levels of PEPCase, expansin, and ethylene signaling proteins may potentially lead to the low temperature sensitivity of Sumian 15 at the proteomic level. PMID:22244703

  18. Documentation of the endotoxins present in the ambient air of cotton fiber textile mills in Québec.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Geneviève; Lalonde, Michèle; Beaudet, Yves; Boivin, Gilles; Villeneuve, Sylvie; Pépin, Carole

    2007-08-01

    Cotton workers are recognized as being at risk of developing occupational lung diseases. Some researchers have identified endotoxins as being a potential etiologic agent for some of the respiratory problems. This study wants to document the concentration of endotoxins found in the ambient air of textile mills where cotton fibers are handled and to identify the processing steps where the highest endotoxins concentrations in the air were found and the one where the relative limit values (RLVs) are exceeded. The 4 mills studied process cotton fibers. All the air samples were analyzed using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocytes lysate LAL method using a kinetic detection principle based on the IRSST's standard method. In this study, a large variability in the concentrations of endotoxins in the air was observed, depending on the mill, the processing step, and the time. Despite these variations, some processes can be identified as being major generators of endotoxins in the ambient air of the mills. The highest concentrations were measured in the weaving and drawing processes and reached 10,000 EU m(-3) of air. The opening, cleaning, carding, spinning and drawing processes are the other major endotoxins generating processes with concentrations from 24 to 8,700 EU m(-3) of air. The endotoxins concentrations exceeded the RLVs for 55% of the workstations in this project. This study demonstrated that endotoxins levels in the cotton industry are high and appropriate control measures are needed. PMID:17671669

  19. [Phosphorescence quenching as an approach for estimating localization of triplet label in cotton fibers].

    PubMed

    Iusupov, I Kh; Likhtenshte?n, G I

    2012-01-01

    The method based on the qualitative investigation of chromophore fluorescence (phosphorescence) quenching for instance, by stable nitroxide radical was first used to measure the depth of immersion of triplet label in cotton fiber as a molecular object. The concept of dynamic quenching of fluorescence in solutions and the empirical dependence of the parameters of static quenching between centers with fixed distances were used. The erythrosine triplet labels were incorporated in cotton fibers with subsequent measurement of the efficiency of label phosphorescence quenching and determination of temperature dependence of phosphorescence duration. Using above mentioned approach it became possible for the first time to estimate the depth of immersion of chromophore fragment of the labels (7.4-7.8 A) and study their molecular dynamics in the millisecond range of correlation times. Subtle differences in microstructure and molecular dynamics of the investigated samples were revealed. The proposed approach can be used for investigation of widespread biological and nonbiological objects. PMID:22594286

  20. In situ synthesis of ordered mesoporous silica materials embedded in cotton fiber and their CO2 capture properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Han, Kun-Kun; Ding, Xiao-Hua; Chun, Yuan; Zhu, Jian-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Mesoporous silica/cotton fiber composite materials have been prepared in situ by using pluronics P123 (EO20PO70EO20) as template, tetraethyl orthosilicate as silica source and degreasing cotton as supporter. In order to avoid the hydrolysis of cotton fiber in a strong acidic media during the hydrothermal treatment, two kinds of methods were used to control the acidity of the reaction media. One was to adjust the pH to 5 after self-assembly in a strong acidic media; the other was a two-step route containing the pre-hydrolysis of TEOS and self-assembly in a weak acidic media. The resulting shaped composite materials presented the morphology of cotton fiber, and the silica particles mainly covered the surfaces of cotton fibers. These silica particles possessed a slightly ordered pore structure or a well ordered SBA-15 structure according to the difference in the synthetic methods. After modification with tetraethylenepentamine, these shaped composite materials exhibited considerable CO2 adsorption capacity. The use of cotton fiber has the advantages of shaping the powdery materials, dispersing the silica particles and avoiding the formation of moisture and sticky solid surfaces by overloaded tetraethylenepentamine. PMID:21780409

  1. Concentration and metabolic turnover of UDP-glucose in developing cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Delmer, D.P.

    1981-01-10

    The flow of carbon in vivo from glucose to cellulose in developing cotton fibers which were actively engaged in the deposition of a cellulosic secondary cell wall was traced. Steady state levels of nucleotide sugars were analyzed from developing cotton fibers harvested between 13 and 36 days post-anthesis (DPA). The UDP-sugars were the predominant nucleotide sugars. UDP-glucose constituted over 75% of the UDP-sugar fraction, but UDP-galactose and traces of other UDP-sugars were also detected. The UDP-glucose levels increased from 0.2 ..mu..mol/boll at 13 DPA to over 2.1 ..mu..mol/boll by 24 DPA, just prior to the maximum rate of secondary wall cellulose synthesis; the levels dropped precipitously at the time when cellulose synthesis ceased. Fibers, cultured in vitro possess a very similar nucleotide-sugar composition to that of plant-grown fibers. When such fibers are pulse-labeled in vivo with (/sup 14/C)glucose, UDP-glucose is the predominant nucleotide sugar labeled. Pool size and rates of labeling of glucose, glucose-phosphate, and UDP-glucose pool data were analyzed using a computer simulation model, and it was determined that the rate of synthesis and turnover of UDP-glucose is more than sufficient to account for the combined rates of accumulation of sucrose, sterylglucosides, ..beta..-1,3-glucan, and cellulose. These data strongly indicate that UDP-glucose is a precursor to secondary wall cellulose in the cotton fiber.

  2. Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

  3. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G#), enthalpy (?H#), and entropy (?S#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

  4. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that energy deprivation may occur in the im mutant fibers. PMID:24341782

  5. A Cotton-Fiber-Associated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A Gene: Characterization and Chromosomal Location

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weifan; Saha, Sukumar; Ma, Din-Pow; Guo, Yufang; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Stelly, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A cotton fiber cDNA and its genomic sequences encoding an A-type cyclin-dependent kinase (GhCDKA) were cloned and characterized. The encoded GhCDKA protein contains the conserved cyclin-binding, ATP binding, and catalytic domains. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the GhCDKA transcript was high in 5–10 DPA fibers, moderate in 15 and 20 DPA fibers and roots, and low in flowers and leaves. GhCDKA protein levels in fibers increased from 5–15 DPA, peaked at 15 DPA, and decreased from 15 t0 20 DPA. The differential expression of GhCDKA suggested that the gene might play an important role in fiber development. The GhCDKA sequence data was used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific for the CDKA gene in cotton. A primer specific to one of the SNPs was used to locate the CDKA gene to chromosome 16 by deletion analysis using a series of hypoaneuploid interspecific hybrids. PMID:22745634

  6. Molecular analysis of late-stage fiber development in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world's most important textile and the number one value-added crop. It plays a crucial role in the economy of Texas – supporting close to 50,000 jobs and supplying $2 billion to the state economy. Its role is even more evident in the South Plains of Texas, which supplies approximately...

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with cotton fiber development in a chromosomal substitution line (CS-B22sh)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the impediments in the genetic improvement of cotton fiber is the paucity of information about genes associated with fiber development. Availability of chromosome arm substitution line CS-B22sh (chromosome 22 short arm substitution from 3-79 (Gossypium barbadense) into a TM-1 (G. hirsutum ba...

  8. Effect of Late Planting and Shading on Cellulose Synthesis during Cotton Fiber Secondary Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%–25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%–20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%–5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38–45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  9. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  10. Isolation and Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Raw Baled Cotton and Synthetic Textile Fibers with Special Reference to Environmental GNB and Endotoxin Concentrations of Textile Mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. GOKANI; P. B; S. K. GHOSH

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the gram-negative bacterial (GNB) content of Indian raw baled cotton fibers and to compare with the U.S. cottons. Airborne endotoxin also was estimated in the different work places of the mill. On comparison with data on U.S. cottons, GNB content was found to be as high as in U.S. cottons. Moreover, endotoxin

  11. Improvement of Cotton Fiber Maturity and Assessment of Intra-Plant Fiber Variability 

    E-print Network

    Kothari, Neha

    2012-10-19

    The temporal system of fruiting on the cotton plant lends itself to bolls at different fruiting sites developing under different environmental conditions and with varied source-sink relationships. To investigate this, ...

  12. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Hu, Yan; Jiang, Wenkai; Fang, Lei; Guan, Xueying; Chen, Jiedan; Zhang, Jinbo; Saski, Christopher A; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M; Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Wan, Qun; Liu, Bingliang; Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Sen; Pan, Mengqiao; Wang, Yangkun; Wang, Dawei; Ye, Wenxue; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Wenpan; Song, Qingxin; Kirkbride, Ryan C; Chen, Xiaoya; Dennis, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Peterson, Daniel G; Thaxton, Peggy; Jones, Don C; Wang, Qiong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Huaitong; Zhou, Lei; Mei, Gaofu; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Yue; Xiang, Dan; Li, Xinghe; Ding, Jian; Zuo, Qiyang; Tao, Linna; Liu, Yunchao; Li, Ji; Lin, Yu; Hui, Yuanyuan; Cao, Zhisheng; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Jiang, Zhi; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Li, Ruiqiang; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Upland cotton is a model for polyploid crop domestication and transgenic improvement. Here we sequenced the allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1 genome by integrating whole-genome shotgun reads, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences and genotype-by-sequencing genetic maps. We assembled and annotated 32,032 A-subgenome genes and 34,402 D-subgenome genes. Structural rearrangements, gene loss, disrupted genes and sequence divergence were more common in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome, suggesting asymmetric evolution. However, no genome-wide expression dominance was found between the subgenomes. Genomic signatures of selection and domestication are associated with positively selected genes (PSGs) for fiber improvement in the A subgenome and for stress tolerance in the D subgenome. This draft genome sequence provides a resource for engineering superior cotton lines. PMID:25893781

  13. Targeted Lipidomics Studies Reveal that Linolenic Acid Promotes Cotton Fiber Elongation by Activating Phosphatidylinositol and Phosphatidylinositol Monophosphate Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao-Jun; Xiao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Ning-Jing; Liu, Dan; Chen, Pei-Shuang; Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2015-06-01

    The membrane lipids from fast-elongating wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers at 10 days post-anthesis, wild-type ovules with fiber cells removed, and ovules from the fuzzless-lintless mutant harvested at the same age, were extracted, separated, and quantified. Fiber cells contained significantly higher amounts of phosphatidylinositol (PI) than both ovule samples with PI 34:3 being the most predominant species. The genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (?(15)GhFAD), PI synthase (PIS) and PI kinase (PIK) were expressed in a fiber-preferential manner. Further analysis of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) indicated that elongating fibers contained four- to five-fold higher amounts of PIP 34:3 than the ovules. Exogenously applied linolenic acid (C18:3), soybean L-?-PI, and PIPs containing PIP 34:3 promoted significant fiber growth, whereas a liver PI lacking the C18:3 moiety, linoleic acid, and PIP 36:2 were completely ineffective. The growth inhibitory effects of carbenoxolone, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and wortmannin were reverted by C18:3, PI, or PIP, respectively, suggesting that PIP signaling is essential for fiber cell growth. Furthermore, cotton plants expressing virus-induced gene-silencing constructs that specifically suppressed Gh?(15)FAD, GhPIS, or GhPIK expression, resulted in significantly short-fibered phenotypes. Our data provide the basis for in-depth studies on the roles of PI and PIP in mediating cotton fiber growth. PMID:25731673

  14. Rapid Cotton Fiber Micronaire Measurements with Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy-From the Laboratory to the Cotton Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise. Most of the cotton produced in the U.S. today is exported globally, primarily to China. Improved and fast response quality measurement systems are needed in the global marketplace to assess the quality of cotton. One key need is the development of ...

  15. Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

  16. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  17. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  18. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity. PMID:22890806

  19. Introgression of genes for cotton leaf curl virus resistance and increased fiber strength from Gossypium stocksii into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Nazeer, W; Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Tipu, A L; Mahmood, A; Zhou, B

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease is a major hurdle for successful cotton production in Pakistan. There has been considerable economic loss due to this disease during the last decade. It would be desirable to have cotton varieties resistant to this disease. We explored the possibility of transferring virus resistant genes from the wild species Gossypium stocksii into MNH-786, a cultivar of G. hirsutum. Hybridization was done under field condition at the Cotton Research Station, Multan, during 2010-11. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones. F1 seeds were treated with 0.03% colchicine solution for 6 h and germinated. Cytological observations at peak squaring/flowering stage showed that these plants were hexaploid, having 2n = 6x = 78 chromosomes. The F1 plants showed intermediate expression for leaf size, leaf area, petiole length, bracteole number and size, bracteole area, bracteole dentation, flower size, pedicel size, and petal number and size. Moreover it possessed high fiber strength of 54.4 g/tex, which is 54% greater than that of the check variety, i.e. MNH-786 (G. hirsutum). The F1 population did not show any symptom of CLCuVD in the field, tested by grafting with CLCuVD susceptible rootstock (var. S12). We conclude that it is possible to transfer CLCuVD resistance and high fiber strength from G. stocksii to G. hirsutum. PMID:24634169

  20. Long-Lived Messenger RNA: Evidence from Cotton Seed Germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Dure; Larry Waters

    1965-01-01

    In germinating cotton embryos the partial inhibition of RNA synthesis by actinomycin D does not inhibit the incorporation of leucine-14C into soluble protein nor cause a loss of polyribosomes during the first 16 hours of germination. This suggests that the protein synthesis observed during this period is directed by messenger RNA which exists in the mature seed and which is

  1. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  2. Identification of associated SSR markers for yield component and fiber quality traits based on frame map and Upland cotton collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  3. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  4. Activation of Arabidopsis Seed Hair Development by Cotton Fiber-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Mingxiong; Shi, Xiaoli; Stelly, David M.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1) that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY). Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2), a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) activated fiber-like hair production in 4–6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ?8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ?10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs) in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular. PMID:21779324

  5. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from ?22 to ?61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

  6. GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Botany)

    1999-03-01

    A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on [beta]-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg[sup 2+] was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca[sup 2+] was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

  7. Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    ({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

  8. Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingxiong Pang; Andrew W Woodward; Vikram Agarwal; Xueying Guan; Misook Ha; Vanitharani Ramachandran; Xuemei Chen; Barbara A Triplett; David M Stelly; Z Jeffrey Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber development undergoes rapid and dynamic changes in a single cell type, from fiber initiation, elongation, primary and secondary wall biosynthesis, to fiber maturation. Previous studies showed that cotton genes encoding putative MYB transcription factors and phytohormone responsive factors were induced during early stages of ovule and fiber development. Many of these factors are targets of microRNAs (miRNAs)

  9. Two-dimensional attenuated total reflection infrared correlation spectroscopy study of desorption process of water-soaked cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of native cotton fibers with various water contents. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity ...

  10. Association of SSR Markers with Cotton Yield Components and Fiber Traits Analyzed in a Polycross Population Derived from Tetraploid Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement in fiber quality is needed for U.S.A. cotton in order to meet the needs of modern textile processing and international competition. A random mated population derived from multiple crosses among tetraploid species, designated as Species Polycross (SP), was used in this study to id...

  11. Use of Primitive Derived Cotton Accessions for Agronomic and Fiber Traits Improvement: Variance Components and Genetic Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack C. McCarty; Jixiang Wu; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is cultivated in warmer climates throughout the world. The genetic base of modern upland cultivars is narrow. As yield and fiber quality traits are improved, the genetic base should be extended by the incorporation of new germ- plasm into cultivars. In this study, 114 day-neutral derived primitive accessions were crossed to two cultivars, Stoneville 474

  12. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  13. Cotton Benzoquinon Reductase: Up-Regulation During Early Fiber Development and Heterologous Expresson and Characterization in Pichia Pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR) is an enzyme which catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage. These proteins were excis...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PCR-BASED MARKERS FROM FIBER ESTS AND BAC-END SEQUENCES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CONSENSUS COTTON GENETIC MAP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new set of molecular markers known as microsatellites or SSRs were developed from cotton fiber genes (EST) and genomic DNA inserted in bacteria artificial chromosomes (BAC-end sequences). Cotton genomics is in its infancy in that a high density PCR-based molecular map to facilitate marker-assisted...

  15. A transcript profiling approach reveals an abscisic acid specific glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) induced in developing fiber of Ligon lintless-2 mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed i...

  16. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  17. QTL Mapping for Fiber and Yield Traits in Upland Cotton under Multiple Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hantao; Huang, Cong; Guo, Huanle; Li, Ximei; Zhao, Wenxia; Dai, Baosheng; Yan, Zhenhua; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    A population of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using a single seed descendant from a cross between G. hirsutum. acc DH962 and G. hirsutum. cv Jimian5, was used to construct a genetic map and to map QTL for fiber and yield traits. A total of 644 polymorphic loci were used to construct a final genetic map, containing 616 loci and spanning 2016.44 cM, with an average of 3.27 cM between adjacent markers. Statistical analysis revealed that segregation distortion in the intraspecific population was more serious than that in the interspecific population. The RIL population and the two parents were phenotyped under 8 environments (two locations, six years), revealing a total of 134 QTL, including 64 for fiber qualities and 70 for yield components, independently detected in seven environments, explaining 4.40–15.28% of phenotypic variation (PV). Among the 134 QTL, 9 common QTL were detected in more than one environment, and 22 QTL and 19 new QTL were detected in combined analysis (E9). A total of 26 QTL hotspot regions were observed on 13 chromosomes and 2 larger linkage groups, and some QTL clusters related to fiber qualities or yield components were also observed. The results obtained in the present study suggested that to map accurate QTL in crops with larger plant types, such as cotton, phenotyping under multiple environments is necessary to effectively apply the obtained results in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding and QTL cloning. PMID:26110526

  18. Diallel analysis of within-boll seed yield components and fiber properties in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and breeding potential for heat tolerance 

    E-print Network

    Ragsdale, Paul Irwin

    2004-09-30

    A diallel analysis of eight upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes was conducted in the field over two years to determine the potential for improvement in within-boll seed yield components and fiber quality ...

  19. Linkage mapping and expression analysis of miRNAs and their target genes during fiber development in cotton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenously expressed, non-coding RNA molecules involved in gene transcription and expression that combine with specific mRNA site of target genes to inhibit protein synthesis or degrade mRNA. Since the first plant miRNA was reported in 2002, numerous new miRNAs and their targets have been discovered via high-throughput sequencing and computational approaches. However, the genetic variation of miRNA genes is poorly understood due to the lack of miRNA-specific DNA markers. Results To study the genetic variation and map miRNAs and their putative target genes in cotton, we designed specific primers based on pre-miRNAs and published putative target genes. A total of 83 pre-miRNA primers and 1,255 putative target gene primers were surveyed, and 9 pre-miRNA polymorphic loci were mapped on 7 of the 26 tetraploid cotton chromosomes. Furthermore, 156 polymorphic loci of the target genes were mapped on the cotton genome. To map more miRNA loci, miRNA-based SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to map an additional 54 polymorphic loci on the cotton genome with the exception of Chr01, Chr22, and Chr24. Finally, a network between miRNAs and their targets was constructed. All pre-miRNAs and 98 putative target genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different fiber development stages between the mapping parents. Conclusions Our data provide an overview of miRNAs, their putative targets, and their network in cotton as well as comparative expression analyses between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. These data provide a foundation for understanding miRNA regulation during cotton fiber development. PMID:24131852

  20. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutants Ligon-Lintless 1 And 2 Reveals Common Mechanisms Pertinent to Fiber Elongation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Matthew K.; Kim, Hee Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Naoumkina, Marina; Fang, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular processes affecting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development is important for developing tools aimed at improving fiber quality. Short fiber cotton mutants Ligon-lintless 1 (Li1) and Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) are naturally occurring, monogenic mutations residing on different chromosomes. Both mutations cause early cessation in fiber elongation. These two mutants serve as excellent model systems to elucidate molecular mechanisms relevant to fiber length development. Previous studies of these mutants using transcriptome analysis by our laboratory and others had been limited by the fact that very large numbers of genes showed altered expression patterns in the mutants, making a targeted analysis difficult or impossible. In this research, a comparative microarray analysis was conducted using these two short fiber mutants and their near isogenic wild type (WT) grown under both field and greenhouse environments in order to identify key genes or metabolic pathways common to fiber elongation. Analyses of three transcriptome profiles obtained from different growth conditions and mutant types showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were affected by growth conditions. Under field conditions, short fiber mutants commanded higher expression of genes related to energy production, manifested by the increasing of mitochondrial electron transport activity or responding to reactive oxygen species when compared to the WT. Eighty-eight DEGs were identified to have altered expression patterns common to both short fiber mutants regardless of growth conditions. Enrichment, pathway and expression analyses suggested that these 88 genes were likely involved in fiber elongation without being affected by growth conditions. PMID:24748059

  2. The calcium sensor GhCaM7 promotes cotton fiber elongation by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Tu, Lili; Yang, Xiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Hao, Juan; Guo, Kai; Lindsey, Keith; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-04-01

    Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development. PMID:24443839

  3. Characterization of 19 novel cotton FLA genes and their expression profiling in fiber development and in response to phytohormones and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Geng-Qing; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gong, Si-Ying; Li, Bing; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Xu, Dan; Li, Xue-Bao

    2008-10-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs), a subclass of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are usually involved in cell development in plants. To investigate the expression profiling as well as the role of FLA genes in fiber development, 19 GhFLA genes (cDNAs) were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Among them, 15 are predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored to the plasma membranes. The isolated cotton FLAs could be divided into four groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the GhFLA genes are differentially expressed in cotton tissues. Three genes (GhFLA1/2/4) were specifically or predominantly expressed in 10 days post-anthesis fibers, and the transcripts of the other four genes (GhFLA6/14/15/18) were accumulated at relatively high levels in cotton fibers. Furthermore, expressions of the GhFLA genes are regulated in fiber development and in response to phytohormones and NaCl. The identification of cotton FLAs will facilitate the study of their roles in cotton fiber development and cell wall biogenesis. PMID:18507812

  4. Sampling a Core Collection of Island Cotton ( Gossypium barbadense L.) Based on the Genotypic Values of Fiber Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiming Xu; Yongjun Mei; Jin Hu; Jun Zhu; Ping Gong

    2006-01-01

    A genetic model, including effects of environments, genotypes, and genotype by environment interaction, was employed to analyze\\u000a five fiber traits of Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Genotypic values of 304 accessions were predicted by the adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP). Genetic similarities between\\u000a different accessions were measured by Mahalanobis distances based on genotypic values. Appropriate sampling strategies, linkage\\u000a rules in stepwise

  5. Changing Incentives to Sow Cotton for African Farmers: Evidence from the Burkina Faso Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Kaminski

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, Burkina Faso has experienced a reform of its cotton sector, and is now the largest African cotton producer and exporter. The cotton ”boom” consisted of a rapid expansion of cotton areas through the growth of land shares allocated to cotton (and new producers), together with an overall increase in total cultivated land. In this paper,

  6. Commodity Reform and Extensive Production Growth: Evidence from Burkinabè Cotton Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Kaminski; Alban Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Over the 1996-2006 period, Burkina Faso has experienced a reform of its cotton sector, and has become the largest African cotton producer and exporter. The cotton “boom” consisted of a rapid expansion of cotton areas through the growth of land shares allocated to cotton (and new producers), together with an overall increase in total cultivated land. In this paper, we

  7. Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature seeds with no visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. The Li2 mutant phenotype provides an ideal model system to study fiber elongation. To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li2 mutant fibers were compared to wild-type fibers during development. Results Principal component analysis of metabolites from GC-MS data separated Li2 mutant fiber samples from WT fiber samples at the WT elongation stage, indicating that the Li2 mutation altered the metabolome of the mutant fibers. The observed alterations in the Li2 metabolome included significant reductions in the levels of detected free sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, and sugar phosphates. Biological processes associated with carbohydrate biosynthesis, cell wall loosening, and cytoskeleton were also down-regulated in Li2 fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as a signaling factor in many organisms, was significantly elevated in mutant fibers. Higher accumulation of 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate suggested higher nitrate assimilation in the Li2 line. Transcriptional activation of genes involved in nitrogen compound metabolism along with changes in the levels of nitrogen transport amino acids suggested re-direction of carbon flow into nitrogen metabolism in Li2 mutant fibers. Conclusions This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of metabolite and transcript changes in response to the Li2 mutation in elongating fibers. A number of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic processes of cotton fiber elongation. PMID:23497242

  8. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding. PMID:24428209

  9. EPR study of free radicals in cotton fiber for its potential use as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiological accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudprasert, W.; Insuan, P.; Khamkhrongmee, S.

    2015-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was applied to characterize radiation-induced free radicals in the cotton fiber in order to determine the possibility for using cotton as a fortuitous dosimeter in accidental exposures to radiation. Cotton fabrics were irradiated at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 10, 50 and 500 Gy using a 137Cs gamma source. The irradiated samples were then stored in the dark under controlled environmental conditions for 1, 15, 35 and 60 days. The EPR spectra were observed in samples using a Bruker EMX X-band spectrometer equipped with a TE102 rectangular cavity. The EPR signal intensities of irradiated samples were determined from peak-to-peak amplitudes of EPR spectra and compared to those of unirradiated samples. The following optimum parameters were used: 100 kHz modulation frequency, 9.84 GHz microwave frequency, 1.8 mT modulation amplitude, 1.0 mW microwave power, 655 ms time constant, 41 ms conversion time and 41.98 s sweep time. The EPR spectra of unirradiated samples showed a singlet line with g = 2.006 due to pre-existing stable organic radicals in the cotton fibers, whereas those of irradiated samples showed the same pattern with different signal intensities according to the doses. Irradiation increased the signal intensity in a dose dependent manner. The signal intensity exhibited an exponential decay with storage time from 1 to 60 days. Obviously, the degree of fading of EPR intensity did not depend on the absorbed dose from 0.1 - 50 Gy. The maximum fading was about 60% at 60 days of storage for irradiated samples at all doses. However, this post-irradiation signal appeared to be detectable for up to 60 days. The EPR study results indicated the potential of using cotton as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiological accidents.

  10. A novel allele of Li-2 producing different types of fibers in cotton seeds in different branches of the same plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Li-2 is a monogenic, dominant mutant characterized by only short fuzz fibers on mature seeds in cotton. We observed an abnormal phenotype associated with Li-2 with individual plants with branches producing different types of fibers in the same plant. We used Li-2 in partial diallel crosses with F...

  11. Regional, varietal, and crop year variations of metal contents associated with the separate structural components of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the presence of metal cations in raw cotton fiber has been well documented in previous studies, little information exists in the literature regarding the relative proportions of these metals in or on the different structural components of the fiber. Such information may prove useful in attemp...

  12. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and environments for complex fiber traits. The consistent chromosomal regions contributing to fiber quality traits constitute good candidates for the further dissection of the genetic and genomic factors underlying important fiber characteristics, and for marker-assisted selection. PMID:20584292

  13. Nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber for selective binding and rapid separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Hong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-31

    In the current study, a novel nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-Ni(2+)) was prepared in a simple way based on the coordination effect between Ni(2+) and thiol group on the surface of SCF. The composition and element mapping of SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were demonstrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Based on the high affinity of Ni(2+) to 6×His on histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins, SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were then further used as an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbent for selective binding and rapid separation of His-tagged proteins using an in- pipette-tip SPE format. Our results showed that SCF-Ni(2+) adsorbent can selectively capture His-tagged proteins from protein mixture and Escherichia coli cell lysates. Taken together, the developed method provides a rapid, convenient and efficient approach for the purification of His-tagged proteins. PMID:26087962

  14. Degree of Whiteness and Maturity Among World Cotton Cultivars 

    E-print Network

    Gregory, Kendra

    2012-07-16

    Increased US export of cotton and global competition necessitates that plant breeders continue to improve fiber properties of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). Cotton cultivars having whiter fibers and more mature ...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, non-cotton plant...water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton. (ii) On a batch...water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton. (5) Lower...

  16. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers affects secondary cell wall biosynthesis and deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Gong, Si-Ying; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Wen; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cell wall (SCW) is an important industrial raw material for pulping, papermaking, construction, lumbering, textiles and potentially for biofuel production. The process of SCW thickening of cotton fibers lays down the cellulose that will constitute the bulk (up to 96%) of the fiber at maturity. In this study, a gene encoding a MYB-domain protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhMYBL1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that GhMYBL1 was specifically expressed in cotton fibers at the stage of secondary wall deposition. Further analysis indicated that this protein is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, and is targeted to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhMYBL1 in Arabidopsis affected the formation of SCW in the stem xylem of the transgenic plants. The enhanced SCW thickening also occurred in the interfascicular fibers, xylary fibers and vessels of the GhMYBL1-overexpression transgenic plants. The expression of secondary wall-associated genes, such as CesA4, CesA7, CesA8, PAL1, F5H and 4CL1, were upregulated, and consequently, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were enhanced in the GhMYBL1 transgenic plants. These data suggested that GhMYBL1 may participate in modulating the process of secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition of cotton fibers. PMID:25534543

  17. The Effects of Three Module Types on Cotton Ginning and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently seed cotton has been stored in modules from the time it was harvested until it was ginned. These modules have been formed using additional equipment and operators. In an effort to improve the efficiency of cotton production by reducing the number of operators and equipment, two newer harv...

  18. The Effect of Higher Temperatures on Cotton Lint Yield Production and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optimum temperature range for growth exists for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), as is typical for all plant species. When Mississippi Delta cotton experiences temperatures above the upper threshold, as can often occur during the months of July and August, it is not entirely clear what growth par...

  19. COTTON PRODUCTION WITH COVER CROPS: ALDICARB AND NITROGEN AFFECT YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage with cover crops is gaining wide acceptance for cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) production, but little is known about the effects of habitat manipulation on thrips (Frankliniella sp.) populations and the effects of thrips damage on cotton yield and quality. The objectives of this...

  20. Application of an Australian model to predict fiber characteristics of cotton grown in Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature varies continuously and is a pervasive influence on virtually all aspects of cotton growth and development. Variation in cotton yield and quality can be broadly correlated with seasonal temperature patterns. Within-season temperature variation correlates with yield and quality variation...

  1. Application of an Australian Model to Predict Fiber Characteristic of Cotton Gown in Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature varies continuously and is a pervasive influence on virtually all aspects of cotton growth and development. Variation in cotton yield and quality can be broadly correlated with seasonal temperature patterns. Within-season temperature variation correlates with yield and quality variation...

  2. Lint Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tewolde; K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe; A. Adeli; J. R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Poultry litter is generated in large quantities in the same south- eastern U.S. states where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a domi- nant field crop, but is rarely used as a primary cotton fertilizer partly because of lack of adequate management recommendations. This re- search was conducted to determine adequate rates of broiler litter and whether supplementation with inorganic N

  3. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  4. 60The Journal of Cotton Science 17:6068 (2013) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2013

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    60The Journal of Cotton Science 17:60­68 (2013) http://journal.cotton.org, © The Cotton Foundation Quality and Aflatoxin Contamination of Cotton in South Texas. Ramon Jaime, Jeff McKamey, and Peter J *Corresponding author: pjcotty@email.arizona.edu ABSTRACT Cotton is the most important natural fiber used

  5. Effects of Cycling Temperatures on Fiber Metabolism in Cultured Cotton Ovules 1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric M.; Rao, Nunna Rama; Huang, Ji-Ying; Trolinder, Norma L.; Haigler, Candace H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of temperature on rates of cellulose synthesis, respiration, and long-term glucose uptake were investigated using cultured cotton ovules (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Acala SJ1). Ovules were cultured either at constant 34°C or under cycling temperatures (12 h at 34°C/12 h at 15-40°C). Rates of respiration and cellulose synthesis at various temperatures were determined on day 21 during the stage of secondary wall synthesis by feeding cultured ovules with [14C]glucose. Respiration increased between 18 and approximately 34°C, then remained constant up to 40°C. In contrast, the rate of cellulose synthesis increased above 18°C, reached a plateau between about 28 and 37°C, and then decreased at 40°C. Therefore, the optimum temperature for rapid and metabolically efficient cellulose synthesis in Acala SJ1 is near 28°C. In ovules cycled to 15°C, respiration recovered to the control rate immediately upon rewarming to 34°C, but the rate of cellulose synthesis did not fully recover for several hours. These data indicate that cellulose synthesis and respiration respond differently to cool temperatures. The long-term uptake of glucose, which is the carbon source in the culture medium, increased as the low temperature in the cycle increased between 15 and 28°C. However, glucose uptake did not increase in cultures grown constantly at 34°C compared to those cycled at 34/28°C. These observations are consistent with previous observations on the responses of fiber elongation and weight gain to cycling temperatures in vitro and in the field. PMID:16653084

  6. Cotton fibers nano-TiO{sub 2} composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.H., E-mail: xiajianhan@163.com [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D. [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)] [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ? The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ? The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ? UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ? The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid {sup 13}C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

  7. Heterosis in yield, fiber quality, and photosynthesis of okra leaf oriented hybrid cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhu; Kui Liu; Xue-De Wang

    2008-01-01

    Leaf shape is an important factor affecting canopy structure, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. Introducing okra\\u000a leaf shape is considered an important strategy in cotton heterosis breeding. The objective of the study was to evaluate the\\u000a heterosis in okra leaf cotton hybrid F1s, which were developed by crossing two sterile near isolines and three restorer near isolines. A normal leaf check

  8. Two cotton fiber-associated glycosyltransferases, GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, function in hemicellulose glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during plant development.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Lixia; Huang, Yuying; Zeng, Wei; Rao, Yue; Li, Juan; Li, Xuebao; Xu, Wenliang

    2014-10-01

    Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent in dicot secondary cell walls. Cell wall composition of cotton fiber changes dynamically throughout development. Not only the amounts but also the molecular sizes of the hemicellulosic polysaccharides show substantial changes during cotton fiber development. However, none of the genes encoding glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for synthesizing xylan have been isolated and characterized in cotton fiber. In this study, we applied a bioinformatics approach and identified two putative GTs from cotton, designated GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, which belong to the CAZy GT43 family and are closely related to Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. We show that GhGT43A1 is highly and preferentially expressed in 15 and 20?days post-anthesis (dpa) cotton fiber, whereas GhGT43C1 is ubiquitously expressed in most organs, with especially high expression in 15 dpa fiber and hypocotyl. Complementation analysis demonstrates that GhG43A1 and GhGT43C1 are orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 in Arabidopsis results in increased xylan content. We also show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 leads to more cellulose deposition. These findings suggest that GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1 likely participate in xylan synthesis during fiber development. PMID:24641584

  9. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace H. Haigler; Bir Singh; Deshui Zhang; Sangjoon Hwang; Chunfa Wu; Wendy X. Cai; Mohamed Hozain; Wonhee Kang; Brett Kiedaisch; Richard E. Strauss; Eric F. Hequet; Bobby G. Wyatt; Gay M. Jividen; A. Scott Holaday

    2007-01-01

    Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon\\u000a source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions.\\u000a To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS)

  10. The Control of Single-Celled Cotton Fiber Elongation by Developmentally Reversible Gating of Plasmodesmata and Coordinated Expression of Sucrose and K+ Transporters and Expansin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

    2001-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within z 16 days after an- thesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodes- mata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K

  11. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) RIL population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). Genomic regions were identifi...

  12. Characterization of attenuated total reflection infrared spectral intensity variations of immature and mature cotton fibers by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of immature and mature cotton fibers. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity of 660 cm-1 to ...

  13. Biosynthesis of (1. -->. 3)-and (1. -->. 4)-. beta. -D-glucans in cotton fibers (Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum)

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, H.

    1983-01-01

    The seed hairs of whole intact cotton fruits, at the stage of secondary cell wall formation, synthesize two ..beta..-glucans: callose and cellulose. The callose shows a turnover, and its absolute quantity never exceeds about 1 mg in the fibers of one seed, whereas the weight of cellulose reaches 50 mg or more at the end of growth. With short-term feeding of radioactive precursors ((/sup 14/C)sucrose or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/) to intact fruit capsules up to 40% of the radioactivity incorporated into ..beta..-glucans is found in callose. In experiments in vitro, with detached fibers or with isolated seed clusters, between 70 and 95% of the radioactivity incorporated into glucans is found in callose after feeding of (/sup 14/C)glucose, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, or UDP-(/sup 14/C)glucose. The quantity of cellulose-like glucans formed by detached fibers was, under a number of different experimental conditions, insignificant. Also in detached fibers or in seed clusters, callose showed a turnover. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Whiteness and absorbency of hydroentangled cotton-based nonwoven fabrics of different constituent fibers and fiber blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports result of the research efforts devoted to the exploration and development of greige (non-bleached) cotton-containing nonwoven fabrics that likely could be made optimally competitive in cost, quality and performance to existing products that presently and predominantly use man...

  15. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  16. Cotton BCP genes encoding putative blue copper-binding proteins are functionally expressed in fiber development and involved in response to high-salinity and heavy metal stresses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiang-Mei; Luo, Fang; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2011-01-01

    Copper is vitally required for plants at low concentrations but extremely toxic for plants at elevated concentrations. Plants have evolved a series of mechanisms to prevent the consequences of the excess or deficit of copper. These mechanisms require copper-interacting proteins involved in copper trafficking. Blue copper-binding proteins (BCPs) are a class of copper proteins containing one blue copper-binding domain binding a single type I copper. To investigate the role of BCPs in plant development and in response to stresses, we isolated nine cDNAs encoding the putative blue copper-binding proteins (GhBCPs) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Meanwhile, four corresponding genes (including GhBCP1-GhBCP4), which contain a single intron inserted in their conserved position, were isolated from cotton genome. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the nine GhBCP genes are differentially expressed in cotton tissues. Among them, GhBCP1 and GhBCP4 were predominantly expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of GhBCP2 and GhBCP3 were accumulated at relatively high levels in fibers. These four genes were strongly expressed in early fiber elongation, but dramatically declined with further fiber development. In addition, these GhBCP genes were upregulated in fibers by Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) , high-salinity and drought stresses, but downregulated in fibers by Al(3+) treatment. Overexpression of GhBCP1 and GhBCP4 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly increased the cell growth rate under Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) and high-salinity stresses. These results suggested that these GhBCPs may participate in the regulation of fiber development and in response to high-salinity and heavy metal stresses in cotton. PMID:21029107

  17. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  18. Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  19. Evidence for alternative splicing of MADS-box transcripts in developing cotton fibre cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien J. Lightfoot; Katharine M. Malone; Jeremy N. Timmis; Sharon J. Orford

    2008-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes encodes transcription factors that have widely ranging roles in diverse aspects of plant development.\\u000a In this study, four cotton MADS-box cDNA clones of the type II (MIKC) class were isolated, with phylogenetic analysis indicating\\u000a that the cotton sequences are of the AGAMOUS subclass. The corresponding transcripts were detected in developing cotton fibre\\u000a cells as well

  20. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  1. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  2. PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT ON FIBER QUALITY OF MOISTURE RESTORATION OF LOW MOISTURE SEED COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty bales of cotton were ginned with three drying levels, two humidified air application levels, and three levels of water applied with spray before the gin stand. The treatments significantly affected the lint moisture content (mc) of samples taken between the gin stand and the lint cleaner and ...

  3. DISCOVERY OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN SELECTED FIBER GENES IN CULTIVATED TETRAPLOID COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful for characterizing allelic variation, QTL mapping, and markerassisted selection. Information on the frequency and nature of SNPs in cotton, especially in coding DNA regions is lacking. This study was conducted to estimate the nucleotide diversity in ...

  4. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. PMID:24279997

  5. Genetic Improvement of Upper Half Mean Length and Short Fiber Content in Upland Cotton, Gosspium hirsutum 

    E-print Network

    Beyer, Benjamin

    2012-10-19

    . barbadense) in the U. S. is ginned on rotary-knife roller gin stands that use a large diameter roller to pull the fiber under a stationary knife that will not let the seed pass which effectively separates the fiber from the seed (Anthony, 1999; Mayfield... et al., 1999). Roller ginning may require an extra seedcotton cleaning and drying stage prior to ginning. Roller ginning is easier on the fibers, which in turn produces fewer broken fibers and entanglements and maintains high fiber quality...

  6. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Shateri Khalil-Abad; Mohammad E. Yazdanshenas

    2010-01-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO3, followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces.

  7. The Effects of Softeners on the Properties of Sulfur-Dyed Cotton Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazeyar Parvinzadeh

    2007-01-01

    The processing of textiles to achieve a particular handle is one of the most important aspects of finishing technology. Softeners\\u000a can improve some properties of textiles, depending on the chemical nature, including soft handle, smoothness, elasticity,\\u000a hydrophilic, antistatic and soil release properties. They can affect the color and fastness of the dyed textile. In this research\\u000a project, cotton fabrics were

  8. Cotton Quality Indices of Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton was spun into yarn at the Cotton Quality Research Station by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex, and open end spinning) to determine if a relationship exits between cotton fiber properties and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was grown and harvested in 2001-2005 from three of the l...

  9. The inheritance, linkage, and fiber development of a new mutant allele in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

    E-print Network

    Narbuth, Edward Vernon

    1989-01-01

    . . . 16 2. List of simply inherited mutants used in this study. . . 18 3. Segregation of the new mutant and normal phenotypes in a testcross of (new fiber mutant x TM-1) x TM-1. . . . . 27 4. Segregation of the new fiber mutant and normal phenotypes... in a testcross of (new fiber mutant x TM-1)F2. . . , . . . , , . . . . . 29 5. Linkage analysis of the new mutant in test crosses with the multiple marker line T586, wirescent (N3), and TM-1. . . . . . 31 6. ANOVA of mean fiber lengths for the new...

  10. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed cotton fuzz fiber development having a similar molecular model as Arabidopsis trichome.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

  11. Growth, Yield, Fiber Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Two Different Potassium Efficiency Cotton Genotypes in Response to Potassium Deficiency

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Cun cang; Xia, Ying; Wang, Yunhua; Lu, Jiangwei; Chen, Fang

    2009-01-01

    once before planting. Cotton seeds were first soaked inthe bolls opened, the seed cotton was picked, weighed, suncotton genotypes Geno type Single boll weight (g) -K +K 4.3a 3.3b Weight of 100 seeds (

  12. Nondestructive identification of dye mixtures in polyester and cotton fibers using raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia. PMID:25588115

  13. ENGINEERING AND GINNING The Effect of Harvesting Procedures on Fiber and Yarn Quality of Ultra-Narrow-Row Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. McAlister III; Clarence D. Rogers

    2005-01-01

    The ultra-narrow-row (UNR) cotton system is defined as planting a cotton field with closely spaced rows (typically less than 38.1 centime- ters). Because this narrow-row spacing provides the potential for increased yield, it has caught the attention of U.S. cotton producers, ginners, and textile mills. While these three groups share an interest in UNR cotton, they do not share the

  14. Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture

    E-print Network

    Ge, Yufeng

    2009-05-15

    - and GPS-based system was fabricated and developed for automated module-level fiber quality mapping. The system is composed of several subsystems distributed among harvest vehicles, and the main components of the system include a GPS receiver, wireless...

  15. Associations of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components in six diverse cotton genotypes

    E-print Network

    Golladay, Gwendolyn Kay

    1993-01-01

    MEAN SQUARES STR 488. 75* MIC 4. 00 UI 5. 21 1. 12 GENOTYPE GENOTYPE x YR ERROR 8 8. 91 103. 45u 3. 41 8. 57 1. 57~ 0. 21 * Significant at p= 0. 05. 20 Table 3. Rber characteristics of six parental cotton genotypes grown at College... og 25. 0 ij 29. 9 bcd 31. 4 ab 23. 0 k 27. 2 e-h 27. 9 efg 31. 7 a 32. 9 a (number) 32. 0 a-d 33. 6 a 33. 7 a 31. 9 aut 31. 6 aul 32. 9 ab 32. 4 abc 33. 3 ab 33. 3 ab 33. 4 ab 33. 3 ab 32. 1 abc 34. 0 a 32. 3 abc 32. 7 ab 29...

  16. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  17. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  18. The control of single-celled cotton fiber elongation by developmentally reversible gating of plasmodesmata and coordinated expression of sucrose and K+ transporters and expansin.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Y L; Llewellyn, D J; Furbank, R T

    2001-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within approximately 16 days after anthesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodesmata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K(+), the major osmotic solutes imported into fibers. Confocal imaging of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent solute carboxyfluorescein (CF) revealed that the fiber plasmodesmata were initially permeable to CF (0 to 9 DAA), but closed at approximately 10 DAA and re-opened at 16 DAA. A developmental switch from simple to branched plasmodesmata was also observed in fibers at 10 DAA. Coincident with the transient closure of the plasmodesmata, the sucrose and K(+) transporter genes were expressed maximally in fibers at 10 DAA with sucrose transporter proteins predominately localized at the fiber base. Consequently, fiber osmotic and turgor potentials were elevated, driving the rapid phase of elongation. The level of expansin mRNA, however, was high at the early phase of elongation (6 to 8 DAA) and decreased rapidly afterwards. The fiber turgor was similar to the underlying seed coat cells at 6 to 10 DAA and after 16 DAA. These results suggest that fiber elongation is initially achieved largely by cell wall loosening and finally terminated by increased wall rigidity and loss of higher turgor. To our knowledge, this study provides an unprecedented demonstration that the gating of plasmodesmata in a given cell is developmentally reversible and is coordinated with the expression of solute transporters and the cell wall-loosening gene. This integration of plasmodesmatal gating and gene expression appears to control fiber cell elongation. PMID:11158528

  19. Mapping and validation of fiber strength quantitative trait loci on chromosome 24 in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major fiber strength QTL has been identified on chromosome 24 in the Chinese germplasm line “Suyuan 7235,” however the effects of this QTL have not been tested in different genetic backgrounds. In this study, we confirmed the effects of this QTL by crossing Suyuan 7235 with two U.S. germplasm line...

  20. X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

    2006-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

  1. Potential use of cutinase in enzymatic scouring of cotton fiber cuticle.

    PubMed

    Degani, Ofir; Gepstein, Shimon; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2002-01-01

    The present study characterized the ability of a bacterial cutinase to improve the wettability of raw cotton fabrics by specific hydrolysis of the cutin structure of the cuticle. The effect of cutinase was studied alone and in coreaction with pectin lyase. The changes in both the fabric and the reaction fluid were measured and compared to enzymatic hydrolysis with polygalacturonase, and to chemical hydrolysis with boiling NaOH. Water absorbancy, specific staining, fabric weight loss, and evaporative light-scattering reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of chloroform extract of the reaction fluid were measured to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cuticle waxy layer. The pattern and extent of hydrolysis of the major cuticle constituents depended on the enzyme type and titers employed and paralleled the degree of wettability obtained. The combination of cutinase and pectin lyase resulted in a synergistic effect. The use of detergents improved enzymatic scouring. The major products released to the reaction medium by the cutinase treatment were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis as C:16 and C:18 saturated fatty acid chains. PMID:12396130

  2. Genetic variation for yield and fiber quality response to supplemental irrigation within the Pee Dee Upland cotton germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability is a major factor influencing the development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars and sustainable cotton production in the southeast USA because of endemic, intermittent drought events occurring in the region resulting from shallow, coarse textured soils and irregul...

  3. Effects of a Short-term Corn Rotation on Cotton Dry Matter Partitioning, Lint Yield, and Fiber Quality Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has traditionally been grown under a continuous monoculture production system in the Mississippi Delta, some cotton producers have begun rotating their land with corn (Zea mays L.) because of economic and agronomic factors. Because of the lack of knowledge re...

  4. FLAX FIBER IN TEXTILES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    REFINED, SHORT STAPLE FLAX FIBER CAN BE BLENDED WITH COTTON AND SPUN ON DRY SYSTEMS THAT ARE PREVALENT IN THE U.S. RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE THE FIBER PROPERTIES AND THE PROCESSING SYSTEMS TO MORE EFFICIENTLY BLEND FLAX WITH COTTON. INCLUSION OF FLAX WITH COTTON PROVIDES YARN AND FABRIC PROPE...

  5. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  6. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diqiu Liu; Xianlong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber\\u000a and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile\\u000a technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially\\u000a expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned

  7. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  8. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from developing fibers of Gossypium barbadense and evaluation of insertion-deletion variation in tetraploid cultivated cotton species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied. Results A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species. Conclusion Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits, genetic differentiation and comparative genomic studies between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. PMID:23497047

  9. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  10. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  11. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  12. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  13. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY...Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff... § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton...

  14. Letter to the Editor Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes

    E-print Network

    Chee, Peng W.

    crop. The seed is an important source of feed, foodstuff, and oil. World consumption of cotton fiber, modifying cotton- seed for food and feed could profoundly enhance the nutrition and livelihoods of millions and cellulose biosynthesis (Kim and Triplett, 2001). Each seed has approximately 25,000 cotton fibers, each

  15. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  16. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

  17. Commercial cotton variety spinning study classic/supplementary measurement relationahips.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  18. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  19. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  20. Oil removal from water by sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 2. Study of sorption properties in dynamic mode.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Albasi, Claire; Riba, Jean-Pierre; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

    2003-11-01

    The recovery of oil from an oil-in-water emulsion, during a flow through a bed of cotton rendered hydrophobic by acylation of cellulose was defined by sorption and coalescence phenomena. During percolation, the column "hold-up" (difference between injected and rejected oil) became constant at the equilibrium volume, i.e., as soon as the instant oil concentration in the effluent (C) was equal to the oil concentration in the initial emulsion (C0). This equilibrium permitted the measurement of the cotton sorption capacity (SC), which increased with C0 up to the cotton saturation. The oil-water separation improved at a lower temperature, lower flow, a deeper medium, and larger oil drops. The system was modeled as a piston flow-through in order to generalize the results. PMID:14620835

  1. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  2. A MADS-box gene is specifically expressed in fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and influences plant growth of transgenic Arabidopsis in a GA-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Bing-Ying; Li, Mo; Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a cDNA, GhMADS14, encoding a typical MADS-box protein with 223 amino acids was isolated from a cotton cDNA library. Fluorescent microscopy indicated that the GhMADS14 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. GhMADS14 was specifically expressed in the elongating fibers, and its expression was gradually enhanced at early stages of fiber elongation and reached its peak in 9-10 DPA fibers. Overexpression of GhMADS14 in Arabidopsis hindered plant growth. Measurement and statistical analysis revealed that hypocotyl length of GhMADS14 transgenic seedlings was significantly reduced, and the height of the mature transgenic plants was remarkably less than that of the wild type. Furthermore, expression of GA 20-oxidase (AtGA20ox1 and AtGA20ox2) and GA 3-oxidase (AtGA3ox1 and AtGA3ox2) genes was remarkably reduced, whereas AtGA2ox1 and AtGA2ox8 were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic plants, compared with the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of GhMADS14 in Arabidopsis may alter expression levels of the genes related to GA biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, resulting in the reduction of endogenous GA amounts in cells. As a result, the transgenic plants grew slowly and display a GA-deficient phenotype. PMID:24374505

  3. Registration of PSI 113 and PSI 425 Germplasm Lines of Pima Cotton Possessing Superior Fiber Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) germplasm lines PSI 113 (Reg. No. GP-916, PI 655939) and PSI 425 (Reg. No. GP-917, PI 655940) were jointly developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and New Mexico State Agricultural Experiment Station in 200...

  4. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  5. Relationships between SSR-based genetic distance and cotton F2 hybrid performance for lint yield and fiber properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of relationship between genetic distance and hybrid performance may promote the utilization of exotic germplasm in hybrid production. This study was designed to determine the relationship between SSR based genetic distance (GD) and F2 hybrid performance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). ...

  6. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  7. Mapping Fiber and Yield QTLs with Main, Epistatic, and QTL × Environment Interaction Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Upland Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlian Shen; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Xiaoyang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Most agronomic traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are quan- titatively inherited and affected by environment. The importance of epistasis as the genetic basis for complex traits has been reported in many crops. In this study, a linkage map was constructed by means of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from 72353TM-1. Main effects, epistatic effects, and environmental interaction

  8. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  9. Direct photolabeling with ( sup 32 P)UDP-glucose for identification of a subunit of cotton fiber callose synthase. [Gossypium hirsutum

    SciTech Connect

    Delmer, D.P.; Solomon, M.; Read, S.M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1991-02-01

    The authors have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1{r arrow}3)-{beta}-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, {alpha}-({sup 32}P)UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca{sup 2+}, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the K{sub m} of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase.

  10. The chromosome fiber: evidence for an ordered superstructure of nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Hozier, J; Renz, M; Nehls, P

    1977-07-18

    Chromosome fibers isolated from lymphocyte nuclei and prepared for electron microscopy by techniques designed to preserve their native structure have a distinctly knobby appearance, suggesting that DNA and protein are not distributed evenly along the fiber axis. Individual knobs (superbeads) are arranged in tandem and have an average diameter of about 200 A. Mild nuclease digestion of isolated nuclei releases apparent monomer superbeads that are composed of nucleohistone particles with the properties of nucleosomes. The kinetics of digestion indicate that the superbead is a discrete structural unit containing, on the average, about eight nucleosomes. PMID:891350

  11. Fiber length distributions and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in Georgia on ~1 million acres by producers as a raw material input for textile mills. Georgia cotton fiber qualities continue to improve through crop management, genetic, and ginning improvements. Competition from synthetic fibers, mill modernization, and g...

  12. Tensile Properties of Cotton Polyethylene Blends: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton historically has been the fiber of choice for many textile applications, especially those for apparel and household fabrics. However, cotton is a relatively weak fiber when compared to today’s most commonly used synthetic fibers, such as polyester and nylon. Consequently, beneficial blending...

  13. Breeding potential of introgressions into cotton: genetic effects and heterosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As new technology in the textile industry demands higher quality fibers, improving cotton fiber quality has become increasingly important. Twelve cotton lines selected from different breeding programs with diverse fiber characteristics were used for this study. These lines and their F2 hybrids were ...

  14. Effect of an upper temperature threshold on heat unit calculations, defoliation timing, lint yield, and fiber quality in cotton 

    E-print Network

    Fromme, Daniel D.

    2009-05-15

    probability of rainfall, and thus, reduces lint yield and fiber quality. Premature defoliation, however, has detrimental affects on lint yield and fiber quality. A more recent method to determine defoliation is based on heat-unit (HU or DD15) accumulation...

  15. CHARACTERIZAION OF G. HIRSUTUM WILD AND VARIETY ACCESSIONS FROM UZBEK COTTON GERMPLASM COLLECTION FOR MORPHOLOGICAL AND FIBER QUALITY TRAITS AND DATABASE DEVELOPEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uzbek cotton germplasm is one of the largest cotton collections worldwide, and that vast collection is “unknown” to the world research community. The main goal of this project was to select G. hirsutum ‘exotic’ and variety accessions from Uzbekistan cotton germplasm collection, evaluate them for ag...

  16. Early Cottons

    E-print Network

    Bennett, R. L. (Robert Love)

    1904-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN No. 75 COTTON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND THE TEXAS EXPERIMENT STATION EARLY COTTONS POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS... ........................... F. R. MARSHALL. .Animal Husbandry EDWARD C. GREEN, B. S.. ................. .Assistant Horticultt~rist .................................. G. S. FRAPS. .Associate Chemist R. L. BENNETT. ................................ .Cotton Specialist 0. M...

  17. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  18. Nano Res (2010) 3: 452458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Nano Res (2010) 3: 452­458452 Aqueous Supercapacitors on Conductive Cotton Mauro Pasta1,2 , Fabio the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network

  19. Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

  20. Toward identification of complete set of aquaporin gene family in cotton - A possible way to improve cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the most important natural-fiber producing crop and is a significant global agricultural commodity. Because of the significance of water to the quantity and quality of cotton production, efforts to decrease the amount of water applied and improve cotton water use efficiency are being exten...

  1. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  2. Spindle speed optimization for cotton pickers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes to cotton pickers over the years regarding the operating speed and size of the spindles have resulted in a general decrease in cotton fiber quality, particularly regarding spindle twists, preparation, and neps. Previous research showed that spindle speeds of 3000 and 4000 rpm had more detri...

  3. AN ALTERNATIVE MINIATURE COTTON SPINNING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinus van der Sluijs; Robert Long; Stuart Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Australian cotton is well known for its high and consistent quality, although agronomy, physiology and breeding research continues to ensure Australian cotton stays competitive from a quality standpoint. The testing of fiber in yarn and fabric form means the selection of new cultivars and field treatments is based on outcomes important to the end user. Such field experimentation inevitably produces

  4. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA 887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber quali...

  5. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800 nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  6. Development of Innovative Cotton-Surfaced Nonwoven Laminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Zhang; Larry C. Wadsworth; Mac McLean

    2002-01-01

    Cotton-based nonwovens have been developed at Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), The University of Tennessee, with the cotton fibers on the surface or in the core layer laminated with meltblown (MB) and\\/or spunbonded (SB) webs. Both Cotton-Surfaced Nonwovens (CSN) and Cotton-Core Nonwovens (CCN) have excellent soft hand, breathability, absorbency, and tensile properties making them ideal for many medical applications

  7. Fiber Chemistry Effects on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dyeing efficiency of cotton knits was investigated as a function both of metal contents native to the cotton fiber as well as the presence of sugar-protein reaction products which contribute to +b. Results indicate that aged cotton fiber exhibits both a higher +b value and a tendency to incorpor...

  8. Cotton. In: Kole, C. (Ed.) Genome Mapping & Molecular Breeding. Vol. 6: Technical Crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important renewable natural textile fiber worldwide and the world’s sixth largest source of vegetable oil is cotton. After losing some ground to synthetic fibers in the past, the demand for cotton has been steadily growing. The cotton growers who survive through the next decade will be thos...

  9. crop science, vol. 51, septemberoctober 2011 Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton (Gossypium

    E-print Network

    Chee, Peng W.

    crop science, vol. 51, september­october 2011 ReseaRch Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton by a fundamental shift in the cotton fiber market from a primarily domestically con- sumed product to one in which nearly two-thirds of the U.S. cot- ton is now exported. Since the international cotton fiber market

  10. [beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-04-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (I. Identification of [beta]-1,4- and [beta]-1,3-Glucans Synthesized in Vitro).

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, K.; Li, L.; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg2+, Ca2+, cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose II. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase I. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. PMID:12231764

  12. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  13. Saved-Ends Analysis of Fiber Breakage in Cotton Processing by use of Number-Based Averages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of USDA’s existing research data on fiber processing include mean values of length-distribution parameters, but not complete length histogram data. A specific goal of this work was to derive mathematically and demonstrate experimentally in the laboratory new engineering research tools that uti...

  14. Improvement of Work-to-Break Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fibers and Yarn through Breeding and Selection for Improved Fiber Elongation

    E-print Network

    Osorio Marin, Juliana 1982-

    2012-11-12

    measurements to ‘FM 958’; a High Plains standard cultivar with good fiber quality but reduced elongation. Samples in every generation were ginned on a laboratory saw gin, and the lint was tested on HVI (High Volume Instrument). The F2 and F3 generations showed...

  15. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  16. Enzymatic polishing of jute\\/cotton blended fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan K. Sreenath; Arun B. Shah; Vina W. Yang; Mahendra M. Gharia; Thomas W. Jeffries

    1996-01-01

    Jute is a strong, stiff, natural fiber. When blended with cotton it makes a sturdy but prickly fabric due to protruding surface jute fibers. Samples of jute-cotton blended fabric were treated with commercial cellulases, xylanases and pectinases individually and in combination at various concentrations in order to smooth and soften the fabric. Enzyme treatment was carried out at 50°C in

  17. Investigation of fiber maturity effect on saw-type lint cleaner fiber damage and yarn properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-half of plots of two cotton cultivars with similar mature fiber length were harvested after two defoliation treatments (early/late) to get less and more mature cottons. These seed cotton lots were ginned with the same seed cotton cleaning but with 0, 1, or 3 saw-type lint cleaners with low dryi...

  18. The anatomy of Meyer's loop revisited: changing the anatomical paradigm of the temporal loop based on evidence from fiber microdissection.

    PubMed

    Goga, Cristina; Türe, U?ur

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The goal in this study was to explore and further refine comprehension of the anatomical features of the temporal loop, known as Meyer's loop. METHODS The lateral and inferior aspects of 20 previously frozen, formalin-fixed human brains were dissected under the operating microscope by using fiber microdissection. RESULTS A loop of the fibers in the anterior temporal region was clearly demonstrated in all dissections. This temporal loop, or Meyer's loop, is commonly known as the anterior portion of the optic radiation. Fiber microdissection in this study, however, revealed that various projection fibers that emerge from the sublentiform portion of the internal capsule (IC-SL), which are the temporopontine fibers, occipitopontine fibers, and the posterior thalamic peduncle (which includes the optic radiation), participate in this temporal loop and become a part of the sagittal stratum. No individual optic radiation fibers could be differentiated in the temporal loop. The dissections also disclosed that the anterior extension and angulation of the temporal loop vary significantly. CONCLUSIONS The fiber microdissection technique provides clear evidence that a loop in the anterior temporal region exists, but that this temporal loop is not formed exclusively by the optic radiation. Various projection fibers of the IC-SL, of which the optic radiation is only one of the several components, display this common course. The inherent limitations of the fiber dissection technique preclude accurate differentiation among individual fibers of the temporal loop, such as the optic radiation fibers. PMID:25635481

  19. A Comparative Study on the Dyeability of Stabraq (Milkweed) Fibers with Reactive Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Bahreini; A. Kiumarsi

    n this work, raw fibers of a local species of stabraq (milkweed) were scoured, bleached and blended with cotton fibers with a ratio of 75\\/25 (cotton\\/stabraq). The improved stabraq fibers, scoured and bleached cotton and the blended fibers were spun into fine yarns and then they were subjected to dyeing with two types of reactive dyes namely, cold brand and

  20. Enrichment of chromosome 17 specific molecular markers of Pima cotton substituted in Upland cotton lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the primary source of non-synthetic textile fiber, as well as an important source of food, feed, fuel and other products. In the USA cotton is a major crop in 13 states and grown in 17 states on about 5 million hectares, more than all crops except maize, wheat or soybean, with a return of...

  1. The impact of the removal of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement on textile and cotton trade of the United States and China

    E-print Network

    Xia, Yan

    2006-04-12

    an equilibrium displacement model to investigate the impact on textile and cotton sectors of different countries and country-groups of removing the MFA quota. The model specifies the basic linkages of textile and cotton markets in the United States, China...

  2. In vitro hemostatic, hydrogen peroxide production and elastase sequestration properties of nonwoven ultra clean greige cotton dressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  3. A Transcript Profiling Approach Reveals an Abscisic Acid-Specific Glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) Induced in Developing Fiber of Ligon lintless-2 Mutant of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Matthew K.; Bland, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Cao, Heping; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Fang, David D.; Naoumkina, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed in developing fibers of the mutant Ligon lintless-2 was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence showed ~53% similarity with Arabidopsis UGT73C sub-family members and the UDP-glycosyltransferase was designated as UGT73C14. When expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein with a maltose binding protein tag, UGT73C14 displayed enzymatic activity toward ABA and utilized UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose as the sugar donors. The recombinant UGT73C14 converted natural occurring isoform (+)-cis, trans-ABA better than (+)-trans, trans-ABA and (-)-cis, trans-ABA. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing UGT73C14 did not show phenotypic changes under standard growth conditions. However, the increased glycosylation of ABA resulted in phenotypic changes in post-germinative growth and seedling establishment, confirming in vivo activity of UGT73C14 for ABA. This suggests that the expression level of UGT73C14 is regulated by the observed elevated levels of ABA in developing fibers of the Li2 mutant line and may be involved in the regulation of ABA homeostasis. PMID:24086489

  4. Cotton flow

    E-print Network

    Ali Ulas Ozgur Kisisel; Ozgur Sarioglu; Bayram Tekin

    2008-06-17

    Using the conformally invariant Cotton tensor, we define a geometric flow, the "Cotton flow", which is exclusive to three dimensions. This flow tends to evolve the initial metrics into conformally flat ones, and is somewhat orthogonal to the Yamabe flow, the latter being a flow within a conformal class. We define an entropy functional, and study the flow of nine homogeneous spaces both numerically and analytically. In particular, we show that the arbitrarily deformed homogeneous 3-sphere flows into the round 3-sphere. Two of the nine homogeneous geometries, which are degenerated by the Ricci flow, are left intact by the Cotton flow.

  5. FIAS, A NEW METHOD OF FIBER MATURITY MEASUREMENT, IS IT A GOOD INDICATOR OF WHITE SPECK NEPS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  6. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications. PMID:24471981

  7. Construction of a comprehensive PCR-based marker linkage map and QTL mapping for fiber quality traits in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng-Sheng Zhang; Mei-Chun Hu; Jian Zhang; Da-Jun Liu; Jing Zheng; Ke Zhang; Wei Wang; Qun Wan

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate marker assisted selection, there is an urgent need to construct a saturated genetic map of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Four types of markers including SSR, SRAP, morphological marker, and intron targeted intron–exon splice junction (IT-ISJ)\\u000a marker were used to construct a linkage map with 270 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines derived from an upland cotton cross (T586 × Yumian 1).

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis between somatic embryos (SEs) and zygotic embryos in cotton: evidence for stress response functions in SE development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fangyan; Hu, Lisong; Yuan, Daojun; Xu, Jiao; Gao, Wenhui; He, Liangrong; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-02-01

    As a product of asexual reproduction in plants, the somatic embryo (SE) differentiates into a new plantlet via a zygotic embryogenesis-like process. Here, we present the phenotypic and cellular differences between SEs and zygotic embryos (ZEs) revealed by histological section scanning using three parallel development stages of the two types of embryos of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. YZ1), including globular, torpedo and cotyledonary-stages. To identify the molecular characteristics of SE development in cotton, the digital gene expression system was used to profile the genes active during SE and ZE development. A total of 4242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in at least one developmental stage. Expression pattern and functional classification analysis based on these DEGs reveals that SE development exhibits a transcriptional activation of stress responses. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed enhanced expression levels of stress-related genes in SEs than in ZEs. Experimental stress treatment, induced by NaCl and ABA, accelerated SE development and increased the transcription of genes related to stress response, in parallel with decelerated proliferation of embryogenic calluses under stress treatment. Our data reveal that SE development involves the activation of stress responses, which we suggest may regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of SE development and suggest strategies that can be used for regulating the developmental processes of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24112122

  9. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  10. Dynamic mechanical, thermal, and morphological study of ABS\\/textile fiber composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny N. MartinsTobias; Tobias G. Klohn; Otavio Bianchi; Rudinei Fiorio; Estevão Freire

    2010-01-01

    In this work, acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene ABS terpolymer was mixed with acrylic fiber, cotton fiber, and waste textile\\u000a fiber (WTF) (50\\/50 wt% cotton\\/acrylic fiber) with 10 and 30 wt% of fiber content in a batch mixer. The composites with 30 wt%\\u000a of acrylic fiber showed the highest stabilized torque, while the compositions with 30 wt% of cotton were situated at the lowest\\u000a values in torque rheometry.

  11. Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

  12. Comparison of Different Methods of Harvesting Cotton

    E-print Network

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1946-01-01

    on the rougher methods of harvesting cotton, such as hand-snapping and machine harvesting both with the picker type and the stripper type mechanical harvesters. This n-as largely because the lint from the roughly harvested cottons contained more foreign...-snapped, machine-piclied and ma- chine-stripped. Each of the four methods was used in harvesting four rarieties of cotton which were selected because of their widely diflFering fiber properties. Tests conducted during 1943, 1944 and 1945 at both College Station...

  13. Comparison of Different Methods of Harvesting Cotton.

    E-print Network

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1946-01-01

    on the rougher methods of harvesting cotton, such as hand-snapping and machine harvesting both with the picker type and the stripper type mechanical harvesters. This n-as largely because the lint from the roughly harvested cottons contained more foreign...-snapped, machine-piclied and ma- chine-stripped. Each of the four methods was used in harvesting four rarieties of cotton which were selected because of their widely diflFering fiber properties. Tests conducted during 1943, 1944 and 1945 at both College Station...

  14. Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton bre...

  15. SEED COTTON MOISTURE CONDITIONING USING AN ATOMIZING NOZZLE IN THE CONVEYER-DISTRIBUTOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is often drier than optimum for ginning when it arrives at the gin plant and ginning with the lint too dry results in lower fiber quality. In this study a total of 78 bales of cotton were ginned with various moisture treatments, including spraying water on seed cotton before the gin sta...

  16. Chromosome substituution lines: Concept, development and utilization in the genetic improvement of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New alleles useful for agronomic and fiber quality must be discovered and bred into Upland cotton germplasm to remain competitive in the world economy of cotton production. Two of the primary challenges to genetic improvement of cotton are: 1) insufficient information about complex agronomic and fi...

  17. Research Directions in Cotton Structure and Quality Research at the USDA, Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton and Structure (CSQ) Research Unit is a core cotton research unit at the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). The mission of the CSQ is to develop and improve the methods for assessing quality and structural attributes of cotton fiber through all stages of production and processing. S...

  18. Fiber

    MedlinePLUS

    ... broccoli, spinach, and artichokes legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.) almonds Look for the fiber content of ... salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Add lentils or whole-grain barley to your favorite soups. ...

  19. Cotton Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B.

    1959-01-01

    ............................. Spider Mites 3C Other Injurious Cotton Insects ............ 30 Cotton Insect Control Program ............ 3C . Cotton Diseases ............................. 32 ........................... Fusarium Wilt 32 Vericillium Wilt ......................... 33... destructive cotton insects in Texas. Fusarium wilt, verticillium wilt, root eeclling disease, nematodes, bacterial blight, boll rots and fungus leaf spots are the major cotton diseases exas. Methods of controlling these insects and diseases are given...

  20. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

  1. FORMATION OF NEPS IN PIMA COTTON DURING MECHANICAL HARVESTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neps are a major concern as American Pima cotton competes with other extra-long staple (ELS) cotton at the textile mills. A nep is defined as a tight knot-like mass of unorganized fibers. Research has showed that 27% of the total increase in nep counts from the boll to the bale press occurs during...

  2. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source of textile manufacturers. In the U.S., upland cotton is produced along the southern most portion of the country in sixteen states from California to Virginia. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cott...

  3. Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

  4. Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead for Cotton Genome Mapping.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of genetic linkage mapping is to discover genes for improving trait performance. The process of manipulating the cotton genome is complex because the cotton fibers (lint) used in textiles are derived from the seed trichomes (hairs) of four Gossypium species. In just over a decade, our under...

  5. Registration of Four Pima Cotton Germplasm Lines Having Good Levels of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance with Moderate Yields and Good Fibers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Pima (Gossypium barbadense L.) cotton germplasm lines, SJ-07P-FR01 (PI 654065), SJ-07P-FR02 (PI 654066), SJ-07P-FR03 (PI 654067), and SJ-07P-FR04 (PI 654068), were developed by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and New Mexico State University Agricultur...

  6. Registration of MD25-26ne, MD25-27, and MD25-87 germplasm lines of cotton with superior yield, fiber quality, and pest resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three non-commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines which were released by the USDA-ARS are MD25-26ne (PI 666042), MD25-27 (PI 666043), and MD25-87 (PI 666044). The three lines are reselections out of MD25 (Reg. No GP-929; PI 659505). The objective of this research was to select lines that h...

  7. Evaluating Cotton Seed Quality

    E-print Network

    Boman, Randy

    2005-10-05

    High-quality cotton seed is critical for establishing good stands. Over the last several years, producers have scrutinized costs and benefits of numerous new cotton varieties. With the increase in cost of most current cotton varieties and the use...

  8. Evaluating Cotton Seed Quality 

    E-print Network

    Boman, Randy

    2005-10-05

    High-quality cotton seed is critical for establishing good stands. Over the last several years, producers have scrutinized costs and benefits of numerous new cotton varieties. With the increase in cost of most current cotton varieties and the use...

  9. The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations 

    E-print Network

    Basal, Huseyin

    1996-01-01

    was positively correlated with fiber uniformity index, strength, LP, S/B, L/S, and L/SA, and negatively associated with length, F/S and F/SA. Fiber length was positively associated with fiber uniformity index, strength, SA/S, L/S, and negatively associated...

  10. Hyperbranched polymer functional cotton fabric for its in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Desuo; Jiao, Chenlu; Xiong, Jiaqing; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yuyue

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a strategy of fabricating silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) finished cotton fabric through in situ synthesis method. In order to endow the cotton fabric with the capability of in situ synthesis of Ag NPs without any other reagents, an amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) was employed to functionalize the cotton fabric. To this end, cotton fabric was oxidized to generate aldehyde groups and then HBP-NH2 was grafted on the oxidized cotton fabric based on the reaction between amino groups and aldehyde groups. Due to numerous imino and amino groups in the polymer and its special three-dimensional structure, the functional cotton fabric could take initiative to capture and reduce silver ions, control the formation of Ag NPs and fix them on the cotton fabric. The sizes of Ag NPs in situ synthesized on cotton fibers range from 4 to 10 nm. The prepared Ag NPs finished cotton fabric has excellent laundering durability.

  11. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation 

    E-print Network

    Ng, Eng Hwa

    2013-05-29

    ............................................................................................................ 15 Environment ..................................................................................................... 17 Heritability ....................................................................................................... 18... ................................................................. 53 Statistical analysis ............................................................................................ 54 Generation means analysis ................................................................... 54 Variance and heritability...

  12. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

  13. Fiber damage related to maturity and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted over three years where two cultivars of cotton were grown with half defoliated early and half late to get two fiber maturities. This cotton was ginned with four ginning treatments and then spun into yarn. Fiber properties were measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Ad...

  14. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  15. INHERITANCE AND VARIABILITY OF SOME AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN GENETICALLY REMOTE HYBRIDIZATION OF COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop in Uzbekistan. But, most of commercial varieties have a narrow genetic base. The objective of our research is to develop cotton breeding lines with a high percentage of (+)-gossypol in seeds for feed for non ruminant animals, and with good fiber quality and ...

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers.

    PubMed

    Strassman, A M; Raymond, S A

    1999-02-01

    A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 evidence that a TTX-resistant channel subtype is expressed in the terminal axonal branches of many of the more slowly conducting (C and slow A-delta) dural afferents. The channel appears to be present in these fibers, but not in the faster A-delta fibers, in sufficient numbers to support the initiation and propagation of mechanically induced impulses. Comparison with previous data on the absence of TTX resistance in peripheral nerve fibers suggests that the TTX-resistant sodium channel may be a distinctive feature of the receptive rather than the conductive portion of the sensory neuron's axonal membrane. PMID:10036248

  17. Early Cottons 

    E-print Network

    Bennett, R. L. (Robert Love)

    1904-01-01

    at College on sandy loam land, at Waxahachie on high black waxy land, at San Angelo on sandy loam, there was some difference in yield and extent of growth of the different cottons. At College on sandy loam soil and weevils present, all varieties and seeds... stopped all fruiting, which was about July 20. Treatment Yield 1st Picking Aug. 22.1901 100 pounds acid phosphate. ........... GOO ........... 200 pounds acid phosphate 680 500 pounds acid phosphate. ........... 770 No fertilizer...

  18. Evidence of Functional Mossy Fiber Sprouting in Hippocampal Formation of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. TAUCK; J. VICTOR NADLERS

    In the rat hippocampal formation, degeneration of CA4- derived afferent fibers provokes the growth of mossy fiber collaterals into the fascia dentata. These aberrant fibers subsequently form granule cell-granule cell synapses. The hippocampal slice preparation was employed to determine whether these recurrent connections are electrophysiologi- tally functional. Hippocampal slices were prepared 12 to 21 days after the bilateral destruction of

  19. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  20. Cotton Marker Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address the lack of available molecular markers for cotton, Cotton Incorporated has spearheaded an initiative to create the Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD), and several groups are actively involved in projects to generate, screen and map cotton molecular markers. CMD is a centralized databas...

  1. Seed Cotton Handling & Storage

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Seed Cotton Handling & Storage #12;S.W. Searcy Texas A&M University College Station, Texas M) Lubbock, Texas E.M. Barnes Cotton Incorporated Cary, North Carolina Acknowledgements: Special thanks for the production of this document has been provided by Cotton Incorporated, America's Cotton Producers

  2. CURRENT and FUTURE DIRECTIONS in COTTON STRUCTURE and QUALITY RESEARCH at the USDA SOUTHERN REGIONAL RESEARCH CENTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton and Structure (CSQ) Research Unit is one of 3 core cotton research units at the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). The mission of the CSQ is to develop and improve the methods for assessing quality and structural attributes of cotton fiber through all stages of production and proc...

  3. Trash Particle Attachment to Fiber and the Effects of Various Machine-Fiber Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  4. Relating Fiber Quality to Yarn Quality Utilizing Data from Multiple Years.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year collaborative effort was undertaken at both the Cotton Quality Research Station and the Southern Regional Research Center to assess leading cotton varieties. The two locations independently measured fiber properties for the same cottons for five years. The fiber from each year was proc...

  5. The association of fiber quality parameters and lint yield components of the F3 derived F4 progeny of two upland cotton populations

    E-print Network

    Basal, Huseyin

    1996-01-01

    : seed surface area (SA/S), lint percentage (LP), seeds per boll (S/13), lint weight per seed (L/S), fibers per seed (F/S), lint weight per unit seed surface area (L/SA), and fibers per unit seed surface area (F/SA). In population 1: micronaire...

  6. Producing Quality Cotton by Conventional Breeding, Marker Assisted Selection, and Transgenic Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lloyd May

    1999-01-01

    New cotton seeds capable of producing fiber with the properties needed by yarn and textile industries in the process of technological advance are needed to maintain market share for Nature's renewable fiber resource. Conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, and transgenic technologies are possible strategies to achieve improved fiber properties. Breeding has a documented record of improving fiber length and strength to

  7. The impact of the removal of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement on textile and cotton trade of the United States and China 

    E-print Network

    Xia, Yan

    2006-04-12

    Textiles and apparel trade has been governed by the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) for three decades. Trade restrictions have generated substantial welfare losses and price wedges in exporting and importing countries through trade distortions...

  8. Molecular dissection of phenotypic variation between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: III. Fiber length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng W. Chee; Xavier Draye; Chun-Xiao Jiang; Laura Decanini; Terrie A. Delmonte; Robert Bredhauer; C. Wayne Smith; Andrew H. Paterson

    2005-01-01

    A backcross-self population from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense was used to dissect the molecular basis of genetic variation governing 15 parameters that reflect fiber length. Applying a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map to 3,662 BC3F2 plants from 24 independently derived BC3 families, we detected 28, nine, and eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber

  9. Comparisons of cotton maturity and fineness measurements (Cottonscope, AFIS, HVI™)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cottonscope, a new instrument for fiber maturity (MR) and fineness, utilizes polarized light microscopy and image analysis to measure longitudinal, weighted fiber snippets in water. Interest has been expressed by the Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton (CSITC) on the pote...

  10. IN THIS ISSUE Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    AGRONOMY NOTES July, 2004 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Excessive Cotton Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Management Influence on Hardlock Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Wet Conditions and Nitrogen Applications on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  11. Ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence for single impulse initiation zones in vestibular macular nerve fibers of rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Chee, Oliver; Black, Samuel; Cutler, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Cupric ion-ferricyanide labeling methods and related ferrocyanide-stained tissues were used to locate the characterize, at the ultrastructural level, presumptive impulse initiation zones in the three types of vestibular macular nerve fibers. Large-diameter, M-type vestibular nerve fibers terminate in a calyx at the heminode, and labeling is coextensive with the base of the calyx. Intermediate, M/U-type nerve fibers have short, unmyelinated preterminal segments that sometimes bifurcate intamacularly, and small-diameter, U-type nerve fibers have long, unmyelinated preterminal axons and up to three branches. Preterminals of these nerve fibers display ultrastructural heterogeneity that is correlated with labeling patterns for sodium channels and/or associated polyanionic sites. They have a nodelike ultrastructure and label heavily from near the heminode to the base of the macula. Their intramacular branches, less organized ultrastructurally, label only slightly. Results indicate that vestibular nerve fibers have one impulse initiation zone, located near the heminode, that varies in length according to nerve fiber type. Structural heterogeneity may favor impulse conduction in the central direction, and length of the impulse initiation zone could influence nerve discharge patterns.

  12. Weakest link in the Textile Chain. Pakistani Cotton Pickers' bitter Harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Astrid Siegmann; Nazima Shaheen

    2008-01-01

    A million tonnes of cotton are hand-picked by women and girls every year in Pakistan’s\\u000a‘cotton belt’. Despite their evident contribution to the economy, the pickers’ fates\\u000aremain invisible in the daily headlines on cotton production as well as in academic\\u000aresearch. The present article tries to address this blind spot while focussing on the\\u000aworking conditions of Pakistani cotton

  13. Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of 1/f frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Scott; Tikhomirov, Alexei [Maritime Operations Division, Defence Science and Technology Organization, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Cranch, Geoffrey A. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We present experimental evidence in support of the recent theoretical proposal that intrinsic 1/f frequency noise in short cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers is of thermal origin. We demonstrate that the power spectral density of frequency noise in distributed-feedback fiber lasers (DFB FL) exhibits predicted T{sup 2} temperature dependence across all frequencies over a temperature range of almost 200 K. This temperature dependence is observed both in direct interferometric measurements of frequency noise in a single mode DFB FL and noninterferometric measurements of polarization-beat-frequency noise in a dual frequency DFB FL. It is also shown that frequency noise of orthogonal polarization modes in the dual frequency DFB FL is substantially correlated providing a strong indication of a common origin.

  14. Evidence that large myelinated primary afferent fibers make synaptic contacts in lamina II of neonatal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Coggeshall; Ernest A. Jennings; Maria Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Choleragenoid horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP) is a retrogradely transported marker that selectively labels large cutaneous myelinated primary afferent fibers. In adults, B-HRP labelled large afferent fibers are seen to enter laminae III–V, and to a lesser extent lamina I, whereas lamina II, which is the major termination site of unmyelinated primary afferents, remains unlabelled. In the neonate, however, there is extensive

  15. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  16. Cotton Production in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B.

    1959-01-01

    -staple Open Boll 8 Type 7 . American-Egyptian ............ 9 .............. Varietal Types and Acreages 9 .............. . Cotton Variety Tests in Texas 9 ......................... Cotton-growing Areas 10 .................... East Texas Timberlands 10... ............................. Lubbock 22 ............................. Weslaco 25 ....................... College Station 26 .......................... Trans-Pecos 26 ............................... Cotton Insects 28 Thrips .................................. 28...

  17. TRASH IDENTIFICATION IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All cotton contains trash, dust, and other impurities. One cotton bale contains unidentified levels of trash and dust particles. Cotton contamination including large trash and small pepper trash is commonly referred to as visible foreign matter (VFM). Ultimately, textile processing is influenced b...

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Laboratory Fiber Moisture Measurement Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the global marketplace, the accurate and precise measurement of cotton fiber moisture is becoming more important. Moisture is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber, and several moisture measurement techniques and commercial instruments are readily available, but how well do they...

  19. A new approach for image processing in foreign fiber detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenzhu Yang; Daoliang Li; Liang Zhu; Yuguo Kang; Futang Li

    2009-01-01

    In the textile industry, different types of foreign fibers may be mixed in cotton that need to be sorted out to ensure the quality of the final cotton textile products. Automated visual inspection (AVI) system is a popular tool at present for real time foreign fibers detection in lint. The image processing is one of the key techniques in the

  20. METHOD FOR DETERMINING BROKEN FIBER IN RING SPUN YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project developed out of a more general study in which fiber breakage in cotton was tracked through various processes in yarn production in order to survey the Broken Fiber Content (BFC) in cotton at various stages of production and utilization. The specific task reported here was a student su...

  1. Fusarium   verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg Associated with Hardlock of Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratibha SrivastavaD; D. J. Mailhot; B. Leite; J. J. Marois; D. L. Wright; R. L. Nichols

    2010-01-01

    Boll rots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are common in the humid areas of the Southeastern US. One type of boll damage that may be differentiated from others\\u000a is hardlock, with symptoms that include compression of the fibers within individual locules of mature, open cotton bolls without\\u000a further obvious disintegration of the lint or damage to the carpel wall. The principal

  2. Biomimetic superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W

    2007-12-18

    We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939

  3. Optical depolarization changes in single, skinned muscle fibers. Evidence for cross-bridge involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, R J; Yeh, Y; Burton, K; Chen, J S; Jones, M

    1986-01-01

    Optical ellipsometry studies of single, skinned muscle fibers conducted on the diffraction orders have yielded spectra that are sensitive to the state of the fiber. The linearly polarized light field vector becomes elliptically polarized as it passes through the fiber and may be collected at the diffraction orders. Fibers that have been subjected to extraction of myosin (0.6 M KCl) retain a weak diffraction pattern and exhibit a substantially decreased depolarization of incident linearly polarized light. A significant decrease in polarization is seen in skinned fibers that are subject to an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.0. This increase in pH results in a decrease of approximately 30% in the depolarization angle of single fibers. The major decrease in depolarization angle that we observe at pH 8.0 is consistent with the notion that as cross-bridges move out from the shaft of the thick filament, their ability to cause depolarization of the incident linearly polarized light decreases. This interpretation is also consistent with the work of Ueno and Harrington where the decrease in the ability to cross-link S-1 and S-2 to the thick filament at pH 8.2 suggests cross-bridge movement away from the thick filament. A large decrease in birefringence, seen after treatment of skinned fibers with alpha-chymotrypsin, appears to be related to the breakdown of myosin into rod, S-1, heavy meromyosin, and light meromyosin. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:3488081

  4. Plasma-Aided Cotton Bioscouring: Dielectric Barrier Discharge Versus Low-Pressure Oxygen Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wang; Xue-Rong Fan; Li Cui; Ping Wang; Jing Wu; Jian Chen

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobic cuticle of the cotton fiber has formed a natural barrier for pectinase to catalyze its substrates (pectins\\u000a beneath the cuticle), thus resulting in an insufficient scouring for cotton. Two plasma-based treatments, dielectric barrier\\u000a discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure and cold oxygen plasma at low pressure in a vacuum system, were used as the pretreatments\\u000a prior to cotton bioscouring,

  5. Cotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    Cotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Coordinator consultants and other personnel associated with cotton production. The Cotton Foundation provided funds their respective areas. Table 1 Alabama Cotton Insect Losses for 1983 Loss attributable to: Percent Bales Boll

  6. Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity: An example of single-use articles tailored to self-sterilize

    E-print Network

    Taralp, Alpay

    Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity envisaged in which single-use cotton gauze could be chemically tailored to display anti-microbial activity as AEM 5700, into the cotton matrix and polymerizing the monomers about the fibers. In a second approach

  7. Ultrastructural evidence for nerve fibers within all vital layers of the human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Wang, L; Johansson, O

    1995-01-01

    To prove the existence of human intraepidermal nerve fibers at the electron microscopic level, we used both conventional and immunohistochemical ultrastructural techniques. Specimens were obtained from skin of the back, one of the most densely innervated areas of the human epidermis. The immunohistochemical marker protein gene product 9.5 was chosen because it is highly potent in labeling nerves. Thin nerve fibers were found in the basal, spinous, and granular layers of the epidermis with both techniques used, although it was more difficult to identify the nervous structures with the conventional method. The nerves appeared in the intercellular spaces and contacted keratinocyte cell bodies or cilia by membrane-membrane apposition, but without any specialized structures. Nerve fibers in the very superficial part of the vital human epidermis have not been described before at the ultrastructural level. PMID:7798631

  8. Molecular dissection of interspecific variation between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense (cotton) by a backcross-self approach: II. Fiber fineness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Draye; Peng Chee; Chun-Xiao Jiang; Laura Decanini; Terrye A. Delmonte; Robert Bredhauer; C. Wayne Smith; Andrew H. Paterson

    2005-01-01

    A backcross-self population from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense was used to dissect the molecular basis of genetic variation governing two parameters reflecting lint fiber fineness and to compare the precision of these two measurements. By applying a detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map to 3,662 BC3F2 plants from 24 independently derived BC3 families, we were

  9. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. PMID:23987402

  10. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  11. Miniature Spinning Enzyme-Retted Flax Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

  12. Polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in Gossypium (cotton)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUN-XIAO JIANG; ROBERT J. WRIGHT; K AMAL M. EL-ZIK; ANDREW H. PATERSON

    1998-01-01

    A detailed restriction fragment length poly- morphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) segregating in a cross between cultivars of al- lotetraploid (AADD) Gossypium hirsutum (''Upland'' cotton) and Gossypium barbadense (''Sea Island,'' ''Pima,'' or ''Egyp- tian'' cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. Most

  13. Losses in Yield, Quality, and Profitability of Cotton from Improper Harvest Timing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig W. Bednarz; W. Don Shurley; W. Stanley Anthony

    2002-01-01

    torical records from these regions indicate they gener- ally do not meet the in-house standards. Thus, if cotton Excessive weathering may diminish cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produced in the USA is to remain competitive on a global lint yield and fiber quality to the extent that economic losses occur for the producer. Our objective was to determine the effects of

  14. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov; Zabardast T Buriev; Carla Jo Logan-Young; Abdusattor Abdukarimov; Alan E Pepper

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytochromes are a family of red\\/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp.), including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii) or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) cotton species. The objective of this study

  15. Exploring biosensor applications with cotton cellulose nanocrystalline protein and peptide conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor I: Nano-crystalline preparations were produced through acid hydrolysis and mechanical breakage of the cotton fibers from a scoured and bleached cotton fabric and a scoured and bleached, mercerized fabric, which was shown to produce cellulose I (NCI) and cellulose II (NCII) crystals respective...

  16. Performance and combining ability in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations with diverse parents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving fiber quality properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is important for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing textiles, including enhancing yarn quality and spinning performance. This study was conducted to determine if we could identify useful cotton cultivars to use as parents ...

  17. Using the reactive dye method to covalently attach antibacterial compounds to cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial compounds used were sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. A version of the reactive dye method was used to react these two compounds chemically with the cotton fiber molecule. The two compounds were activated and then covalently bonded to cotton fabric, either separately or together...

  18. COTTON-POLYESTER FABRIC BLEND ANALYSIS BY NEAR INFRARED (NIR) SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near Infrared (NIR) techniques have been used extensively to measure key physical and chemical properties of textile materials and textile auxiliaries, including the fiber blending ratio in cotton-polyester (PET) blend fibers and yarns. Interest had grown in the measurement of the fiber blend conte...

  19. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    , and development of enhanced extractable Vmax SPS activ- ity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest Vmax SPSTransgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micro- naire and maturity ratio associated with greater thick

  20. Raw Cotton Requirements of Textile Mills: Implications for Southwestern Cotton.

    E-print Network

    Graves, James W. (James Wilson)

    1967-01-01

    in finding uses for its cotton. I Rnn~ Cotton [AMES W. GRAVES, Assistant Professor IItp.utment of Agricultural Economics and Sociology I Contents ion - 1c t .. - .. . 3 I !iluth\\vestern Cotton ....... I...

  1. X-ray evidence for a "super"-secondary structure in silk fibers.

    PubMed

    Valluzzi, Regina; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2004-01-01

    X-ray studies on degummed B. mori silk fibers and on hydrogels prepared under a variety of conditions reveal moderately small angle reflections. These reflections are often highly oriented and are correlated to silk II lattice reflections. A superstructure can explain these features. Silk fibroin hydrogels were monitored as they dried to form the silk II structure. The silk II wide angle and moderately small angle patterns obtained from dried hydrogels and silk fibers are identical. The "superstructure" reflections at moderately small angle (3-7 nm) were first to appear, followed by the "intersheet" spacing, and then the remainder of the silk II wide angle scattering pattern. Thus, any superstructure hypothesized for the hydrogels (and for Silk II in fibers) must be both stable in a highly hydrated environment and must convert to silk II with little large scale diffusion. A folded structure, similar to amyloids and cross-beta-sheets but with much longer beta-strand stems, is proposed for silk II in fibers. PMID:15132649

  2. Root Rot of Cotton or "Cotton Blight" 

    E-print Network

    Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

    1888-01-01

    bottom, but rather on " sec- ond bottom" and Post Oak lands where cotton "blighted." On the plantations of Rogers and Hill, at Allen Farm, I could not find a single stalk which in any way was affected with Root Rot, though some of the land had been..., cotton . dies year after year unless checked. The "dead spots" increase i~ size. When such plants as Sweet Potatoes, Grapes, Mulberry, Ap ple, China trees and Cow Peas follow diseased cotton they also dic in the same way, namely, a rotting...

  3. Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+Yb3+ fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Canat; Jean-Claude Mollier; Yves Jaouën; Bernard Dussardier

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55 µm double-clad erbium-ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1 µm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by

  4. Evidence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Martin; L. S. Downing; R. Nerenberg

    2009-01-01

    Bromate is a carcinogenic disinfection by-product formed from bromide during ozonation or advanced oxidation of drinking water. We previously observed bromate reduction in a hydrogen- based, denitrifying hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). In this research, we investigated the potential existence of specialized bromate-reducing bacteria. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), we compared the microbial ecology of two denitrifying MBfRs,

  5. Structural Evidence of Human Nuclear Fiber Compaction as a Function of Ageing and Cataractogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin J. Al-Ghoul; Rachel K. Nordgren; Adam J. Kuszak; Christopher D. Freel; M. Joseph Costello; Jer R. Kuszak

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify structural change associated with human nuclear fiber compaction as a function of ageing and nuclear cataract formation. Normal donor lenses in three age ranges, young (15–25 years), middle-aged (36–46 years) and aged (59–81 years) were compared to each other and to age-related nuclear cataracts (55–81 years) surgically removed by extracapsular extraction. Several structural modifications

  6. Nerve growth factor induces sensitization of nociceptors without evidence for increased intraepidermal nerve fiber density.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Michael; Rukwied, Roman; Gromann, Alois; Turnquist, Brian; Weinkauf, Benjamin; Francke, Klaus; Albrecht, Philip; Rice, Frank; Hägglöf, Björn; Ringkamp, Matthias; Engelhardt, Maren; Schultz, Christian; Schmelz, Martin; Obreja, Otilia

    2013-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in the long-term sensitization of nociceptive processing linked to chronic pain. Functional and structural ("sprouting") changes can contribute. Thus, humans report long-lasting hyperalgesia to mechanical and electrical stimulation after intradermal NGF injection and NGF-induced sprouting has been reported to underlie cancer bone pain and visceral pain. Using a human-like animal model we investigated the relationship between the structure and function of unmyelinated porcine nociceptors 3 weeks after intradermal NGF treatment. Axonal and sensory characteristics were studied by in vivo single-fiber electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry. C fibers recorded extracellularly were classified based on mechanical response and activity-dependent slowing (ADS) of conduction velocity. Intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) densities were assessed by immunohistochemistry in pigs and in human volunteers using the same NGF model. NGF increased conduction velocity and reduced ADS and propagation failure in mechano-insensitive nociceptors. The proportion of mechano-sensitive C nociceptors within NGF-treated skin areas increased from 45.1% (control) to 71% and their median mechanical thresholds decreased from 40 to 20 mN. After NGF application, the mechanical receptive fields of nociceptors increased from 25 to 43 mm(2). At the structural level, however, IENF density was not increased by NGF. In conclusion, intradermal NGF induces long-lasting axonal and mechanical sensitization in porcine C nociceptors that corresponds to hyperalgesia observed in humans. Sensitization is not accompanied by increased IENF density, suggesting that NGF-induced hyperalgesia might not depend on changes in nerve fiber density but could be linked to the recruitment of previously silent nociceptors. PMID:23891896

  7. Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary R.

    2011-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region, and such spectral distinctions formed the basis on which to develop simple three-band ratio algorithm for classification analysis. Next, an additional formula was created to assess the degree of cotton fiber maturity by converting the three-band ratios into an appropriate FT-IR maturity (MIR) index. Furthermore, the MIR index was compared with parameters derived from traditional image analysis (IA) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements. Results indicated strong correlations (R2 > 0.89) between MIR and MAFIS and between MIR and MIA among either International Cotton Calibration (ICC) standards or selected cotton maturity references. On the other hand, low correlations between the pairs were observed among regular cotton fibers, which likely resulted from the heterogeneous distribution of structural, physical, and chemical characteristics in cotton fibers and subsequent different sampling specimens for individual and independent measurement.

  8. Relationship of Fiber Properties to Vortex Yarn Quality via Partial Least Squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, recently completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in each of three major ...

  9. Relationship of fiber properties to vortex yarn quality via partial least squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, recently completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in each of three major ...

  10. Molecular Orientation in Dry and Hydrated Cellulose Fibers: A Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy Study

    E-print Network

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Molecular Orientation in Dry and Hydrated Cellulose Fibers: A Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering cellulose I in cotton fibers and regenerated cellulose II in rayon fibers. On the basis of the orientation to be conserved on the micrometer scale. Whereas the molecular orientation in cotton shows modest variability

  11. Features . . . Cover Crop Value to Cotton

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Features . . . Cotton Cover Crop Value to Cotton Cotton Price and Rotation 32:12 December 2008 #12;Cotton Price and Rotation Agronomy Notes Page 2 Cotton price has been low. Either peanut or soybean should be rotated with cotton, corn, or other grasses. However, with cotton

  12. Evidence of thermal effects in high power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser

    E-print Network

    Canat, Guillaume; Jaouen, Yves; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1364/OL.30.003030

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the influence of heat generation by non radiative transitions in high power 1.55$\\mu$m double cladding Erbium-Ytterbium fiber laser. At strong pumping rates, 1$\\mu$m lasing can start due to parasitic reflections. We present a model including heat generation and its effect on the Stark level population using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays then a significant role and improves the 1.5$\\mu$m laser efficiency by increasing the 1$\\mu$m threshold.

  13. Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Canat, Guillaume; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Jaouën, Yves; Dussardier, Bernard

    2005-11-15

    We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55 microm double-clad erbium-ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1 microm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays a significant role and improves the 1.5 microm laser's efficiency by increasing the 1 microm lasing threshold. PMID:16315711

  14. Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg associated with hardlock of cotton.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pratibha; Mailhot, D J; Leite, B; Marois, J J; Wright, D L; Nichols, R L

    2010-08-01

    Boll rots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are common in the humid areas of the Southeastern US. One type of boll damage that may be differentiated from others is hardlock, with symptoms that include compression of the fibers within individual locules of mature, open cotton bolls without further obvious disintegration of the lint or damage to the carpel wall. The principal economic effect is that the boll's lint is unharvestable by mechanical cotton pickers. This disease is endemic to the Southeast and can cause severe yield losses up to 70% in some fields. Scanning electron microscopy images of fibers from hardlocked bolls showed flattened and twisted tissue compared to fibers from healthy bolls. Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg was the fungus most commonly isolated from seeds of developing cotton bolls. Flowers inoculated with F. verticillioides on the day of bloom by spraying a spore suspension onto the flowers developed significantly (P < 0.05) more hardlock symptoms compared to untreated controls. The infection process was analyzed using a F. verticillioides isolate tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). When it was applied to cotton flowers on the day of bloom, the GFP-tagged F. verticillioides strain was detected in the stigma and style by 2 days after bloom (DAB) and in developing seeds at 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 20, 40, and 60 (open bolls) DAB. By 8 DAB, the GFP F. verticillioides was isolated from over 80% of developing seeds. PMID:20052584

  15. Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2. This is true for sweet potato whiteflies. These insects have been pests of cotton in California and Arizona

  16. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  17. Keeping Cotton Green

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

  18. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  19. Dallas Cotton Mills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Years before Huntsville, Alabama got its start in missiles and space, the community was known as the State's leading cotton producer. This is a historical photo of the Dallas Cotton Mills printed in 'The Huntsville Post' December 27, 1900. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  20. CottonDB Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, was developed under a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) project as part of a national program to develop plant genome databases for all agricultural commodities. This first and most extensively used database for ...

  1. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briana L Gross; Jared L Strasburg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article: http:\\/\\/www.biomedcentral.com\\/1741-7007\\/8\\/139

  2. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

  3. Silver nanowire-functionalized cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Mohammad R; Shateri-Khalilabad, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    In this study, general functionalization of cotton fabric by loading silver nanowires (AgNWs) on cotton surface is reported. Initially, AgNWs were synthesized by a polyol process and then were conformal coated onto individual cotton fibers through a simple "dip and dry" process. SEM images revealed a thin and uniform AgNWs coating on the cotton microfibers which was supported by a surface chemical analysis by EDX. The average electrical surface resistivity of the fabric coated with conductive network of AgNWs was measured to be 27.4 ?/sq. Incubating the modified fabric with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that the fabric had substantial antimicrobial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (100% microbial death). The fabric also showed excellent UV-blocking ability with the UV protection factor of 113.14. The fluorosilane coated AgNWs-loaded fabric displayed stable superhydrophobicity with CA and SHA values of 156.2°±3.2° and 7°, respectively. PMID:25498621

  4. Genome sequence of the cultivated cotton Gossypium arboreum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most economically important natural fiber crops in the world, and the complex tetraploid nature of its genome (AADD, 2n = 52) makes genetic, genomic and functional analyses extremely challenging. Here we sequenced and assembled 98.3% of the 1.7-gigabase G. arboreum (AA, 2n = 26...

  5. X-Ray Crystallinity of Bleached and Crosslinked Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An X-ray diffractometer was used to study the crystalline structure of cotton fibers after bleaching, crosslinking and a combination of bleaching and crosslinking treatments. Wet crosslinking was accomplished with formaldehyde (Form W) and dry crosslinking was carried out with either dimethyloldihyd...

  6. DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN COTTON WITH NEW GENETICALLY MAPPED MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the major crops produced worldwide which provides the world’s leading natural renewal fiber for the manufacture of textiles. In this day and age when most food crops are known to have narrow genetic variability and breeders continue to face tremendous pressure to use wild germplasm ...

  7. Genetic Characteristics of Cotton Varieties in Textile Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USA is losing its textile industry to foreign competition. In turn, the cotton grower is losing its best customer, the USA textile industry. A modern textile industry needs modern fiber that can only be obtained through improved varieties. The National Regional High Quality (RHQ) is a variety...

  8. Trophoblast Deportation to the Lungs of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Perle, Krista M D La; Green, M Gia; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been used to study a variety of infectious agents, particularly human respiratory viral pathogens. During the course of comprehensive pathologic evaluations of aging breeders from our breeding colony, 6 of 22 (27%) female cotton rats had histologic evidence, limited to the lungs, of embolized cells that were confirmed to be trophoblastic in origin by HSD3B1 immunoreactivity. When pulmonary trophoblast emboli were numerous, they usually were associated with additional histologic findings in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, endothelial hypertrophy, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and abundant alveolar macrophages containing fresh fibrin and hemolyzing erythrocytes. Of the 6 cotton rats with pulmonary trophoblast emboli, 5 (83%) were at 8 to 18 d of the 27-d gestation period, with the greatest number of emboli per lung present between days 10 through 14. The remaining cotton rat had a focal pulmonary trophoblast embolus and was not pregnant but had delivered a litter 3 mo previously. Three other cotton rats in either the early or late stages of gestation showed no histologic evidence of pulmonary trophoblast deportation. This report is the first to document pulmonary trophoblast emboli in cotton rats. This finding suggests that cotton rats may be an alternative animal model for the study of normal and aberrant trophoblast deportation in routine pregnancies and gestational pathologic conditions in women. PMID:25527025

  9. Comparison of Five Small-Scale Laboratory Gins to Seven Commercial Gins Sampled Across the Cotton Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research, cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with laboratory scale gin stands is analyzed to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins. The objective of this experiment was to compare the fiber properties of lint from se...

  10. Genome-wide identification of differentially expressed genes under water deficit stress in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s primary fiber crop and is a major agricultural commodity in over 30 countries across the world. Like many other world commodities, sustainable cotton production is challenged by restricted natural resources. In response to the anticipated increase of agricultural water demand, ...

  11. IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protecting Cotton Squares and Blooms / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Nitrogen on Cotton Now is the time to apply N

  12. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all Upland cotton harvested in the United...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all Upland cotton harvested in the United...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all Upland cotton harvested in the United...

  15. 29The Journal of Cotton Science 10:2938 (2006) http://journal.cotton.org, The Cotton Foundation 2006

    E-print Network

    Chee, Peng W.

    2006-01-01

    29The Journal of Cotton Science 10:29­38 (2006) http://journal.cotton.org, © The Cotton Foundation 2006 BREEDING AND GENETICS Predicting Intron Sites by Aligning Cotton ESTs with Arabidopsis Genomic DNADNA with their genomic coun- terpart. In cotton, this process is exacerbated by the scarcity of cotton genomic DNA

  16. Evidence that ?C Region Is Origin of Low Modulus, High Extensibility, and Strain Stiffening in Fibrin Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Houser; Nathan E. Hudson; Lifang Ping; E. Timothy O'Brien; Richard Superfine; Susan T. Lord; Michael R. Falvo

    2010-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots and perform the mechanical task of stemming blood flow. Several decades of investigation of fibrin fiber networks using macroscopic techniques have revealed remarkable mechanical properties. More recently, the microscopic origins of fibrin's mechanics have been probed through direct measurements on single fibrin fibers and individual fibrinogen molecules. Using a nanomanipulation system,

  17. Cotton Response to 1-Methylcyclopropene Under Different Light Regimes and Growth Stages: Lint Yield and Yield Components 

    E-print Network

    Carden, Charles Warren

    2010-10-12

    Low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) during certain growth periods of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been shown to impact yield, ethylene synthesis, and fiber quality. Previous research with shading has shown ...

  18. Mechanization, sensing, and control in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most important crops in the world. Mechanization, sensing, and control systems play an important role in cotton production and processing. Mechanical development and application of the cotton gin, the cotton harvester, and the cotton module builder dramatically increased cotton ...

  19. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m-1 of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m-1 of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20–0.33 weed plant m-1 of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m-1 of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m-2. Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430–2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha-1 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m-1 of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management. PMID:26057386

  20. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m-1 of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m-1 of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m-1 of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m-1 of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m-2. Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha-1 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m-1 of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management. PMID:26057386

  1. Using High-Speed Video to Examine Differential Roller Ginning of Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A digital high-speed video camera was used to show what occurs as upland fiber is being pulled off of cottonseed at the ginning point on a roller gin stand. The study included a conventional ginning treatment, and a treatment that attempted to selectively remove only the longer fibers off of cotton...

  2. Thermal Insulation Properties of Non-woven Composite Materials Made from Naturally Colored Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were finished with polycarboxylic acid to improve structural stability during use and laundering. In addition, four sets of comp...

  3. General Tips Concerning What Has Been Learned About Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article, under the following sub-headings, briefly describes a few important practical tips involving processing of cotton in traditional textile manufacturing: (1)Bale Selection and Fiber Mixing, (2) Fiber Opening and Cleaning, (3) Carding, (4) Drawing, (5) Combing (if necessary), (6) Roving, ...

  4. Evaluation of 3 cotton trash measurement methods by visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, three types of instrumentals have been developed to assess the trash content in lint cotton fibers, namely, Shirley analyzer (SA), advanced fiber information system (AFIS), and high volume instrumentation (HVI). Each of these devices has its unique advantages, and comprehensive comparison...

  5. Response to selective pressure in early generation progenies of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Turner; P. E. Hoskinson; Smith Worley; H. H. Ramey

    1980-01-01

    Combining high fiber strength with high yield in upland cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) was been difficult. The cross combination, 69–120 × 6M-10, was chosen for this study because of the divergence of parents for fiber strength, seeds per boll and crop maturity. Forty F2 plants were selected in 1974 solely on the basis of visual yield and 20 plants were

  6. IMPACT OF EXCESS MOISTURE ON COTTON BALES STORED IN POLYPROPYLENE BAGGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of spraying moisture on cotton fiber at the lint slide, packaging the bales at universal density, and storing the bales for 149 days at atmospheric conditions was evaluated in this study. About 40, 38, 28, 19, 12, and 0 (control) pounds of water were sprayed on fiber at the lint slide to...

  7. A review of cotton quality fineness and maturity measurements by NIR HVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been a successful research tool for analyzing a wide variety of cotton fiber properties. These include, from sugar content, moisture effects on strength, water status, trash content fiber fineness and maturity. Key findings of a literature review of this field ...

  8. Impact of farm policy on cotton prices in the United States: a study of cointegrated textile prices 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Katherine Renee'

    1997-01-01

    . The mill prices of competing textile products and cotton alike are usually measured in cents per pound. Even though the consumption of all fibers are measured in pounds, a pound of textiles like rayon and polyester does not equal the same fiber...IMPACT OF FARM POLICY ON COTTON PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES: A STUDY OF COINTEGRATED TEXTILE PRICES A Thesis by KATHERINE RENEE' COOK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment...

  9. Upland fiber changes due to ginning and lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine how upland cotton fiber length distribution was affected during ginning and how possible length changes might affect subsequent textile processing. The full range of ginning treatments currently commercially available in the U. S. cotton industry were utilized. These ...

  10. Bronze Wilt of Cotton

    E-print Network

    Bell, Alois A.; Nichols, Robert L.; Lemon, Robert G.

    2002-02-12

    Bronze wilt is a disease of cotton characterized by bronze or red discoloration and wilting of leaves. This publication describes bronze wilt symptoms, the cause and epidemiology of the disease, the varieties in which it has been observed, and ways...

  11. Cotton Root-rot. 

    E-print Network

    Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

    1889-01-01

    121 2 -16 1 t I i 6' /t AS AGRICULTURAL EXY ERIMENT STATI( BULLETIN No. 7, C. NOVEMBER, 1889. COTTON ROOT-ROT AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE, College Station, Brazos County, Texas. BY ORDER OF THE COUNCIL: F. A. GULLEY, DIRECTOR..... ....................... .Assistant to Director. D. ADRIANCE .......................... Asst. Chemist and Meteorologist. J. M. Ca~son. ........................ .Assistant to Agriculturist. C. K. FUQUA.. ........................ .Sugar Chemist. COTTON ROOT-ROT. sout It =ng...

  12. Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1932-01-01

    LIBRARY. A & M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 469 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of seven years experiments with fertilizers on cotton at Troup, Nacogdoches, Angleton, College Station, Beeville, Tem- ple, and Denton, Texas, are reported in this Bulletin. The Kirvin fine sandy loam at Troup and the Nacogdoches and Ruston fine sandy...

  13. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  15. Evidence that ?C Region Is Origin of Low Modulus, High Extensibility, and Strain Stiffening in Fibrin Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Houser, John R.; Hudson, Nathan E.; Ping, Lifang; O'Brien, E. Timothy; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots and perform the mechanical task of stemming blood flow. Several decades of investigation of fibrin fiber networks using macroscopic techniques have revealed remarkable mechanical properties. More recently, the microscopic origins of fibrin's mechanics have been probed through direct measurements on single fibrin fibers and individual fibrinogen molecules. Using a nanomanipulation system, we investigated the mechanical properties of individual fibrin fibers. The fibers were stretched with the atomic force microscope, and stress-versus-strain data was collected for fibers formed with and without ligation by the activated transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIIIa). We observed that ligation with FXIIIa nearly doubled the stiffness of the fibers. The stress-versus-strain behavior indicates that fibrin fibers exhibit properties similar to other elastomeric biopolymers. We propose a mechanical model that fits our observed force extension data, is consistent with the results of the ligation data, and suggests that the large observed extensibility in fibrin fibers is mediated by the natively unfolded regions of the molecule. Although some models attribute fibrin's force-versus-extension behavior to unfolding of structured regions within the monomer, our analysis argues that these models are inconsistent with the measured extensibility and elastic modulus. PMID:21044602

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophobic/superoleophilic cotton for application in the field of water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ma, Miaolian; Zang, Deli; Gao, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyu

    2014-03-15

    Cotton with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties had been successfully fabricated for application in the field of oil/water separation by the combination of SiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fiber surface and subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane modification. The as-prepared cotton could be used to selectively absorb various common oils and organic solvents up to above 50 times of its own weight while repelling water completely. The absorbed oils were easily collected by a simple vacuum filtration, and the recovered cotton could be reused for several cycles while still keeping high absorption capacity. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton was simply spun into cloth, which not only could be tailored to the water-repellent clothing but also could be used in the oil/water separation filter system. The results presented in this work might provide a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the field of water/oil separation. PMID:24528757

  17. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  18. Recent Advances And Future Prospective in Molecular Breeding of Cotton For Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Lubbers; Peng W. Chee; Yehoshua Saranga; Andrew H. Paterson

    Fiber from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) is a major product in the world economy. It is a botanically unique plant as it is a perennial allotetraploid derived from\\u000a diploid Gossypium species, one of which does not produce lint, which is grown as an annual row crop. Cotton is an especially appropriate system\\u000a for research into the molecular basis

  19. Transcriptome profiling, sequence characterization, and SNP-based chromosomal assignment of the EXPANSIN genes in cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanfu An; Sukumar Saha; Johnie N. Jenkins; Brian E. Scheffler; Thea A. Wilkins; David M. Stelly

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of biological significance associated with DNA markers is very limited in cotton. SNPs are potential functional\\u000a marker to tag genes of biological importance. Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins that directly modify the\\u000a mechanical properties of cell walls, enable turgor-driven cell extension, and likely affect length and quality of cotton fibers.\\u000a Here, we report the expression

  20. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...AMS-CN-10-0027; CN-08-003] RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton- Producing States AGENCY: Agricultural...Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton...

  1. Superhydrophobic and ultraviolet-blocking cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Sun, Panpan; Yang, Jikai; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun

    2011-04-01

    Cotton textile was coated with ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods in order to obtain superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV)-blocking properties. The coating process was conducted in mild conditions, which involved the low-temperature preparation of ZnO seeds, hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods, bioinspired layer-by-layer deposition of a SiO(2) shell on the surface of ZnO nanorods, and hydrophobic modification of ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods with octadecyltrimethoxysilane. Despite the highly curved morphology of cotton fibers, the ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods coated the textile densely and uniformly. The treated cotton textile was found to have a large UV protection factor (UPF = 101.51) together with UV-durable superhydrophobicity, as determined by contact-angle measurement under long-term UV irradiation. The good UV-blocking property can be ascribed to the high UV absorbance and scattering properties of ZnO nanorods, and the UV-durable superhydrophobicity is a result of suppression of the photoactivity of ZnO nanorods by a SiO(2) shell. PMID:21438599

  2. Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial waste to higher value

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhardt, R.A.; Cowgill, W.P.; Walsh, W.K.; Cates, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The primary textile industry in 1981 produced 1.5 billion pounds of blended polyester/cotton (PET/Cotton) yarns that are chiefly polyester. The polyester component, which is almost entirely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is polymerized from petroleum products and furnished to the textile industry as staple fiber. About 3% of the PET/Cotton production is waste. Although substantial markets exist for the separate products, the problem of economically separating the components has not been solved. The alternative is to develop an application for the unseparated waste. This project was undertaken to study the feasibility of using the waste blends as feedstock for injection molded plastic. Thermal and mechanical properties were determined on the compacts.

  3. An economic analysis of export sales and export shipments: the case for cotton 

    E-print Network

    Ayuk, Elias Takor

    1986-01-01

    and "export-~ctcrm~ollows. Domestic Sill Use Domestic consumption of cotton is defined as the sum of mill use plus the raw fiber equivalent of textile imports less textile exports. In recent years, U. S. mill use has been at a reduced level. Domestic mill...) price elasticity of foreign (free world) sill demand for cotton than the one reported by Blakely. They used 1948 ? 1963 data and a linear specification for all equations. Their estimate of the elasticity of foreign mill demand for cotton with respect...

  4. Relationships between differential gene expression and heterosis in cotton hybrids developed from the foundation parent CRI12 and its pedigree-derived lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinxia Zhu; Ainijiang; Yuanming Zhang; Wangzen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    CRI-12, an Upland cotton variety with high yield, elite fiber quality and disease resistance, is further characterized by its high heritability, combining ability and genetic stability. CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines were used to develop increased heterosis cotton hybrids, including CRI-28, CRI-29, XZM 2 and Jimian18. CRI-12 was chosen as the cotton foundation parent and analyzed by gene differential expressions

  5. More on Cotton Flow

    E-print Network

    Ercan Kilicarslan; Suat Dengiz; Bayram Tekin

    2015-06-02

    Cotton flow tends to evolve a given initial metric on a three manifold to a conformally flat one. Here we expound upon the earlier work on Cotton flow and study the linearized version of it around a generic initial metric by employing a modified form of the DeTurck trick. We show that the flow around the flat space, as a critical point, reduces to an anisotropic generalization of linearized KdV equation with complex dispersion relations one of which is an unstable mode, rendering the flat space unstable under small perturbations. We also show that Einstein spaces and some conformally flat non-Einstein spaces are linearly unstable. We refine the gradient flow formalism and compute the second variation of the entropy and show that generic critical points are extended Cotton solitons. We study some properties of these solutions and find a Topologically Massive soliton that is built from Cotton and Ricci solitons. In the Lorentzian signature, we also show that the pp-wave metrics are both Cotton and Ricci solitons.

  6. Superhydrophobic conductive textiles with antibacterial property by coating fibers with silver nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Hua Xue; Jia Chen; Wei Yin; Shun-Tian Jia; Jian-Zhong Ma

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced on cotton fibers by reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ complex with glucose. Further modification of the fibers coated by Ag NPs with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane led to superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Scanning electron microscopy images of the textiles showed that the treated fibers were covered with uniform Ag NPs, which generate a dual-size roughness on the textiles favouring the

  7. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field. PMID:21816078

  8. BREEDING AND GENETICS A Comparison of Bollgard\\/Glyphosate Tolerant Cotton Cultivars to Their Conventional Parents for Open End Yarn Processing Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Bauer; David D. McAlister; James R. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Textile manufacturers have raised concerns that mill performance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been compromised by trans- genic technology. The objective of this study was to compare two transgenic Bollgard (BG) and glyphosate tolerant (RR) cotton cultivars to their conventional parents for fiber properties, processing characteristics, and fabric quality. Field experiments were conducted with 'Deltap- ine 458 BG\\/RR' and

  9. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as...

  15. A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory me...

  16. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...7 CFR Part 1427 RIN 0560-AI16 Upland Cotton Base Quality AGENCY: Commodity Credit...Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations...uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World Price...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...