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1

The mechanism of cellulase action on cotton fibers: evidence from atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cellulases from Trichoderma reesei – an exoglucanase, CBH I, and an endoglucanase, EG II – alone and in combination were incubated with cotton fibers. The effects of the cellulases on the surfaces of the cotton fibers were examined by atomic force microscopy. At high magnification, the physical effects on the fibers caused by the two types of enzymes were

Ida Lee; Barbara R. Evans; Jonathan Woodward

2000-01-01

2

Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

Anderson, Floyd A.

1987-01-01

3

The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in cotton Fibers  

SciTech Connect

Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

Preuss M. L.; Delmar, D.P.; Liu, Bo

2003-05-01

4

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. 176.903 Section 176...O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and...903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or...

2013-10-01

5

Conjugation and modeled structure/function analysis of lysozyme on glycine esterified cotton cellulose-fibers.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of lysozyme covalently bound to glycine-derivatized cotton cellulose was assessed in a 96-well format. Lysozyme was immobilized on glycine-bound cotton through a carbodiimide reaction. The attachment to cotton fibers was made through both a single glycine and a glycine dipeptide esterified to cotton cellulose. Higher levels of lysozyme incorporation were evident in the diglycine-linked cotton cellulose samples. The antibacterial activity of the lysozyme-conjugated cotton cellulose against Bacillus subtilis was assessed as a suspension of pulverized cotton fibers in microtiter wells. Inhibition of B. subtilis growth was observed to be optimal within a range of 0.14-0.3 mM (equivalent to 4-20 mg of lysozyme-bound cotton/mL) of lysozyme. Enhancement of activity over soluble lysozyme may result from the solid-phase protection afforded by the cellulose linkage of the glycoprotein against proteolytic lysis. Computational models of lysozyme based on its crystal structure attached through aspartate, glutamate, and COOH-terminal residues to cellopentaose-(3) Gly-O-6-glycyl-glycine ester were constructed. The models demonstrate no steric constraints to the active-site cleft from the glycine-conjugated cellulose chain when lysozyme is bound at the carboxylates of Asp-87, Glu-7, Asp-119, Asp-18, and COOH-terminal Leu-129. The more robust antibacterial activity of the enzyme when bonded to cotton fibers suggests good potential for biologically active enzymes on cotton-based fabrics. PMID:10898567

Edwards, J V; Sethumadhavan, K; Ullah, A H

2000-01-01

6

Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*  

PubMed Central

Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation.

Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

2013-01-01

7

Functional genomics of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes of major economic importance. Factors that regulate the rate and duration of cell expansion control fiber morphology and important agronomic traits. For genetic characterization of rapid cell elongation in cotton fibers, ? 14,000 unique genes were assembled from 46,603 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developmentally staged fiber cDNAs of a cultivated diploid species (Gossypium

A. Bulak Arpat; Mark Waugh; John P. Sullivan; Michael Gonzales; David Frisch; Dorrie Main; Todd Wood; Anna Leslie; Rod A. Wing; Thea A. Wilkins

2004-01-01

8

Surface properties of bamboo fiber and a comparison with cotton linter fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the different touch senses from bamboo and cotton fibers, the surface properties of bamboo fiber, e.g., the surface free energy, the Lifshitz–van der Waals force, and Lewis acid and base components have been determined using the column wicking technique. Taking the traditional cotton linter fiber as a reference, this paper shows that both these fibers have

Qing Shen; Dian-Sen Liu; Yuan Gao; Ying Chen

2004-01-01

9

Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: Biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber cells  

PubMed Central

Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, ?-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(?)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous ?-ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were selected based on marker gene, ?-glucuronidase (GUS), expression. Fibers of 10 transgenic plants expressed phaB gene, while eight plants expressed both phaB and phaC genes. Electron microscopy examination of fibers expressing both genes indicated the presence of electron-lucent granules in the cytoplasm. High pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry evidence suggested that the new polymer produced in transgenic fibers is PHB. Sixty-six percent of the PHB in fibers is in the molecular mass range of 0.6 × 106 to 1.8 × 106 Da. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes of thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics. The rate of heat uptake and cooling was slower in transgenic fibers, resulting in higher heat capacity. These data show that metabolic pathway engineering in cotton may enhance fiber properties by incorporating new traits from other genetic sources. This is an important step toward producing new generation fibers for the textile industry.

John, Maliyakal E.; Keller, Greg

1996-01-01

10

A cotton annexin protein AnxGb6 regulates fiber elongation through its interaction with actin 1.  

PubMed

Annexins are assumed to be involved in regulating cotton fiber elongation, but direct evidence remains to be presented. Here we cloned six Annexin genes (AnxGb) abundantly expressed in fiber from sea-island cotton (G. barbadense). qRT-PCR results indicated that all six G. barbadense annexin genes were expressed in elongating cotton fibers, while only the expression of AnxGb6 was cotton fiber-specific. Yeast two hybridization and BiFC analysis revealed that AnxGb6 homodimer interacted with a cotton fiber specific actin GbAct1. Ectopic-expressed AnxGb6 in Arabidopsis enhanced its root elongation without increasing the root cell number. Ectopic AnxGb6 expression resulted in more F-actin accumulation in the basal part of the root cell elongation zone. Analysis of AnxGb6 expression in three cotton genotypes with different fiber length confirmed that AnxGb6 expression was correlated to cotton fiber length, especially fiber elongation rate. Our results demonstrated that AnxGb6 was important for fiber elongation by potentially providing a domain for F-actin organization. PMID:23750279

Huang, Yiqun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lida; Zuo, Kaijing

2013-01-01

11

Cotton annexin proteins participate in the establishment of fiber cell elongation scaffold  

PubMed Central

Cotton plant is one of the most important economic crops in the world which supplies natural fiber for textile industry. The crucial traits of cotton fiber quality are fiber length and strength, which are mostly determined by the fiber elongation stage. Annexins are assumed to be involved in regulating fiber elongation, but direct evidences remain elusive. Recently, we have investigated the activities of fiber-specific expressed annexins AnGb5/6 and their interacted proteins in cotton. AnGb5 and 6 can interact reciprocally to generate a protein macro-raft in cell membrane. This macro-raft is probably a stabilized scaffold for Actin1 organization. The actin assembling direction and density are correlated with AnGb6 gene expression and fiber expanding rate among three fiber length genotypes. These results suggest that annexins may act as the adaptor that linked fiber cell membrane to actin assembling. Due to the strong Ca2+ and lipid binding ability of annexins, these results also indicate that annexins complex may function as an intermediate to receive Ca2+ or lipid signals during fiber elongation.

Huang, Yiqun; Deng, Ting; Zuo, Kaijing

2013-01-01

12

Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-10-01

13

Cotton fiber germin-like protein. I. Molecular cloning and gene expression.  

PubMed

The presence of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber transcripts coding for a germin-like protein (GLP) was revealed by differential display analysis in which early stages of cotton fiber development between a wild type line, Texas Marker-1 (TM1) and a near isogenic mutant, Naked Seed (N1) were compared. Transcripts of the cotton GLP ( GhGLP1) accumulated specifically in TM1, but did not accumulate in the mutant although the GhGLP1 gene was present in both lines. The deduced protein sequence of GhGLP1 is similar to Prunus persica auxin-binding proteins, a barley ADP-glucose pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and two different classes of hydrogen peroxide-producing enzymes: wheat germin oxalate oxidase and moss extracellular Mn-superoxide dismutase. Cotton GLPs constitute a multigene family like those of Arabidopsis, rice, soybean, and barley. GhGLP1 transcripts accumulated to their highest levels during the period of fiber expansion, followed by a sharp decline when the rate of cell expansion decreased. While germins and GLPs appear to be involved in defense mechanisms in some plants, both biotic and abiotic stress down-regulated the expression of GhGLP1. Numerous functions have been proposed for dicot GLPs. However, to date, there is little direct evidence for how these proteins function in vivo. The association of maximal GhGLP1 expression with stages of maximal cotton fiber elongation suggests that some GLPs may be important for cell wall expansion. PMID:14648117

Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara A

2004-02-01

14

Surface properties of bamboo fiber and a comparison with cotton linter fibers.  

PubMed

In order to understand the different touch senses from bamboo and cotton fibers, the surface properties of bamboo fiber, e.g., the surface free energy, the Lifshitz-van der Waals force, and Lewis acid and base components have been determined using the column wicking technique. Taking the traditional cotton linter fiber as a reference, this paper shows that both these fibers have the similar surface free energies. However, a big difference between these two fibers which has been importantly observed is that the bamboo fiber having greater Lewis acid component seems to be double than the cotton linter fiber. Since water has been found to have such surface property, it is suggested that the bamboo fiber touch in the skin of people may like the touch between water and skin of people. Meanwhile, other surface properties of these two fibers are compared. PMID:15261031

Shen, Qing; Liu, Dian-Sen; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Ying

2004-06-01

15

Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber cells.  

PubMed

Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, beta-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. PHB is a thermoplastic polymer that may modify fiber properties when synthesized in cotton. Endogenous beta-ketothiolase activity is present in cotton fibers. Hence cotton was transformed with engineered phaB and phaC genes by particle bombardment, and transgenic plants were selected based on marker gene, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), expression. Fibers of 10 transgenic plants expressed phaB gene, while eight plants expressed both phaB and phaC genes. Electron microscopy examination of fibers expressing both genes indicated the presence of electron-lucent granules in the cytoplasm. High pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry evidence suggested that the new polymer produced in transgenic fibers is PHB. Sixty-six percent of the PHB in fibers is in the molecular mass range of 0.6 x 10(6) to 1.8 x 10(6) Da. The presence of PHB granules in transgenic fibers resulted in measurable changes of thermal properties. The fibers exhibited better insulating characteristics. The rate of heat uptake and cooling was slower in transgenic fibers, resulting in higher heat capacity. These data show that metabolic pathway engineering in cotton may enhance fiber properties by incorporating new traits from other genetic sources. This is an important step toward producing new generation fibers for the textile industry. PMID:11038522

John, M E; Keller, G

1996-11-12

16

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold or...and any cotton or vegetable fibers. This wooden bulkhead must...compartment must be equipped with a carbon dioxide or overhead water sprinkler...unloading of cotton or vegetable fibers. (f) Upon...

2009-10-01

17

49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Cotton or vegetable fibers must be stowed in a hold or...and any cotton or vegetable fibers. This wooden bulkhead must...compartment must be equipped with a carbon dioxide or overhead water sprinkler...unloading of cotton or vegetable fibers. (f) Upon...

2010-10-01

18

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported...separated by a tight steel bulkhead and the cotton or vegetable fibers are dunnaged at least...Cotton or vegetable fibers may be stowed in...if there is a tight steel intervening deck...

2010-10-01

19

49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported...separated by a tight steel bulkhead and the cotton or vegetable fibers are dunnaged at least...Cotton or vegetable fibers may be stowed in...if there is a tight steel intervening deck...

2009-10-01

20

49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch. 176.901 Section...O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and...901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch. (a)...

2013-10-01

21

Control of Plant Trichome Development by a Cotton Fiber MYB Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22- like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and

Shui Wang; Jia-Wei Wang; Nan Yu; Chun-Hong Li; Bin Luo; Jin-Ying Gou; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

2004-01-01

22

Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC) Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC) composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II) ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting

Mary Grace; Navin Chand; Sunil Kumar Bajpai

2009-01-01

23

UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV / visible / NIR technique was examined for its feasibility in determining the portions of cotton fiber and trash. Overall result indicated that NIR prediction was limited to screening purpose for probable reasons as heterogeneous trash distribution, relatively small sampling, and gravimetric reference method.

Liu, Yongliang; Gamble, Gary R.; Thibodeaux, Devron

2010-04-01

24

Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated.

Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

2012-01-01

25

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R.; Mahesh, S. S.; Divakara, S.; Somashekar, R.

2014-04-01

26

Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and guayule bagasse. The plant fibers were characterized for physical (bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical

Sreekala G. Bajwa; Dilpreet S. Bajwa; Greg Holt; Terry Coffelt; Francis Nakayama

2011-01-01

27

Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton\\u000a ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes\\u000a encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi)\\u000a construct. The RNAi according

Yunjing LiDiqiu; Diqiu Liu; Lili Tu; Xianlong Zhang; Li Wang; Longfu Zhu; Jiafu Tan; Fenglin Deng

2010-01-01

28

Systematic Application of DNA Fiber-FISH Technique in Cotton  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH) is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0%) were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb). A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton.

Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wenpan; Jiang, Yanqin; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

29

[Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].  

PubMed

By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-12-01

30

Silencing the vacuolar invertase gene GhVIN1 blocks cotton fiber initiation from the ovule epidermis, probably by suppressing a cohort of regulatory genes via sugar signaling.  

PubMed

Cotton fibers, the most important source of cellulose for the global textile industry, are single-celled trichomes derived from the ovule epidermis at or just prior to anthesis. Despite progress in understanding cotton fiber elongation and cell-wall biosynthesis, knowledge regarding the molecular basis of fiber cell initiation, the first step of fiber development determining the fiber yield potential, remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that expression of a vacuolar invertase (VIN) is an early event that is essential for cotton fiber initiation. RNAi-mediated suppression of GhVIN1, a major VIN gene that is highly expressed in wild-type fiber initials, resulted in significant reduction of VIN activity and consequently a fiberless seed phenotype in a dosage dependent manner. The absence of a negative effect on seed development in these fiberless seeds indicates that the phenotype is unlikely to be due to lack of carbon nutrient. Gene expression analyses coupled with in vitro ovule culture experiments revealed that GhVIN1-derived hexose signaling may play an indispensable role in cotton fiber initiation, probably by regulating the transcription of several MYB transcription factors and auxin signaling components that were previously identified as required for fiber initiation. Together, the data represent a significant advance in understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber initiation, and provide the first indication that VIN-mediated hexose signaling may act as an early event modulating the expression of regulatory genes and hence cell differentiation from the ovule epidermis. PMID:24654806

Wang, Lu; Cook, Akiko; Patrick, John W; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2014-05-01

31

The green adsorption of chitosan tripolyphosphate nanoparticles on cotton fiber surfaces.  

PubMed

Chitosan nanoparticles (chitosan NP) were effectively incorporated onto cotton fiber surfaces during a green adsorption without any cross-linking agents in this work. The interactions between cotton fibers and chitosan NP during the green adsorption were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in detail. The results indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions exited between the hydroxyl groups of cotton fibers and the amino groups of chitosan NP, and progressively enhanced with the increase in chitosan NP mass concentrations. After chitosan NP adsorption, the acidity of fibers augmented and the crystallinity index of fibers declined owing to the increasing interactions. In addition, the hydrophobic interactions occurred between chitosan NP and crystalline cotton fibers, thereby resulting in the preferential adsorption onto the hydrophobic (200) crystallographic plane. PMID:24299843

Wang, Mingxi; She, Yuanbin; Xiao, Zuobing; Hu, Jing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhang, Jia

2014-01-30

32

Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

Bai, Wen-Qin; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

2014-01-01

33

Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

2014-01-01

34

The Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Secondary Walls in Cotton Fibers1  

PubMed Central

H2O2 is a widespread molecule in many biological systems. It is created enzymatically in living cells during various oxidation reactions and by leakage of electrons from the electron transport chains. Depending on the concentration H2O2 can induce cell protective responses, programmed cell death, or necrosis. Here we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as a developmental signal in the differentiation of secondary walls in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion: (a) the period of H2O2 generation coincided with the onset of secondary wall deposition, (b) inhibition of H2O2 production or scavenging the available H2O2 from the system prevented the wall differentiation process, and (c) exogenous addition of H2O2 prematurely promoted secondary wall formation in young fibers. Furthermore, we provide support for the concept that H2O2 generation could be mediated by the expression of the small GTPase Rac, the accumulation of which was shown previously to be strongly induced during the onset of secondary wall differentiation. In support of Rac's role in the activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species, we transformed soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis cells with mutated Rac genes. Transformation with a dominantly activated cotton Rac13 gene resulted in constitutively higher levels of H2O2, whereas transformation with the antisense and especially with dominant-negative Rac constructs decreased the levels of H2O2.

Potikha, Tamara S.; Collins, Cheryl C.; Johnson, Douglas I.; Delmer, Deborah P.; Levine, Alex

1999-01-01

35

Sorption of acid violet 17 and direct red 80 dyes on cotton fiber from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of acid violet 17 and direct red 80 azo dyes on locally available cotton fiber from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of shaking time, pH, dyes concentration and temperature. Maximum sorption of acid violet 17 and direct red 80 on cotton fiber was achieved within 30 and 60min of shaking time and at pH 8 and

M. Saleem; Tahira Pirzada; Riaz Qadeer

2007-01-01

36

Comparison of hemp and cotton fiber implants in muscle rat tissue. Study of the inflammatory response.  

PubMed

Hemp fiber is obtained from the plant Musa textilis. The cost of preparation of its raw fibers is low. The purpose of this paper was to compare the inflammatory response in the rat muscle tissue originated by both hemp and cotton fibers. Both types of fibers, were implanted in gluteal muscles of Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 postoperative days. Muscle tissue sections were stained with hematoxilyneosin. The inflammatory response was measured by subtracting the suture surface area from the total granulomatous area. At 15 days, the inflammatory response was more conspicuous for hemp than for cotton fiber (P < 0.05). At 30 and 60 days, responses were similar (P > 0.05). We cannot conclude that the hemp fiber is superior to cotton, nevertheless, they behave the same. Therefore, hemp constitutes an alternative as suture material. PMID:8054380

Dorfman, S; Dorfman, D; Leonardi, R; Maroso, J; Cardozo, J; Durán, A

1994-03-01

37

Effect of enzymatic treatment on cotton fiber dissolution in NaOH\\/urea solution at cold temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, the dissolution behavior of enzyme pretreated cotton fibers in NaOH\\/urea solution is reported. The experimental results indicated that although the crystallinity of cotton linter almost did not change during the enzymatic pretreatment, the solubility of cellulose in cold NaOH\\/urea solution increased from 30% for original cotton fibers to 65% for enzymatic treated fibers, which was mainly attributed

Ying Wang; Yulin Zhao; Yulin Deng

2008-01-01

38

Isolation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton fibers are differentiated epidermal cells originating from the outer integuments of the ovule. To identify genes involved in cotton fiber elonga- tion, we performed subtractive PCR using cDNA prepared from 10 days post anthesis (d.p.a.) wild-type cotton fiber as tester and cDNA from a fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant as driver. We recovered 280 independent cDNA fragments including most of the

Sheng-Jian Ji; Ying-Chun Lu; Jian-Xun Feng; Gang Wei; Jun Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Qiang Fu; Di Liu; Jing-Chu Luo; Yu-Xian Zhu

2003-01-01

39

Action of purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases on cotton fibers and yarn.  

PubMed

In this work the possibility and potential of treating cotton fibers and yarns instead of fabrics with monocomponent cellulases was investigated. Different pretreatments on fibers were performed and tested in order to improve the accessibility of cotton to enzymatic modification. The enzymatic treatments were evaluated microscopically and by analysing the effects of treated fibers on spinnability, yarn evenness, tenacity and pilling. The accessibility of the cotton fibers for cellulases could be increased by different pretreatments. Steaming of fibers prior to enzymatic treatment was found to be an efficient way to increase hydrolysis levels. Cellulase treatments of carded yarns resulted in modification of yarn properties. Decrease in yarn hairiness was observed and the knitted fabric made of the treated yarn showed a lowered tendency towards pilling. In all cases endoglucanase activity rather than cellobiohydrolase activity was responsible for these modifications. PMID:11500219

Pere, J; Puolakka, A; Nousiainen, P; Buchert, J

2001-08-23

40

Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Fiber Differentially Expressed Fasciclin-like Arabinogalactan Protein Gene in Sea Island Cotton Fibers  

PubMed Central

Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) protein is a cell-wall-associated protein playing crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, and it was characterized in different plants including Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In cDNA-AFLP analysis of 25 DPA (days post anthesis) fiber mRNA, two FLA gene-related transcripts exhibit differential expression between Sea Island cotton (G. barbadense L.) and Upland cotton. Based on the transcript-derived fragment, RACE-PCR and realtime PCR technique, GbFLA5 full-length cDNA was isolated and its expression profiles were characterized in both cotton plant tissues and secondary cell wall (SCW) fibers in this study. The 1154 bp GbFLA5 cDNA contains an ORF of 720 bp, encoding GbFLA5 protein of 239 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 25.41 kDa and isoelectric point of 8.63. The deduced GbFLA5 protein contains an N-terminal signal sequence, two AGP-like domains, a single fasciclin-like domain, and a GPI anchor signal sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows that GbFLA5 protein is homologous to some known SCW-specific expressed FLAs of plant developing xylem, tension wood and cotton fibers. In the SCW deposition stage from 15 to 45 DPA detected, FLA5 maintains a significantly higher expression level in Sea Island cotton fibers than in Upland cotton fibers. The increasing FLA5 transcript abundance coincided with the SCW deposition process and the expression intensity differences coincided with their fiber strength differences between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton. These expression profile features of GbFLA5 in cotton fibers revealed its tissue-specific and SCW developmental stage-specific expression characters. Further analysis suggested that GbFLA5 is a crucial SCW-specific protein which may contribute to fiber strength by affecting cellulose synthesis and microfibril deposition orientation.

Liu, Hengwei; Shi, Ruifeng; Wang, Xingfen; Pan, Yuxin; Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xinlei; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

2013-01-01

41

Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.  

PubMed

This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented. PMID:22524051

Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

2012-01-01

42

Analysis of Flavonoids and the Flavonoid Structural Genes in Brown Fiber of Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Backgroud As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. Experimental Design Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3?H, and GhF3?5?H) were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. Result The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL). The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. Conclusions Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

Liu, Yongchang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Xinyu; Jones, Brian Joseph; Sun, Yuqiang; Sun, Jie

2013-01-01

43

Substrate Supply for Cellulose Synthesis and its Stress Sensitivity in the Cotton Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on cotton fiber has figured prominently in the first steps toward understanding the metabolic control of cellulose biogenesis under normal and stressed conditions for at least two reasons. First, fiber secondary walls are composed of almost 100% cellulose that is deposited over a period of at least 20 days. Second, these extraordinary seed epidermal trichomes can be readily isolated

Candace H. Haigler

44

Cotton Fiber Cell Walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense Have Differences Related to Loosely-Bound Xyloglucan  

PubMed Central

Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species.

Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L.; Hahn, Michael G.; Haigler, Candace H.

2013-01-01

45

Cotton fiber cell walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense have differences related to loosely-bound xyloglucan.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species. PMID:23457548

Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L; Hahn, Michael G; Haigler, Candace H

2013-01-01

46

Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery.  

PubMed

An investigation to better understand the molecular mechanism of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation in response to drought stress and recovery was conducted using a comparative proteomics analysis. Cotton plants (cv. NuCOTN 33B) were subjected to water deprivation for 10 days followed by a recovery period (with watering) of 5 days. The temporal changes in total proteins in cotton fibers were examined using 2DE. The results revealed that 163 proteins are significantly drought responsive. MS analysis led to the identification of 132 differentially expressed proteins that include some known as well as some novel drought-responsive proteins. These drought responsive fiber proteins in NuCOTN 33B are associated with a variety of cellular functions, i.e. signal transduction, protein processing, redox homeostasis, cell wall modification, metabolisms of carbon, energy, lipid, lignin, and flavonoid. The results suggest that the enhancement of the perception of drought stress, a new balance of the metabolism of the biosynthesis of cell wall components and cytoskeleton homeostasis plays an important role in the response of cotton fibers to drought stress. Overall, the current study provides an overview of the molecular mechanism of drought response in cotton fiber cells. PMID:24889071

Zheng, Mi; Meng, Yali; Yang, Changqin; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin

2014-08-01

47

Oil removal from water by selective sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 1. Study of sorption properties and comparison with other cotton fiber-based sorbents.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic cotton fibers, obtained by acylation of cellulose with fatty acid using microwaves radiations, have a high selective affinity for vegetable or mineral oil, fuel, and petroleum, in aqueous medium. Their sorption capacity (SC) (weight of liquid picked up by a given weight of sorbent) is about 20 g/g, after draining. They are reusable after simple squeezing, and their SC reaches a constant value, ca. 12 g/g. Moreover, this product is stable in water, whereas raw cotton can develop molds, after oil sorption. Besides, it is also biodegradable. PMID:12666934

Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

2003-03-01

48

UDP-glucose: glucan synthetase in developing cotton fibers. I. Kinetic and physiological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose:glucan synthetase can be demonstrated in detached cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and in an isolated particulate fraction from such fibers. When assayed with detached fibers, the kinetics of the flucan synthetase activity with respect to variation in substrate concentration is complex and indicates activation of the enzyme by the substrate. Activity is stimulated by Ca\\/sup 2

D. P. Delmer; U. Heiniger; C. Kulow

1977-01-01

49

19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties...609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General. A good will not be...

2013-04-01

50

The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism  

PubMed Central

A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (“cotton fiber”). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with ?22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long spinnable fibers in cotton was accompanied by novel expression of genes assisting in the regulation of reactive oxygen species levels. Our data suggest a model for the evolutionary origin of a novel morphology through differential gene regulation causing prolongation of an ancestral developmental program.

Hovav, Ran; Udall, Joshua A; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Hovav, Einat; Flagel, Lex; Hu, Guanjing; Wendel, Jonathan F

2008-01-01

51

Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense.  

PubMed

Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is widely cultivated because of its long, strong seed trichomes ('fibers') used for premium textiles. These agronomically advanced fibers were derived following domestication and thousands of years of human-mediated crop improvement. To gain an insight into fiber development and evolution, we conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar and a wild accession. Analyses using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS technology identified 1317 proteins in fiber. Of these, 205 were differentially expressed across developmental stages, and 190 showed differential expression between wild and cultivated forms, 14.4% of the proteome sampled. Human selection may have shifted the timing of developmental modules, such that some occur earlier in domesticated than in wild cotton. A novel approach was used to detect possible biased expression of homoeologous copies of proteins. Results indicate a significant partitioning of duplicate gene expression at the protein level, but an approximately equal degree of bias for each of the two constituent genomes of allopolyploid cotton. Our results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic approaches for the study of the domestication process. They also provide a rich database for mining for functional analyses of cotton improvement or evolution. PMID:23795774

Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grupp, Kara; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

2013-10-01

52

Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid

Jean-Marc Lacape; Danny Llewellyn; John Jacobs; Tony Arioli; David Becker; Steve Calhoun; Yves Al-Ghazi; Shiming Liu; Oumarou Palaï; Sophie Georges; Marc Giband; Henrique de Assunção; Paulo Augusto Vianna Barroso; Michel Claverie; Gérard Gawryziak; Janine Jean; Michèle Vialle; Christopher Viot

2010-01-01

53

Fiber and Yarn Properties of Smooth- and Hairy-Leaf Cotton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fiber and yarn properties of four hairy-leaf and four smooth-leaf cotton varieties were investigated after gin processing that included two lint cleaner treatments. Two stages of lint cleaning improved nonlint content, leaf and composite grades, trash...

E. P. Columbus, S. T. Rayburn

1988-01-01

54

Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton\\/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be

Hageun Suh

1997-01-01

55

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

56

UDP-glucose: glucan synthetase in developing cotton fibers. II. Structure of the reaction product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility properties, composition, and structure of the radioactive product synthesized from UDP-(¹⁴C)glucose by a highly active cotton fiber glucan synthetase have been determined. Product obtained under the following three different conditions was analyzed: at high and low substrate concentrations by detached fibers, and at high substrate concentrations with an isolated particulate preparation. The results of acetic and nitric acid

U. Heiniger; D. P. Delmer

1977-01-01

57

Protein differential expression in the elongating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber under nitrogen stress.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient and an important factor limiting agricultural productivity. N deficient or excess conditions often occur during the cotton growth season and incorrect N application may affect cotton fiber yield and quality. Here, the influence of N stress on the cotton fiber proteome was investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The results indicated that N application rate affects nitrogen accumulation in fiber cells and fiber length. The proteins differentially expressed during N stress were mainly related to plant carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall component synthesis and transportation, protein/amino acid metabolism, antioxidation and hormone metabolism. The most abundant proteins were C metabolism-related. Ten days post anthesis is a critical time for fiber cells to perceive environmental stress and most proteins were suppressed in both N deficient and N excess conditions at this sampling stage. However, several N metabolism proteins were increased to enhance N stress tolerance. Excess N may suppress carbohydrate/energy metabolism in early fiber development much like N deficiency. These results have identified some interesting proteins that can be further analyzed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of N tolerance. PMID:23160829

Wang, Youhua; Zheng, Mi; Gao, Xiangbin; Zhou, Zhiguo

2012-11-01

58

Characterization of PROFILIN genes from allotetraploid ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cotton and its diploid progenitors and expression analysis in cotton genotypes differing in fiber characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin-binding protein profilin (PRF) plays an important role in cell growth and expansion by regulating the organization\\u000a of the actin filaments. Recent studies have reported association between fiber elongation in cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and PRF expression. In the present study, we cloned four genomic clones from allotetraploid cotton (G. hirsutum) and its putative diploid progenitors (G. arboreum and

Anagnostis Argiriou; Apostolos Kalivas; Georgios Michailidis; Athanasios Tsaftaris

59

Food intake and utilization of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on cotton cultivars with colored fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the development, survivorship, and food intake of cotton leafworm Alabama argillacea (Hübner) fed on three cotton cultivars with colored fibers. Significantly shorter larval life-span and higher pupal weight\\u000a as well as higher survival rates were observed in A. argillacea fed on leaves of BRS Safira and BRS Rubí cotton cultivars compared with the BRS 200 cultivar (BRS = Brazil).

F. S. Ramalho; T. L. Azeredo; F. S. Fernandes; J. L. Nascimento Júnior; J. B. Malaquias; A. R. B. Nascimento; C. A. D. Silva; J. C. Zanuncio

2011-01-01

60

Characterization of mRNA for a proline-rich protein of cotton fiber.  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mRNA (H6) is expressed predominantly in fiber cells and is present during early primary cell wall formation. However, H6 protein is found to accumulate during later stages, when active secondary cell wall formation occurs, indicating possible regulation at the translational level and function in the secondary cell wall assembly. The nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of pCK-H6 is proline rich (35 mol %) with a calculated molecular mass of 21 kD. Cotton protein H6 contains a repetitive pentameric motif (17) of alanine (serine)-threonine (serine)-proline-proline-proline. Its amino acid composition and solubility indicate that it may belong to the group of arabinogalactan proteins. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (55 kD) and size-exclusion chromatography (77-83 kD) overestimated the size of in vitro synthesized H6 protein compared to the molecular mass derived from the nucleotide sequence (21 kD). The conformation of the molecule determined by its unusual primary structure may be the cause of its anomalous mobility. The presence of a proline-rich, arabinogalactan-type protein in cotton fiber raises the interesting possibility that it may be an integral part of the plasmalemma taking part in the development and architecture of the secondary wall of cotton fiber.

John, M E; Keller, G

1995-01-01

61

Characterization of mRNA for a proline-rich protein of cotton fiber.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mRNA (H6) is expressed predominantly in fiber cells and is present during early primary cell wall formation. However, H6 protein is found to accumulate during later stages, when active secondary cell wall formation occurs, indicating possible regulation at the translational level and function in the secondary cell wall assembly. The nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of pCK-H6 is proline rich (35 mol %) with a calculated molecular mass of 21 kD. Cotton protein H6 contains a repetitive pentameric motif (17) of alanine (serine)-threonine (serine)-proline-proline-proline. Its amino acid composition and solubility indicate that it may belong to the group of arabinogalactan proteins. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (55 kD) and size-exclusion chromatography (77-83 kD) overestimated the size of in vitro synthesized H6 protein compared to the molecular mass derived from the nucleotide sequence (21 kD). The conformation of the molecule determined by its unusual primary structure may be the cause of its anomalous mobility. The presence of a proline-rich, arabinogalactan-type protein in cotton fiber raises the interesting possibility that it may be an integral part of the plasmalemma taking part in the development and architecture of the secondary wall of cotton fiber. PMID:7610164

John, M E; Keller, G

1995-06-01

62

Nanofibrillation of cotton fibers by disc refiner and its characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofibrils of cellulose were prepared from short staple cotton by refining process using a lab disc refiner that exerts a\\u000a combination of shear and frictional forces. The nanofibrils were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic\\u000a force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From SEM and AFM, it\\u000a was found that starting average diameter of

V. S. Karande; A. K. Bharimalla; G. B. Hadge; S. T. Mhaske; N. Vigneshwaran

2011-01-01

63

Temperature regime and carbon dioxide enrichment alter cotton boll development and fiber properties  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO{sub 2}] affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development, but the interaction of these two factors on bill and fiber properties has not been studied. An experiment was conducted in naturally lit plant growth chambers to determine the influence of temperature and atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on cotton (cv. DPL-51) boll and fiber growth parameters. Five temperature regimes were evaluated: the 1995 temperature at Mississippi State, MS; the 1995 temperature minus 2 C; and the 1995 temperature plus 2, 5, and 7 C. Daily and seasonal variation and amplitudes were maintained. Atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] treatments were 360 (ambient) and 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1}. Boll number, boll growth, and fiber properties were measured. Boll size and maturation periods decreased as temperature increased. Boll growth increased with temperature to 25 C and then declined at the highest temperature. Boll maturation period, size, and growth rates were not affected by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. The most temperature-sensitive aspect of cotton development is boll retention. Almost no bolls were retained to maturity at 1995 plus 5 or 7 C, but squares and bolls were continuously produced even at those high temperatures. Therefore, the upper limit for cotton boll survival is 32 C, or 5 C warmer than the 1995 US Mid-South ambient temperatures. The 720 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] had about 40% more squares and bolls across temperatures than the 360 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} [CO{sub 2}]. Fibers were longer when bolls grew at less than optimal temperatures (25 C) for boll growth. As temperature increased, fiber length distributions were more uniform. Fiber fineness and maturity increased linearly with the increase in temperature up to 26 C, but decreased at 32 C. Short-fiber content declined linearly from 17 to 26 C, but was higher at higher temperature. As for boll growth and developmental parameters, elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] did not affect any of the fiber parameters. Changes in temperature, however, had a dramatic effect on boll set and fiber properties. The relationships between temperature and boll growth and developmental rate functions and fiber properties provide the necessary functional parameters to build fiber models under optimum water and nutrient conditions.

Reddy, K.R.; Davidonis, G.H.; Johnson, A.S.; Vinyard, B.T.

1999-10-01

64

Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus nidulans : application in the biosoftening of cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of the cellulase activity of Aspergillus nidulans by combinational optimization technique and the usage of cellulase for the biofinishing of cotton fibers were investigated\\u000a in this study. The strain isolated from decayed, outer shell of Arachis hypogaea was compared for the first time for its ability to produce cellulolytic enzyme in shaken cultures using the optimized media\\u000a formulated

S. Anuradha Jabasingh; C. ValliNachiyar

2011-01-01

65

Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile.  

PubMed

This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (?G(#)), enthalpy (?H(#)), and entropy (?S(#)) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9kJmol(-1) indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process. PMID:24882703

Ismail, L F M; Sallam, H B; Abo Farha, S A; Gamal, A M; Mahmoud, G E A

2014-10-15

66

Synthesis, characterization, and anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac-bound cotton fibers.  

PubMed

In the present work, we report on the synthesis of cellulose cotton fibers covalently linked to diclofenac moieties and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of this new biomaterial. In spite of recent progress in experimental and clinical medicine, the problem of chronic wounds treatment is still debated. In fact, conventional methods are based on the use of ointment-soaked bandages, but several physical and biological factors contribute to making the efficacy of this method quite low. For this reason, we developed the idea to using modified cotton gauzes to prevent inflammation during wound healing. In this light, diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was covalently linked to the cellulose backbone of hydrophilic cotton fibers by a heterogeneous synthesis to produce a functionalized biopolymer with a satisfactory degree of substitution and anti-inflammatory activity. Diclofenac was directly linked to fiber microfibril hydroxylic groups using THF with thionyl chloride. The obtained biopolymer was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm ester linkages. Finally, the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in a well-established in vivo model. The results suggested that these biomaterials possess an excellent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, so they can be efficiently employed in biomedical fields for chronic wound management to ensure a valid protection against inflammation. PMID:20536117

Cassano, Roberta; Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Barone, Eugenio; Arena, Vincenzo; Mancuso, Cesare; Picci, Nevio

2010-07-12

67

A Genetic and Metabolic Analysis Revealed that Cotton Fiber Cell Development Was Retarded by Flavonoid Naringenin1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber is a unique elongated cell that is useful for investigating cell differentiation. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of factors such as sugar metabolism, the cytoskeleton, and hormones, which are commonly known to be involved in plant cell development, while the secondary metabolites have been less regarded. By mining public data and comparing analyses of fiber from two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), we found that the flavonoid metabolism is active in early fiber cell development. Different flavonoids exhibited distinct effects on fiber development during ovule culture; among them, naringenin (NAR) could significantly retard fiber development. NAR is a substrate of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), and silencing the F3H gene significantly increased the NAR content of fiber cells. Fiber development was suppressed following F3H silencing, but the overexpression of F3H caused no obvious effects. Significant retardation of fiber growth was observed after the introduction of the F3H-RNA interference segment into the high-flavonoid brown fiber G. hirsutum T586 line by cross. A greater accumulation of NAR as well as much shorter fibers were also observed in the BC1 generation plants. These results suggest that NAR is negatively associated with fiber development and that the metabolism mediated by F3H is important in fiber development, thus highlighting that flavonoid metabolism represents a novel pathway with the potential for cotton fiber improvement.

Tan, Jiafu; Tu, Lili; Deng, Fenglin; Hu, Haiyan; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-01-01

68

Deep Sequencing Reveals Differences in the Transcriptional Landscapes of Fibers from Two Cultivated Species of Cotton  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton.

Lacape, Jean-Marc; Claverie, Michel; Vidal, Ramon O.; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Guimaraes Pereira, Goncalo A.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pre, Martial; Llewellyn, Danny; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Jacobs, John; Dereeper, Alexis; Huguet, Stephanie; Giband, Marc; Lanaud, Claire

2012-01-01

69

Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.  

PubMed

Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. PMID:1631059

John, M E; Crow, L J

1992-07-01

70

Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.  

PubMed Central

Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. Images

John, M E; Crow, L J

1992-01-01

71

Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.  

PubMed

Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use. PMID:19201531

Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou

2009-08-15

72

Identification of GhMYB109 encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor that expressed specifically in fiber initials and elongating fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are derived from ovule epidermis, which are developmentally similar to Arabidopsis trichome where several MYB transcription factors have been shown to control their formation. However, little is known about the molecular control of cotton fiber initiation. Here we isolated 55 cotton MYB domain-containing sequences expressed in ovules during fiber initiation. Among them, GhMYB109, encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor of 234 amino acids, was found to be structurally related to AtMYBGL1 and AtWER controlling the trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern blot hybridization revealed that GhMYB109 is present as a unique-copy gene in cotton genome. RNA expression analysis showed that it is specifically expressed in cotton fiber initial cells as well as elongating fibers. These results suggested that GhMYB109 likely plays a direct role in the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells. PMID:14580676

Suo, Jinfeng; Liang, Xiaoe; Pu, Li; Zhang, Yansheng; Xue, Yongbiao

2003-10-20

73

Organic photodiodes on the base of cotton fibers/polymer composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report a study on the optical and electrical properties of pure cotton fibers from chemically surface and morphology modified and coated with poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) polymer samples by the dip-coating method. The treated and coated fibers properties were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence, and I-V characteristics. The performance of fibers with the MEH-PPV polymer as a coating component was investigated and an excellent white-light emission which consists of blue-, green-, and red-light-emitting bands was demonstrated. I-V characteristics of the sandwich-type devices consisting of successive layers of ITO-PEDOT-PSS- CF/MEH-PPV-Ag show that upon light illumination the current increases in both the forward and reverse bias conditions which suggest that the photoresponse parameters for the heterojunction are better than the composite alone.

Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Cho, H. D.; Lee, J. C.; Kang, T. W.; Mamadalimov, A. T.

2011-12-01

74

Synthesis and characterization of selective thiourea modified Hg(II) ion-imprinted cellulosic cotton fibers.  

PubMed

In the present study, Hg(2+) ion-imprinted chelating fibers based on thiourea modified natural cellulosic cotton fibers (Hg-C-TU) were synthesized and characterized using some instrumental techniques such as elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, wide angle X-ray and XPS spectroscopy. The modified Hg-C-TU fibers were employed for selective removal of Hg(2+) from aqueous solution. Effect of some essential parameters such as pH, temperature, adsorption times and adsorbate concentration were examined to evaluate the optimum adsorption condition. The adsorption kinetics followed the second-order kinetic model indicating that the chemical adsorption is the rate limiting step. Also, the adsorption isotherm experiments showed the best fit with Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacities 110.3 and 61.8 mg/g for both Hg-C-TU and NI-C-TU, respectively. PMID:24721050

Monier, M; Kenawy, I M; Hashem, M A

2014-06-15

75

Genome-wide analysis of small RNAs reveals eight fiber elongation-related and 257 novel microRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other types of small regulatory RNAs play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Cotton is one of the most economically important crops, but little is known about the roles of miRNAs during cotton fiber elongation. Results Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational analysis to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) related to cotton fiber elongation in Gossypium hirsutum L. (G. hirsutum). The sequence analysis confirmed the expression of 79 known miRNA families in elongating fiber cells and identified 257 novel miRNAs, primarily derived from corresponding specific loci in the Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. (G. raimondii) genome. Furthermore, a comparison of the miRNAomes revealed that 46 miRNA families were differentially expressed throughout the elongation period. Importantly, the predicted and experimentally validated targets of eight miRNAs were associated with fiber elongation, with obvious functional relationships with calcium and auxin signal transduction, fatty acid metabolism, anthocyanin synthesis and the xylem tissue differentiation. Moreover, one tasiRNA was also identified, and its target, ARF4, was experimentally validated in vivo. Conclusion This study not only facilitated the discovery of 257 novel low-abundance miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells but also revealed a potential regulatory network of nine sRNAs important for fiber elongation. The identification and characterization of miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells might promote the further study of fiber miRNA regulation mechanisms and provide insight into the importance of miRNAs in cotton.

2013-01-01

76

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality  

PubMed Central

Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive.

Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

2014-01-01

77

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality.  

PubMed

Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

Davis, R F; Earl, H J; Timper, P

2014-06-01

78

Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins

Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

2005-01-01

79

Incorporation of UDPglucose into cell wall glucans and lipids by intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

The (/sup 14/C) moiety from (/sup 3/H)UDP(/sup 14/C)glucose was incorporated by intact cotton fibers into hot water soluble, acetic-nitric reagent soluble and insoluble components, and chloroform-methanol soluble lipids; the (/sup 3/H)UDP moiety was not incorporated. The /sup 3/H-label can be exchanged rapidly with unlabeled substrate in a chase experiment. The cell wall apparent free space of cotton fibers was in the order of 30 picomoles per milligram of dry fibers; 25 picomoles per milligram easily exchanged and about 5 picomoles per milligram more tightly adsorbed. At 50 micromolar UDPglucose, 70% of the (/sup 14/C)glucose was found in the lipid fraction after both a short labeling period and chase. The percent of (/sup 14/C)glucose incorporated into total glucan increased within a 30-minute chase period. The data supports the concept that glucan synthesis, including cellulose, as well as the synthesis of steryl glucosides, acetylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol from externally supplied UDPglucose occurs at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. The synthase enzymes for such synthesis must be part of this interfacial membrane system.

Dugger, W.M.; Palmer, R.L.

1986-06-01

80

Incorporation of UDPGlucose into Cell Wall Glucans and Lipids by Intact Cotton Fibers 1  

PubMed Central

The [14C] moiety from [3H]UDP[14C]glucose was incorporated by intact cotton fibers into hot water soluble, acetic-nitric reagent soluble and insoluble components, and chloroform-methanol soluble lipids; the [3H] UDP moiety was not incorporated. The 3H-label can be exchanged rapidly with unlabeled substrate in a chase experiment. The cell wall apparent free space of cotton fibers was in the order of 30 picomoles per milligram of dry fibers; 25 picomoles per milligram easily exchanged and about 5 picomoles per milligram more tightly adsorbed. At 50 micromolar UDPglucose, 70% of the [14C]glucose was found in the lipid fraction after both a short labeling period and chase. The percent of [14C]glucose incorporated into total glucan increased slightly with chase, but the fraction of total glucans incorporated into insoluble acetic-nitric reagent (cellulose) did increase within a 30-minute chase period. The data supports the concept that glucan synthesis, including cellulose, as well as the synthesis of steryl glucosides, acetylated steryl glucosides, and glucosyl-phosphoryl-polyprenol from externally supplied UDPglucose occurs at the plasma membrane-cell wall interface. The synthase enzymes for such synthesis must be part of this interfacial membrane system.

Dugger, W. M.; Palmer, Raymond L.

1986-01-01

81

Variations and transmission of QTL alleles for yield and fiber qualities in upland cotton cultivars developed in China.  

PubMed

Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

2013-01-01

82

Influence of planting date on stink bug injury, yield, fiber quality, and economic returns in Georgia cotton.  

PubMed

Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late. PMID:24772545

Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Shurley, Donald; Toews, Michael D

2014-04-01

83

Independent replication of mitochondrial genes supports the transcriptional program in developing fiber cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants exist both as a "master circle" chromosome and as numerous subgenomic sublimons that are generated by intramolecular recombination. Differential stability or replication of these sublimons allows individual mitochondrial gene copy numbers to vary independently between different cell types and developmental stages. Our objective was to determine the relationship between mitochondrial gene copy number and transcript abundance in the elongating fiber cells of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). We compared RNA and DNA from cotton fiber cells at five developmental time points from early elongation through secondary cell wall thickening from the Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) short fiber mutant and its wild type near isogenic line (NIL) DP5690. Mitochondrial gene copy number decreased from 3 to 8-DPA in the developing cotton fiber cells while transcript levels remained low. As secondary cell wall biosynthesis began in developing fibers, the expression levels and copy numbers of mitochondrial genes involved in energy production and respiration were up-regulated in wild type cotton DP5690. However, the short fiber mutant Li2, failed to increase expression of these genes, which include three subunits of ATP synthase, atp1, atp8 and atp9 and two cytochrome genes cox1 and cob. At the same time, Li2 failed to increase the copy numbers of these highly expressed genes. Surprisingly, we found that when mitochondrial genes were highly transcribed, they also had very high copy numbers. This observation suggests that in developing cotton fibers, increased mitochondrial sublimon replication may support increases in gene transcription. PMID:24768176

Thyssen, Gregory N; Song, Xianliang; Naoumkina, Marina; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fang, David D

2014-07-01

84

Modification and characterization of cellulose cotton fibers for fast extraction of some precious metal ions.  

PubMed

In this work, native cellulose cotton fibers were first modified through graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and then by insertion of phenyl thiosemicarbazide moieties to finally produce C-PTS chelating fibers, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD spectra. The obtained C-PTS were employed in removal and extraction of Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) precious metal ions from their aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model exhibited the best fit for the experimental data. In addition, the adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities for Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) were 198.31, 87.43 and 71.14mg/g respectively. PMID:24530331

Monier, M; Akl, M A; Ali, Wael M

2014-05-01

85

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ? Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ? The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

Zou, Yunling, E-mail: zouyunling1999@126.com [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

2012-11-15

86

Adsorption of p-nitroaniline from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon fiber prepared from cotton stalk.  

PubMed

Activated carbon fiber prepared from cotton stalk was used as an adsorbent for the removal of p-nitroaniline (PNA) from aqueous solutions. Liquid phase adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorptive capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature on the adsorption was studied. The obtained experimental data were then fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetics rates were modeled by using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations. The results indicated that cotton stalk activated carbon fiber (CS-ACF) is an effective adsorbent for the removal of PNA from aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of 406 mg g(-1) was achieved at the initial PNA concentration of 200 mg L(-1). The optimum pH for the removal of PNA was found to be 7.6. The presence of ammonium chloride proved to be favorable for the process of adsorption. The adsorption amount decreased with increasing temperature. The Redlich-Peterson model was found to best represent the equilibrium data. The kinetic data followed closely the pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous exothermic physical process. PMID:19157698

Li, Kunquan; Zheng, Zheng; Feng, Jingwei; Zhang, Jibiao; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhao, Guohua; Huang, Xingfa

2009-07-30

87

Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

88

Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity. PMID:22890806

Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

2013-01-01

89

Preparation of mixed cellulose ethers by the reaction of short flax fibers and cotton linter with monochloroacetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions of preparation of mixed cellulose ethers containing carboxy and amino groups by the reaction of samples of\\u000a short flax fiber and cotton linter with monochloroacetamide were examined. The influence of the amino groups of the mixed\\u000a cellulose ethers on the rheological properties of their aqueous solutions was elucidated.

N. M. Zabivalova; A. M. Bochek; E. N. Vlasova; B. Z. Volchek

2007-01-01

90

The effects of fruiting positions on cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

2014-01-01

91

The Effects of Fruiting Positions on Cellulose Synthesis and Sucrose Metabolism during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fiber Development  

PubMed Central

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS.

Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

2014-01-01

92

Genome-wide analysis reveals rapid and dynamic changes in miRNA and siRNA sequence and expression during ovule and fiber development in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton fiber development undergoes rapid and dynamic changes in a single cell type, from fiber initiation, elongation, primary and secondary wall biosynthesis, to fiber maturation. Previous studies showed that cotton genes encoding putative MYB transcription factors and phytohormone responsive factors were induced during early stages of ovule and fiber development. Many of these factors are targets of microRNAs (miRNAs)

Mingxiong Pang; Andrew W Woodward; Vikram Agarwal; Xueying Guan; Misook Ha; Vanitharani Ramachandran; Xuemei Chen; Barbara A Triplett; David M Stelly; Z Jeffrey Chen

2009-01-01

93

Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation  

PubMed Central

Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes.

Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

94

Linkage mapping and expression analysis of miRNAs and their target genes during fiber development in cotton  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenously expressed, non-coding RNA molecules involved in gene transcription and expression that combine with specific mRNA site of target genes to inhibit protein synthesis or degrade mRNA. Since the first plant miRNA was reported in 2002, numerous new miRNAs and their targets have been discovered via high-throughput sequencing and computational approaches. However, the genetic variation of miRNA genes is poorly understood due to the lack of miRNA-specific DNA markers. Results To study the genetic variation and map miRNAs and their putative target genes in cotton, we designed specific primers based on pre-miRNAs and published putative target genes. A total of 83 pre-miRNA primers and 1,255 putative target gene primers were surveyed, and 9 pre-miRNA polymorphic loci were mapped on 7 of the 26 tetraploid cotton chromosomes. Furthermore, 156 polymorphic loci of the target genes were mapped on the cotton genome. To map more miRNA loci, miRNA-based SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to map an additional 54 polymorphic loci on the cotton genome with the exception of Chr01, Chr22, and Chr24. Finally, a network between miRNAs and their targets was constructed. All pre-miRNAs and 98 putative target genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different fiber development stages between the mapping parents. Conclusions Our data provide an overview of miRNAs, their putative targets, and their network in cotton as well as comparative expression analyses between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. These data provide a foundation for understanding miRNA regulation during cotton fiber development.

2013-01-01

95

Preparation of activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and its application for oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to produce high surface area–activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and to examine the feasibility of removing oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous solution. The cotton linter fibers activated carbon (CLAC) was characterized by N2 adsorption\\/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that

Yuanyuan Sun; Qinyan Yue; Baoyu Gao; Qian Li; Lihui Huang; Xing Xu

96

Weight Increase of Cotton Fibers During Swelling in Alkali as a Sensitive Measure of Cellulose Degradation in Ruminal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Weight increase of cotton fiber in an 18% NaOH solution, termed “alkali-centrifuge” or “AC” value, was measured after incubation of either 1 g or 100 mg of the fiber in ruminal fluid. The AC response was a sensitive measure of cellulolytic activity. Thus, fiber incubated at 21 and 51°C exhibited major AC increases even when direct weight losses of the unswollen fiber were less than 2%. Similarly, progressive additions of acetic acid to ruminal fluid progressively depressed both AC response and direct weight loss, but the former was still easily measurable when the latter was not. In tightly closed, completely filled vials with high ratio of ruminal fluid to sample, AC increased greatly and rapidly, i.e., in 6 h. This time could be further reduced to 2 h by overnight “preincubation” of the ruminal fluid with cotton fiber before starting the test incubation. Certain surfactants used to aid wetting of the fiber had a low but measurable potency in inhibiting cellulose digestion, but other surfactants were non-inhibitory. The AC response was maintained when ruminal fluid was diluted with an equal amount of McDougall's “artificial saliva” solution.

Simpson, Marion E.; Marsh, Paul B.; Merola, George V.

1977-01-01

97

Natural cotton fibers as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.  

PubMed

A natural material, cotton fiber, has been applied as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for sample preparation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. The cotton fiber was used directly without any chemical modifications, which avoided a complex synthesis process and consumption of a large volume of organic solvent. The conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized to achieve high detection sensitivity, and included elution solvent, ultrasonic elution time, extraction time, sample volume, salt concentration and organic modifier addition. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for seven PAH compounds could reach up to 0.1-2.0 ng L(-1). The method accuracy was evaluated using recovery measurements in standard spiked samples and good recoveries of 70.69-110.04% with relative standard deviations of less than 10% have been achieved. Consequently, the method developed was successfully applied for determining PAH in environmental samples: snow water, metal-fabrication factory wastewater and Xiangjiang River water, with PAH contents ranging from 13.2 to 83.1 ng L(-1). Therefore, using cotton fiber as a new SPE adsorbent, was easy to prepare, had a low cost and great reusability, and this implies it is a promising method for sample preparation. PMID:24872029

Wang, Jianping; Liu, Shengquan; Chen, Chunyan; Zou, Ying; Hu, Huiping; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

2014-06-16

98

Near-isogenic cotton germplasm lines that differ in fiber-bundle strength have temporal differences in fiber gene expression patterns as revealed by comparative high-throughput profiling.  

PubMed

Gene expression profiles of developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from two near-isogenic lines (NILs) that differ in fiber-bundle strength, short-fiber content, and in fewer than two genetic loci were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray. Fiber gene expression was compared at five time points spanning fiber elongation and secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. Fiber samples were collected from field plots in a randomized, complete block design, with three spatially distinct biological replications for each NIL at each time point. Microarray hybridizations were performed in a loop experimental design that allowed comparisons of fiber gene expression profiles as a function of time between the two NILs. Overall, developmental expression patterns revealed by the microarray experiment agreed with previously reported cotton fiber gene expression patterns for specific genes. Additionally, genes expressed coordinately with the onset of SCW biosynthesis in cotton fiber correlated with gene expression patterns of other SCW-producing plant tissues. Functional classification and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes between the two NILs revealed that genes associated with SCW biosynthesis were significantly up-regulated in fibers of the high-fiber quality line at the transition stage of cotton fiber development. For independent corroboration of the microarray results, 15 genes were selected for quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of fiber gene expression. These analyses, conducted over multiple field years, confirmed the temporal difference in fiber gene expression between the two NILs. We hypothesize that the loci conferring temporal differences in fiber gene expression between the NILs are important regulatory sequences that offer the potential for more targeted manipulation of cotton fiber quality. PMID:20087569

Hinchliffe, Doug J; Meredith, William R; Yeater, Kathleen M; Kim, Hee Jin; Woodward, Andrew W; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Triplett, Barbara A

2010-05-01

99

A Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan Protein, GhFLA1, Is Involved in Fiber Initiation and Elongation of Cotton1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in many aspects of plant development. In this study, biochemical and genetic approaches demonstrated that AGPs are abundant in developing fibers and may be involved in fiber initiation and elongation. To further investigate the role of AGPs during fiber development, a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene (GhFLA1) was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Overexpression of GhFLA1 in cotton promoted fiber elongation, leading to an increase in fiber length. In contrast, suppression of GhFLA1 expression in cotton slowed down fiber initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibers of the transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of the wild type. In addition, expression levels of GhFLAs and the genes related to primary cell wall biosynthesis were remarkably enhanced in the GhFLA1 overexpression transgenic fibers, whereas the transcripts of these genes were dramatically reduced in the fibers of GhFLA1 RNA interference plants. An immunostaining assay indicated that both AGP composition and primary cell wall composition were changed in the transgenic fibers. The levels of glucose, arabinose, and galactose were also altered in the primary cell wall of the transgenic fibers compared with those of the wild type. Together, our results suggested that GhFLA1 may function in fiber initiation and elongation by affecting AGP composition and the integrity of the primary cell wall matrix.

Huang, Geng-Qing; Gong, Si-Ying; Xu, Wen-Liang; Li, Wen; Li, Peng; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Deng-Di; Zheng, Yong; Li, Fu-Guang; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-01-01

100

Comparative Proteomics Indicates That Biosynthesis of Pectic Precursors Is Important for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Hair Elongation*  

PubMed Central

The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-l-rhamnose, UDP-d-galacturonic acid, or UDP-d-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-d-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-l-rhamnose and UDP-d-galacturonic acid synthesis.

Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L.; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2010-01-01

101

Genetic Gain in Fiber Properties of Upland Cotton under Varying Plant Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition from foreign grown cotton (Gos- sypium hirsutum L.) and artifi cial fi bers have increased the demand for improved fi ber qual- ity. The genetic potential for effecting change in many traits can be judged by previous gains from selection. Nine upland cotton cultivars developed over the past century were grown during 2004 and 2005 in fi ve plant

Brian M. Schwartz; C. Wayne Smith

2008-01-01

102

Transcriptome Profiling, Molecular Biological, and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Ethylene in Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) produces the most widely used natural fibers, yet the regulatory mechanisms governing fiber cell elongation are not well understood. Through sequencing of a cotton fiber cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found that ethylene biosynthesis is one of the most significantly upregulated biochemical pathways during fiber elongation. The 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase1-3 (ACO1-3) genes responsible for ethylene production were expressed at significantly higher levels during this growth stage. The amount of ethylene released from cultured ovules correlated with ACO expression and the rate of fiber growth. Exogenously applied ethylene promoted robust fiber cell expansion, whereas its biosynthetic inhibitor l-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine (AVG) specifically suppressed fiber growth. The brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthetic pathway was modestly upregulated during this growth stage, and treatment with BR or its biosynthetic inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ) also promoted or inhibited, respectively, fiber growth. However, the effect of ethylene treatment was much stronger than that of BR, and the inhibitory effect of BRZ on fiber cells could be overcome by ethylene, but the AVG effect was much less reversed by BR. These results indicate that ethylene plays a major role in promoting cotton fiber elongation. Furthermore, ethylene may promote cell elongation by increasing the expression of sucrose synthase, tubulin, and expansin genes.

Shi, Yong-Hui; Zhu, Sheng-Wei; Mao, Xi-Zeng; Feng, Jian-Xun; Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Jing; Wei, Li-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2006-01-01

103

Dimerization of cotton fiber cellulose synthase catalytic subunits occurs via oxidation of the zinc-binding domains  

PubMed Central

Cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins are components of CesA complexes (rosettes) and are thought to catalyze the chain elongation step in glucan polymerization. Little is understood about rosette assembly, including how CesAs interact with each other or with other components within the complexes. The first conserved region at the N terminus of plant CesA proteins contains two putative zinc fingers that show high homology to the RING-finger motif. We show that this domain in GhCesA1 can bind two atoms of Zn2+, as predicted by its structure. Analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system indicates that the N-terminal portions of cotton fiber GhCesA1 and GhCesA2 containing these domains can interact to form homo- or heterodimers. Although Zn2+ binding occurs only when the protein is in the reduced form, biochemical analyses show that under oxidative conditions, the GhCesA1 zinc-finger domain and also the full-length protein dimerize via intermolecular disulfide bonds, indicating CesA dimerization can be regulated by redox state. We also provide evidence that the herbicide CGA 325?615 (Syngenta, Basel), which inhibits synthesis of crystalline cellulose and leads to a disruption of rosette architecture, may affect the oxidative state of the zinc-finger domain that is necessary for rosette stability. Taken together, these results support a model in which at least part of the process of rosette assembly and function may involve oxidative dimerization between CesA subunits.

Kurek, Isaac; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Jacob-Wilk, Deborah; Doblin, Monika; Delmer, Deborah

2002-01-01

104

Cotton fibers nano-TiO{sub 2} composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ? The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ? The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ? UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ? The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid {sup 13}C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

Xia, J.H., E-mail: xiajianhan@163.com [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D. [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)] [School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

2012-12-15

105

Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.  

PubMed

Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process. PMID:24762562

Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

106

Transcriptomic Analysis of Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton Chromosome Introgression Lines Carrying Different Gossypium barbadense Chromosomal Segments  

PubMed Central

Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

107

Accumulation of genome-specific transcripts, transcription factors and phytohormonal regulators during early stages of fiber cell development in allotetraploid cotton.  

PubMed

Gene expression during the early stages of fiber cell development and in allopolyploid crops is poorly understood. Here we report computational and expression analyses of 32 789 high-quality ESTs derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) immature ovules (GH_TMO). The ESTs were assembled into 8540 unique sequences including 4036 tentative consensus sequences (TCs) and 4504 singletons, representing approximately 15% of the unique sequences in the cotton EST collection. Compared with approximately 178 000 existing ESTs derived from elongating fibers and non-fiber tissues, GH_TMO ESTs showed a significant increase in the percentage of genes encoding putative transcription factors such as MYB and WRKY and genes encoding predicted proteins involved in auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling pathways. Cotton homologs related to MIXTA, MYB5, GL2 and eight genes in the auxin, BR, GA and ethylene pathways were induced during fiber cell initiation but repressed in the naked seed mutant (N1N1) that is impaired in fiber formation. The data agree with the known roles of MYB and WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis leaf trichome development and the well-documented phytohormonal effects on fiber cell development in immature cotton ovules cultured in vitro. Moreover, the phytohormonal pathway-related genes were induced prior to the activation of MYB-like genes, suggesting an important role of phytohormones in cell fate determination. Significantly, AA sub-genome ESTs of all functional classifications including cell-cycle control and transcription factor activity were selectively enriched in G. hirsutum L., an allotetraploid derived from polyploidization between AA and DD genome species, a result consistent with the production of long lint fibers in AA genome species. These results suggest general roles for genome-specific, phytohormonal and transcriptional gene regulation during the early stages of fiber cell development in cotton allopolyploids. PMID:16889650

Samuel Yang, S; Cheung, Foo; Lee, Jinsuk J; Ha, Misook; Wei, Ning E; Sze, Sing-Hoi; Stelly, David M; Thaxton, Peggy; Triplett, Barbara; Town, Christopher D; Jeffrey Chen, Z

2006-09-01

108

The Control of Single-Celled Cotton Fiber Elongation by Developmentally Reversible Gating of Plasmodesmata and Coordinated Expression of Sucrose and K+ Transporters and Expansin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within z 16 days after an- thesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodes- mata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K

Yong-Ling Ruan; Danny J. Llewellyn; Robert T. Furbank

2001-01-01

109

Biosynthesis of (1. -->. 3)-and (1. -->. 4)-. beta. -D-glucans in cotton fibers (Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum)  

SciTech Connect

The seed hairs of whole intact cotton fruits, at the stage of secondary cell wall formation, synthesize two ..beta..-glucans: callose and cellulose. The callose shows a turnover, and its absolute quantity never exceeds about 1 mg in the fibers of one seed, whereas the weight of cellulose reaches 50 mg or more at the end of growth. With short-term feeding of radioactive precursors ((/sup 14/C)sucrose or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/) to intact fruit capsules up to 40% of the radioactivity incorporated into ..beta..-glucans is found in callose. In experiments in vitro, with detached fibers or with isolated seed clusters, between 70 and 95% of the radioactivity incorporated into glucans is found in callose after feeding of (/sup 14/C)glucose, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, or UDP-(/sup 14/C)glucose. The quantity of cellulose-like glucans formed by detached fibers was, under a number of different experimental conditions, insignificant. Also in detached fibers or in seed clusters, callose showed a turnover. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Meier, H.

1983-01-01

110

Adsorption isotherms of cellulose-based polymers onto cotton fibers determined by means of a direct method of fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present a novel method for the measurement of polymer adsorption on fibers by employing fluorescently labeled polymers. The method itself can be used for any compound that either shows fluorescence or can be labeled with a fluorescent dye, which renders it ubiquitously applicable for adsorption studies. The main advantage of the method is that the choice of adsorbent is not limited to flat surfaces, thereby allowing the investigation of fibrous and porous systems. As an example of high interest for application we determined the adsorption isotherms of various polysaccharide-based polymers with different charges and different substituents on cotton fibers. These experiments show that the extent of adsorption depends not only on the charge conditions but also very much on the specific interactions between the polymer and fiber. For instance, the cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose can become bound to an extent similar to that of the anionic alginate, while the anionic carboxymethyl cellulose of similar charge density adsorbs much less under these conditions. This shows that the adsorption of polymers depends subtly on the details of the interaction between the polymer and fiber but can be determined with good precision with our direct fluorescence method. PMID:22548507

Hoffmann, Ingo; Oppel, Claudia; Gernert, Ulrich; Barreleiro, Paula; von Rybinski, Wolfgang; Gradzielski, Michael

2012-05-22

111

Methylmercury artifact formation during solid-phase extraction of water samples using sulfhydryl cotton fiber adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preconcentration of methylmercury from dilute water samples by solid-phase extraction on a column packed with sulfhydryl cotton causes methylation of inorganic mercury. The effect is most severe for low concentrations of mercury in deionized water and environmental water samples, such as melted snow or rainwater, with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents, resulting in up to 40% conversion of inorganic

Valbona Celo; Ram V Ananth; Susannah L Scott; David R. S Lean

2004-01-01

112

A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars.

Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

2011-01-01

113

Preconcentration method of antimony using modified thiol cotton fiber for isotopic analyses of antimony in natural samples.  

PubMed

It is very important to investigate antimony geochemical behavior in order to identify its source, or reveal contamination processes, since antimony and its compounds are considered to be pollutants of high priority by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (USEPA). However, the concentration of antimony in most geological samples is very low, and its stable isotope mass difference is only 1.6%. An antimony preconcentration method for isotope analysis using modified Thiol Cotton Fiber has been developed. Using this new method, the recovery of antimony was 99.5 ± 3.6% (n = 3) and blank values were <0.1 ng. The standard error of the ?(123)Sb isotope ratios in the proposed method is only 0.4?, much smaller than those of the previous method. The proposed method is therefore effective in the preconcentration and separation of antimony for antimony isotope analysis. PMID:21233556

Asaoka, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshio; Araki, Yuusuke; Tanimizu, Masaharu

2011-01-01

114

Cotton AnnGh3 encoding an annexin protein is preferentially expressed in fibers and promotes initiation and elongation of leaf trichomes in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The annexins are a multifamily of calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding proteins. To investigate the roles of annexins in fiber development, four genes encoding putative annexin proteins were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated AnnGh3, AnnGh4, AnnGh5, and AnnGh6. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that AnnGh3, AnnGh4, and AnnGh5 were preferentially expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of AnnGh6 were predominantly accumulated in roots. During fiber development, the transcripts of AnnGh3/4/5 genes were mainly accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers. With fiber cells further developed, their expression activity was dramatically declined to a relatively low level. In situ hybridization results indicated that AnnGh3 and AnnGh5 were expressed in initiating fiber cells (0-2 DPA). Additionally, their expression in fibers was also regulated by phytohormones and [Ca(2+)]. Subcellular localization analysis discovered that AnnGh3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AnnGh3 in Arabidopsis resulted in a significant increase in trichome density and length on leaves of the transgenic plants, suggesting that AnnGh3 may be involved in fiber cell initiation and elongation of cotton. PMID:23651035

Li, Bing; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Li, Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-10-01

115

Digestibility of cotton lint fiber and whole oilseeds by ruminal microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two series of experiments, rumen microbial digestion of whole oilseeds was measured in sacco (Experiment 1) and of cotton lint, both in sacco and in vitro (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, two ruminally-fistulated cows were fed diets without or with added fat (500 g d?1) in the form of animal-vegetable blend, calcium soaps of tallow fatty acids, or whole

D. L. Palmquist

1995-01-01

116

Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptII and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from\\u000a 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous

FeiFei Li; ShenJie Wu; FenNi Lü; TianZi Chen; Ming Ju; HaiHai Wang; YanJie Jiang; Jie Zhang; WangZhen Guo; TianZhen Zhang

2009-01-01

117

Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase\\/hydrolase genes in cotton and their role in fiber elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell wall extensibility is mediated, in part, by xyloglucan endotransglycosylases\\/hydrolases (XTH) that are able to\\u000a cleave and reattach xyloglucan polymers that make up the hemicelluloses matrix of type I cell walls. In Arabidopsis and other\\u000a plants, XTHs are encoded by relatively large gene families that are regulated in specific spatial and temporal patterns. In\\u000a silico screening of a cotton

Joohyun Lee; Teresa H. Burns; Ginger Light; Yan Sun; Mohamed Fokar; Yoshihisha Kasukabe; Koichi Fujisawa; Yoshihiko Maekawa; Randy D. Allen

2010-01-01

118

Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.  

PubMed

Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. PMID:24279997

Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

2014-02-10

119

Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. It’s proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

120

Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. It's proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

121

Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed cotton fuzz fiber development having a similar molecular model as Arabidopsis trichome.  

PubMed

The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

122

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Cotton Fuzz Fiber Development Having a Similar Molecular Model as Arabidopsis Trichome  

PubMed Central

The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis.

Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

2014-01-01

123

Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress.  

PubMed

Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca(2+) dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions. We generated transgenic cotton plants expressing mustard annexin (AnnBj1), which showed enhanced tolerance towards different abiotic stress treatments like sodium chloride, mannitol, polyethylene glycol and hydrogen peroxide. The tolerance to these treatments was associated with decreased hydrogen peroxide levels and enhanced total peroxidase activity, enhanced content of osmoprotectants- proline and sucrose in transgenic plants. They showed higher retention of total chlorophyll and reduced TBARS in leaf disc assays with stress treatments, and decreased hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the stomatal guard cells when compared to their wild type counterparts. They also showed significantly enhanced fresh weight, relative water content, dry weight under stress. Treatment with sodium chloride resulted in enhanced expression of genes for Delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthetase in leaves, and sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and cellulose synthase A in the leaves and fibers of transgenic plants. The transgenic plants maintained normal seed development, fiber quality and cellulose content under stress. PMID:20148350

Divya, Kesanakurti; Jami, S K; Kirti, P B

2010-06-01

124

Cotton and Protein Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

2006-06-30

125

X-ray studies of regenerated cellulose fibers wet spun from cotton linter pulp in NaOH\\/thiourea aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5wt%) and thiourea (4.5wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering

Xuming Chen; Christian Burger; Dufei Fang; Dong Ruan; Lina Zhang; Benjamin S. Hsiao; Benjamin Chu

2006-01-01

126

The cotton fiber zinc-binding domain of cellulose synthase A1 from Gossypium hirsutum displays rapid turnover in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the assembly and turnover of cellulose synthase complexes commonly called rosettes. Recent work indicates that rosette assembly could involve the dimerization of CesA (cellulose synthase catalytic subunit) proteins regulated by the redox state of the CesA zinc-binding domain (ZnBD). Several studies in the 1980s led to the suggestion that synthase complexes may have very short half-lives in vivo, but no recent work has directly addressed this issue. In the present work, we show that the half-life of cotton fiber GhCesA1 protein is <30 min in vivo, far less than the average membrane protein. We also show that the reduced monomer of GhCesA1 ZnBD is rapidly degraded when exposed to cotton fiber extracts, whereas the oxidized dimer is resistant to degradation. Low rates of degradation activity were detected in vitro by using extracts from fibers harvested during primary cell-wall formation, but activity increased markedly during transition to secondary cell-wall synthesis. In vitro degradation of reduced GhCesA1 ZnBD is inhibited by proteosome inhibitor MG132 and also by E64 and EGTA, suggesting that proteolysis is initiated by cysteine protease activity rather than the proteosome. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify a putative cotton fiber metallothionein and to confirm it as a protein that could interact with the GhCesA1 ZnBD. A model is proposed wherein active cellulose synthase complexes contain CesA proteins in dimerized form, and turnover and degradation of the complexes are mediated through reductive zinc insertion by metallothionein and subsequent proteolysis involving a cysteine protease.

Jacob-Wilk, Debora; Kurek, Isaac; Hogan, Patrick; Delmer, Deborah P.

2006-01-01

127

Saturated Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acids Promote Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Cell Elongation by Activating Ethylene Biosynthesis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids are essential for membrane biosynthesis in all organisms and serve as signaling molecules in many animals. Here, we found that saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; C20:0 to C30:0) exogenously applied in ovule culture medium significantly promoted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cell elongation, whereas acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-acetamide; ACE), which inhibits VLCFA biosynthesis, abolished fiber growth. This inhibition was overcome by lignoceric acid (C24:0). Elongating fibers contained significantly higher amounts of VLCFAs than those of wild-type or fuzzless-lintless mutant ovules. Ethylene nullified inhibition by ACE, whereas C24:0 was inactive in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor (l-[2-aminoethoxyvinyl]-glycine), indicating that VLCFAs may act upstream of ethylene. C24:0 induced a rapid and significant increase in ACO (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) transcript levels that resulted in substantial ethylene production. C24:0 also promoted Ser palmitoyltransferase expression at a later stage, resulting in increased sphingolipid biosynthesis. Application of C24:0 not only stimulated Arabidopsis thaliana root cell growth but also complemented the cut1 phenotype. Transgenic expression of Gh KCS13/CER6, encoding the cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, in the cut1 background produced similar results. Promotion of Arabidopsis stem elongation was accompanied by increased ACO transcript levels. Thus, VLCFAs may be involved in maximizing the extensibility of cotton fibers and multiple Arabidopsis cell types, possibly by activating ethylene biosynthesis.

Qin, Yong-Mei; Hu, Chun-Yang; Pang, Yu; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Zhu, Yu-Xian

2007-01-01

128

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01

129

Changing the Dimensions of Suberin Lamellae of Green Cotton Fibers with a Specific Inhibitor of the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Fatty Acid Elongases.  

PubMed Central

The fibers of the green lint mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) contain large amounts of wax and are suberized. More than 96% of the bifunctional aliphatic suberin monomers ([alpha],[omega]-alkanedioic acids and [omega]-hydroxyalkanoic acids) have chain lengths of C22 and C24 in green cotton fiber suberin. In fibers grown in the presence of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated fatty acid elongases, the aliphatic suberin monomers were shortened to chain lengths of C16 and C18. Whereas the amounts of most suberin monomers were not negatively affected by the inhibitor treatment, the amounts of [alpha],[omega]-alkanedioic acids and of glycerol were reduced by more than 80%. Analysis in the transmission electron microscope showed a reduction in suberin content after EPTC treatment. The suberin layers were discontinuous and consisted of fewer lamellae than in the controls. A small proportion (up to 22%) of the electron-translucent suberin lamellae were thinner after EPTC treatment, probably because of the shortening of the aliphatic suberin monomers. A larger proportion of the electron-translucent lamellae were thicker than the lamellae in the controls. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

Schmutz, A.; Buchala, A. J.; Ryser, U.

1996-01-01

130

Characterization of expressed sequence tags from developing fibers of Gossypium barbadense and evaluation of insertion-deletion variation in tetraploid cultivated cotton species  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied. Results A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species. Conclusion Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits, genetic differentiation and comparative genomic studies between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense.

2013-01-01

131

Preparation of activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and its application for oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption.  

PubMed

The objective of this research is to produce high surface area-activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and to examine the feasibility of removing oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous solution. The cotton linter fibers activated carbon (CLAC) was characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CLAC had a predominantly microporous structure with a large surface area of 2143 m(2)/g. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and equilibrium was achieved within 24h. The equilibrium data were described well by Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic reaction at low concentration and became endothermic nature with the concentration increasing. Competitive adsorption took place in the weakly acidic to neutral conditions. Under the strong acidity or strong alkaline condition, the adsorption of the oxytetracycline was hindered by electrostatic repulsion. The adsorption mechanism depended on the pH of the solutions as well as the pK(a) of the oxytetracycline. PMID:22137171

Sun, Yuanyuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Huang, Lihui; Yao, Fujiang; Xu, Xing

2012-02-15

132

Cotton Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous steps are required to prepare harvested seed cotton for entry into marketing channels as baled lint and cottonseed products. Farmer cooperatives play a major role in merchandising American cotton and cottonseed products, as well as performing and...

B. Reynolds

1985-01-01

133

Oil removal from water by sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 2. Study of sorption properties in dynamic mode.  

PubMed

The recovery of oil from an oil-in-water emulsion, during a flow through a bed of cotton rendered hydrophobic by acylation of cellulose was defined by sorption and coalescence phenomena. During percolation, the column "hold-up" (difference between injected and rejected oil) became constant at the equilibrium volume, i.e., as soon as the instant oil concentration in the effluent (C) was equal to the oil concentration in the initial emulsion (C0). This equilibrium permitted the measurement of the cotton sorption capacity (SC), which increased with C0 up to the cotton saturation. The oil-water separation improved at a lower temperature, lower flow, a deeper medium, and larger oil drops. The system was modeled as a piston flow-through in order to generalize the results. PMID:14620835

Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Albasi, Claire; Riba, Jean-Pierre; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

2003-11-01

134

Cotton and Wool: Situation and Outlook Report, November 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary; Textiles and the Economy; U.S. Cotton Situation and Outlook; Foreign Cotton Situation and Outlook; U.S. Wool Situation and Outlook; Foreign Wool Situation and Outlook; Mohair; Manmade Fibers; List of Tables.

1993-01-01

135

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

136

No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed. PMID:22314028

Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

2012-08-01

137

Enhanced plant growth, development and fiber yield of Bt transgenic cotton by an integration of plastic mulching and seedling transplanting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic mulching and seedling transplanting are widely adopted intensive planting systems for cotton production in China. Previous studies have demonstrated considerable yield increases by individual use of mulching or transplanting compared with conventional planting. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to test if an integration of transplanting and plastic mulching is more beneficial than individual use of transplanting

Hezhong Dong; Weijiang Li; Wei Tang; Zhenhuai Li; Dongmei Zhang

2007-01-01

138

Direct photolabeling with ( sup 32 P)UDP-glucose for identification of a subunit of cotton fiber callose synthase. [Gossypium hirsutum  

SciTech Connect

The authors have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1{r arrow}3)-{beta}-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, {alpha}-({sup 32}P)UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca{sup 2+}, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the K{sub m} of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase.

Delmer, D.P.; Solomon, M.; Read, S.M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1991-02-01

139

Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca2+ dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions.\\u000a We generated transgenic cotton plants expressing mustard annexin (AnnBj1), which showed enhanced tolerance towards different abiotic stress treatments like sodium chloride, mannitol, polyethylene\\u000a glycol and hydrogen peroxide. The tolerance to these treatments was associated with

Kesanakurti Divya; S. K. Jami; P. B. Kirti

2010-01-01

140

Cotton linters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton linters, the relatively short fuzz left on cottonseed after the cotton ginning process, is thepurest cellulose in chemistry having hundreds of end uses. The end product available from linters is an extremely valuable annuallly renewable resource\\u000a having more uses than any other part of the cottonseed. Its many uses, small cost of removal, and revenue therefrom should\\u000a confirm that

James C. Orr

1978-01-01

141

[beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro  

SciTech Connect

In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-04-01

142

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (II. Regulation and Kinetic Properties of [beta]-Glucan Synthases.  

PubMed Central

The regulation and kinetic properties of cellulose synthase as well as [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase have been studied. The cellulose was detected using acetic/nitric acid insolubility as an indicator of cellulose (this product contained only [beta]-1,4-linked glucans; K. Okuda, L. Li, K. Kudlicka, S. Kuga, R.M. Brown, Jr. [1993] Plant Physiol 101: 1131-1142). These studies reveal that (a) [beta]-1,3-glucan synthesis is enhanced up to 31-fold by cellobiose with a Ka of 1.16 mM; (b) cellulose synthesis is increased 12-fold by a combination of cellobiose (Ka = 3.26 mM) and cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP (Ka = 100 [mu]M); (c) the common components in the reaction mixture required by both enzymes are cellobiose, calcium, and digitonin; (d) cellulose synthase has an essential requirement for magnesium (Ka = 0.89 mM); (e) cellulose synthase also requires a low concentration of calcium (Ka = 90 [mu]M); (f) the optimal pH for cellulose synthase (7.6-8.0) is slightly higher than that for [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase (7.2-7.6); (g) the Km for UGP-Glc for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cellulose synthase is 0.40 mM; (h) the Km for UDP-Glc for for [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase is 0.43 mM.

Li, L.; Brown, R. M.

1993-01-01

143

Genome Physical Mapping of Polyploids: A BIBAC Physical Map of Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L  

PubMed Central

Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

Huang, James J.; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M.; Zhang, Hong-Bin

2012-01-01

144

Electrical insulated paper from cotton linter.  

PubMed

Insulated paper had been prepared from cotton linter containing certain additives. Strength properties had been studied for all paper prepared from cotton linter, before and after impregnating in the linseed oil. Also, the dielectric constant (?) and AC electrical conductivity with frequencies over the range (100 kHz to 3 MHz) and at different temperatures were studied. Blended cotton linter with glass fiber or polyester fiber increased the dielectric constant. Since the glass fibers lowered the power factor from 0.63 to 0.28% and enhanced dielectric constant. The addition of hydrophilic fibers such as rayon or polyester fiber can be made paper of low porosity, low density and high dielectric resistance. Also, the addition of lead sulphate improved dielectric constant of paper since it has dielectric coefficient >20. The dielectric constant in sample which dipped in oil is higher than the sample without oil. PMID:24751023

El-Saied, Houssni; El-Meligy, Magda G; Mohamed, Samar H; El-Mongy, S Abd

2012-09-01

145

Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.  

PubMed

We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications. PMID:24471981

Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

2014-02-26

146

Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

2006-11-01

147

Cloning and characterization of homeologous cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 2 genes from allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) are the catalytic sites within a multisubunit complex for cellulose biosynthesis in plants. CesAs have been extensively studied in diploid plants, but are not well characterized in polyploid plants. Gossypium hirsutum is an allotetraploid cotton species producing over 90% of the world's cotton fibers. Although G. hirsutum CesAs (GhCesAs) are responsible for cellulose production in cotton fiber, very limited numbers of GhCesA genes have been identified. Here, we report isolating and characterizing a pair of homeologous CesA2 genes and their full-length cDNAs from allotetraploid cotton. The GhCesA2-A(T) gene from the A-subgenome and GhCesA2-D(T) gene from the D-subgenome were screened from a G. hirsutum BAC library. These genes shared 92% sequence similarity throughout the entire sequence. The coding sequences were nearly identical, and the deduced amino acid sequences from GhCesA2-A(T) (1,039 amino acids) and GhCesA2-D(T) (1,040 amino acids) were identical except four amino acids, whereas the noncoding sequences showed divergence. Sequence analyses showed that all exons of GhCesA2-A(T) contained consensus splice donor dinucleotides, but one exon in GhCesA2-D(T) contained nonconsensus splice donor dinucleotides. Although the nonconsensus splice donor dinucleotides were previously suggested to be involved in alternative splice or pseudogenization, our results showed that a majority of GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) transcripts consisted of functional and full-length transcripts with little evidence for alternative mRNA isoforms in developing cotton fibers. Expression analyses showed that GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) shared common temporal and spatial expression patterns, and they were highly and preferentially expressed during the cellulose biosynthesis stage in developing cotton fibers. The observations of higher expression levels of both GhCesA2-A(T) and GhCesA2-D(T) in developing fibers of one near-isogenic line (NIL) with higher fiber bundle strength over the other NIL with lower fiber bundle strength suggested that the differential expression of genes associated with secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing fiber might affect cotton fiber properties. PMID:22200568

Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara A; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Li, Ping; Fang, David D

2012-02-25

148

Comparative transcriptome analysis between somatic embryos (SEs) and zygotic embryos in cotton: evidence for stress response functions in SE development.  

PubMed

As a product of asexual reproduction in plants, the somatic embryo (SE) differentiates into a new plantlet via a zygotic embryogenesis-like process. Here, we present the phenotypic and cellular differences between SEs and zygotic embryos (ZEs) revealed by histological section scanning using three parallel development stages of the two types of embryos of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. YZ1), including globular, torpedo and cotyledonary-stages. To identify the molecular characteristics of SE development in cotton, the digital gene expression system was used to profile the genes active during SE and ZE development. A total of 4242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in at least one developmental stage. Expression pattern and functional classification analysis based on these DEGs reveals that SE development exhibits a transcriptional activation of stress responses. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed enhanced expression levels of stress-related genes in SEs than in ZEs. Experimental stress treatment, induced by NaCl and ABA, accelerated SE development and increased the transcription of genes related to stress response, in parallel with decelerated proliferation of embryogenic calluses under stress treatment. Our data reveal that SE development involves the activation of stress responses, which we suggest may regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of SE development and suggest strategies that can be used for regulating the developmental processes of somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24112122

Jin, Fangyan; Hu, Lisong; Yuan, Daojun; Xu, Jiao; Gao, Wenhui; He, Liangrong; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-02-01

149

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  

PubMed

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

2009-08-01

150

A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants.

Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

2013-01-01

151

Effect of farm management practices in the Bt toxin production by Bt cotton: evidence from farm fields in China.  

PubMed

Based on farm field plot level survey data and laboratory test, we examine the determinants of the expression of Bt toxin in China's Bt cotton production. The results show that the expression of Bt toxin differs significantly among varieties. Even for the same variety the expression of Bt toxin also varies substantially among villages and among farmers in the same village. Econometric analyses show that after controlling for the effects of varieties and locations (or villages), farm management, particular applications of phosphate and potash fertilizers, and manure, has significant positive effects on Bt toxin expression in farmer's fields. In contrast to previous studies which showed that nitrogen fertilizer has a positive impact on expression of Bt toxin, this study shows that nitrogen fertilizer has no significant impact on expression of Bt toxin in farmer's fields. On the other hand, the expression of Bt toxin has a positive relationship with phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and manure application. PMID:24445856

Huang, Jikun; Mi, Jianwei; Chen, Ruijian; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming; Qiao, Fangbin; Hu, Ruifa

2014-06-01

152

Foliar boron application affects lint and seed yield and improves seed quality of cotton grown on calcareous soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the most important fiber crops worldwide because of the good fiber quality, high yield, and high adaptability. Cotton has high requirements for B and many times B is applied to correct B deficiency. Despite the fact that B is important for cotton the effect of foliar applications on seed yield and seed quality

Christos Dordas

2006-01-01

153

Electrophysiological evidence of monosynaptic excitatory transmission between granule cells after seizure-induced mossy fiber sprouting.  

PubMed

Mossy fiber sprouting is a form of synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus that occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and animal models of epilepsy. The axons of dentate gyrus granule cells, called mossy fibers, develop collaterals that grow into an abnormal location, the inner third of the dentate gyrus molecular layer. Electron microscopy has shown that sprouted fibers from synapses on both spines and dendritic shafts in the inner molecular layer, which are likely to represent the dendrites of granule cells and inhibitory neurons. One of the controversies about this phenomenon is whether mossy fiber sprouting contributes to seizures by forming novel recurrent excitatory circuits among granule cells. To date, there is a great deal of indirect evidence that suggests this is the case, but there are also counterarguments. The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional monosynaptic connections exist between granule cells after mossy fiber sprouting. Using simultaneous recordings from granule cells, we obtained direct evidence that granule cells in epileptic rats have monosynaptic excitatory connections with other granule cells. Such connections were not obtained when age-matched, saline control rats were examined. The results suggest that indeed mossy fiber sprouting provides a substrate for monosynaptic recurrent excitation among granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Interestingly, the characteristics of the excitatory connections that were found indicate that the pathway is only weakly excitatory. These characteristics may contribute to the empirical observation that the sprouted dentate gyrus does not normally generate epileptiform discharges. PMID:14534276

Scharfman, Helen E; Sollas, Anne L; Berger, Russell E; Goodman, Jeffrey H

2003-10-01

154

Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.  

PubMed

India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

2013-01-01

155

Identification of the family of aquaporin genes and their expression in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is produced in over 30 countries and represents the most important natural fiber in the world. One of the primary factors affecting both the quantity and quality of cotton production is water. A major facilitator of water movement through cell membranes of cotton and other plants are the aquaporin proteins. Aquaporin proteins are present as diverse

Brian E Scheffler; Philip J Bauer; B Todd Campbell

2010-01-01

156

Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

2003-10-01

157

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].  

PubMed

Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber. PMID:22586965

Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-02-01

158

Supervised Learning Approach for Predicting the Quality of Cotton Using WEKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cotton is the world’s most important natural fibre used in Textile manufacturing. Cotton fiber is processed into yarn and\\u000a fabric. Yarn strength depends extremely on the quality of cotton. The physical characteristics such as fiber length, length\\u000a distribution, trash value, color grade, strength, shape, tenacity, density, moisture absorption, dimensional stability, resistance,\\u000a thermal reaction, count, etc., contributes to the quality of

M. Selvanayaki; M. S. Vijaya; K. S. Jamuna; S. Karpagavalli

2010-01-01

159

Process of Resin Treating a Cotton Batting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fibrous batts are used in the furniture and automotive industries for upholstery, mattresses and automotive cushioning. The web of opened textile fibers of cotton are treated before final forming with a resin. The resin is made of dimethylol ethyl car...

N. B. Knoepfler H. K. Gardner H. L. E. Vix

1965-01-01

160

Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22537835

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

2012-07-01

161

The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.  

PubMed

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

162

The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China  

PubMed Central

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

163

Cotton functionalized with peptides: characterization and synthetic methods.  

PubMed

Three approaches for the chemical ligation of peptides to cotton fibers are described and compared. This investigation was encouraged by the need to create peptide-decorated natural textiles, furnished with useful properties (e.g. antimicrobial activity). IR absorption spectroscopy is proved to be an easy and fast method to check the covalent anchorage of a peptide to cotton, whereas for a quantitative determination, a UV absorption method was employed. We also analyzed the usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize our peptide-cotton conjugates. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24889682

Orlandin, Andrea; Formaggio, Fernando; Toffoletti, Antonio; Peggion, Cristina

2014-07-01

164

Experimental evidence for the formation of divalent ytterbium in the photodarkening process of Yb-doped fiber lasers.  

PubMed

In this work we present experimental evidence that the valence instability of the ytterbium ion play a key role for the observed photodarkening mechanism in Yb-doped fiber lasers. Luminescence and excitation spectroscopy performed on UV irradiated Yb/Al doped silica glass preforms and near-infrared diode pumped photodarkened fibers show a concentration increase of Yb(2+) ions. A concentration decrease in Yb(3+) could also be observed for the UV irradiated preform. The findings contribute to an increased understanding of the kinetic processes related to photodarkening in Yb-doped high power fiber lasers. PMID:23546049

Rydberg, S; Engholm, M

2013-03-25

165

Fiber  

MedlinePLUS

... short period of time can cause intestinal gas ( flatulence ), bloating , and abdominal cramps . This usually goes away ... Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and ...

166

Identification of natural dyes on laboratory-dyed wool and ancient wool, silk, and cotton fibers using attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared and Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectra were obtained from wool threads dyed in the laboratory with natural dyes used in antiquity, following a procedure similar to ancient methods for dyeing wool. The ATR spectra were primarily dominated by the signals of the wool, making it difficult to identify the dye on the fibers only by visual inspection of the infrared spectrum. However, the Raman spectra showed more significant characteristics attributable to the dyes as previously studied in the literature on modern synthetic dyes. A library-search method was thus applied to the second derivatives of both the ATR and Raman spectra to verify the possibility of identifying the dye. Two libraries were constructed, one consisting of the ATR spectra of undyed wool (raw, washed, and mordanted) and the transmission spectra of pure dyes and the other consisting of the Raman spectra of undyed wool and of pure dyes. Correlation and first-derivative correlation search algorithms were used. The results presented here suggest that the two types of spectroscopy are complementary in this kind of work, allowing the almost complete identification of historic dyes on wool. In fact, through the combined use of the two searches, most dyes were identified with a good index of similarity and within the first five hits. Only for annatto was identification totally impossible using either technique. Subsequently the same method was applied to wool, silk, and cotton threads taken from ancient Caucasian and Chinese textiles. PMID:21929856

Bruni, Silvia; De Luca, Eleonora; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Pozzi, Federica

2011-09-01

167

Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) Fiber Compared to Cotton Underwear in the Treatment of Childhood Atopic Dermatitis: A Double-Blind Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of underwear made of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Twenty-one AD children (11 EVOH group and 10 control group) were studied for 4 weeks. Their AD severity based on the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and physiological functions were assessed. The objective SCORAD significantly

YOKO YOKOYAMA; HAJIME KIMATA; SACHIKO MITARAI; SHOICHI HIRANO; TARO SHIRAKAWA

2009-01-01

168

Cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with cultivars: genetic model evaluation and seed trait analyses.  

PubMed

Seed from upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., provides a desirable and important nutrition profile. In this study, several seed traits (protein content, oil content, seed hull fiber content, seed index, seed volume, embryo percentage) for F(3) hybrids of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with five elite cultivars over four environments were evaluated. Oil and protein were expressed both as percentage of total seed weight and as an index which is the grams of product/100 seeds. An additive and dominance (AD) genetic model with cytoplasmic effects was designed, assessed by simulations, and employed to analyze these seed traits. Simulated results showed that this model was sufficient for analyzing the data structure with F(3) and parents in multiple environments without replications. Significant cytoplasmic effects were detected for seed oil content, oil index, seed index, seed volume, and seed embryo percentage. Additive effects were significant for protein content, fiber content, protein index, oil index, fiber index, seed index, seed volume, and embryo percentage. Dominance effects were significant for oil content, oil index, seed index, and seed volume. Cytoplasmic and additive effects for parents and dominance effects in homozygous and heterozygous forms were predicted. Favorable genetic effects were predicted in this study and the results provided evidence that these seed traits can be genetically improved. In addition, chromosome associations with AD effects were detected and discussed in this study. PMID:20087566

Wu, Jixiang; McCarty, Jack C; Jenkins, Johnie N

2010-05-01

169

Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.  

PubMed

Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. PMID:23987402

Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

2013-10-15

170

Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cottonization. There was a monotonically decreasing relationship between the strength and the number of processing steps, which was

Anders Thygesen; Bo Madsen; Anne Belinda Bjerre; Hans Lilholt

2011-01-01

171

Antibacterial Nanofinishing of Cotton Fabrics Using Silver Nanoparticles via Simultaneous Synthesizing and Coating Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the nanofinishing of cotton fabric using silver nanoparticles synthesized simultaneously in the presence of such a simple reducing agent. The silver nanoparticles are analyzed by scanning electron microscope image, which disclosed the attendance of silver nanoparticles on cotton fibers. The coated fabrics show antibacterial activity, which could render them of value in applications. Antibacterial tests against Staphylococcus

A. Shams Nateri; A. Oroumei; S. Dadvar; A. Fallah-Shojaie; Gh. Khayati; O. Emamgholipur

2011-01-01

172

Keynes and the cotton industry: a reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reinterprets Keynes’s analysis of the crisis in the Lancashire cotton industry in the 1920s. It presents empirical evidence showing that syndicates of local shareholders, but not the banks, were an important brake on firms exiting, at a time when exit barriers were otherwise unproblematic in this competitive industry. Moreover, syndicates milked firms of any profits through dividends, thereby

David Higgins; Steven Toms; Igor Filatotchev

2007-01-01

173

Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus diverse additional symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, which precludes definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by the dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established causes, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, eg, diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled as having fibromyalgia have unrecognized SFPN that is causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, neurological examinations, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 patients with fibromyalgia and in 30 matched normal controls. Patients with fibromyalgia had to satisfy the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present evidence of a physician's actual diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The study's instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). We found that 41% of skin biopsies from subjects with fibromyalgia vs 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher in patients with fibromyalgia than in control subjects (all P ? 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent, suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from subjects with fibromyalgia and SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into causes. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but 8 subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and 1 family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as fibromyalgia have unrecognized SFPN, a distinct disease that can be tested for objectively and sometimes treated definitively. PMID:23748113

Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather M; Klein, Max M

2013-11-01

174

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cotton sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of cotton is measured using time-domain spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, from 0.1 to 1.5 THz. An effective medium approximation is used to model the combined cotton and air comprising the samples, and the refractive index of cotton fibers determined. The imaginary part of the refractive index varies across this frequency range with corresponding attenuation coefficient increasing from ˜ 2 to ˜ 12 cm-1, while the real part remains constant at n ˜ 1.144. The effect of moisture content is systematically examined and absorption of the samples determined. Concealed material detection was tested by measuring the 1.44-THz absorption band of representative substance D-Glucose embedded in cotton sheets.

Zhu, Yanhan; Holtz, Mark; Bernussi, Ayrton

2012-10-01

175

Evidence of Functional Mossy Fiber Sprouting in Hippocampal Formation of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rat hippocampal formation, degeneration of CA4- derived afferent fibers provokes the growth of mossy fiber collaterals into the fascia dentata. These aberrant fibers subsequently form granule cell-granule cell synapses. The hippocampal slice preparation was employed to determine whether these recurrent connections are electrophysiologi- tally functional. Hippocampal slices were prepared 12 to 21 days after the bilateral destruction of

DAVID L. TAUCK; J. VICTOR NADLERS

176

The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton  

PubMed Central

The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality.

Starr, J. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Robinson, A. F.; Roberts, P. A.; Nichols, R. L.

2007-01-01

177

Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of ?(a)/?(r) = 151°/144° (?(a), advancing contact angle; ?(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation. PMID:23186211

Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

2012-12-18

178

Economic Policy and Cotton in Uzbekistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uzbekistan is the seventh largest global cotton producer and third largest cotton supplier for world markets. Uzbekistans Government policies largely shield cotton producers from world market price signals, and cotton area has changed little over the past...

S. MacDonald

2012-01-01

179

Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.  

PubMed

Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:23190258

Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

2014-06-01

180

Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FT-IR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region, and such spectral distinctions formed the basis on which to develop simple three-band ratio algorithm for classification analysis. Next, an additional formula was created to assess the degree of cotton fiber maturity by converting the three-band ratios into an appropriate FT-IR maturity (MIR) index. Furthermore, the MIR index was compared with parameters derived from traditional image analysis (IA) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements. Results indicated strong correlations (R2 > 0.89) between MIR and MAFIS and between MIR and MIA among either International Cotton Calibration (ICC) standards or selected cotton maturity references. On the other hand, low correlations between the pairs were observed among regular cotton fibers, which likely resulted from the heterogeneous distribution of structural, physical, and chemical characteristics in cotton fibers and subsequent different sampling specimens for individual and independent measurement.

Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary R.

2011-05-01

181

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged...producer to pledge the seed cotton to CCC as...redeemed; (6) Be production from acreage that...and (b) The quality of cotton which...cotton in each lot of seed cotton as...

2010-01-01

182

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged...producer to pledge the seed cotton to CCC as...redeemed; (6) Be production from acreage that...and (b) The quality of cotton which...cotton in each lot of seed cotton as...

2009-01-01

183

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

184

Correspondence of Trichome Mutations in Diploid and Tetraploid Cottons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative variation for leaf trichome number is observed within and among Gossypium species, varying from glabrous to densely pubescent phenotypes. Moreover, economically important cotton lint fibers are modified trichomes. Earlier studies have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting leaf pubescence in Gossypium using allotetraploids. In this study, we mapped genes responsible for leaf trichome density in a diploid A genome

APARNA DESAI; P ENG W. C HEE; O. L LOYD; ANDREW H. PATERSON

185

Correspondence of Trichome Mutations in Diploid and Tetraploid Cottons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative variation for leaf trichome number is observed within and among Gossypium species, varying from glabrous to densely pubescent phenotypes. Moreover, economically important cotton lint fibers are modified trichomes. Earlier studies have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting leaf pubescence in Gossypium using allotetraploids. In this study, we mapped genes responsible for leaf trichome density in a diploid A genome

APARNA DESAI; P ENG W. CHEE; O. L. May; ANDREW H. PATERSON

2008-01-01

186

Tensile test evidence of morphological structural changes in superconducting NbTi fibers and composites  

SciTech Connect

Tensile stress experiments were made on single Ti 39.5 at % Nb fibers, 18.3 ..mu..m in diameter, and fiber bundles chemically extracted from a commercial superconducting composite. As the temperature decreases, the fracture stress increases, as does the fracture elongation. This abnormal behavior argues for either a very fine-scale structural change or microdeformation. Load-strain serrations, previously reported, were not observed in these small-diameter fibers.

Wright, L.S.; Wiederick, H.D.; Hutchison, T.S.

1984-12-01

187

Ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence for single impulse initiation zones in vestibular macular nerve fibers of rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cupric ion-ferricyanide labeling methods and related ferrocyanide-stained tissues were used to locate the characterize, at the ultrastructural level, presumptive impulse initiation zones in the three types of vestibular macular nerve fibers. Large-diameter, M-type vestibular nerve fibers terminate in a calyx at the heminode, and labeling is coextensive with the base of the calyx. Intermediate, M/U-type nerve fibers have short, unmyelinated preterminal segments that sometimes bifurcate intamacularly, and small-diameter, U-type nerve fibers have long, unmyelinated preterminal axons and up to three branches. Preterminals of these nerve fibers display ultrastructural heterogeneity that is correlated with labeling patterns for sodium channels and/or associated polyanionic sites. They have a nodelike ultrastructure and label heavily from near the heminode to the base of the macula. Their intramacular branches, less organized ultrastructurally, label only slightly. Results indicate that vestibular nerve fibers have one impulse initiation zone, located near the heminode, that varies in length according to nerve fiber type. Structural heterogeneity may favor impulse conduction in the central direction, and length of the impulse initiation zone could influence nerve discharge patterns.

Ross, Muriel D.; Chee, Oliver; Black, Samuel; Cutler, Lynn

1991-01-01

188

Interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and potassium deficiency on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass partitioning of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern cotton production systems, potassium (K) deficiency is one of the major factors limiting lint yield and affecting fiber quality. Although influence of K deficiency on cotton plant physiology and growth and lint yield responses to K fertilizer applications have received intensive studies, it is not clear whether elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] affects plant requirements and sensitivity to

K. Raja Reddy; Duli Zhao

2005-01-01

189

Preparation of porous SiC ceramics from waste cotton linter by reactive liquid Si infiltration technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous carbon and porous silicon carbide with homogenous microstructure are prepared from cotton linter and phenolic resin through mold-stacking, solidification, carbonization and liquid Si infiltration process. SEM observation reveals that the irregular interconnected pores of carbon preparation were originated from the random arrangement of cotton linter fiber and different carbonization shrinkage. After the liquid Si infiltration process, the porous carbon

Tao Xue; Zhihao Jin Wei Wang

2010-01-01

190

Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types  

SciTech Connect

Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Mykles, D.L.

1986-01-01

191

Genome-Wide Functional Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in Response to Drought  

PubMed Central

Cotton is one of the most important crops for its natural textile fibers in the world. However, it often suffered from drought stress during its growth and development, resulting in a drastic reduction in cotton productivity. Therefore, study on molecular mechanism of cotton drought-tolerance is very important for increasing cotton production. To investigate molecular mechanism of cotton drought-resistance, we employed RNA-Seq technology to identify differentially expressed genes in the leaves of two different cultivars (drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6) of cotton. The results indicated that there are about 13.38% to 18.75% of all the unigenes differentially expressed in drought-resistant sample and drought-sensitive control, and the number of differentially expressed genes was increased along with prolonged drought treatment. DEG (differentially expression gene) analysis showed that the normal biophysical profiles of cotton (cultivar J-13) were affected by drought stress, and some cellular metabolic processes (including photosynthesis) were inhibited in cotton under drought conditions. Furthermore, the experimental data revealed that there were significant differences in expression levels of the genes related to abscisic acid signaling, ethylene signaling and jasmonic acid signaling pathways between drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6, implying that these signaling pathways may participate in cotton response and tolerance to drought stress.

Feng, Li; Zheng, Yong; Li, Deng-Di; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-01-01

192

Tensile test evidence of morphological structural changes in superconducting NbTi fibers and composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile stress experiments were made on single Ti 39.5 at % Nb fibers, 18.3 µm in diameter, and fiber bundles chemically extracted from a commercial superconducting composite. As the temperature decreases, the fracture stress increases, as does the fracture elongation. This abnormal behavior argues for either a very fine-scale structural change or microdeformation. Load-strain serrations, previously reported, were not observed

L. S. Wright; H. D. Wiederick; T. S. Hutchison

1984-01-01

193

Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25038944

Huang, Tian-Bao; Ding, Pei-Pei; Chen, Jian-Feng; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Long; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Che, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Yao, Xu-Dong

2014-08-01

194

Structure and properties of cotton-based biodegradable/compostable nonwovens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cotton-based biodegradable nonwoven products have been receiving increasing attention in recent years with the growing environmental awareness throughout the world. A majority of the cotton-based nonwoven products are processed by carding with the binder fibers, and then point-bonding using a thermal calender. In this work, different biodegradable binder fibers were used to produce cotton-based nonwovens. The structure and the properties of the resulting fabrics were studied. The effect of bonding temperature and binder fiber content on the bond morphology was investigated. The fracture and failure mechanisms of the fabrics produced with different binder fiber content and at different bonding temperature were analyzed. Binder fiber distribution was determined by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that DSC is a useful method to quantitatively characterize the binder fiber distribution in the carded cotton-based nonwovens. By determining the specific enthalpy from crystallization of one of the binder fiber components in the fabrics, it is possible to calculate the fiber composition. Tensile properties of the resultant nonwovens under different processing conditions were studied. The optimal processing conditions for the nonwovens processed using different binder fibers were determined based on their tensile properties. Consequently, effects of binder fiber type, binder fiber content, and bonding temperature on the tensile property of the nonwoven fabrics are discussed. The best binder fiber under the experimental conditions was selected based on the tensile property of the resulting fabrics. Based on the interactions of binder fiber composition and bonding temperature, empirical models have been developed to predict the breaking load of the webs bonded by the best binder fiber using the General Linear Models Procedure in JMP 5.0 statistical analysis software. The absorbent behavior and flexural rigidity of the nonwoven fabrics bonded by one of the binder fibers were investigated. The results indicate that the resultant fabrics have low flexural rigidity and good absorbency which show that the fabrics have potential applications as absorbent materials.

Rong, Haoming

195

Superhydrophobic and ultraviolet-blocking cotton textiles.  

PubMed

Cotton textile was coated with ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods in order to obtain superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV)-blocking properties. The coating process was conducted in mild conditions, which involved the low-temperature preparation of ZnO seeds, hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods, bioinspired layer-by-layer deposition of a SiO(2) shell on the surface of ZnO nanorods, and hydrophobic modification of ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods with octadecyltrimethoxysilane. Despite the highly curved morphology of cotton fibers, the ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods coated the textile densely and uniformly. The treated cotton textile was found to have a large UV protection factor (UPF = 101.51) together with UV-durable superhydrophobicity, as determined by contact-angle measurement under long-term UV irradiation. The good UV-blocking property can be ascribed to the high UV absorbance and scattering properties of ZnO nanorods, and the UV-durable superhydrophobicity is a result of suppression of the photoactivity of ZnO nanorods by a SiO(2) shell. PMID:21438599

Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Sun, Panpan; Yang, Jikai; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun

2011-04-01

196

World Cotton Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prospects for world cotton demand continue to weaken despite expectations for some recovery in late 1982. Consumption estimates for 1981/82 were reduced over 200,000 bales to 66.1 million, primarily reflecting a further deterioration of conditions in the ...

1982-01-01

197

Cotton Pickin' Good Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

Gentry, Carol

2000-01-01

198

Conversion of polyester/cotton industrial waste to higher value  

SciTech Connect

The primary textile industry in 1981 produced 1.5 billion pounds of blended polyester/cotton (PET/Cotton) yarns that are chiefly polyester. The polyester component, which is almost entirely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is polymerized from petroleum products and furnished to the textile industry as staple fiber. About 3% of the PET/Cotton production is waste. Although substantial markets exist for the separate products, the problem of economically separating the components has not been solved. The alternative is to develop an application for the unseparated waste. This project was undertaken to study the feasibility of using the waste blends as feedstock for injection molded plastic. Thermal and mechanical properties were determined on the compacts.

Barnhardt, R.A.; Cowgill, W.P.; Walsh, W.K.; Cates, D.M.

1986-01-01

199

Darwin's finches combat introduced nest parasites with fumigated cotton.  

PubMed

Introduced parasites are a threat to biodiversity when naïve hosts lack effective defenses against such parasites [1]. Several parasites have recently colonized the Galápagos Islands, threatening native bird populations [2]. For example, the introduced parasitic nest fly Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) has been implicated in the decline of endangered species of Darwin's finches, such as the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) [3]. Here, we show that Darwin's finches can be encouraged to 'self-fumigate' nests with cotton fibers that have been treated with permethrin. Nests with permethrin-treated cotton had significantly fewer P. downsi than control nests, and nests containing at least one gram of cotton were virtually parasite-free. Nests directly fumigated with permethrin had fewer parasites and fledged more offspring than nests treated with water. PMID:24801182

Knutie, Sarah A; McNew, Sabrina M; Bartlow, Andrew W; Vargas, Daniela A; Clayton, Dale H

2014-05-01

200

Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper we reported dark pulse emission of an all-normal-dispersion-fiber laser [Zhang, Tang, Zhao, and Wu, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.045803 80, 045803 (2009)]. However, the formation mechanism of the dark pulse in the laser was unclear due to the limited temporal resolution of the measurement system. Using an improved detection system we have further investigated the phenomenon. We not only experimentally, unambiguously confirmed the existence of dark solitons in the fiber laser, but also identified that the dark pulses observed previously were bunches of the dark solitons. Moreover, we show that the dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers.

Tang, D. Y.; Li, L.; Song, Y. F.; Zhao, L. M.; Zhang, H.; Shen, D. Y.

2013-07-01

201

29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applies to the control of employee exposure to cotton dust in all...applies to the control of all employees exposure to the cotton dust generated...are considered cotton dust within this...definition. Lubricating oil mist...

2010-07-01

202

Bollgard II cotton: compositional analysis and feeding studies of cottonseed from insect-protected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins.  

PubMed

Bollgard II cotton event 15985 producing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins has been developed by genetic modification to broaden the spectrum of insects to which the plant is tolerant and to provide an insect resistance management tool to impede the onset of resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition and nutrition of Bollgard II cotton, relative to the use for food and animal feed, compared to that of conventional cotton varieties. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure proximate, fiber, amino acid, fatty acid, gossypol, and mineral contents of cottonseed from a total of 14 U.S. field sites over two years. Compositional analysis results showed that the cottonseed and cottonseed oil from Bollgard II cotton were comparable in their composition to those of the conventional control cotton line and other commercial varieties. The composition data are supported by nutritional safety studies conducted with dairy cows, catfish, and quail. Results from these studies showed that Bollgard II performed similarly to the conventional control cotton varieties. These data demonstrate that Bollgard II cotton is compositionally and nutritionally equivalent to conventional cotton varieties. These data support the conclusion that Bollgard II cotton is as safe and nutritious as conventional cotton for food and feed use. PMID:15537305

Hamilton, Kathryn A; Pyla, Paul D; Breeze, Matthew; Olson, Tammy; Li, Menghe; Robinson, Edwin; Gallagher, Sean P; Sorbet, Roy; Chen, Yin

2004-11-17

203

Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land

Mykles

1986-01-01

204

Experimental evidence of Brillouin-induced polarization wheeling in highly birefringent optical fibers.  

PubMed

We study the influence of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering on the polarization stabilization of a light beam propagating in a highly-birefringent optical fiber. In particular, due to a saturation effect, we find that the output polarization lies on a ring when the polarization is represented onto the Poincaré sphere. PMID:19654665

Fatome, Julien; Pitois, Stéphane; Millot, Guy

2009-07-20

205

Evidence for and implications of self-background of radon dosimeters with glass-fiber filters  

SciTech Connect

The first national radon survey in the Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested that these dosimeters may give falsely elevated readings. A systematic contribution would be present due to alpha particles from natural radionuclides in the glass-fiber filter producing tracks on the track-etch foil. In the framework of the quality assurance of their laboratories, the origin of this offset was systematically assessed by means of measurements of alpha and gamma radiation from the glass-fiber filters and by intercomparisons between different types of detectors at low radon concentrations. It was found that alpha particles from the decay of {sup 214}Po in the glass-fiber filter are the main cause of the extra tracks (only 12% originates from decay of {sup 212}Po), leading, for this type of filter, to an offset in concentration of approximately 8 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. The implications of this offset are discussed.

Put, L.W.; Lembrechts, J.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Stoop, P.

2000-01-01

206

Identification of trash types in ginned cotton using neuro fuzzy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of soft computing techniques such as neural networks and fuzzy logic based approaches in the identification of various types of trash (non-lint material\\/foreign matter) in ginned cotton. Lint is the cotton fiber; non-lint or foreign matter is everything other than lint. The effectiveness of a hybrid neuro-fuzzy structure, namely the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to classify trash

Murali Siddaiah; Michael A. Lieberman; Nadipuram R. Prasad

1999-01-01

207

Side selective surface modification of chitin nanofibers on anionically modified cotton fabrics.  

PubMed

Chitin nanofibers have been prepared from crab shell as a chitin source using ultrasound assisted fibrillation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that the prepared nanofibers were having diameters and lengths primarily in the range of 2-20nm and 0.3-4?m respectively. These nanofibers were selectively grafted on one side of a 100% cotton fabric using a special apparatus. Prior to the grafting, cotton fabrics were modified with partial carboxymethylation to encourage cotton fiber nanofiber interactions. The surface modification was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks at 1594cm(-1) and 1735cm(-1) due to the presence of carboxylic acid functionality in modified cotton fabrics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the nanofiber grafted cotton fabrics showed that nanofibers were adhered to the cotton fabrics. Elemental analysis confirmed that side selective grafting of nanofiber has taken place due to the peak at 0.394keV which attributes to the presence of nitrogen element in chitin nanofibers. This peak was absent in the other side of the fabric which was not coated with chitin nanofibers. Amount of adhered nanofibers was seen to increase with the increase of nanofiber concentration used in grafting as confirmed by Kjeldahl analysis. A possible mechanism of cotton fiber-nanofiber interactions is introduced. PMID:24815401

Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka; Perera, Rangana; de Silva, K M Nalin

2014-08-30

208

Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls  

PubMed Central

Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

2011-01-01

209

Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

2011-01-01

210

Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+Yb3+ fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55 µm double-clad erbium-ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1 µm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by

Guillaume Canat; Jean-Claude Mollier; Yves Jaouën; Bernard Dussardier

2005-01-01

211

Optical Decoherence in Er3+-Doped Silicate Fiber: Evidence for Coupled Spin-Elastic Tunneling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the optical decoherence times T2, or, equivalently, the homogeneous line width, in an Er-doped optical fiber at low temperature as a function of external magnetic field and temperature using two-pulse photon echoes. The decoherence times were up to 230 ns at fields above 3 T. The magnitude of the line narrowing induced by a magnetic field of 3

R. M. Macfarlane; Y. Sun; P. B. Sellin; R. L. Cone

2006-01-01

212

A study of pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of flame-retardant cotton fabrics by DSC, TGA, and PY–GC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of thermal decompositions of cotton and flame-retardant cotton fabrics can assist understanding of fire-resistant functions of the materials. In this research, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (PY–GC–MS) were employed to investigate decomposition processes and decomposed products of flame-retardant treated (using an organo-phosphorus compound) and untreated cotton fibers in the pyrolysis. The thermal decomposition

Ping Zhu; Shuying Sui; Bing Wang; Kai Sun; Gang Sun

2004-01-01

213

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early mature cotton region of Northeast China].  

PubMed

Taking two cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCOTN 33B with different growth periods as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 240 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) and different planting densities (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the cotton biomass, nitrogen accumulation, and accumulative nitrogen utilization in the planting region of extremely early mature cotton in Northeast China. The dynamics of cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation of the two cultivars with their growth process followed Logistic model. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the cotton nitrogen accumulation dynamics and the cotton yield and quality. In all treatments, the beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen was about 13 d earlier than that of biomass. In treatment plant density 97500 plants x hm(-2) and nitrogen fertilization rate 240 kg x hm(-2), the eigenvalues of the dynamic accumulation models of nitrogen and biomass for the two cultivars were most harmonious, lint yield was the highest, fiber quality was the best, and accumulative nitrogen utilization efficiency was the highest. In the study region, the earlier beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen and biomass and their higher accumulation rates were benefit to the formation of higher cotton yield. PMID:22384593

Wang, Zi-Sheng; Xu, Min; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Jin, Lu-Lu; Shan, Ying; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2011-12-01

214

Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test

James A. Merchant; John C. Lumsden; Kaye H. Kilburn; Victor H. Germino; John D. Hamilton; William S. Lynn; H. Byrd; D. Baucom

1973-01-01

215

Glandless seed and glanded plant research in cotton. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the world has been entangled by insufficient food such as the lack of rice which threatens the safety of world food\\u000a and affect sustainable development of the world economy, resulting in rising of food price. To address this issue, cotton\\u000a appears as a possible source of both fiber and food. The research in recent years indeed showed bright prospects

Yingfan Cai; Yongfang Xie; Jinggao Liu

2010-01-01

216

Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

2012-01-01

217

Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser.  

PubMed

We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55 microm double-clad erbium-ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1 microm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays a significant role and improves the 1.5 microm laser's efficiency by increasing the 1 microm lasing threshold. PMID:16315711

Canat, Guillaume; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Jaouën, Yves; Dussardier, Bernard

2005-11-15

218

Biogas production potential from cotton wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of three different cotton wastes namely, cotton stalks, cotton seed hull and cotton oil cake were determined in batch reactors. In addition, the effects of nutrient and trace metal supplementation were also investigated. To this purpose biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were performed for two different waste concentrations, namely 30 and 60g\\/l. The

A. Isci; G. N. Demirer

2007-01-01

219

Functional analysis of Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis and cotton tissues.  

PubMed

Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 (GhCesA4) plays an important role in cellulose biosynthesis during cotton fiber development. The transcript levels of GhCesA4 are significantly up-regulated as secondary cell wall cellulose is produced in developing cotton fibers. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of GhCesA4, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity regulated by a GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) or progressively deleted promoters were determined in both cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. The spatial regulation of GhCesA4 expression was similar between cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. GUS activity regulated by the GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) was found in trichomes and root vascular tissues in both cotton and transgenic Arabidopsis. The -2574/-1824 region was responsible for up-regulation of GhCesA4 expression in trichomes and root vascular tissues in transgenic Arabidopsis. The -1824/-1355 region negatively regulated GhCesA4 expression in most Arabidopsis vascular tissues. For vascular expression in stems and leaves, the -898/-693 region was required. The -693/-320 region of the GhCesA4 promoter was necessary for basal expression of GhCesA4 in cotton roots as well as Arabidopsis roots. Exogenous phytohormonal treatments on transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that phytohormones may be involved in the differential regulation of GhCesA4 during cotton fiber development. PMID:21421377

Kim, Hee Jin; Murai, Norimoto; Fang, David D; Triplett, Barbara A

2011-02-01

220

Identification of the family of aquaporin genes and their expression in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is produced in over 30 countries and represents the most important natural fiber in the world. One of the primary factors affecting both the quantity and quality of cotton production is water. A major facilitator of water movement through cell membranes of cotton and other plants are the aquaporin proteins. Aquaporin proteins are present as diverse forms in plants, where they function as transport systems for water and other small molecules. The plant aquaporins belong to the large major intrinsic protein (MIP) family. In higher plants, they consist of five subfamilies including plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIP), and the recently discovered X intrinsic proteins (XIP). Although a great deal is known about aquaporins in plants, very little is known in cotton. Results From a molecular cloning effort, together with a bioinformatic homology search, 71 upland cotton (G. hirsutum) aquaporin genes were identified. The cotton aquaporins consist of 28 PIP and 23 TIP members with high sequence similarity. We also identified 12 NIP and 7 SIP members that showed more divergence. In addition, one XIP member was identified that formed a distinct 5th subfamily. To explore the physiological roles of these aquaporin genes in cotton, expression analyses were performed for a select set of aquaporin genes from each subfamily using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Our results suggest that many cotton aquaporin genes have high sequence similarity and diverse roles as evidenced by analysis of sequences and their expression. Conclusion This study presents a comprehensive identification of 71 cotton aquaporin genes. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences divided the large and highly similar multi-gene family into the known 5 aquaporin subfamilies. Together with expression and bioinformatic analyses, our results support the idea that the genes identified in this study represent an important genetic resource providing potential targets to modify the water use properties of cotton.

2010-01-01

221

Pressure chamber procedures for leaf water potential measurements of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of leaf water potential (?l) with a pressure chamber is usually regarded as a reliable and practical field technique. However, recent evidence indicates that results depend on the measurement techniques employed. Field experiments were conducted to identify the magnitude and sources of error affecting pressure chamber measurements of ?l in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and to develop an accurate

M. Meron; D. W. Grimes; C. J. Phene; K. R. Davis

1987-01-01

222

Effects of 1,3-Dicliloropropene for Meloidogyne incognita Management on Cotton Produced under Furrow Irrigation.  

PubMed

Field trials were conducted during 1990 to evaluate the effects of preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) on yield and fiber quality of furrow-irrigated cotton cultivars subjected to high population densities of Meloidogyne incognita. We measured the responses of eight upland cotton cultivars with different levels of root-knot nematode resistance and compared the responses of upland and Pima cottons. Reductions in lint weight ranged from 10 to 52% among cultivars grown in soil without 1,3-D fumigation compared with those grown in treated soil. Meloidogyne incognita reduced yields primarily by reducing the number of bolls on each plant, rather than by decreasing boll size. Cotton fiber quality varied among cultivars but was unaffected by M. incognita in either study. Upland cotton cultivar Acala 1517-88 and M-315/240 sustained less than half the yield reductions observed with M. incognita-susceptible cultivars Deltapine 41 and Paymaster 145. Sixty days after cotton emergence, fewer M. incognita second-stage juveniles were recovered from M-315/240 than all other cultivars. PMID:19279835

Thomas, S H; Smith, D W

1993-12-01

223

A cotton dust study unmasked.  

PubMed

The Dan River Company, citing news reports damaging to its image, has abandoned a proposed study to test a theory that byssinosis (brown lung disease) is caused by a bacterium growing in cotton rather than by inhalation of cotton dust. With state approval to exceed federal standards on cotton dust exposure, the company submitted the study to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as a "variance," not as human subjects research. Levine contends that the proposal violated all major criteria of the federal regulations for protection of research subjects--scientific objectivity, balanced risks and benefits, and voluntary and informed consent. PMID:6480334

Levine, C

1984-08-01

224

Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis  

PubMed Central

Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach. In the study described, it was possible to be directed by both biological observations and the results of manufacturing trials. An exposure chamber was built in a cotton textile mill which had been previously studied as part of a large cross-sectional survey. The chamber was provided with an independent air conditioning system and a carding machine which served as a dust generator. Sixteen subjects, who had shown reductions in expiratory flow rate with exposure to cotton dust, were chosen to form a panel for exposure to raw cottons and cottons which had been preprocessed by heating, washing, and steaming. Indicators of effects were symptoms of chest tightness and/or dyspnoea, change in FEV1·0, and fine dust levels over 6 hours of exposure. Exposure of the panel to no cotton dust resulted in no change in FEV1·0 and served as the control for subsequent trials. Exposure to strict middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 22%, a significant decrement in FEV1·0 of 2·9%, and a fine dust level of 0·26 mg/m3. Exposure to strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 79%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 8·5%, and a fine dust level of 0·89 mg/m3. Oven heating strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 56% and a relatively greater drop in FEV1·0 of 8·3% for 0·48 mg/m3 of fine dust. Washing the strict low grade cotton eliminated detectable biological effects with a symptom prevalence of 8%, an increase of 1·4% in FEV1·, and a dust level of 0·16 mg/m3, but the cotton proved to be difficult to process. As an alternative method, strict low middling cotton was steamed initially in large dyeing vats, on a conveyor, in an autoclave, and in a modified yarn dyeing apparatus or `pipe' steamer. Of these methods, autoclaving cotton was the most successful, reducing symptom prevalence to 8%, the drop in FEV1·0 to 0·4%, and the dust level to 0·23 mg/m3. Development of a high capacity cotton steamer based on the small `pipe' steaming model resulted in a symptom prevalence of 8%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 0·8%, and a mean dust level of 0·27 mg/m3. Regressions calculated from raw and high capacity steaming trials indicate that at low dust levels steamed cotton dust was roughly one half as biologically active as raw cotton dust.

Merchant, James A.; Lumsden, John C.; Kilburn, Kaye H.; Germino, Victor H.; Hamilton, John D.; Lynn, William S.; Byrd, H.; Baucom, D.

1973-01-01

225

Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2?m and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material. PMID:24874652

Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R

2014-08-01

226

Antimicrobial cotton containing N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups by grafting copolymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monomer (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTMAC) was used to treat cotton fibers by grafting copolymerization. The grafted cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM image and FTIR spectra. The treated samples with quaternary ammonium groups could decrease 96.08% of Staphylococcus aureus and 48.74% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 30 min. After chlorination with dilute sodium hypochlorite, the treated cotton fabrics containing both N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups effectively inactivated 100% (log reduction 5.82) of S. aureus and 100% (log reduction 6.26) of E. coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time. The grafting process of cotton fabric has small effect on the thermal stability and tensile strength, which favors the practical application. Compared to the traditional pad-dry-cure method to produce antibacterial materials, the radical grafting copolymerization method occurred in water without any organic solvents involved in the whole treatment.

Liu, Ying; Liu, Yin; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

2014-03-01

227

Use of ultrasonic energy in the enzymatic treatment of cotton fabric  

SciTech Connect

Application of enzymes in the textile industry is becoming increasingly popular because of mild processing conditions and the capability for replacing harsh organic/inorganic chemicals. The combination of ultrasound with conventional enzymatic treatment of cotton offers significant advantages such as less consumption of expensive enzymes, shorter processing time, less fiber damage, and better uniformity of enzymatic treatment. Laboratory research has shown that introduction of ultrasonic energy during enzymatic treatment resulted in significant improvement in the performance of cellulase enzyme (CELLUSOFT L). It was established that ultrasound does not inactivate the complex structure of the enzyme molecules and weight loss of cotton fabric sonicated and treated with cellulase enzyme increased up to 25--35%. The experimental data indicate that the maximum benefit provided by sonification occurs at relatively low enzyme concentrations. Ultrasonic energy significantly intensified the enzymatic treatment of the cotton fabrics but did not contribute to a decrease in tensile strength of the cotton textiles.

Yachmenev, V.G.; Blanchard, E.J.; Lambert, A.H. [Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-10-01

228

Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber.  

PubMed

Using a combination of experimental techniques such as optical absorption, Raman scattering, continuous wave and pulse Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), we characterize a set of ?-irradiated Yb(3+) doped silica glass preforms with different contents of phosphorous and aluminum. We demonstrate that when P is introduced in excess compared to Al, nearly no radiodarkening is induced by ?-rays. On the other hand, when Al>P, a large absorption band is induced by radiation. Thermal annealing experiments reveal the correlation between the decrease of the optical absorption band and the decrease of the Al-Oxygen Hole Center (AlOHC) ESR signal, demonstrating the main role of AlOHC defects in the fiber darkening. HYSCORE (HYperfine Sublevel CORElation) pulse-ESR experiments show a high Al-P nuclear spin coupling when P>Al and no coupling when Al>P. This result suggests that both AlOHC and POHC creation is inhibited by Al-O-P linkages. Confronting our data with previous works, we show that the well-known photodarkening process, meaning losses induced by the IR pump, can also be explained in this framework. PMID:23571927

Deschamps, Thierry; Vezin, Hervé; Gonnet, Cédric; Ollier, Nadège

2013-04-01

229

21 CFR 880.5300 - Medical absorbent fiber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A medical absorbent fiber is a device intended for medical...is made from cotton or synthetic fiber in the shape of a ball or a pad and that is used for...patient's body surface. Absorbent fibers intended solely for...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 880.5300 - Medical absorbent fiber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A medical absorbent fiber is a device intended for medical...is made from cotton or synthetic fiber in the shape of a ball or a pad and that is used for...patient's body surface. Absorbent fibers intended solely for...

2009-04-01

231

World Cotton Situation, October 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even with slightly lower world production forecast for Marketing Year (MY) 1991/92, available data continue to indicated production exceeding consumption, resulting in a moderate rebuilding of world cotton stocks.

1991-01-01

232

Evidence of Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy in Unexplained, Juvenile-Onset, Widespread Pain Syndromes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. RESULTS: Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). CONCLUSIONS: More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies.

Klein, Max M.

2013-01-01

233

The Merging of Two Dynasties--Identification of an African Cotton Leaf Curl Disease-Associated Begomovirus with Cotton in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

2011-01-01

234

Marker-Assisted Breeding as Next-Generation Strategy for Genetic Improvement of Productivity and Quality: Can It Be Realized in Cotton?  

PubMed Central

The dawdling development in genetic improvement of cotton with conventional breeding program is chiefly due to lack of complete knowledge on and precise manipulation of fiber productivity and quality. Naturally available cotton continues to be a resource for the upcoming breeding program, and contemporary technologies to exploit the available natural variation are outlined in this paper for further improvement of fiber. Particularly emphasis is given to application, obstacles, and perspectives of marker-assisted breeding since it appears to be more promising in manipulating novel genes that are available in the cotton germplasm. Deployment of system quantitative genetics in marker-assisted breeding program would be essential to realize its role in cotton. At the same time, role of genetic engineering and in vitro mutagenesis cannot be ruled out in genetic improvement of cotton.

Boopathi, N. Manikanda; Thiyagu, K.; Urbi, B.; Santhoshkumar, M.; Gopikrishnan, A.; Aravind, S.; Swapnashri, Gat; Ravikesavan, R.

2011-01-01

235

Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))

1989-04-01

236

Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin

2014-04-01

237

Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. Domesticated cotton makes these reserves available to developing seeds which impacts seed yield. The goals of these analyses were to identify genes and physiological pathways that establish cotton stems and roots as physiological sinks and investigate the role these pathways play in cotton development during seed set. Results Analysis of field-grown cotton plants indicated that starch levels peaked about the time of first anthesis and then declined similar to reports in greenhouse-grown cotton plants. Starch accumulated along the length of the stem and the shape and size of the starch grains from stems were easily distinguished from transient starch. Microarray analyses compared gene expression in tissues containing low levels of starch with tissues rapidly accumulating starch. Statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated increased expression among genes associated with starch synthesis, starch degradation, hexose metabolism, raffinose synthesis and trehalose synthesis. The anticipated changes in these sugars were largely confirmed by measuring soluble sugars in selected tissues. Conclusion In domesticated cotton starch stored prior to flowering was available to support seed production. Starch accumulation observed in young field-grown plants was not observed in greenhouse grown plants. A suite of genes associated with starch biosynthesis was identified. The pathway for starch utilization after flowering was associated with an increase in expression of a glucan water dikinase gene as has been implicated in utilization of transient starch. Changes in raffinose levels and levels of expression of genes controlling trehalose and raffinose biosynthesis were also observed in vegetative cotton tissues as plants age.

Taliercio, Earl W; Romano, Gabriela; Scheffler, Jodi; Ayre, Brian G

2009-01-01

238

Rotation and contraction of native and regenerated cellulose fibers upon swelling and dissolution: the role of morphological and stress unbalances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon swelling and dissolution, native cellulose fibers such as cotton hairs or wood fibers are rotating and contracting. Regenerated\\u000a cellulose fibers are only contracting, not rotating. Cotton hairs show two rotation mechanisms, a well known untwisting, not\\u000a seen in wood fibers, due to the unwinding of the twists initially induced by the desiccation that occurs at the end of the

Nicolas Le Moigne; Jérôme Bikard; Patrick Navard

2010-01-01

239

Functional analysis of the seed coat-specific gene GbMYB2 from cotton.  

PubMed

MYB transcription factors are essential for cotton fiber development. We isolated the R2R3-MYB gene GbMYB2 from Gossypium barbadense. RNA in situ hybridization analysis showed that GbMYB2 is mainly expressed in the outer integuments of cotton ovules and in elongating fibers. GbMYB2 expression increased throughout fiber initiation and during the elongation stage. The expression level of GbMYB2 was higher in the Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Xu142 than in the Xu142 (fl) mutant. Overexpression of GbMYB2 in Arabidopsis caused thicker leaf trichomes and longer roots to develop due to the activation of trichome development-related genes such as GL2. These results indicate that GbMYB2 is an R2R3-MYB gene that is involved in fiber development. PMID:24036393

Huang, Yiqun; Liu, Xiang; Tang, Kexuan; Zuo, Kaijing

2013-12-01

240

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (III. Identification of UDP-Glucose-Binding Subunits of [beta]-Glucan Synthases by Photoaffinity Labeling with [[beta]-32P]5[prime]-N3-UDP-Glucose.  

PubMed Central

Using differential product entrapment and photolabeling under specifying conditions, we identifIed a 37-kD polypeptide as the best candidate among the UDP-glucose-binding polypeptides for the catalytic subunit of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cellulose synthase. This polypeptide is enriched by entrapment under conditions favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis, and it is magnesium dependent and sensitive to unlabeled UDP-glucose. A 52-kD polypeptide was identified as the most likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase because this polypeptide is the most abundant protein in the entrapment fraction obtained under conditions favoring [beta]-1,3-glucan synthesis, is coincident with [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and is calcium dependent. The possible involvement of other polypeptides in the synthesis of [beta]-1,3-glucan is discussed.

Li, L.; Drake, R. R.; Clement, S.; Brown, R. M.

1993-01-01

241

Potassium Deficiency Increases Specific Leaf Weights and Leaf Glucose Levels in Field-Grown Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

an increase in dry matter production. Cassman et al. (1989) reported that the dry weight for the stem, fruit, Potassium deficiency reduces lint yield and causes fiber quality leaves, and ultimately the total plant was reduced by a problems for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers throughout K deficiency. Pettigrew and Meredith (1997) did not find the U.S. production regions. This

William T. Pettigrew

1999-01-01

242

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION LATERAL SPACING AND INSTALLATION DEPTH FOR COTTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton lint yield, seed mass, fiber quality parameters, gross return, and net return were compared for subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) lateral spacing and installation depth in a clay loam soil in western Texas for three seasons. Drip laterals were spaced either in alternate furrows (2 m) or beneath every planted bed (1 m), and installation depths were either 0.2 or

J. M. Enciso; P. D. Colaizzi; W. L. Multer

243

Polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in Gossypium (cotton)  

PubMed Central

A detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) segregating in a cross between cultivars of allotetraploid (AADD) Gossypium hirsutum (“Upland” cotton) and Gossypium barbadense (“Sea Island,” “Pima,” or “Egyptian” cotton) that differ markedly in the quality and quantity of seed epidermal fibers. Most QTLs influencing fiber quality and yield are located on the “D” subgenome, derived from an ancestor that does not produce spinnable fibers. D subgenome QTLs may partly account for the fact that domestication and breeding of tetraploid cottons has resulted in fiber yield and quality levels superior to those achieved by parallel improvement of “A” genome diploid cottons. The merger of two genomes with different evolutionary histories in a common nucleus appears to offer unique avenues for phenotypic response to selection. This may partly compensate for reduction in quantitative variation associated with polyploid formation and be one basis for the prominence of polyploids among extant angiosperms. These findings impel molecular dissection of the roles of divergent subgenomes in quantitative inheritance in many other polyploids and further exploration of both “synthetic” polyploids and exotic diploid genotypes for agriculturally useful variation.

Jiang, Chun-xiao; Wright, Robert J.; El-Zik, Kamal M.; Paterson, Andrew H.

1998-01-01

244

Improvement of hydrophobic properties of silk and cotton by hexafluoropropene plasma treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma surface-treatment of silk and cotton fabrics were carried out in a hexafluoropropene (C3F6) atmosphere under different experimental conditions. Analysis of the treated fibers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated about 50 at% fluorine atoms were incorporated in the surface structure of two fibers and confirmed the presence of –CF, –CF2, –CF3 groups on the surface. After water-washing and alcohol-extraction,

Shen Li; Dai Jinjin

2007-01-01

245

Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography  

PubMed Central

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

246

Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.  

PubMed

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

247

Variation in trash composition in raw cottons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw cotton from 4 machine picked varieties and 2 machine stripped varieties is examined by stereomicroscope and bright-field microscopy for presence of plant trash (bract, leaf, stem, seed, boll, and weed fragments—size range 841-2000??m) that gives rise to cotton dust during yarn manufacturing operations. Bract was found to be the major trash component in all raw cottons examined. Cotton leaf

P. R. MOREY; P. E. SASSER; R. M. BETHEA; M. T. KOPETZKY

1976-01-01

248

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I.; Bounioux, Céline; Katz, Eugene A.; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel; Zussman, Eyal

2012-03-01

249

Light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of charge transfer in electrospun fibers containing conjugated polymer/fullerene and conjugated polymer/fullerene/carbon nanotube blends  

SciTech Connect

Electrospun sub-micron fibers containing conjugated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) with a fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) or a mixture of PCBM and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied by light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results provide experimental evidence of electron transfer between PCBM and P3HT components in both fiber systems and suggest that the presence of a dispersing block-copolymer, which acts via physical adsorption onto the PCBM and SWCNT moieties, does not prevent electron transfer at the P3HT-PCBM interface. These findings suggest a research perspective towards utilization of fibers of functional nanocomposites in fiber-based organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. The latter can be developed in the textile-type large area photovoltaics or individual fiber-based solar cells that will broaden energy applications from macro-power tools to micro-nanoscale power conversion devices and smart textiles.

Shames, Alexander I. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba 84105 (Israel); Bounioux, Celine [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Katz, Eugene A. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel [Ilze Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zussman, Eyal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-03-12

250

Impact of Bt Cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 283 cotton farmers in Northern China was surveyed in December 1999. Farmers that used cotton engineered to produce the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin substantially reduced the use of pesticide without reducing the output\\/ha or quality of cotton. This resulted in substantial economic benefits for small farmers. Consumers did not benefit directly. Farmers obtained the major share of

Jikun Huang; Fangbin Qiao

2001-01-01

251

INSECTICIDE RESIDUES IN COTTON CROP SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethoate, monocrotophos, triazophos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and endosulfan were applied to a cotton crop soil located at Nurpur village, Punjab, India. The insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages in cotton fields by foliar application in 1995, 1996 and 1998. Soil samples were collected from the cotton crop farms and extracted with acetone. The extracted material was analysed by a gas

Komal Vig; Dileep K. Singh; H. C. Agarwal; A. K. Dhawan; Prem Dureja

2001-01-01

252

Design, Preparation and Activity of Cotton Gauze for Use in Chronic Wound Research  

SciTech Connect

We consider the rational design and chemical modification of cotton gauze, which is used widely in chronic wounds, to improve wound dressing fibers for application to chronic wound healing. Cotton gauze may be tailored to more effectively enhance the biochemistry of wound healing. The presence of elevated levels of elastase in non-healing wounds has been associated with the degradation of important growth factors and fibronectin necessary for wound healing. In the healing wound a balance of elastase and antiproteases precludes degradation of beneficial proteins from taking place. Cotton gauze modified to release elastase inhibitors or selectively functionalized to sequester elastase provides a dressing that decreases high levels of destructive elastase in the chronic wounds. Three approaches have been taken to explore the potential of fiber-inhibitors useful in chronic wounds: 1) Formulation of inhibitors on the dressing; 2) Synthesis of elastase recognition sequences on cotton cellulose; and 3) Data presented here on carboxymethylating, and oxidizing textile finishes of cotton gauze to remove elastase from the wound.

Edwards, J. V.; Yager, Dorne; Bopp, Alvin; Diegelmann, Robert F.; Goheen, Steven C.; Cohen, I. K.

2001-01-01

253

Human neutrophil elastase and collagenase sequestration with phosphorylated cotton wound dressings.  

PubMed

The design and preparation of wound dressings that redress the protease imbalance in chronic wounds is an important goal of wound healing and medical materials science. Chronic wounds contain high levels of tissue and cytokine-destroying proteases including matrix metalloprotease and neutrophil elastase. Thus, the lowering of excessive protease levels in the wound environment by wound dressing sequestration prevents the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors necessary for wound healing. Phosphorylated cotton wound dressings were prepared to target sequestration of proteases from chronic wound exudate through a cationic uptake binding mechanism involving salt bridge formation of the positively charged amino acid side chains of proteases with the phosphate counterions of the wound dressing fiber. Dressings were prepared by applying sodium hexametaphosphate and diammonium phosphate in separate formulations to cotton gauze by pad/dry/cure methods. Phosphorylated cotton dressings were assessed for their ability to lower elastase and collagenase activity. The phosphorylated cotton dressings lowered elastase and collagenase activity 40-80% more effectively than the untreated cotton wound dressings under conditions that mimic chronic wound exudate. Efficacy of the phosphorylated cotton was found to be related to the level of phosphorylation and a lower pH due to protonated phosphate at the surface of the dressing. The capacity of the modified gauze to sequester continued elastase secretions similar to that found in a chronic wound over a 24-h period was retained within a 80% retention of elastase sequestration and was dose-dependent. PMID:17477392

Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis S

2007-11-01

254

40 CFR 174.501 - Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field; corn, sweet; corn, pop; and cotton; cotton, undelinted seed; cotton, refined oil; cotton, meal; cotton, hay; cotton, hulls; cotton, forage; and cotton, gin...

2010-07-01

255

40 CFR 174.501 - Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field; corn, sweet; corn, pop; and cotton; cotton, undelinted seed; cotton, refined oil; cotton, meal; cotton, hay; cotton, hulls; cotton, forage; and cotton, gin...

2009-07-01

256

Analysis of the effects of catalytic bleaching on cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide can be catalyzed to bleach cotton fibers at temperatures as low as 30°C by incorporating dinuclear tri-?-oxo\\u000a bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) as the catalyst in the bleaching\\u000a solution. The catalytic system was found to be more selective under the conditions applied than the non-catalytic H2O2 system, showing better bleaching performance while causing slightly lower

Tatjana Topalovic; Vincent A. Nierstrasz; Lorenzo Bautista; Dragan Jocic; Antonio Navarro; Marijn M. C. G. Warmoeskerken

2007-01-01

257

Graphene oxide nanostructures modified multifunctional cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of cotton fabrics using graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures was reported. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations revealed that the GO nanostructure was coated onto the cotton fabric. The molecular level interaction between the graphene oxide and the cotton fabric is studied in detail using the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GO loaded cotton fabrics have enhanced thermal stability compared to the bare cotton fabrics. The photocatalytic activity of the GO-coated cotton fabrics was investigated by measuring the photoreduction of resazurin (RZ) into resorufin (RF) under UV light irradiation. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the results indicated that the GO-coated cotton fabrics are more toxic towards the Gram-positive ones. Our results provide a way to develop graphene oxide-based devices for the biomedical applications for improving health care.

Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Navaneethaiyer, Umasuthan; Mohan, Rajneesh; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Sang-Jae

2012-06-01

258

World Cotton Situation, October 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The month's global supply and demand outlook for marketing year (MY) 1990/91 continues to suggest a close balance between world cotton supply and demand. On the supply side, recent information indicates a world production estimate of 87.0 million blaes, u...

1990-01-01

259

Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and beta-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used. PMID:18723342

Jeihanipour, Azam; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2009-01-01

260

International Cotton Advisory Committee Technical Seminar: Biosafety Regulations, Implementation and Consumer Acceptance Regulatory Requirements and Technology Diffusion: The Case of Biotech Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2008-2009 the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) reported that 48% of the world cotton area was planted to biotech cotton varieties while 54% of all cotton produced globally were biotech varieties and that 52% of all traded cotton was biotech cotton. The biotech cotton consisted of the two major traits, insect resistance (IR) herbicide tolerance (HT) used singly, or

Idah Sithole-Niang; John Komen

261

[Effects of tilage mode and deficit irrigation on the yield and water use of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation].  

PubMed

To develop a suitable tillage mode and irrigation schedule of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes (conventional tillage and no-tillage) and different irrigation schedules (45 and 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) on the water consumption, seed yield, water use efficiency, and fiber quality of cotton. Comparing with conventional tillage, no-tillage decreased the soil evaporation among cotton plants by 20.3%. Whether with conventional tillage or with no-tillage, deficit irrigation (22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) did not affect seed yield and fiber quality, while decreased the water consumption and improved the water use efficiency. No-tillage with 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota under sprinkler irrigation not only decreased the soil evaporation effectively, but also achieved water-saving, high quality and high yield of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest. PMID:22586963

Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Peng; Shen, Xiao-Jun

2012-02-01

262

Use of Manila Hemp Fibers in Currency Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this thesis is to increase the strength of properties of paper currency through the addition of manila hemp fibers to the furnish. Currency paper is distinguished from other paper types by its special formulation of cotton and flax fibers specified by the U.S. Bureau of Printing and Engraving. This project will analyze the effects of varying

Barbara A. Ness

1993-01-01

263

Reclaiming Motes from Cotton Gin Waste: Practices, Supplies, and Prices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is part of a project to assess the full economic impact of proposed U.S. cotton dust standards on users of raw cotton and cotton processing waste, and the evaluation of alternative dust control technologies.

J. L. Ghetti, E. H. Glade

1978-01-01

264

Source Assessment: Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton - State of the Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes reported data on air emissions from the mechanical harvesting of cotton, including the machine removal and collection of seed cotton from mature plants and the transport of this cotton from the field. Machine harvesting and field tra...

J. W. Snyder T. R. Blackwood

1977-01-01

265

Cloning of fiber-specific cDNAs and their structural variations in 4 fiber mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mRNA preferentially expressed in cotton fiber was cloned from fiber total RNA of normal upland cotton TM-1 (wild-type) by\\u000a using RT-PCR and corresponding cDNA (signed asTM-E6) was sequenced.TM-E6 gene had no intron and contained an open reading frame of 771 bp long, and might encode a peptide of 246 amino acids. Other\\u000a 4 genes,Fl-E6, Li-E6, N-E6 andBl-E6, which were

Xuede Wang; Yuxian Zhu; Daofan Ji; Shuli Jiang; Yueyou Li

2001-01-01

266

16 CFR 300.18 - Use of name of specialty fiber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following are examples of fiber content designation permitted under this rule: 55% Alpacaâ45% Camel Hair 50% Recycled Camel Hairâ50% Wool 60% Recycled Alpacaâ40% Rayon 35% Recycled Llamaâ35% Recycled Vicunaâ30% Cotton 60%...

2009-01-01

267

16 CFR 300.18 - Use of name of specialty fiber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following are examples of fiber content designation permitted under this rule: 55% Alpacaâ45% Camel Hair 50% Recycled Camel Hairâ50% Wool 60% Recycled Alpacaâ40% Rayon 35% Recycled Llamaâ35% Recycled Vicunaâ30% Cotton 60%...

2010-01-01

268

Fibras Vegetales y su Produccion en America (Vegetable Fibers and Their Production in America).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book lists 45 fibrous plants that are useful for commercial fiber production. Cotton and linen are excluded since they are well-known and in popular use. Fibers are classified by their structure and location in the plant: hard fibers with a rigid text...

L. H. Dewey

1964-01-01

269

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-05-01

270

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids  

PubMed Central

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties.

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wackers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jorg

2013-01-01

271

A field planted with two kinds of cotton (Gossypium sp): Bt cotton and normal cotton, where the normal cotton acts as a refuge for insects.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some rows of the field in the photograph contain cotton plants (Gossypium sp) that are genetically engineered to produce a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt kills insects that feed on the cotton. Other rows contain cotton plants that are not genetically engineered, and they serve as refuges for the insects. Such refuges are important because they slow the rate at which insects evolve resistance to the genetically engineered cotton. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:6) in December of 2004.

Dennehy, Timothy J.

2010-02-12

272

Siloxane-poly(lactic acid)-vaterite composites with 3D cotton-like structure.  

PubMed

Trace amounts of ionic calcium and silicon species have been reported to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of bone-forming cells. Composite materials comprising siloxane-doped calcium carbonate (vaterite) particles and poly(L-lactic acid) have been developed [siloxane-poly(lactic acid)-vaterite hybrid-composite, SiPVH] so far; they were designed such that calcium and silicate ions are gradually released from SiPVH and they show the chronic effects of ions on cellular activities. In the present work, SiPVH with a 3D cotton-like structure was prepared by electrospinning to obtain the major advantages of excellent bioactivity and ease of handling for bone filling surgery. The diameter of the fibrous skeletons that form structure of the cotton-like SiPVH was controlled to ~10 ?m to achieve cellular migration into the spaces between fibers. The resulting cotton-like SiPVH showed good flexibility. The fiber surface was coated rapidly with numerous particles of several hundred nanometers in size by alternate soaking in CaCl(2) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treated cotton-like material, which released calcium and silicate ions gradually, showed good cellular migration behavior into the 3D structure in cell culture tests using murine osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:22415363

Kasuga, Toshihiro; Obata, Akiko; Maeda, Hirotaka; Ota, Yoshio; Yao, Xianfeng; Oribe, Kazuya

2012-10-01

273

Superhydrophobic cotton fabric fabricated by electrostatic assembly of silica nanoparticles and its remarkable buoyancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly hydrophilic cotton fabrics were rendered superhydrophobic via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte/silica nanoparticle multilayers on cotton fibers, followed with a fluoroalkylsilane treatment. The surface morphology of the silica nanoparticle-coated fibers, which results in the variety of the hydrophobicity, can be tailored by controlling the multilayer number. Although with the static contact angle larger than 150°, in the case of 1 or 3 multilayers, the fabrics showed sticky property with a high contact angle hysteresis (>45°). For the cotton fabrics assembled with 5 multilayers or more, slippery superhydrophobicity with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° was achieved. The buoyancy of the superhydrophobic fabric was examined by using a miniature boat made with the fabric. The superhydrophobic fabric boat exhibited a remarkable loading capacity; for a boat with a volume of 8.0 cm 3, the maximum loading was 11.6 or 12.2 g when the boat weight is included. Moreover, the superhydrophobic cotton fabric showed a reasonable durability to withstand at least 30 machine washing cycles.

Zhao, Yan; Tang, Yanwei; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

2010-09-01

274

Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-healing Wound  

SciTech Connect

A comparative examination of two methods, the classical- and chromatographic, commonly used to study adsorption isotherms is presented. Both methods were used to study the solid/liquid interface of two different derivatives of cotton fiber and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Castro, Nathan J.; Goheen, Steven C.

2005-12-01

275

Evidence for Anion-Permselective Membrane in Crayfish Muscle Fibers and Its Possible Role in Excitation-Contraction Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Under certain conditions only, isolated crayfish skeletal muscle fibers change in appearance, becoming grainy, darkening, and seemingly losing their striations. These changes result from development of large vesicles on both sides of the Z-line. The longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum remains unaffected. The vesicles are due to swelling of a transverse tubular system (TTS)

L. Girardier; J OHN P. REUBEN; PHILIP W. BRANDT; HARRY GRUNDFEST

1963-01-01

276

Dependence of Invadopodia Function on Collagen Fiber Spacing and Cross-Linking: Computational Modeling and Experimental Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invadopodia are subcellular organelles thought to be critical for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the movement of cells through tissues. Here we examine invadopodia generation, turnover, and function in relation to two structural aspects of the ECM substrates they degrade: cross-linking and fiber density. We set up a cellular automaton computational model that simulates ECM penetration and degradation by invadopodia.

Heiko Enderling; Nelson R. Alexander; Emily S. Clark; Kevin M. Branch; Lourdes Estrada; Cornelia Crooke; Jérôme Jourquin; Nichole Lobdell; Muhammad H. Zaman; Scott A. Guelcher; Alexander R. A. Anderson; Alissa M. Weaver

2008-01-01

277

Pressing the nerve alters muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus in rats: Preliminary evidence for external anal sphincteroplasty.  

PubMed

Background Studies have demonstrated that anal reconstruction with a gracilis graft pressing the dominant nerve could be used to treat fecal incontinence. However, the detailed mechanism by this remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated the alteration in muscle fiber types and contractility of the peroneus longus muscle in rats after pressing its dominant nerves. Material and Methods The rat soleus and peroneus longus were exposed during surgery. The superficial peroneal nerve was pressed so that the peroneus longus temporarily lost its innervation. The epimysium between the soleus and the peroneus longus was removed. The end point of the soleus was cut off and the epimysium of the contact surfaces of the soleus and the peroneus longus were sutured. Five months later, peroneus longus contractility was recorded by the myograph system, and types of muscle fibers were observed using the myosin ATPase staining method. Results The skeletal muscle fiber type underwent adaptive changes due to double innervations with both fast and slow muscle nerves. Compared with other groups, the percentage of type I fibers in the peroneus longus increased significantly in the group of rats with the pressure on the nerve and removal of the sarcolemma. The maximal contraction and relaxation time at the single twitch and complete tetanus of the peroneus longus were also increased. Conclusions Our results show that pressing dominant nerves alter the skeletal muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus, which lead to increased maximal contraction and relaxation time, and significantly improve the ability in resistance to fatigue in rats. This study provides a basis for future clinical studies for external anal sphincter reconstruction using gracilis grafts that are doubly innervated by pressing on its dominant nerve. PMID:24807024

Shi, Song; Liu, Hao; Bai, Xiaobin; Cao, Yongxiao

2014-01-01

278

Pressing the nerve alters muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus in rats: Preliminary evidence for external anal sphincteroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have demonstrated that anal reconstruction with a gracilis graft pressing the dominant nerve could be used to treat fecal incontinence. However, the detailed mechanism by this remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated the alteration in muscle fiber types and contractility of the peroneus longus muscle in rats after pressing its dominant nerves. Material/Methods The rat soleus and peroneus longus were exposed during surgery. The superficial peroneal nerve was pressed so that the peroneus longus temporarily lost its innervation. The epimysium between the soleus and the peroneus longus was removed. The end point of the soleus was cut off and the epimysium of the contact surfaces of the soleus and the peroneus longus were sutured. Five months later, peroneus longus contractility was recorded by the myograph system, and types of muscle fibers were observed using the myosin ATPase staining method. Results The skeletal muscle fiber type underwent adaptive changes due to double innervations with both fast and slow muscle nerves. Compared with other groups, the percentage of type I fibers in the peroneus longus increased significantly in the group of rats with the pressure on the nerve and removal of the sarcolemma. The maximal contraction and relaxation time at the single twitch and complete tetanus of the peroneus longus were also increased. Conclusions Our results show that pressing dominant nerves alter the skeletal muscle fiber types of the peroneus longus, which lead to increased maximal contraction and relaxation time, and significantly improve the ability in resistance to fatigue in rats. This study provides a basis for future clinical studies for external anal sphincter reconstruction using gracilis grafts that are doubly innervated by pressing on its dominant nerve.

Shi, Song; Liu, Hao; Bai, Xiaobin; Cao, Yongxiao

2014-01-01

279

Transgene integration and organization in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome.  

PubMed

While genetically modified upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties are ranked among the most successful genetically modified organisms (GMO), there is little knowledge on transgene integration in the cotton genome, partly because of the difficulty in obtaining large numbers of transgenic plants. In this study, we analyzed 139 independently derived T0 transgenic cotton plants transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying a binary plasmid pPZP-GFP. It was found by PCR that as many as 31% of the plants had integration of vector backbone sequences. Of the 110 plants with good genomic Southern blot results, 37% had integration of a single T-DNA, 24% had two T-DNA copies and 39% had three or more copies. Multiple copies of the T-DNA existed either as repeats in complex loci or unlinked loci. Our further analysis of two T1 populations showed that segregants with a single T-DNA and no vector sequence could be obtained from T0 plants having multiple T-DNA copies and vector sequence. Out of the 57 T-DNA/T-DNA junctions cloned from complex loci, 27 had canonical T-DNA tandem repeats, the rest (30) had deletions to T-DNAs or had inclusion of vector sequences. Overlapping micro-homology was present for most of the T-DNA/T-DNA junctions (38/57). Right border (RB) ends of the T-DNA were precise while most left border (LB) ends (64%) had truncations to internal border sequences. Sequencing of collinear vector integration outside LB in 33 plants gave evidence that collinear vector sequence was determined in agrobacterium culture. Among the 130 plants with characterized flanking sequences, 12% had the transgene integrated into coding sequences, 12% into repetitive sequences, 7% into rDNAs. Interestingly, 7% had the transgene integrated into chloroplast derived sequences. Nucleotide sequence comparison of target sites in cotton genome before and after T-DNA integration revealed overlapping microhomology between target sites and the T-DNA (8/8), deletions to cotton genome in most cases studied (7/8) and some also had filler sequences (3/8). This information on T-DNA integration in cotton will facilitate functional genomic studies and further crop improvement. PMID:17549600

Zhang, Jun; Cai, Lin; Cheng, Jiaqin; Mao, Huizhu; Fan, Xiaoping; Meng, Zhaohong; Chan, Ka Man; Zhang, Huijun; Qi, Jianfei; Ji, Lianghui; Hong, Yan

2008-04-01

280

Cotton farming systems for a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change has always been present, but the cotton industry like all Australian agriculture in general is facing change at an unprecedented rate and from different causes. In this article we consider changes that the cotton industry faces associated with: 'climate change' in the meteorological sense; regulatory issues relating to reductions in water availability and carbon emissions trading; rising costs of

Michael Bange; Greg Constable

281

Cotton Ginnings (Released February 10, 1994).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton consumed during the month ending December 31, 1993, amounted to 791,506 bales. Cotton on hand in consuming establishments at the end of December was 623,949 bales, and the total in public storage and in compresses was 11,890,734 bales. Active consu...

1994-01-01

282

Infrared Spectroscopic Study of ?-Irradiated Cotton Linters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton linters is irradiated by Co-60 source with different doses (5 … 52 Mrad). The effect of ?-irradiation on the grafting of cotton linters with methylmethacrylate monomer (MMA) is clarified, crystallinity index (CrI) of irradiated samples decreases by increasing the radiation dose. A new hand appeared at 1715 cm (C=O) after irradiation. On the other hand, band intensities of some

A. A. Shabaka; A. M. El-Agramy; A. M. A. Nada

1991-01-01

283

Cotton and Wool: Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton outlook worsens as supply builds, demand declines. The U.S. cotton outlook is being shaped by rising supplies and falling demand. Large stocks and record yields per harvested acre are boosting supplies in 1982/83 to the highest since 1967/68. At th...

1982-01-01

284

Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole.  

PubMed

Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer's organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer's organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer's organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer's organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer's organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer's organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species. PMID:16751268

Marasco, Paul D; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C

2006-06-13

285

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2009-01-01

286

7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is...

2010-01-01

287

Investigation of some yield and fibre quality characteristics of interspecific hybrid (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) cotton varieties.  

PubMed

Interspecific hybrid cottons (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) have great both yield and quality potential. This study was conducted to determine potential yields and quality characteristics of hybrid cotton varieties in southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The experiment was set out a completely randomized block design with four replications during 2003 and 2004 at University of Dicle, Faculty of Agriculture Experimental Field. Seven interspecific hybrid cotton varieties (48-08, Sevilla, Europe, Ica, Etna, 14-08 and Acalpi) which were obtained from Israel, and commonly grown varieties in this region, non-hybrid cotton varieties, GW Teks and DP-Opal were used as the materials of the study. Difference among the cultivars was significant for all traits except sympodial branch. Maximum number of boll and lint yield was 20.18 n plant(-1) and 1685.8 kg ha(-1) from interspecific hybrid cotton Ica, while interspecific hybrid cotton Europe recorded the lowest number of boll and lint yield. Interspecific hybrid cotton varieties showed higher value for fibre length, fibre fineness and fibre strength than non-hybrid cotton varieties. The longest fibres were obtained from Acalpi and Etna (34.08 and 33.88 mm), while non-hybrid varieties, DP-Opal and GW-Teks, had the lowest fibre length, 28.50 and 30.03 mm, respectively. The finest fibres obtained from Ica and 48-08 (3.42 and 3.45 mic.), the strongest fibres from Etna and Acalpi (40.07 and 40.23 g tex(-1)), and most elongation fibres from Acalpi (8.00%) and Sevilla (7.45%). Lint yield correlated positive and significant with fiber length. PMID:17567438

Basbag, Sema; Gencer, Oktay

2007-03-01

288

Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole  

PubMed Central

Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer’s organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer’s organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer’s organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer’s organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer’s organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer’s organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species.

Marasco, Paul D.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Bautista, Diana M.; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C.

2006-01-01

289

Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cotton by BTH has a negligible effect on phytophagous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not chemical changes in plants in response to pests (insects and pathogens) are general or specific remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that an induced response (IR) to arthropods via the octadecanoid pathway represents a distinct mechanism from the salicylic acid-based pathway of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogens. To further test this hypothesis, young cotton seedlings were activated

Moshe Inbar; Hamed Doostdar; Dan Gerling; Richard T. Mayer

2001-01-01

290

Automated extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cellulosic fibers for forensic analysis by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Systematic designed experiments were employed to find the optimum conditions for extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cotton fibers prior to forensic characterization. Automated microextractions were coupled with measurements of extraction efficiencies on a microplate reader UV-visible spectrophotometer to enable rapid screening of extraction efficiency as a function of solvent composition. Solvent extraction conditions were also developed to be compatible with subsequent forensic characterization of extracted dyes by capillary electrophoresis with UV-visible diode array detection. The capillary electrophoresis electrolyte successfully used in this work consists of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 40:60 acetonitrile-water at pH 9.3, with the addition of sodium dithionite reducing agent to facilitate analysis of vat dyes. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is enhanced discrimination of trace fiber evidence by analysis of extracted dyes. PMID:19536528

Dockery, C R; Stefan, A R; Nieuwland, A A; Roberson, S N; Baguley, B M; Hendrix, J E; Morgan, S L

2009-08-01

291

Study on the hyperspectral characteristics of cotton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the spectral reflectance of canopy and leaves of various cottons were performed. Spectral reflectance of six variety cotton over the 350-2500 nm range with a spectral resolution of 3 nm were obtained this study. In the early growth the spectral reflectance of cotton canopy increased with time, but in the later growth the spectral reflectance of cotton canopy decreased with time. In the main stem of cotton, the spectral reflectance of leaf decreased with leaf position up. The spectral reflectance of leaf increased with addition of leaves. The curve of spectral reflectance was up with water losing of leaf. In the single leaf, the spectral reflectance in leafstalk was higher than the spectral reflectance in edge of leaf. The action of derivative spectra on eliminating background influence on cotton canopy spectra and that of vegetation indices on determining agricultural parameters were analyzed. The results show that the position and slope of red edge of canopy spectral reflectance of cotton are certainly correlative to fractional vegetation cover.

Wu, Xiuju; Cheng, Qian; Mao, Zhihua

2006-12-01

292

An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

1931-01-01

293

Genome sequence of the cultivated cotton Gossypium arboreum.  

PubMed

The complex allotetraploid nature of the cotton genome (AADD; 2n = 52) makes genetic, genomic and functional analyses extremely challenging. Here we sequenced and assembled the Gossypium arboreum (AA; 2n = 26) genome, a putative contributor of the A subgenome. A total of 193.6 Gb of clean sequence covering the genome by 112.6-fold was obtained by paired-end sequencing. We further anchored and oriented 90.4% of the assembly on 13 pseudochromosomes and found that 68.5% of the genome is occupied by repetitive DNA sequences. We predicted 41,330 protein-coding genes in G. arboreum. Two whole-genome duplications were shared by G. arboreum and Gossypium raimondii before speciation. Insertions of long terminal repeats in the past 5 million years are responsible for the twofold difference in the sizes of these genomes. Comparative transcriptome studies showed the key role of the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family in resistance to Verticillium dahliae and the involvement of ethylene in the development of cotton fiber cells. PMID:24836287

Li, Fuguang; Fan, Guangyi; Wang, Kunbo; Sun, Fengming; Yuan, Youlu; Song, Guoli; Li, Qin; Ma, Zhiying; Lu, Cairui; Zou, Changsong; Chen, Wenbin; Liang, Xinming; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Weiqing; Shi, Chengcheng; Xiao, Guanghui; Gou, Caiyun; Ye, Wuwei; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xueyan; Wei, Hengling; Li, Zhifang; Zhang, Guiyin; Wang, Junyi; Liu, Kun; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Yu, John Z; Zhu, Yu-Xian; Wang, Jun; Yu, Shuxun

2014-06-01

294

Parallel up-regulation of the profilin gene family following independent domestication of diploid and allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium)  

PubMed Central

Cotton is remarkable among our major crops in that four species were independently domesticated, two allopolyploids and two diploids. In each case thousands of years of human selection transformed sparsely flowering, perennial shrubs into highly productive crops with seeds bearing the vastly elongated and abundant single-celled hairs that comprise modern cotton fiber. The genetic underpinnings of these transformations are largely unknown, but comparative gene expression profiling experiments have demonstrated up-regulation of profilin accompanying domestication in all three species for which wild forms are known. Profilins are actin monomer binding proteins that are important in cytoskeletal dynamics and in cotton fiber elongation. We show that Gossypium diploids contain six profilin genes (GPRF1–GPRF6), located on four different chromosomes (eight chromosomes in the allopolyploid). All but one profilin (GPRF6) are expressed during cotton fiber development, and both homeologs of GPRF1–GPRF5 are expressed in fibers of the allopolyploids. Remarkably, quantitative RT-PCR and RNAseq data demonstrate that GPRF1–GPRF5 are all up-regulated, in parallel, in the three independently domesticated cottons in comparison with their wild counterparts. This result was additionally supported by iTRAQ proteomic data. In the allopolyploids, there This usage of novel should be fine, since it refers to a novel evolutionary process, not a novel discovery has been novel recruitment of the sixth profilin gene (GPRF6) as a result of domestication. This parallel up-regulation of an entire gene family in multiple species in response to strong directional selection is without precedent and suggests unwitting selection on one or more upstream transcription factors or other proteins that coordinately exercise control over profilin expression.

Bao, Ying; Hu, Guanjing; Flagel, Lex E.; Salmon, Armel; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wang, Zining; Wendel, Jonathan F.

2011-01-01

295

A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF). A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT) and Vitis vinifera (VV) whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence.

2010-01-01

296

Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius insidiosus (Say). We conclude that insecticidal control of the adults and larvae of F. tritici during flowering reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock. However, there were no significant regression relationships between the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest and the number of thrips in the flowers. PMID:19610399

Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

2009-06-01

297

Use of Oil Additives (Liquid Oversprays) in Cotton Dust Control Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton dust control technology was assessed by conducting preliminary and detailed surveys of cotton ginning, cotton seed processing, yarn manufacturing, knitting, fabric weaving and waste processing operations that use raw cotton. The facilities surveyed...

1981-01-01

298

Graphene oxide-based antibacterial cotton fabrics.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) is an excellent bacteria-killing nanomaterial. In this work, macroscopic applications of this promising nanomaterial by fixing GO sheets onto cotton fabrics, which possess strong antibacterial property and great laundering durability, are reported. The GO-based antibacterial cotton fabrics are prepared in three ways: direct adsorption, radiation-induced crosslinking, and chemical crosslinking. Antibacterial tests show that all these GO-containing fabrics possess strong antibacterial property and could inactivate 98% of bacteria. Most significantly, these fabrics can still kill >90% bacteria even after being washed for 100 times. Also importantly, animal tests show that GO-modified cotton fabrics cause no irritation to rabbit skin. Hence, it is believed that these flexible, foldable, and re-usable GO-based antibacterial cotton fabrics have high promise as a type of new nano-engineered antibacterial materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:23483725

Zhao, Jinming; Deng, Bo; Lv, Min; Li, Jingye; Zhang, Yujie; Jiang, Haiqing; Peng, Cheng; Li, Jiang; Shi, Jiye; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

2013-09-01

299

Current Animal Models: Cotton Rat Animal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus ) model has proven to be a suitable small animal model for measles virus pathogenesis to fill the niche between tissue culture\\u000a and studies in macaques. Similar to mice, inbred cotton rats are available in a microbiologically defined quality with an\\u000a ever-increasing arsenal of reagents and methods available for the study of infectious diseases.

S. Niewiesk

300

Ingrown toenail treated with cotton collodion insert.  

PubMed

Separating the distal anterior tip and lateral edges of an ingrown toenail from the adjacent soft tissue with a wisp of absorbent cotton coated with collodion gives immediate relief of pain and provides a firm runway for further growth of the nail. The collodion coating fixes the cotton in place, waterproofs, and permits bathing. This simple office method was successfully used on 86 private patients. It is not applicable in patients with infected acute paronychia. PMID:2037270

Ilfeld, F W

1991-04-01

301

Response of cotton to prebloom square loss.  

PubMed

In 1996 and 1997, various intensities of prebloom square removal were applied to three cultivars of cotton grown in Mississippi. With the exception of one cultivar in 1997, all cultivars were B. thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic cotton. At harvest, the number of bolls and seed cotton weight was recorded for all plants in each square removal treatment. All cultivars responded similarly to square loss. A yield increase (overcompensation) was observed in the treatment where all squares were removed from the plant one week after squaring began. Only the treatment where all squares were removed before bloom significantly reduced yield and caused a large (>7 d) delay in crop maturation. Otherwise, moderate levels of square removal (approximately 20-50% of prebloom squares) had little impact on overall lint production. However, the patterns of cotton production on the plants were significantly influenced by the square removal treatments. The removal of relatively more or larger squares increased seed cotton production in late-season fruiting cohorts and on 'vegetative' branches. Compensation for square loss occurred by increasing the relative number and weight of bolls produced subsequent to early-season square removal. Typically, early-season square loss increased the value of later-season fruiting cohorts, especially the midseason cohorts and bolls on vegetative branches. The implications of prebloom square loss, including the compensatory ability of the cotton plant, on insect management are discussed. PMID:11332830

Stewart, S D; Layton, M B; Williams, M R; Ingram, D; Maily, W

2001-04-01

302

Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here, we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where Bt cotton was absent. We show that the contribution of non-cotton hosts as a source of moths was spatially and temporally variable, but at least equivalent to a 7.5% sprayed refuge of non-Bt cotton. Simulation models incorporating H. armigera biological parameters, however, indicate that planting non-Bt cotton refuges may be needed to significantly delay resistance to cotton producing the toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Specifically, when the concentration of one toxin (here Cry1Ac) declined seasonally, resistance to Bt cotton often occurred rapidly in simulations where refuges of non-Bt cotton were rare and resistance to Cry2Ab was non-recessive, because resistance was essentially driven by one toxin (here Cry2Ab). The use of biogeochemical markers to quantify insect movement can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying the evolution of H. armigera resistance to Bt cotton.

Brevault, Thierry; Nibouche, Samuel; Achaleke, Joseph; Carriere, Yves

2012-01-01

303

Dominant resistance to Bt cotton and minor cross-resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in cotton bollworm from China.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the long-term benefits of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work has detected increases in the frequency of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively for more than a decade. Confirming that trend, we report evidence from 2011 showing that the percentage of individuals resistant to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was significantly higher in two populations from different provinces of northern China (1.4% and 2.3%) compared with previously tested susceptible field populations (0%). We isolated two resistant strains: one from each of the two field-selected populations. Relative to a susceptible strain, the two strains had 460- and 1200-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, respectively. Both strains had dominant resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac in diet and to Bt cotton leaves containing Cry1Ac. Both strains had low, but significant cross-resistance to Cry2Ab (4.2- and 5.9-fold), which is used widely as the second toxin in two-toxin Bt cotton. Compared with resistance in other strains of H. armigera, the resistance in the two strains characterized here may be especially difficult to suppress. PMID:24478804

Jin, Lin; Wei, Yiyun; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yihua; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

2013-12-01

304

After-Waxing of Sized Cotton and Polyester-Cotton Blend Yarns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After-waxing of filament yarns is a common practice in the synthetic weaving industry. However, very little information is available on after-waxing of spun cotton and polyester/cotton blend warps. Analysis of different softeners has been carried out to f...

1973-01-01

305

Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).  

PubMed

The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations, both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgenic cotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism, decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size. PMID:21462389

Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Irfan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zafar; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Husnain, Tayyab

2011-04-01

306

Helium/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment for hydrophilicity improvement of grey cotton knitted fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the hydrophilicity of grey cotton knitted fabric (GCKF) was investigated. For comparison, specimens which had undergone different treatments were tested by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results imply that helium/oxygen APPJ could improve the hydrophilicity of GCKF by modifying the surface properties. In addition, combining dewaxing processes with He/O 2 APPJ treatment was found to tremendously improve the hydrophilicity of GCKF. The mechanism of this was also confirmed by Ruthenium Red staining which showed most of pectic substances inside the cotton fiber existed beneath the waxy layer and on top of the cellulose microfibril.

Tian, Liqiang; Nie, Huali; Chatterton, Nicholas P.; Branford-White, Christopher J.; Qiu, Yiping; Zhu, Limin

2011-06-01

307

Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

2012-04-01

308

The Pharmacological Activity of Extracts of Cotton Dust  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts prepared from dust collected in the card-rooms of several cotton mills have been prepared and found to contain activity which contracts the smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum, guinea-pig trachea, rat stomach strip, and rat duodenum. The extracts contained an unknown contractor substance which was dialysable, resistant to boiling for one hour, and not destroyed by the action of proteolytic enzymes. They also contained a small amount of 5-hydroxytryptamine. One of the dust samples also contained histamine, but it could not be detected in the other samples, one of which was known to possess bronchoconstrictor properties in man. The particulate material, even after repeated washing, was found to have some stimulant action on guinea-pig ileum. There was no evidence for the release of histamine by the extracts in either cats or guinea-pigs, although a very small amount was released in rats. Jute dust is much less active than cotton dust, and the activity differs qualitatively. Cotton dust extracts were found to have pyrogenic activity but it is unlikely that pyrogens were responsible for the smooth-muscle contractor properties. Experiments with whole animals suggest that although smooth-muscle contracting substances were present in the extracts, it is possible that the symptoms of byssinosis are caused by the release of some other active bronchoconstrictor substance in the tissues. The mechanism of the release is not known; it may be caused by a soluble principle in the extract or due to the presence of particulate matter in the dust. Images

Davenport, Anne; Paton, W. D. M.

1962-01-01

309

Economic Efficiency of Cotton Production and Ginning in Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton is Egypt's most important crop representing one-fourth of the value of all field crops. The paper addresses major policy questions about cotton production and ginning in Egypt using comparative advantage analysis. Domestic resource cost (DRC), whic...

H. Khedr H. Kheir-El-Din E. Monke

1982-01-01

310

Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old office building has also been used as a starch mixing house. Note entrance to new office building on right - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Office Building, Old, Valley, Chambers County, AL

311

Cotton and Soybean Production Cost Estimates for Louisiana 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of the study, which was undertaken in the Spring and Summer of 1975, was to develop budgets for the cotton and soybean enterprises on commercial cotton farms in Louisiana. The resulting budgets indicate that production techniques wer...

K. W. Paxton

1976-01-01

312

Respiratory disorders and atopy in cotton, wool, and other textile mill workers in Denmark.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of respiratory disorders and atopy in Danish textile industry workers was conducted to survey respiratory symptoms throughout the textile industry, to estimate the association of these disorders with atopy, and to study dose-response relationships within the cotton industry. Workers at cotton mills, a wool mill, and a man-made fiber (MMF) mill were examined. Four hundred nine (90%) of the 445 workers participated in this survey, i.e., 253, 62, and 94 workers at the cotton mills, the wool mill, and the MMF mill, respectively. An interview designed to assess the prevalence of common respiratory and allergic symptoms was given to all workers willing to participate, and blood samples were drawn. Lung function measurements determined a baseline FEV1, FVC and the change in FEV1 and FVC during work hours on a Monday. The working environment was examined for dust, bacteria, endotoxins, and molds, and the exposure was estimated for each participant. The mean personal samples of airborne respirable dust and respirable endotoxin were highest in the cotton industry, i.e., 0.17-0.50 mg/m3 and 9.0-126 ng/m3 respectively, whereas mold spores were found in the highest concentrations in the wool mill: 280-791 colony-forming units (cfu)/m3. Only small concentrations of microorganisms were found in the MMF mill. The mean change in FEV1% and FVC% was greatest among atopic individuals in both cotton and wool industry and other textile industries although the differences were not significant. FEV1% and FVC% in the cotton workers were significantly associated with the cumulative exposure to respirable endotoxin. Byssinosis was diagnosed only in the cotton industry. We found a dose-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and byssinosis, and a significant association between A-1-A serum concentrations less than or equal to 35 mumol/liter and byssinosis, a finding we are further evaluating in subsequent studies. PMID:1415284

Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O F; Juul, S; Gravesen, S

1992-01-01

313

Regional Management Strategy for Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most important insect pests in cotton, corn and vegetables in China. Transgenic cotton that expresses\\u000a a gene derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997, and in 2005 its use had expanded to 3.3 million of the total\\u000a 5.1 million hectares used

K. M. Wu

314

Dimensional stability of cotton-spandex interlock structures under relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, dimensional characteristics of core spun cotton\\/spandex interlock structures with high, medium and low tightness\\u000a factors were studied under dry-, wet-, and full relaxation conditions. Results are compared with those for similar fabrics\\u000a knitted from 100 % cotton. Dimensional characteristics of samples of core-spun cotton\\/spandex and cotton are measured by considering\\u000a the changing of course-, wale- densities and

C. N. Herath; Bok Choon Kang; Han-Yong Jeon

2007-01-01

315

CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD) http:\\/\\/www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. DESCRIPTION: At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays

Anna Blenda; Jodi Scheffler; Brian Scheffler; Michael Palmer; Jean-Marc Lacape; John Z Yu; Christopher Jesudurai; Sook Jung; Sriram Muthukumar; Preetham Yellambalase; Stephen Ficklin; Margaret Staton; Robert Eshelman; Mauricio Ulloa; Sukumar Saha; Ben Burr; Shaolin Liu; Tianzhen Zhang; Deqiu Fang; Alan Pepper; Siva Kumpatla; John Jacobs; Jeff Tomkins; Roy Cantrell; Dorrie Main

2006-01-01

316

Improvement of hydrophobic properties of silk and cotton by hexafluoropropene plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma surface-treatment of silk and cotton fabrics were carried out in a hexafluoropropene (C 3F 6) atmosphere under different experimental conditions. Analysis of the treated fibers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated about 50 at% fluorine atoms were incorporated in the surface structure of two fibers and confirmed the presence of -CF, -CF 2, -CF 3 groups on the surface. After water-washing and alcohol-extraction, though partial loss of fluorine from the surface has been observed, contact angle and wet-out time measurements on the fibers still show much improved hydrophobic properties. The other properties of the treated fabrics, such as water vapor permeability and tensile strength were also evaluated.

Li, Shen; Jinjin, Dai

2007-03-01

317

Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origins of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill can be traced back to 1868 when a German Jewish immigrant named Jacob Elsas began to work in Atlanta's rag, paper, and hide trade. Elsas joined forces with another German Jewish immigrant several years later and then created a firm that would grow to include a print shop, bag mill, and a bleachery. When the plant closed in 1978, the archival records of the Fulton Bag company found their way to the Georgia Institute of Technology archives department. Many of these records have been digitized and they are now available on this site. Visitors can learn about the project in the "Project Info" area, and then browse several historical essays on the company in the "History" section. Interested parties should move over to the "Search" area to look over the company documents by keyword or name. The subject headings are most helpful, and they include thematic collections related to child labor in the mills, detective agencies that spied on activities within the mills, and labor organizing. As a piece of labor history, this archive is a real gem, and it's one that is most worthy of several visits.

318

Survival of variola virus in raw cotton  

PubMed Central

An investigation was carried out to establish the survival period of variola virus in relation to its importation into Great Britain in raw cotton. Under the conditions of the experiments described here, variola virus in scabs from a single patient survived for a maximum of three to four months at a relative humidity of 58, and for only two to four months at 30°C and humidities of 73 and 84. Exposed virus in the form of vesicle fluid in capillaries did not survive for three months at this temperature in any of these humidities. These results suggest that variola virus in scabs or seeds in tropical climates—i.e., at temperatures of from 30°C to 40°C or higher—is unlikely to survive for as long as six months. Thus, if the period of storage of cotton were at least six months after ginning and before shipment from cotton-producing countries in the tropics where smallpox is endemic, the chances of importation of viable variola virus on raw cotton into areas free from infection would be very small. However, if cotton can become contaminated with smallpox scabs in temperate climates (20°-25°C) or is already contaminated when imported at this temperature, the experiments indicate that a few particles of virus may survive for as long as 18 months. The virus can, of course, survive for many years, ten or more, at from 4°C to 5°C in closed tubes or bottles, with little decrease in titre.

MacCallum, F. O.; McDonald, J. R.

1957-01-01

319

Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced Alginate Fibers—Biomimicry Meets Polymer Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research takes a biomimetic approach to the design of polymer nanocomposites and demonstrates structure-property relationships that are controllable via processing conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) measuring 130 nm (length) × 20.4 nm (width) × 6.8 nm (height) were isolated from cotton by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and were incorporated in an alginate fiber wet spinning dope solution. Incorporating CNCs within the

Esteban E. Ureña-Benavides; Christopher L. Kitchens

2012-01-01

320

Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

Moore, Lindsey

2007-01-01

321

Rot-Resistance of Cotton/Nylon Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton/nylon blends differing in the proportion of cotton to nylon, the degree of interfiber intimacy and the geometric distribution of cotton to nylon were evaluated for rot-resistance in the soil burial test. Additional soil burial data were obtained fr...

M. Greenberger A. M. Kaplan

1968-01-01

322

2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton Yards (now used as a parking lot); Cotton Yard Gates at far right, Red Building and Produce Freight Warehouse in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Cotton Yard Gates, West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

323

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF COTTON - STATE OF THE ART  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes reported data on air emissions from the mechanical harvesting of cotton, including the machine removal and collection of seed cotton from mature plants and the transport of this cotton from the field. Machine harvesting and field transport cause air pollutio...

324

Ingested Mineral Fibers: Elimination in Human Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers from urine. These observations provide the first direct evidence for the passage of mineral fibers through the human gastrointestinal mucosa under normal

Philip M. Cook; Gayle F. Olson

1979-01-01

325

Tissue-specific and developmental regulation of cotton gene FbL2A. Demonstration of promoter activity in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

A gene (FbL2A) that is preferentially expressed in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. cv Sea Island) fiber was isolated and characterized. Genomic and cDNA analyses suggest multiple FbL2A genes in cotton. The gene is developmentally regulated and is activated during late primary and early secondary wall synthesis stages. FbL2A encodes a polypeptide of 43.4 kD and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.97. The nucleotide-derived protein is highly hydrophilic except for a hydrophobic N terminus and has a compositional bias for glutamic acid (26.3 mol%) and lysine (18.9 mol%). Sixty-two percent of the putative protein is composed of repeat motifs. A 55-amino-acid peptide region is repeated four times in a concatenate fashion within the protein. The function of the protein in the fiber cells is not known. A 2.3-kb DNA fragment 5' from the FbL2A gene is shown to direct expression of heterologous proteins in transgenic cotton in a fiber-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. The FbL2A promoter was used to express in transgenic cotton genes encoding acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase, which are involved in the synthesis of the thermoplastic polymer polyhydroxybutyric acid. Transgenic plants containing both enzymes produced polyhydroxybutyric acid in fiber. Thus, the FbL2A promoter is useful in genetic engineering schemes to modify cotton fiber. PMID:8938423

Rinehart, J A; Petersen, M W; John, M E

1996-11-01

326

Tissue-specific and developmental regulation of cotton gene FbL2A. Demonstration of promoter activity in transgenic plants.  

PubMed Central

A gene (FbL2A) that is preferentially expressed in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. cv Sea Island) fiber was isolated and characterized. Genomic and cDNA analyses suggest multiple FbL2A genes in cotton. The gene is developmentally regulated and is activated during late primary and early secondary wall synthesis stages. FbL2A encodes a polypeptide of 43.4 kD and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.97. The nucleotide-derived protein is highly hydrophilic except for a hydrophobic N terminus and has a compositional bias for glutamic acid (26.3 mol%) and lysine (18.9 mol%). Sixty-two percent of the putative protein is composed of repeat motifs. A 55-amino-acid peptide region is repeated four times in a concatenate fashion within the protein. The function of the protein in the fiber cells is not known. A 2.3-kb DNA fragment 5' from the FbL2A gene is shown to direct expression of heterologous proteins in transgenic cotton in a fiber-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. The FbL2A promoter was used to express in transgenic cotton genes encoding acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase, which are involved in the synthesis of the thermoplastic polymer polyhydroxybutyric acid. Transgenic plants containing both enzymes produced polyhydroxybutyric acid in fiber. Thus, the FbL2A promoter is useful in genetic engineering schemes to modify cotton fiber.

Rinehart, J A; Petersen, M W; John, M E

1996-01-01

327

Genetic dissection of chromosome substitution lines of cotton to discover novel Gossypium barbadense L. alleles for improvement of agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently released a set of 17 chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines (2n = 52) that contain Gossypium barbadense L. doubled-haploid line ‘3-79’ germplasm systematically introgressed into the Upland inbred ‘TM-1’ of G. hirsutum (L.). TM-1 yields much more than 3-79, but cotton from the latter has superior fiber properties. To explore the use of these\\u000a quasi-isogenic lines in studying gene interactions, we

Sukumar Saha; Jixiang Wu; Johnie N. Jenkins; Jack C. McCarty; Russell Hayes; David M. Stelly

2010-01-01

328

Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.  

PubMed

Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac) cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184) and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields. PMID:19279684

Lawo, Nora C; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

2009-01-01

329

Indian Bt Cotton Varieties Do Not Affect the Performance of Cotton Aphids  

PubMed Central

Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac) cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184) and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

Lawo, Nora C.; Wackers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jorg

2009-01-01

330

Inhibition of elastase by a synthetic cotton-bound serine protease inhibitor: in vitro kinetics and inhibitor release.  

PubMed

A cotton-bound serine protease inhibitor of elastase (fiber-inhibitor) has been formulated for in vitro evaluation in chronic wound fluid. As a model to understand the properties of the inhibitor in wound dressings, the kinetic profile and in vitro release of the fiber-inhibitor formulation have been examined. The elastase inhibitor N-Methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone was modified onto cotton cellulose fibers and assayed as a colloidal system. Amino acid analysis and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography were compared as semiquantitative methods to assess elastase inhibitor release from the cotton fibers. The kinetics of inhibition was assessed on treated fibers of synthetic dressings such that a colloidal suspension of the fiber-inhibitor and elastase was employed as an assay. A dose-response relationship was observed in the kinetics of substrate hydrolysis catalyzed by three elastases: porcine pancreatic elastase, which was employed to model this approach; human leukocyte elastase; and elastase in human chronic wound fluid. Both freely dissolved and fiber-bound inhibitors were studied. The initial rates of substrate hydrolysis were inversely linear with freely dissolved inhibitor dose. The apparent first order rate constants, kobs, for the elastase-inhibitor complex were calculated from the kinetic profiles. The kobs for inhibitor bound enzyme varied as a function of inhibitor vs. enzyme concentration and based on the order of mixing of substrate, inhibitor and enzyme in the assay. Enzyme inhibition by the fiber-inhibitor was measured as inhibitor concentration at 50% inhibition (I50). I50 values measured from the colloidal assay with fiber-released inhibitor were within the same range to those for freely dissolved inhibitor. Inhibition of elastase activity in chronic wound fluid was observed with 1-5 mg of fiber-inhibitor formulation. This approach constitutes an in vitro assessment of synthetic serine protease inhibitors on fibers and may be employed to evaluate structure vs. function of elastase inhibition in the modified fibers of wound dressing composites. PMID:10231512

Edwards, J V; Bopp, A F; Batiste, S; Ullah, A J; Cohen, I K; Diegelmann, R F; Montante, S J

1999-01-01

331

Genome-wide identification of differentially expressed genes under water deficit stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton is the world’s primary fiber crop and is a major agricultural commodity in over 30 countries. Like many other global commodities, sustainable cotton production is challenged by restricted natural resources. In response to the anticipated increase of agricultural water demand, a major research direction involves developing crops that use less water or that use water more efficiently. In this study, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes in response to water deficit stress in cotton. A global expression analysis using cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism was conducted to compare root and leaf gene expression profiles from a putative drought resistant cotton cultivar grown under water deficit stressed and well watered field conditions. Results We identified a total of 519 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments. Of these, 147 transcript derived fragment sequences were functionally annotated according to their gene ontology. Nearly 70 percent of transcript derived fragments belonged to four major categories: 1) unclassified, 2) stress/defense, 3) metabolism, and 4) gene regulation. We found heat shock protein-related and reactive oxygen species-related transcript derived fragments to be among the major parts of functional pathways induced by water deficit stress. Also, twelve novel transcripts were identified as both water deficit responsive and cotton specific. A subset of differentially expressed transcript derived fragments was verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Differential expression analysis also identified five pairs of duplicated transcript derived fragments in which four pairs responded differentially between each of their two homologues under water deficit stress. Conclusions In this study, we detected differentially expressed transcript derived fragments from water deficit stressed root and leaf tissues in tetraploid cotton and provided their gene ontology, functional/biological distribution, and possible roles of gene duplication. This discovery demonstrates complex mechanisms involved with polyploid cotton’s transcriptome response to naturally occurring field water deficit stress. The genes identified in this study will provide candidate targets to manipulate the water use characteristics of cotton at the molecular level.

2012-01-01

332

UDP-Glucose: (1->3)-?-Glucan Synthases from Mung Bean and Cotton  

PubMed Central

A re-examination of the kinetic properties of UDP-glucose: (1?3)-?-glucan (callose) synthases from mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata) and cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum) shows that these enzymes have a complex interaction with UDP-glucose and various effectors. Stimulation of activity by micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ and millimolar concentrations of ?-glucosides or other polyols is highest at low (<100 micromolar) UDP-glucose concentrations. These effectors act both by raising the Vmax of the enzyme, and by lowering the apparent Km for UDP-glucose from >1 millimolar to 0.2 to 0.3 millimolar. Mg2+ markedly enhances the affinity of the mung bean enzyme for Ca2+ but not for ?-glucoside; with saturating Ca2+, Mg2+ only slightly stimulates further production of glucan. However, the presence of Mg2+ during synthesis, or NaBH4 treatment after synthesis, changes the nature of the product from dispersed, alkali-soluble fibrils to highly aggregated, alkali-insoluble fibrils. Callose synthesized in vitro by the Ca2+, ?-glucoside-activated cotton fiber enzyme, with or without Mg2+, is very similar in size to callose isolated from cotton fibers, but is a linear (1?3)-?-glucan lacking the small amount of branches at C-0-6 found in vivo. We conclude that the high degree of aggregation of the fibrils synthesized with Mg2+in vitro is caused either by an alteration of the glucan at the reducing end or, indirectly, by an effect of Mg2+ on the conformation of the enzyme. Rate-zonal centrifugation of the solubilized mung bean callose synthase confirms that divalent cations can affect the size or conformation of this enzyme. Images Fig. 5

Hayashi, T.; Read, S. M.; Bussell, J.; Thelen, M.; Lin, F.-C.; Brown, R. M.; Delmer, D. P.

1987-01-01

333

Fiber and functional gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

Despite years of advising patients to alter their dietary and supplementary fiber intake, the evidence surrounding the use of fiber for functional bowel disease is limited. This paper outlines the organization of fiber types and highlights the importance of assessing the fermentation characteristics of each fiber type when choosing a suitable strategy for patients. Fiber undergoes partial or total fermentation in the distal small bowel and colon leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids and gas, thereby affecting gastrointestinal function and sensation. When fiber is recommended for functional bowel disease, use of a soluble supplement such as ispaghula/psyllium is best supported by the available evidence. Even when used judiciously, fiber can exacerbate abdominal distension, flatulence, constipation, and diarrhea. PMID:23545709

Eswaran, Shanti; Muir, Jane; Chey, William D

2013-05-01

334

Management of Xanthomonas camprestris pv. malvacearum-induced blight of cotton through phenolics of cotton rhizobacterium.  

PubMed

Four major phenolics were demonstrated to be produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CRb-26, a cotton rhizobacterium antagonistic to Xanthomonas camprestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm), the inducer of bacterial blight of cotton. Of these, compounds II (nonfluorescent) and IV(fluorescent) completely inhibited the growth of Xcm in vitro. Among these, compound IV was produced maximally (39% of the four phenolics), and it protected cotton leaves from blight infection better than compound II under glass-house conditions. Compound IV, identified as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, was, therefore, concluded to be a key metabolite involved in disease suppression by strain CRb-26 of P. fluorescens, which could be used as an ecofriendly potential input in the integrated management of bacterial blight of cotton. PMID:11688797

Mondal, K K; Dureja, P; Verma, J P

2001-11-01

335

Effects of cotton condensed tannin, maysin (Corn) and pinitol (soybeans) on Heliothis zea growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maysin, a flavone glycoside from corn silks, inhibits ingestion, and thus growth, ofHeliothis zea (Boddie) larvae. Pinitol from soybeans inhibitedH. zea growth by the same mechanism. Despite the widely held assumption that tannins inhibit growth by inhibiting assimilation, cotton condensed tannin inhibitedH. zea growth by reducing ingestion; no evidence was found for a reduction in assimilation. Neonate larvae are shown

John C. Reese; Bock G. Chan; Anthony C. Waiss

1982-01-01

336

Nanocomposite Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanocomposite fibers involve the concept of integrally dispensing nanosized particles of the second phase inorganic material into fiber forming polymers such as nylon or polyester. The material goal involves obtaining bi- phasic fibers with high mechanica...

Y. K. Kim A. F. Lewis P. K. Patra S. B. Warner S. K. Mhetrev

2003-01-01

337

Cotton fleahopper and associated microorganisms as components in the production of stress ethylene by cotton.  

PubMed

Excised cotton terminal buds incubated with adults or nymphs of the cotton fleahopper (CFH), Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), produced ethylene at theoretical abscission-inducing rates by 24 h after introduction of the insect. Inoculation of cotton shoot tips with three microorganisms commonly associated with CFH and cotton in all cases promoted ethylene production to theoretical abscission-inducing rates by 24 h after inoculation. CFH alone or injection of microorganisms consistently caused cotton shoot tips to darken and become soft. These changes paralleled the rise in ethylene production and did not occur in control shoot tips. Of the three microorganisms, Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Smith) Dye (XCM) produced little ethylene when grown in culture, while the two fungi, Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll and P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling, produced higher levels. The parallel between plant response to CFH, XCM, and CFH + XCM suggests a similar mechanism of ethylene induction by these two stress agents. Since a portion of the CFH were devoid of microorganisms, yet their impact on ethylene production by cotton tissue was uniform, we propose that the primary mechanism of ethylene induction involves the insect's salivary fluids which contain cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:16666119

Martin, W R; Morgan, P W; Sterling, W L; Kenerley, C M

1988-05-01

338

2001 NATIONAL COTTON FUSARIUM WILT REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton cultivars and elite breeding lines submitted by 24 cooperators were evaluated for Fusarium wilt resistance under field conditions at the E. V. Smith Research Center, Plant Breeding Unit, Tallassee, Alabama. These entries were grown on an Independence loamy fine sand highly infested with the Fusarium wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) Schlect. f. vasinfectum (Atk.) (Snyd. & Hans.) and southern root-knot

Kathryn M. Glass; William S. Gazaway; Edzard van Santen

339

Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three alternative methods for performing flame tests using cheaply and easily available cotton swabs are described. These flame tests are useful for chemical demonstrations or laboratory experiments because they are quick and easy to perform with easy cleanup and disposal methods.

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Banks, Catherine

2004-01-01

340

Child Labor in the Cotton Mills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students read two primary source documents on the subject of child labor in Southern cotton mills during the early twentieth century and listen to excerpts of oral histories from mill workers. In a critical analysis, students will identify the audiences for both documents and the motivations and intent of its authors, as well as examine the historical importance of each document.

South, Documenting T.

2012-04-03

341

Kapok\\/cotton fabric–polypropylene composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kapok\\/cotton fabric has been used as reinforcement for conventional polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene resins. Treating the reinforcement with acetic anhydride and sodium hydroxide has modified the fabric (fibres). Thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Results show that fibre modification gives a significant improvement to the thermal properties of the plant fibres, whereas tests on the

Leonard Y Mwaikambo; Ezio Martuscelli; Maurizio Avella

2000-01-01

342

THE CYTOGENETICS OF SPECIATION IN ASIATIC COTTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE cultivated cottons are divided into two groups: the diploid Asiatic species Gossypium arboreum and G. herbaceum and the New World amphidiploids G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The taxa within each of these groups are readily crossed, and the F, in each case is vigorous and fertile. F, and subsequent genera- tions, however, contain either depauperate types or plants that

L. L. PHILLIPS

343

Cotton cellulose: enzyme adsorption and enzymic hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of a crude cellulase complex from Trichoderma viride on variously pretreated cotton cellulose samples was studied in the framework of the Langmuir approach at 2-8 degrees. The saturation amount of adsorbed enzyme was related to the susceptibility of the substrates to hydrolysis. In every case the adsorption process was faster by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the hydrolysis

P. L. Beltrame; P. Carniti; B. Focher; A. Marzetti; M. Cattaneo

1982-01-01

344

High Frequency Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly reproducible system for efficient somatic embryogenesis was developed to regenerate plantlets from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Nazilli M-503 and Nazilli 143). Shoot apices, hypocotyls and nodes of 10-d-old seedlings were used as explants. High frequency (100 %) embryogenic calli was initiated from all tested explants on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) media supplemented with 1 g dm-3

Y. Aydin; Z. Ipekci; T. Talas-O?ra?; A. Zehir; K. Bajrovic; N. Gozukirmizi

2004-01-01

345

Process steam production from cotton gin trash  

SciTech Connect

A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

1981-01-01

346

Cotton and Wool Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given more normal production conditions and improved textile activity, the U.S. cotton supply/demand situation may tighten somewhat in 1982/83. Supplies, however, will likely remain large relative to demand. And, if yields are nearer average this season, ...

1982-01-01

347

Water use efficiency of narrow row cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in California to determine water use, crop growth, yield and water use efficiency of Acala (SJ-2) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown in 0.5 m spaced rows on a Panoche clay loam soil (Typic Torriorthents). Evapotranspiration was determined by water balance techniques utilizing neutron soil moisture measurements.

T. A. Howell; K. R. Davis; R. L. McCormick; H. Yamada; V. To Walhood; D. W. Meek

1984-01-01

348

Monitoring and management strategy for Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bt cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important insect pests in cotton growing regions of China. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997. Natural refuges derived from the mixed planting system consisting of cotton, corn, soybean, vegetables, peanut and others on single-family

Kongming Wu

2007-01-01

349

Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.  

PubMed

Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used. PMID:15119856

Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

2004-02-01

350

[Dynamics of predatory natural enemy community in cotton fields].  

PubMed

The dynamics of predatory natural enemy community in cotton field along the Yangtze River in Anhu province was studied. The results showed that there were totally 19 species of predatory natural enemies, and the dominant species were Propylaea japonica, Erigonidium graminicola, Theridium octomaculatum, Misumenops tricuspidatus, Orius minutes and Geocoris ochropterus. The predatory natural enemies in the cotton fields were rather abundant in the whole growing period of cotton, except the rainy season. Among the dominant species, P. japonica, M. tricuspidatus, O. minutes and G. ochropterus were distributed mainly in the upper and middle parts of cotton plants, while E. graminicola and T. octomaculatum mainly in the middle and lower parts of cotton plants. The diversities of the community were relatively high in the early developmental period of cotton, and reached the top level in the bud and flowering period of cotton in the first 10 days of July, then declined successively hereafter. The principal factor affecting the diversity was species richness in the early developmental period of cotton (from shoot period to bud and flowering period), and species evenness in the late developmental period of cotton (from flowering and boll period to boll opening period). The characteristics of the community were relatively analogous before the second 10 days of August (from shoot period to flowering and boll period of cotton), but after this period, the characteristics changed obviously with the features of the dominant species getting more and more conspicuous. PMID:12625002

Miao, Yong; Zou, Yunding; Sun, Shanjiao; Liu, Jiacheng; Meng, Qinglei; Ye, Chengrui

2002-11-01

351

An integrative analysis of four CESA isoforms specific for fiber cellulose production between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.  

PubMed

Cotton fiber is an excellent model system of cellulose biosynthesis; however, it has not been widely studied due to the lack of information about the cellulose synthase (CESA) family of genes in cotton. In this study, we initially identified six full-length CESA genes designated as GhCESA5-GhCESA10. Phylogenetic analysis and gene co-expression profiling revealed that CESA1, CESA2, CESA7, and CESA8 were the major isoforms for secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas CESA3, CESA5, CESA6, CESA9, and CESA10 should involve in primary cell wall formation for cotton fiber initiation and elongation. Using integrative analysis of gene expression patterns, CESA protein levels, and cellulose biosynthesis in vivo, we detected that CESA8 could play an enhancing role for rapid and massive cellulose accumulation in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. We found that CESA2 displayed a major expression in non-fiber tissues and that CESA1, a housekeeping gene like, was predominantly expressed in all tissues. Further, a dynamic alteration was observed in cell wall composition and a significant discrepancy was observed between the cotton species during fiber elongation, suggesting that pectin accumulation and xyloglucan reduction might contribute to cell wall transition. In addition, we discussed that callose synthesis might be regulated in vivo for massive cellulose production during active secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. PMID:23508664

Li, Ao; Xia, Tao; Xu, Wen; Chen, Tingting; Li, Xianliang; Fan, Jian; Wang, Ruyi; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai

2013-06-01

352

The diameters of frozen-hydrated chromatin fibers increase with DNA linker length: evidence in support of variable diameter models for chromatin.  

PubMed

The diameters of chromatin fibers from Thyone briareus (sea cucumber) sperm (DNA linker length, n = 87 bp) and Necturus maculosus (mudpuppy) erythrocytes (n = 48 bp) were investigated. Soluble fibers were frozen into vitrified aqueous solutions of physiological ionic strength (124 mM), imaged by cryo-EM, and measured interactively using quantitative computer image-processing techniques. Frozen-hydrated Thyone and Necturus fibers had significantly different mean diameters of 43.5 nm (SD = 4.2 nm; SEM = 0.61 nm) and 32.0 nm (SD = 3.0 nm; SEM = 0.36 nm), respectively. Evaluation of previously published EM data shows that the diameters of chromatin from a large number of sources are proportional to linker length. In addition, the inherent variability in fiber diameter suggests a relationship between fiber structure and the heterogeneity of linker length. The cryo-EM data were in quantitative agreement with space-filling double-helical crossed-linker models of Thyone and Necturus chromatin. The data, however, do not support solenoid or twisted-ribbon models for chromatin that specify a constant 30 nm diameter. To reconcile the concept of solenoidal packing with the data, we propose a variable-diameter solid-solenoid model with a fiber diameter that increases with linker length. In principle, each of the variable diameter models for chromatin can be reconciled with local variations in linker length. PMID:2391364

Athey, B D; Smith, M F; Rankert, D A; Williams, S P; Langmore, J P

1990-09-01

353

Bt Cotton and Management of the Tobacco Budworm-Bollworm Complex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preservation of Bt technology is critical for cotton producers across the U.S. Cotton Belt because of increasing insecticide resistance and production costs. Frequent introduction of new transgenic cotton varieties creates a need to continuously evaluate ...

D. D. Hardee J. W. Van Duyn M. B. Layton R. D. Bagwell

2001-01-01

354

75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains, Feed and Oilseeds; Re...Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS) and in Grains, Feed and Oilseeds...removing representation of the planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton,...

2010-10-07

355

Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic control of weeds by root exudates and residue breakdown products. Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity.

Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

2012-04-01

356

The adsorptive and hydrolytic performance of cellulase on cationised cotton.  

PubMed

In this research, the cotton fabrics were cationised by a cationic agent to change their surface electric properties. The cationised cotton fabrics were then bio-polished by cellulase to explore the influence of cationisation on the adsorptive and hydrolytic performance of cellulase. The experimental results from cellulase adsorption reveal the cationisation of cotton can obviously improve the binding efficiency of cellulase protein mainly by the improved electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged cellulase and cationised cotton. The adsorption parameters calculated can further prove this improvement trend. Through measuring the concentration of reducing sugars released and weight loss of cotton during the bio-polishing, it is found the hydrolytic activity toward cotton is partially damaged by the cationisation. The reason can be attributed to the movement restriction and dysfunction of cellulase protein by the cationisation. PMID:24750620

Hao, Longyun; Wang, Rui; Liu, Jingquan; Liu, Rongzhan

2012-06-01

357

Reducing pesticide risks to farming communities: cotton farmer field schools in Mali  

PubMed Central

We provide results from a study of two separate sectors within the cotton-growing region of southern Mali. In one sector, farmers have engaged in a farmer field school (FFS) training programme since 2003—the other not. One goal of the training was the adoption of alternatives to the use of hazardous insecticides, through integrated pest management (IPM) methods. Over an 8-year period, analysis showed that with roughly 20% of the 4324 cotton-growing farm households having undergone training, hazardous insecticide use for the entire sector fell by 92.5% compared with earlier figures and with the second (control) sector. Yields for cotton in both sectors were highly variable over time, but no evidence was found for changes in yield owing to shifts in pest management practices. Evidence is presented for a likely diffusion of new practices having taken place, from FFS participants to non-participants. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the FFS approach, in general, and highlight the need for improved baseline survey and impact analyses to be integrated into FFS projects.

Settle, William; Soumare, Mohamed; Sarr, Makhfousse; Garba, Mohamed Hama; Poisot, Anne-Sophie

2014-01-01

358

Induction of cotton ovule culture fibre branching by co-expression of cotton BTL, cotton SIM, and Arabidopsis STI genes.  

PubMed

The highly elongated single-celled cotton fibre consists of lint and fuzz, similar to the Arabidopsis trichome. Endoreduplication is an important determinant in Arabidopsis trichome initiation and morphogenesis. Fibre development is also controlled by functional homologues of Arabidopsis trichome patterning genes, although fibre cells do not have a branched shape like trichomes. The identification and characterization of the homologues of 10 key Arabidopsis trichome branching genes in Gossypium arboreum are reported here. Nuclear ploidy of fibres was determined, and gene function in cotton callus and fibre cells was investigated. The results revealed that the nuclear DNA content was constant in fuzz, whereas a limited and reversible change occurred in lint after initiation. Gossypeum arboreum branchless trichomes (GaBLT) was not transcribed in fibres. The homologue of STICHEL (STI), which is essential for trichome branching, was a pseudogene in Gossypium. Targeted expression of GaBLT, Arabidopsis STI, and the cytokinesis-repressing GaSIAMESE in G. hirsutum fibre cells cultured in vitro resulted in branching. The findings suggest that the distinctive developmental mechanism of cotton fibres does not depend on endoreduplication. This important component may be a relic function that can be activated in fibre cells. PMID:23966592

Wang, Gaskin; Feng, Hongjie; Sun, Junling; Du, Xiongming

2013-11-01

359

FIELD ABUNDANCES OF INSECT PREDATORS AND INSECT PESTS ON ? ? ? ? ?-ENDOTOXIN-PRODUCING TRANSGENIC COTTON IN NORTHERN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world. Insect pests such as cotton bollworm, cotton aphid, and mirids are the major factors that contribute to a decrease in cotton production. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene derived from the bacterium Bacil- lus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997 in China, and

Kongming WU; Kejian LIN; Jin MIAO; Yongjun ZHANG

360

(The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)  

SciTech Connect

We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

Mort, A.

1990-01-01

361

Cotton gin trash: can it be safely utilized  

SciTech Connect

Ginning creates lots of gin trash with subsequent disposal problems. The Texas A and M University Agricultural Engineering Dept. is conducting a systems engineering study of three utilization alternatives, composting, fuel, and cattlefeed, funded by the National Science Foundation. Arsenic contamination is a major constraint in utilizing cotton gin trash - arsenic acid is used to desiccate the cotton plant before harvesting. Data from growth trials of 12 species of vegetable and ornamental plants grown on composted cotton gin trash are presented. (Refs. 2).

Parnell, C.B.; Emino, E.R.; Grubaugh, E.K.

1980-08-01

362

High-frequency regeneration via multiple shoot induction of an elite recalcitrant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Narashima) by using embryo apex.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the most commercially important fiber crops in the world. Compared with other crops, cotton represents a recalcitrant species for regeneration protocols. The development of efficient and rapid regeneration protocol for elite Indian cotton variety could help improve the quality characteristics and biotic or abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report a novel regeneration protocol in Indian cotton cultivar Narashima. The maximum number of multiple shoots obtained was 16 per explants, performance which has never been achieved in any prior reports. The embryo apex explants were isolated from 2 d old in vitro growing seedlings. Explants were cultured on MS medium containing different plant growth regulator combinations in order to induce multiple shoots. Among the tested combinations, the 2 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2 mg/l kinetin (KIN) proved to be most suited for achieving the maximum number of multiple shoots. The elongation of multiple shoots was obtained in media supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3). The regenerated plants were successfully hardened in earthen pots after adequate acclimatization. This method avoids callus tissue, the stage of regeneration which may lead to somaclonal variation. The important feature of the presented method is shortening of regeneration time, as well as the induction of a high number of multiple shoots per explants. The present protocol may provide an efficient and rapid regeneration tool for obtaining more stable transformants from embryo apex explants of Indian cotton cultivar Narashima. PMID:23221745

Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-01-01

363

Characteristics of a Virescent Cotton Mutant 1  

PubMed Central

The virescent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) mutant described here differs from normal cultivated cotton by a single mutation in the nucleus. The mutant exhibits nuclear control of chlorophyll and carotenoid development. Young leaves are distinctly yellow and become green with age. There is no unusual photometabolism of 14CO2 or 14C-acetate in this mutant. It is probable that the nuclear virescent mutation is in a locus concerned with making structural units. The yellow leaves do show a high photosynthetic capacity on a chlorophyll basis. At saturating light intensity the rate of CO2 fixation is 8 fold higher than the green control leaves. Thus, impaired pigment synthesis which could be lethal is offset by a high photosynthetic capacity in the virescent leaves.

Benedict, C. R.; Kohel, R. J.

1968-01-01

364

Immunologic responses to inhaled cotton dust.  

PubMed Central

Byssinosis, a respiratory disease of workers on cotton, flax, and soft hemp, is classically characterized as shortness of breath, cough, and chest tightness on Mondays or the first day of return to work after a time off. Exposure to these vegetable dusts can also result in other respiratory diseases, and the term cotton dust-induced respiratory disease (CDIRD) is introduced. Although clinically characterized for more than a century, the underlying pathogenesis of CDIRD remains obscure. An allergic pathogenesis has been proposed. This article reviews previous and current research findings supporting this mechanism and raises the possibility that, in some individuals, CDIRD may be due to pre-existing or occupationally induced mold allergy. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5.

Salvaggio, J E; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T

1986-01-01

365

Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks. PMID:24620572

Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

2013-03-01

366

Heliothis virescens and Bt cotton in the United States.  

PubMed

The tobacco budworm (TBW), Heliothis virescens (F.), has been responsible for substantial economic losses, environmental pollution and a great challenge to the United States' economy, environment, researchers and cotton and tobacco producers during most of the past two hundred years. If a historical description of this pest problem should be written, it would necessarily be divided into two main events; the pre- and post-Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing (Bt)-cotton era. Before the advent of Bt-cotton, TBW had evolved resistance to most commercial insecticides, making cotton cultivation unfeasible at some point. Subsequently, a variety of clever control measures were developed in an effort to develop more sustainable integrated pest management programs. Without a doubt, Bt-cotton, transformed to produce insecticidal proteins from the soil borne bacterium, B. thuringiensis, is now one of the most important elements of TBW management in US cotton. This discussion could be quite short stating that Bt-cotton has produced an unprecedented level of control for TBW, but beyond this, it is important to note the additional impacts around the argument that Bt-cotton has likely reduced TBW populations over large areas-due to its high efficacy-to the low densities observed today. Cotton area suitable for TBW development has been reduced to ~40% of its pre Bt-cotton years and certainly may be another primary force behind this decline. However, the way we have detected this decline relies mostly on observations made in cotton fields, as well as males trapped in pheromone traps near cotton; these monitoring tools may not fully reflect TBW population levels at the landscape level. My argument supports what has been postulated before that TBW may be in the process of differentiating into "host races" and the cotton host race, once the most abundant in the environment, may be the one greatly affected by this habitat modification now dominated by Bt-cotton, while the other host races maintain their pre Bt-cotton densities. A revision of the physiological, reproductive and genetic mechanisms behind this host race speciation, as well as revisiting the role of its current host plants may offer an explanation of the puzzling phenomenon of the abatement of this pest's population in the southern United States. The challenge for the future involves the preservation of all those measures that have maintained the susceptibility of TBW to Bt-cotton. PMID:22892654

Blanco, Carlos A

2012-01-01

367

Helicoverpa zea and Bt cotton in the United States.  

PubMed

Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the bollworm or corn earworm, is the most important lepidopteran pest of Bt cotton in the United States. Corn is the preferred host, but the insect feeds on most flowering crops and wild host plants. As a cotton pest, bollworm has been closely linked to the insecticide-resistance prone Heliothis virescens (F.), tobacco budworm. Immature stages of the two species are difficult to separate in field environments. Tobacco budworm is very susceptible to most Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is considered to be "high dose." Bollworm is less susceptible to Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is not "high dose" for this pest. Bt cotton is routinely sprayed with traditional insecticides for bollworm control. Assays of bollworm field populations for susceptibility to Bt toxins expressed in Bt cotton have produced variable results since pre-deployment of Bt cottons in 1988 and 1992. Analyses of assay response trends have been used by others to suggest that field resistance has evolved to Bt toxins in bollworm, but disagreement exists on definitions of field resistance and confidence of variable assay results to project changes in susceptibility of field populations. Given historical variability in bollworm response to Bt toxins, erratic field control requiring supplemental insecticides since early field testing of Bt cottons, and dramatic increases in corn acreage in cotton growing areas of the Southern US, continued vigilance and concern for resistance evolution are warranted. PMID:22688690

Luttrell, Randall G; Jackson, Ryan E

2012-01-01

368

7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...exchanges. Whenever any association or exchange in any country...transactions and contracts for American upland cotton, made...

2010-01-01

369

Ergonomic Evaluation of Battery Powered Portable Cotton Picker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ergonomic evaluation of battery powered portable manual cotton picker was carried out on two subjects for three cotton varieties and was compared against manual method of picking. It is a hand operated machine and has a pair of chain with small sharp edged teeth and sprockets and is operated by a light weight 12 V battery. Cotton gets entangled with the chain and is collected and guided into the collection bag. Average heart rate, oxygen consumption, workload, energy expenditure was more in case of cotton picking by manual cotton picker as compared to manual picking for both the subjects for all three cotton variety types. Oxygen consumption varied from 0.81 to 0.97 l/min, workload varied from 36.32 to 46.16 W and energy expenditure varied from 16.83 to 20.33 kJ/min for both the subject in case of machine picking for all three cotton varieties. The maximum discomfort experienced by the subjects during picking cotton by manual cotton picker was in right wrist palm, right forearm, upper and lower back, left shoulder and in lower legs and both feet.

Dixit, A.; Manes, G. S.; Singh, A.; Prakash, A.; Mahal, J. S.

2012-09-01

370

Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

2004-07-01

371

Mortality and disability among cotton mill workers.  

PubMed Central

The mortality and disability of cotton mill workers were studied in five Finnish cotton mills. The population under study comprised all 1065 women exposed to raw cotton dust who had been hired between 1950 and 1971. The minimum exposure period was five years. For the study on disability, the cohort was followed up until the end of 1981. The follow up period for the mortality analysis was from 1950 to 1985. At the end of 1981 the observed number of prevalent disability pensions for respiratory disease was 15, whereas 3.9 were expected (p less than 0.01) on the basis of the national figures for women. There were 46 musculoskeletal diseases (27.7 expected, p less than 0.01), of which 24 were osteoarthritis (14.5 expected) and 13 rheumatoid arthritis (6.6 expected). The incidence rates of disability pensions were calculated for the period 1969-81. Comparison of incidence rates between cotton mill workers and the Finnish female population showed excessive rates for both respiratory diseases (p less than 0.001) and musculoskeletal diseases (p less than 0.01), with an excess of new cases of rheumatoid arthritis (p less than 0.05). By the end of 1985 the number of person-years was 31,678 and the number of deaths 95. The standardised mortality ratios for the total period of follow up (1950-85) showed no excess for respiratory diseases. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was also lower than expected. The observed number of tumours was 33, the corresponding expected number 32.0. Thirteen tumours were in the digestive organs (6.6 expected, p<0.05) and three were lung cancers (1.9 expected). Five workers had died from renal disease; the expected number was 1.5 (p<0.05).

Koskela, R S; Klockars, M; Jarvinen, E

1990-01-01

372

The measurement and health impact of endotoxin contamination in organic dusts from multiple sources: focus on the cotton industry.  

PubMed

Endotoxin is derived from Gram-negative bacterial membranes, and its inflammatory effects following inhalation are well characterized. The significance of this fact becomes apparent when the wide-ranging environments containing high levels of this microbial product are considered. Endotoxin is present in numerous industrial environments, especially where organic fibers are processed. Microbial contamination of these fibers mainly occurs at the agricultural stage. Materials such as flax and hemp are affected in this way, but the most important product in this context is cotton, from which chronic dust inhalation causes the disease byssinosis. Despite the fact that endotoxin constitutes a significant threat to public health, there are currently no occupational exposure limits for this toxicant. This communication describes the toxicology of endotoxin, and its role in inhalation-induced disease, focusing on measurement of airborne endotoxin in the occupational and domestic environments using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) enzyme assay. Following the success of the LAL assay for measuring endotoxin in dusts, our laboratory has examined its application to aqueous washes from cotton fibers. Reproducibility of the results was high, and data are presented displaying levels of endotoxin contamination in fibers from different cotton producing countries. Hence, worldwide comparison of industrial endotoxin concentrations can be readily made using this test. It would be highly desirable if the performance of the LAL assay facilitated introduction of industrial endotoxin safety limits, and in spite of minor surmountable shortcomings, the test is accurate, reliable, and well field-tested, so its continued widespread use may achieve this goal. PMID:15204769

Lane, Samantha R; Nicholls, Paul J; Sewell, Robert D E

2004-04-01

373

Yield and fibre quality associated with cotton leaf curl disease of Bt-cotton in Punjab.  

PubMed

Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), caused by Gemini virus and transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is a serious problem in Northern India, affecting the productivity to a great extent. Depending upon the severity of infection in susceptible varieties, the disease can cause upto 90.0 % yield losses besides this, it also causes deterioration in fibre quality. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of cotton leaf curl disease on seed cotton yield and fibre characters of two popular Bt-cotton hybrids in Punjab. The disease caused 52.7% reduction in number of bolls and 54.2 % in boll weight in Bt cotton hybrid RCH 134. Similarly, it reduced the fibre length from 29.1 to 26.2 mm (9.9%); fibre uniformity from 68.9 to 68.1% (1.1%); fibre strength from 29.1 to 26.9 g per texture (7.5%) and miconaire value from 5.2 to 5.0 g inch(-1) (3.8%). Similar results were reported in Bt cotton hybrid MRC 6304, where the disease reduced the boll number and boll weight by 46.1 and 43.4%, respectively. However, to the fibre quality was not much affected by varying level of disease severity. The studies clearly reflect the adverse impact of CLCuD on yield and fibre quality especially 2.5% span length. Thus suggesting the management of disease using integrated disease management strategies to avoid quantitative and qualitative losses. PMID:24006816

Singh, Daljeet; Gill, J S; Gumber, R K; Singh, Ramandeep; Singh, Satnam

2013-01-01

374

Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus  

PubMed Central

Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

2011-01-01

375

Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t C/ha/year) than with no-tillage (16.8 t C/ha/year), although values were higher than those of corn. A large proportion of the carbon inputs from sorghum roots came from depths > 0.6 m. Averaged between both treatments, 65% of the total root mass was located in the 0.6-1.0 m depth. Carbon added to soil by roots of C4 crops such as corn and sorghum was higher than that added by roots of C3 crops such as wheat, vetch and cotton. Carbon added by roots of a Bollgard cotton variety was less than that added by roots of its non-Bollgard counterpart.

Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

2012-04-01

376

Fiber Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students investigate how the index of refraction of materials is related to fiber optics: they explore the phenomenon of total internal reflection and learn how dispersion can affect fiber optics.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

377

Within-plant distribution of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the vertical and horizontal distribution of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on genetically modified cotton plants over time could help optimize decision-making in integrated cotton aphid management programs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of A. gossypii in non-transgenic Bt cotton and transgenic Bt-cotton over time during two cotton seasons by examining plants throughout the seasons. There was no significant interaction between years and cotton cultivar treatments for apterous or alate aphids. Considering year-to-year data, analyses on season-long averages of apterous or alate aphids showed that aphid densities per plant did not differ among years. The number of apterous aphids found per plant for the Bt transgenic cultivar (2427 apterous aphids per plant) was lower than for its isoline (3335 apterous aphids per plant). The number of alate aphids found per plant on the Bt transgenic cultivar (12.28 alate aphids per plant) was lower than for the isoline (140.56 alate aphids per plant). With regard to the vertical distribution of apterous aphids or alate aphids, there were interactions between cotton cultivar, plant age and plant region. We conclude that in comparison to non-Bt cotton (DP 4049), Bt cotton (DP 404 BG (Bollgard)) has significant effects on the vertical, horizontal, spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. gossypii, showing changes in its distribution behaviour inside the plant as the cotton crop develops. The results of our study are relevant for understanding the vertical and horizontal distribution of A. gossypii on Bt cotton cultivar (DP 404 BG (Bollgard)) and on its isoline (DP 4049), and could be useful in decision-making, implementing controls and determining the timing of population peaks of this insect. PMID:21791143

Fernandes, F S; Ramalho, F S; Nascimento, J L; Malaquias, J B; Nascimento, A R B; Silva, C A D; Zanuncio, J C

2012-02-01

378

Association of Low Dietary Intake of Fiber and Liquids with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Methods Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (?20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Results Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusions The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise.

Markland, Alayne D.; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E.

2013-01-01

379

A laboratory study of cotton gin waste pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of wastes associated with the processing of cotton is posing great problems in some ginning sites in Greece. Traditional disposal methods, such as open-air incineration and landfilling are no longer adequate due to increasing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates cotton gin wastes as an energy resource by studying the effect of temperature on the product yields in their

A. A Zabaniotou; A. I Roussos; C. J Koroneos

2000-01-01

380

Cotton Supply Response: A Case of a Distorted Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although in as restrictive an environment as is Egypt's cotton industry, it can be argued that supply response to price would be nil, the study argues that there are still several ways that market forces can impact cotton production. Farmers may adjust ac...

H. A. Khedr H. Kheir-El-Din T. E. Petzel

1982-01-01

381

Five years of Bt cotton in China - the benefits continue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bt cotton is spreading very rapidly in China, in response to demand from farmers for technology that will reduce both the cost of pesticide applications and exposure to pesticides, and will free up time for other tasks. Based on surveys of hundreds of farmers in the Yellow River cotton-growing region in northern China in 1999, 2000 and 2001, over

Carl E. Pray; Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Scott Rozelle

2002-01-01

382

Physiological changes associated with potassium deficiency in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium (K) fertility recommendations based on cotton petiole diagnostic analysis results have been inconsistent in the past, partly because the lowest acceptable petiole K concentration is unknown. Therefore, cotton was grown in sand filled 8?L pots under two K treatments in a growth chamber at the Altheimer Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR to determine the petiole K concentration that will impact

C. W. Bednarz; D. M. Oosterhuis

1999-01-01

383

VITAMIN C METABOLISM IN EASTERN COTTON EATS i  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demonstration of the susceptibility of the eastern cotton rat to the virus of poliomyelitis (Armstrong, '39; Jungeblut and Sanders, '40) prompted a systematic investi gation in this laboratory of the response of this animal to other infectious and toxic agents. The significant finding which emerged from these comparative studies was the fact that the cotton rat in its reaction

ADA R. CLARK; CLAUS W. JUNGEBLUT

384

75. MISSISSIPPI, MONROE COUNTY, ARMORY COTTON GIN PORT BRIDGE Dirt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. MISSISSIPPI, MONROE COUNTY, ARMORY COTTON GIN PORT BRIDGE Dirt road SW from Amory to River Cotton Gin Port road bridge. Copy of photo taken in 1932 by Jack Donnell, Columbus Mississippi. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS., Sept. 1978 - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

385

Dyeing cotton, wool and silk with Hibiscus mutabilis (Gulzuba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus mutabilis (Gulzuba)\\/Cotton rose\\/ belongs to family Malvaceae produces natural dye which has been used for dyeing textiles. Aqueous extract of Gulzuba flowers yield shades with good fastness properties. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of cotton, silk for garment industry and wool yarn for carpet industry. In the present study dyeing with gulzuba has been shown

Rakhi Shanker; Padma S. Vankar

2007-01-01

386

Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and ?-glucosidase for 24h followed by

Azam Jeihanipour; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2009-01-01

387

Spectroscopic and ion exchange studies on modified cotton linters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cation exchange resin was prepared by phosphorylation of cotton linters. The effect of different treatments (alkali or acid) of cotton linters on phosphorylation process was studied. This treatment increases the efficiency of the produced resin toward metal ions uptake (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). The effect of pH value of metal ion solution on the efficiency of ion exchanger

A M A Nada; S S Hamed; S I Soliman; S Abd El Mongy

388

Studies on Indigenous Cotton linters for Preparation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to find out a suitable method for preparation of car- boxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from indigenous cotton linters. Special emphasis was given on purification method to remove most of the non-cellulosic materials. A two- step purification method of cotton linters for preparation of water soluble car- boxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with degree of substitution (DS) 0.89 and viscosity

Ismet Ara Jahan; Fahmida Sultana; M. Nurul Islam; M. Akram Hossain; Jainul Abedin

2007-01-01

389

Cotton Remains from Archeological Sites in Central Coastal Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton remains from four archeological sites in central coastal Peru, representing a time sequence from about 2500 to 1000 B.C., were compared with similar materials obtained from living wild and cultivated forms of Gossypium barbadense L. The comparison revealed that the archeological cotton samples were primitive forms of Gossypium barbadense, differing little from present-day wild forms of the same species.

S. G. Stephens; M. Edward Moseley

1973-01-01

390

Prevalence of Byssinosis and Respiratory Symptoms among Cotton Mill Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While the prevalence of byssinosis is decreasing in industrialized countries and persists at high levels in developing countries, this prevalence is remaining constant in Turkey. Objective: In order to determine the effects of past cotton dust exposure on the respiratory tract, a total of 223 persons working in a cotton mill were included in this study. Methods: A questionnaire

R. Altin; S. Ozkurt; F. Fisekçi; A. H. Cimrin; M. Zencir; C. Sevinc

2002-01-01

391

Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia resembling those of Botrytis. Although the corticoid basidiomycetes Phanerochaete omnivora (Polyporales) and Sistotrema brinkmannii (Cantharel­ lales; both Agaricomycetes) have

S. M. Marek; K. Hansen; M. Romanish; R. G. Thorn

2009-01-01

392

Variation in chromosomes of the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes were analyzed from 38 hispid cotton rats, currently assigned to the species Sigmodon hispidus, from populations in southeastern and western United States. Cotton rats from southeastern United States had a 2N of 52 and an F. N. which varied from 52 to 54. Specimens from Obion County, Tennessee, and Highlands County, Florida, were found to be polymorphic with a

Earl G. Zimmerman; M. Raymond Lee

1968-01-01

393

Variations of pulmonary function amongst workers in cotton mills.  

PubMed

Lung function studies and clinical examinations of 493 workers in eight cotton mills in New South Wales revealed 12 workers with byssinosis. The reasons for the low incidence of byssinosis in view of relatively high cotton dust in air concentrations are discussed briefly. PMID:956940

Barnes, R; Simpson, G R

1976-08-01

394

MISSISSIPPI COTTON YIELD MONITOR: THREE YEARS OF FIELD TEST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mississippi cotton yield monitor, which is based on an optical cotton-flow sensor comprised of emitters and detectors in one unit that can be affixed to only one side of a pneumatic duct, has been under development at Mississippi State University since 1999. One prototype of the yield monitor was field tested that year in Mississippi. In 2000, three prototypes

J. A. Thomasson; R. Sui

395

Diverse genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in cotton bollworm from China.  

PubMed

Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays or in transgenic crops. Although several pests have evolved resistance to Bt crops in the field, information about the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops has been limited. In particular, laboratory-selected resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac based on recessive mutations in a gene encoding a toxin-binding cadherin protein has been identified in three major cotton pests, but previous work has not determined if such mutations are associated with field-selected resistance to Bt cotton. Here we show that the most common resistance alleles in field populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, selected with Bt cotton in northern China, had recessive cadherin mutations, including the deletion mutation identified via laboratory selection. However, unlike all previously studied cadherin resistance alleles, one field-selected cadherin resistance allele conferred nonrecessive resistance. We also detected nonrecessive resistance that was not genetically linked with the cadherin locus. In field-selected populations, recessive cadherin alleles accounted for 75-84% of resistance alleles detected. However, most resistance alleles occurred in heterozygotes and 59-94% of resistant individuals carried at least one nonrecessive resistance allele. The results suggest that resistance management strategies must account for diverse resistance alleles in field-selected populations, including nonrecessive alleles. PMID:22689968

Zhang, Haonan; Tian, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Chunhui; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Wu, Kongming; Cui, Jinjie; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

2012-06-26

396

Parasitic arthropods of sympatric opossums, cotton rats, and cotton mice from Merritt Island, Florida.  

PubMed

Six species of parasitic arthropods were collected from 12 opossums (Didelphis virginiana), 8 species were obtained from 28 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), and 4 species were collected from 10 cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) from Merritt Island, Brevard County, Florida. The flea Polygenis gwyni was the only parasite that infested all 3 host species, and it was present in very high densities (mean intensity = 73.7) on the opossums. The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, both infested 2 host species but were principally associated with opossums and cotton rats, respectively. All remaining arthropod species were confined to single host species, suggesting host specificity by these parasites. The atopomelid mite Didelphilichus serrifer and the myobiid mite Radfordia sigmodontis constitute new state records for Florida. The reptile tick Amblyomma dissimile is recorded from a cotton mouse for the first time; Merritt Island may represent the most northerly location for viable populations of this tick in the U.S.A. PMID:8459341

Durden, L A; Klompen, J S; Keirans, J E

1993-04-01

397

Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves (A Systemic Response of Living Plants to Caterpillar Damage).  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that attract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. The release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3 d of continuous larval damage on lower leaves of the same plant. Compounds released systemically were (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-[beta]-ocimene, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-[beta]-farnesene, (E,E)-[alpha]-farnesene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. All systemically released compounds are known to be induced by caterpillar damage and are not released in significant amounts by undamaged plants. Other compounds, specifically indole, isomeric hexenyl butyrates, and 2-methylbutyrates, known to be released by cotton in response to caterpillar damage, were not released systemically. However, when upper, undamaged leaves of a caterpillar-damaged plant were damaged with a razor blade, they released isomeric hexenyl butyrates, 2-methylbutyrates, and large amounts of constitutive compounds in addition to the previously detected induced compounds. Control plants, damaged with a razor blade in the same way, did not release isomeric hexenyl butyrates or 2-methylbutyrates and released significantly smaller amounts of constitutive compounds. Indole was not released systemically, even after artificial damage.

Rose, USR.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1996-01-01

398

White trash detection of cotton lint with ultraviolet-induced fluorescence imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White cotton lint trash can not be effectively detected by white light imaging method. It becomes a serious problem in textile industry. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced fluorescence imaging method is based on the principle that different materials have different spectral excitation and emission characteristics. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiment gave reliable evidence that most white trash had much stronger fluorescent effect than that of lint. In order to simultaneously discriminate several kinds of white lint trash, an Optimal Wavelength Selected Model for describing cotton/trash discrimination was developed. It was determined that 342-388 nm was the optimal detection waveband for white trash detection. Imaging results and analysis clearly showed that for both uncovered and covered situation, the gray differences between white trash and lint were significantly improved when illuminated by a type of UV light. It was concluded that UV-induced fluorescence imaging method is a feasible way to detect most white trash. This method can also be used in white trash detection in seed cotton, wool, tealeaf, and tobacco leaf.

Zhou, Fei; Ding, Tianhuai

2010-08-01

399

The friction property of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two kinds of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles were prepared via dip-coating cotton textiles with nano-silica suspensions, and the cotton textiles exhibits high contact angle more than 160° and low sliding angle lower than 4°. A friction method was used to evaluate the durability of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cotton textiles, the results shows that one of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cottons exhibits better stability property against friction, and its contact angle remained higher than 150° and sliding angle remained lower than 15° after 1000 times friction. SEM analysis shows the reduction of hydrophobic property was resulted from the damage of surface structure during friction cycle.

Su, Changhong; Li, Jun

2010-04-01

400

Vegetable ingredients of dusts in textile and nontextile cotton industries.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if garnetting and raw cotton dusts differed in botanical composition. Estimates of dust composition were based on the contents of gross trash in cotton raw materials and the potential of each gross trash component to be converted into less than 10 mum particulate by a laboratory abrasion test. All types of garnetting dusts are predicted to contain a lower percent content of leaflike material than raw cotton dust. Garnetting dusts arising from linter-polyester blends are estimated to contain only 20 to 25 percent of the concentration of leaflike ingredients predicted to be present in raw cotton dusts. The low prevalence of byssinosis reported in the garnetting industry may be explained, in part, by the relatively low percent content of leaflike particulate in this cotton dust. PMID:7471900

Morey, P R

1981-04-01

401

Cotton fabric finished with ?-cyclodextrin: Inclusion ability toward antimicrobial agent.  

PubMed

?-Cyclodextrin was grafted onto cotton fabric through crosslinking with butane tetracarboxylic acid in presence of sodium hypophosphite monohydrate as a catalyst. This finished cotton fabric was loaded with the antimicrobial agent octenidine dihydrochloride. ?-Cyclodextrin-grafted cotton fabrics, both after loading with octenidine dihydrochloride or before loading (control) were characterized for their antimicrobial activity against two types of bacteria (Gram positive and Gram negative) and two types of fungi, using the Diffusion Disk Method. The antimicrobial cotton fabric was subjected to several washing cycles and the antimicrobial activity was measured after each washing cycle to examine the durability of this antimicrobial finishing against repeated washing. The measurements showed that the finished cotton fabrics retain reasonable deal of their antimicrobial activity, even after 20 washing cycles. This long-lasting antimicrobial activity is attributed to the hosting ability of the cavities present in cyclodextrin moieties, which host the antimicrobial agent molecules and release them gradually. PMID:24507318

Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Alfaifi, Ali Y A

2014-02-15

402

A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

2012-11-01

403

Photosynthetic Rate Control in Cotton 1  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to determine the magnitude of photorespiration in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as a function of environmental and plant-related factors. Photorespiration rates were estimated as the difference between measured gross and net photosynthetic rates. A linear increase in photorespiration was observed as air temperature increased from 22 to 40°C at saturating photon flux density. At 22°C, photorespiration was less than 15 per cent of net photosynthesis and very comparable to the dark respiration rate. At 40°C, photorespiration represented about 50 per cent of net photosynthesis. Gross photosynthesis had a temperature optimum of 32 to 34°C. Water stress, as indicated by ?L, did not alter the ratio of gross photosynthesis to net photosynthesis when the confounding effects of leaf temperature differences were accounted for in the data analyses. A reduction in both gross and net photosynthesis was apparent as ?L declined from ?2.0 megapascals indicating direct effects of water stress on the photosynthetic process. Photorespiration expressed as a proportion of net photosynthesis increased as water stress intensified. Cotton cultivars possessing a fruit load had significantly higher gross and net photosynthetic rates and lower photorespiration rates than did photoperiod-sensitive cotton strains without a fruit load. Within the fruiting types, which were genetically very similar, only minor differences were observed in the photorespiration:net photosynthesis ratios. However, in the photoperiod-sensitive strains, considerable genetic variability existed when photorespiration was expressed as a proportion of net photosynthesis. These results suggest that the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase:oxygenase may be different and, thus, the possibility of genetically reducing photorespiration exists.

Perry, Sidney W.; Krieg, Daniel R.; Hutmacher, Robert B.

1983-01-01

404

Analysis of mesh breaking loads in cotton gill nets: Possible solution to ghost fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small number of fishers in Chiba Prefecture of eastern Japan use cotton gill nets to catch Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus. To examine the advantages of cotton gill nets, we analyzed changes in mesh breaking load of a new cotton gill net used in\\u000a a fishing operation. A new cotton gill net was also soaked in a seawater tank

Yoshiki Matsushita; Shusuke Machida; Haruyuki Kanehiro; Fumio Nakamura; Naoto Honda

2008-01-01

405

Research on detecting heterogeneous fibre from cotton based on linear CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous fibre in cotton make a great impact on production of cotton textile, it will have a bad effect on the quality of product, thereby affect economic benefits and market competitive ability of corporation. So the detecting and eliminating of heterogeneous fibre is particular important to improve machining technics of cotton, advance the quality of cotton textile and reduce

Xian-Bin Zhang; Bing Cao; Xin-Peng Zhang; Wei Shi

2009-01-01

406

Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

2009-01-01

407

INFLUENCES OF WINTER COVER CROP RESIDUES AND TILLAGE ON COTTON LINT YIELD AND QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cotton growing in Turkey has monoculture system and any crop is not grown in approximately five months between two cotton growing which caused lower seed cotton yield, poor lint quality and early leaf senescence. The influences of different tillage systems and winter cover crops on cotton lint yield and quality were evaluated in Aegean Region of Turkey during two

AYDIN UNAY; ENGIN TAN; CAHIT KONAK; ESEN CELEN

408

Production of cell-free xanthan fermentation broth by cell adsorption on fibers  

PubMed

Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide widely used in food and oil-drilling industries. Xanthan gum produced from the current commercial fermentation process usually contains cells and cell debris, which lower the filterability of the xanthan solution and limit its applications. The production of cell-free xanthan gum fermentation broth is thus desirable. The feasibility of removing cells from the xanthan fermentation broth by cell adsorption to various woven fibrous materials was studied. It was found that both cotton and polyester fibers could be used to adsorb Xanthomonas campestris cells present in the fermentation broth either during batch fermentation or after the fermentation. Almost all cells were removed from the fermentation broth by adsorption to fibers. Cotton terry cloth had rough surfaces and was the preferred material for cell adsorption. Cell adsorption to cotton was faster than to polyester fibers. The adsorption kinetics can be modeled by a first-order rate equation. The adsorption rate constants were 30-40% higher for cotton than for polyester. Cell adsorption was not efficient in the absence of xanthan gum, suggesting that the exopolysaccharide, xanthan gum, was important for efficient cell adsorption to fibers. PMID:9548777

Yang; Lo; Chattopadhyay

1998-03-01

409

Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some loose fiber materials - A preliminary study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited number of cotton and polyester loose-fiber materials was evaluated in the course of developing procedures for toxic-materials characterization. Under the test conditions used, there was no significant difference in relative toxicity between the materials evaluated.

Hilado, C. J.

1976-01-01

410

Advances in cotton gin trash energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The concept of using agricultural residues, especially cotton gin trash (CGT), as a fuel for a small cogeneration power plant based on fluidized bed gasification (FBG) requires that three problems be solved: (1) ash must be removed from the low calorific value (LCV) gas prior to combustion; (2) the high NO/sub x/ emissions associated with many biomass fuels must be significantly reduced; (3) a systems analyses of engineering/economic feasibility for potential applications must be developed. This paper addresses current research at TAMU pertaining to these problems.

Rutherford, R.D.; Parnell, C.B.; Finch, S.F.; Siebold, W.J.

1985-01-01

411

Lemon Balm ( Melissa officinalis ) Stalk: Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potentials of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) stalk (LBS), a massive waste part of medicinal plant, for pulp and papermaking by assessing its fiber characteristics\\u000a and chemical composition. In addition, LBS properties were compared with some important agro-residues such as bagasse stalk\\u000a (BS), cotton stalk (CS) and tobacco stalk (TS). There is no information about suitability

Yahya Hamzeh; Fatemeh Amani

2011-01-01

412

Nanocomposites from natural cellulose fibers incorporated with sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work shows for the first time worldwide that sucrose can be easily placed by simple techniques within the micropores\\u000a or nanostructure of the mercerized non-dried cotton linter fibers to create a low-cost cellulose substitute. Such sucrose-containing\\u000a nanocomposites find suitable use as specialty absorbent paper. Relative to the sucrose-free paper, the sucrose-containing\\u000a counterparts exhibit greater breaking length and remarkably

Tamer Y. A. Fahmy; Fardous Mobarak; Yehia Fahmy; M. H. Fadl; M. El-Sakhawy

2006-01-01

413

Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)1] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species\\u000a (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas

S. SahaJ; J. Wu; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; R. Hayes; D. M. Stelly

2011-01-01

414

[Study of nondestructive and fast identification of fabric fibers using near infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

A fast and nondestructive identification method to distinguish different types of fabric fibers is proposed in the present paper. A total of 214 fabric fiber samples, including wool, cashmere, terylene, polyamide, polyurethane, silk, flax, linen, cotton, viscose, cotton-flax blending, terylene-cotton blending, and wool-cashmere blending, were collected from Beijing Textile Fibre Inspection Institute. They contain yarns, raw wool or cashmere, and various fabric straps with different colors and different braid patterns. Sample presentation for measuring near infrared spectra of various textile fibers was tried to reduce the impact from the ununiformity of polymorphous fabric structure. Spectral data were pretreated using multiplicative signal correction (MSC) to reduce the influence of spectral noise and baseline shift. Classification of 12 kinds of fabric fibers in various braid patterns was studied using minimum spanning tree method and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification based on principal component analysis of NIR spectra. The minimum spanning tree for the spectra of total samples shows that the samples in the same type fall almost into one cluster, but there are overlaps between some two different clusters of fabric fibers with very similar chemical compositions, such as wool and cashmere. Complete discrimination between cashmere and wool has been achieved using SIMCA. The results show that nondestructive and fast identification of fabric fibers using near infrared spectral technique is potentially feasible. PMID:20672607

Yuan, Hong-Fu; Chang, Rui-Xue; Tian, Ling-Ling; Song, Chun-Feng; Yuan, Xue-Qin; Li, Xiao-Yu

2010-05-01

415

The Manganese Toxicity of Cotton 1  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. Linn. var. Sankar 4) were grown at normal and toxic levels of substrate manganese, and the altered metabolism of manganese toxic plants was studied. The tissues of plants exposed to toxic levels of manganese had higher activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and the activities of catalase, ascorbic acid oxidase, glutathione oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase were lowered. In addition, the high manganese tissue had lower contents of ATP and glutathione but higher amounts of ascorbic acid. The respiration of the partially expanded leaves and the growing tips of toxic plants were depressed when compared to that of the normal tissues. The metabolic changes of manganese toxicity of cotton are placed in the following order: accumulation of manganese in the leaf tissue; a rise in respiration; stimulation of polyphenol oxidase; the appearance of initial toxicity symptoms; the evolution of ethylene and stimulation of peroxidase; the presence of severe toxicity symptoms; the depression of terminal oxidases and respiration; abscission of the growing tip and proliferation of the stem tissue. The early stimulation of polyphenol oxidase may be used to detect potential manganese toxicity.

Sirkar, Sheela; Amin, J. V.

1974-01-01

416

Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.  

PubMed

Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. PMID:24507269

Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

2014-02-15

417

Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Millimeter-Size Nylon Fibers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing a means of analyzing extracted dye constituents from millimeter-size nylon fiber samples was the objective of this research initiative. Aside from ascertaining fiber type, color evaluation and source comparison of trace-fiber evidence plays a c...

L. A. Lewis

2001-01-01

418

Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing  

PubMed Central

Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton.

Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D.; Liechty, Zach S.; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

2013-01-01

419