Science.gov

Sample records for cotton fibers evidence

  1. SINGLE COTTON FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE FIBERS PRODUCED BY COTTON PARENTS AND THEIR PROGENY USING RESULTS GENERATED VIA THE STELOMETER, PEYER AL101, FIBROGRAPH, HVI, AFIS, FAVIMAT, AND MINIATURE SPINNING. THE FAVIMAT, A SINGLE FIBER TESTING MACHINE, WAS USED TO MEASURE FIBERS FROM SAMPLES CONSI...

  2. Ultrastructural and Chemical Evidence That the Cell Wall of Green Cotton Fiber Is Suberized 1

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, L. Y.; Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers were shown by electron microscopy to have numerous thin concentric rings around the lumen of the cell. These rings possessed a lamellar fine structure characteristic of suberin. LiA1D4 depolymerization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of a suberin polymer in the green cotton with the major aliphatic monomers being ?-hydroxydocosanoic acid (70%) and docosanedoic acid (25%). Ordinary white cotton was shown by chemical and ultrastructural examination to be encircled by a thin cuticular polymer containing less than 0.5% of the aliphatic components found in green cotton. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663251

  3. COTTON FIBER CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cotton production exceeds 25 million metric tons and accounts for more than 40 percent of the textile fiber consumed worldwide. A key textile fiber for over 5000 years, this complex carbohydrate is also one of the leading crops to benefit from genetic engineering. Cotton Fiber Chemistry and...

  4. Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

  5. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  6. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  7. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  8. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  9. A Statistical Analysis of Cotton Fiber Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis; Majumder, Asha

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports a statistical analysis of different cotton fiber properties, such as strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, micronaire, reflectance and yellowness measured from 1200 cotton bales. The uni-variate, bi-variate and multi-variate statistical analysis have been invoked to elicit interrelationship between above-mentioned properties taking them up singularly, pairwise and multiple way, respectively. In multi-variate analysis all cotton fiber properties are simultaneously considered for multi-dimensional techniques of principal factor analysis.

  10. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  11. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  12. Measuring the short fiber content of cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine bales of cotton with short fiber content ranging from about five to twenty-five percent were selected for the purpose of comparing the effectiveness and relationships between current test methods for fiber length. These various instruments/methods used to measure short fiber included: H...

  13. The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

    2003-05-01

    Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

  14. EXPRESSION OF PECTIN METHYLESTERASE IN COTTON FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers provide a model system to study cell elongation and wall deposition. The walls of elongating fiber cells are bilayered with the outer layer enriched in de-esterified polygalacturonic acids (PGA) and the inner layer enriched in xyloglucans and cellulose. This bi...

  15. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  16. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  17. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 ?m according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. PMID:26428115

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF PECTIN ON COTTON FIBER PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INCREASING SPEEDS OF COTTON YARN PRODUCTION IN THE TEXTILE MILL HAVE RENDERED TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL FIBER MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS LENGTH AND STRENGTH LESS RELIABLE AS PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY. WITH THE GOAL TOWARD ADDRESSING THIS PROBLEM, THIS WORK ATTEMPTS TO CHARACTERIZE THE PECTIN COM...

  19. Within Bale Variations of Cotton Fiber Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve bales of cotton having a wide range of lengths were selected for testing. Each bale was systematically sectioned so as to collect twenty-five individual fiber samples from each bale. HVI and AFIS measurements were carried out on each bale to determine the variability of the various measured...

  20. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing. Naturally colored cottons do not have the same fiber length and strength as white cotton cultivars. To determine the optimal ginning process for colored fiber two Upland (G. hirsutim) colors were r...

  1. Fiber and yarn properties improve with new cotton variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottons containing two different parents (FM832 and MD51neOK) and their progeny were selected to cover a cotton breeding succession and to determine breeding influences on fiber results. The objective of this study was to evaluate fibers produced by cotton parents and their progeny using results ge...

  2. FIAS Longitudinal Measurements Modified - More Accurate Cotton Fiber Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A projected 2-D image of a cotton fiber has large variations in fiber width due to the convolutions along the longitudinal axes. The ratio of the maximum width to the minimum width of a fiber ribbon could be used as a maturity indicator. Another important factor related to cotton maturity is fibers ...

  3. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is both a fiber and food crop that is grown in about 80 countries. Annually in the world about 90 million 217.7 kg (480 Ibs) bales {~19.6 million metric tonnes (21.6 million tons) of cotton fiber and 27 million metric tonnes (29.8 million tons) of cottonseed are produced. Cotton is the most...

  4. Fiber elongation-dependent aquaporin expression in different cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber length is an important component to measure cotton yield potential. Many research efforts have focused on development of cotton cultivars with higher fiber quality and yield potential. It is known that genetic diversity exists for fiber elongation. Understanding the genetic and molecular mecha...

  5. Analysis of Gene Expression in Cotton Fiber Initials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are trichomes that initiate from the ovule epidermis. A method was developed to isolate RNA from fiber 1 day after anthesis (daa). Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries representing 1 dpa fibers and other cotton tissues were sequenced and analyzed. Assembly of ...

  6. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  7. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  8. COTTON FIBER CELLS ARE ARRESTED AT G1 STAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulation of cell cycle genes during the very early stages of cotton fiber development triggers specific epidermal cells in the ovule to stop cell division and then elongate into fiber cells. The objective of this study was to identify the cell cycle phase in which cotton fiber cells are arrested ...

  9. Genomic landscape of fiber genes in fibered and non-fibered cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the largest single cell in the plant kingdom. It is the best model to study cell function, differentiation, maturation, and cell death. Cotton fiber transcriptome can be clustered into two types of regions: conservative areas and recombination hotspots. This study was to investig...

  10. Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-01-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  11. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  12. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  13. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  14. Improving NIR model for the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber strength is an important quality characteristic that is directly related to the manufacturing of quality consumer goods. Currently, two types of instruments have been implemented to assess cotton fiber strength, namely, the automation oriented high volume instrument (HVI) and the labora...

  15. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being...

  16. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being...

  17. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being...

  18. Bridging classical and molecular genetics of cotton fiber quality and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the single most important natural fiber in the world and represents a vital agricultural commodity in the global economy. Ninety percent of cottons value resides in the lint fiber. Cotton fiber quality, defined by the physical properties of the lint fibers, is an important part of the cot...

  19. Phytohormone regulation of cotton fiber development in vitro.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our team is interested in the regulation of two time points in cotton fiber development: initiation of fiber growth from ovule epidermal cells and the transition from fiber elongation to secondary wall biogenesis. These two developmental phases determine key properties of fiber quality and yield. C...

  20. Effect of Mechanical Actions on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to Cotton Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various machine-fiber interactions during harvesting and ginning on fiber quality and attachment between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 s...

  1. Chemically induced mutation to improve fiber traits in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Upland Cotton has a narrow germplasm base that often limits the success of breeding programs. Chemically induced mutations can be used to develop improved mutant populations and individual mutants with improved fiber traits that can be exploited by cotton breeders. About 5,000 seeds of the ge...

  2. Predicting cotton stelometer fiber strength by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strength of cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR models ...

  3. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  4. Comparison of two reference methods for detemining cotton fiber moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is an important quality and processing property for the cotton industry. The standard reference method for determining the moisture content in cotton fiber is the ASTM oven method (gravimetric weight loss). Several concerns have expressed on its ability to measure the actual moisture cont...

  5. Attachment Mechanisms Between Cotton Fibers and Foreign-matter Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop a fundamental understanding of the requirements for removing foreign matter from bulk cotton fiber, a video microscope was used to collect images of foreign-matter particles in lint from smooth-leaf and hairy-leaf cottons. A method is given for categorizing the particles accordin...

  6. An Investigation on Different Parameters Used for Characterizing Short Cotton Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantity of short fibers in a cotton sample is an important cotton quality parameter. Short cotton fibers have significant impacts on yarn production performance and yarn quality. There are different parameters for characterizing the amount of short fibers in a cotton sample. We conducted an ...

  7. Properties and potential applications of natural cellulose fibers from the bark of cotton stalks.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-07-01

    Natural cellulose fibers have been obtained from the bark of cotton stalks and the fibers have been used to develop composites. Cotton stalks are rich in cellulose and account for up to 3 times the quantity of cotton fiber produced per acre. Currently, cotton stalks have limited use and are mostly burned on the ground. Natural cellulose fibers obtained from cotton stalks are composed of approximately 79% cellulose and 13.7% lignin. The fibers have breaking tenacity of 2.9 g per denier and breaking elongation of 3% and modulus of 144 g per denier, between that of cotton and linen. Polypropylene composites reinforced with cotton stalk fibers have flexural, tensile and impact resistance properties similar to jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. Utilizing cotton stalks as a source for natural cellulose fibers provides an opportunity to increase the income from cotton crops and make cotton crops more competitive to the biofuel crops. PMID:19327987

  8. Obtaining Cotton Fiber Length Distribution from Beard Test Method Part 1 - Theoretical Distribution of Cotton Fiber Length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By testing a tapered fiber beard, certain fiber length parameters can be obtained rapidly. This study is aimed at exploring the possibility to obtain the entire length distribution of a sample from the beard test method. In Part 1, the mathematical function describing cotton fiber length was searc...

  9. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  10. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

  11. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  12. Evaluation of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picker and stripper harvest systems were evaluated on production-scale irrigated cotton on the High Plains of Texas over three harvest seasons. Observations on fiber quality using High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information Systems (AFIS) were made on multiple cultivars harvested fro...

  13. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.601 Official cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.601 Official cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.601 Official cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.601 Official cotton...

  17. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general. (a) Cotton, Class 9,...

  18. 7 CFR 28.601 - Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official cotton standards for fiber fineness and... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.601 Official cotton...

  19. Is the Cotton Winter Nursery appropriate for evaluating fiber quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers routinely use the Cotton Winter Nursery (CWN) in Tecoman, Colima, Mexico, for advancing breeding materials a generation and for seed increases of progeny lines. With little difficulty, fiber samples can be obtained from materials in the nursery and evaluation of fiber properties perform...

  20. Fiber properties of first and second sympodial position cotton bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the nature of fiber properties variation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopies is critical for designing production systems that will provide more uniform fiber to textile mills. Our objective was to compare first branch node position bolls (FP1) and second branch node position bo...

  1. EXTRACELLULAR CU/ZN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN DEVELOPING COTTON FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes originating from the ovule epidermis. Fibers elongate to 26-30 mm in an unrestricted manner for about three weeks making these cells an attractive model for plant cell elongation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that converts superoxide...

  2. Assessment of recovered cotton fiber and trash contents in lint cotton waste by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to reduce the non-lint materials to the smallest level with nminimal fiber damgae. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having equal quality to the fiber in the bale, and hence is of great concern for operating ...

  3. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch. (a) Unless...

  4. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin...

  5. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch. (a) Unless...

  6. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin...

  7. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with...

  8. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with...

  9. 49 CFR 176.901 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.901 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with rosin or pitch. (a) Unless...

  10. Infrared imaging of cotton fibers using a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational spectroscopy studies can be used to examine the quality and structure of cotton fibers. An emerging area of research relates to the imaging of cotton fibers. Herein, we report the use of a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to image developing cotton fibers. Studies were perfor...

  11. Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To maximize profitability, cotton (GossypiumhirsutumL.) producers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing yield. The objective of this research was to measure the intrinsic variability present in cotton fiber yield and quality. The 0.5-ha experimental site was located in a...

  12. UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring no...

  13. Crop juxtaposition affects cotton fiber quality in Georgia farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Shurley, W Donald

    2009-08-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including green stink bug [Acrosternum hilare (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and brown stink bug [Euschistus servus (Say)], have become a serious production issue for southeastern U.S. cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., growers. To investigate how different agronomic crops may affect stink bug damage and fiber quality in neighboring cotton fields, replicated 1.6-2.0-ha trials were planted with corn (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] bordering a centrally located cotton plot (each of the four crops composed of approximately 0.4-0.5 ha per trial). Three trials were conducted in 2007 and three additional trials were conducted in 2008. Stink bug damage in the cotton plot was sampled weekly during weeks 3 through 6 of bloom at distances of 0.5, 5.3, 9.6, and 18.7 m from the adjacent crop. At the end of the year, representative lint samples at distances of 0.5, 9.6, 18.7, and 31.8 m from each adjacent crop were mechanically harvested, ginned, and classed. Results show that boll damage, seedcotton yield, gin turnout, fiber color, and lint value were negatively affected when the cotton was located adjacent to peanut and soybean. Regardless of the adjacent crop, there were no differences among yield and fiber quality parameters comparing seedcotton obtained 18.7 m from the plot edge and samples obtained from the middle of the cotton plot (approximately 31.8 m from an adjacent crop). These data suggest that integrated pest management programs for the stink bug complex in cotton may include farmscape level planning and targeted interventions as opposed to a crop specific management approach. PMID:19736764

  14. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  15. Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/ synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed from bleached cotton, but present added potential for wound dressing functionality. Innovations to mechanically clean and sterilize greige cotton (or non-bleached cotton) do not remove these exterior componen...

  16. Comprehensive investigation of NIR technique in cotton fiber quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared spectroscopy, with an extension to UV and visible region, has been considerably applied for the qualitative and quantitative measurements of key color and physical characteristics in cotton fibers. However, the results have been inconsistent, mostly due to the use of different spectral...

  17. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  18. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cotton cultivars with colored fibers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, Jos B; Nascimento Junior, Jos L; Correia, Ezequias T; Zanuncio, Jos C

    2012-09-01

    We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus) cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rub) with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids) was greater than that found on BRS Rub (50,537 aphids). There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant) and BRS Rub (477 aphids/plant). There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rub. PMID:22782536

  19. COTTON VARIETY ASSESSMENT FOR FIBER MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year scientists at the LSU AgCenter test cotton varieties at various locations throughout the state. Varieties are grown using practices that follow AgCenter recommendations and conformto commercial operations as closely as possible. One location is the Macon Ridge Research Station in Winnsbo...

  20. Distribution and organization of gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is an extremely elongated cell derived from epidermal layer of cotton seed coat and it is an ideal model for studies of plant cell initiation/differentiation, cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Genetic improvement of cotton fiber yield and quality relies largely on the knowledge...

  1. Near infrared measurement of cotton fiber micronaire, maturity and fineness--a comparative investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key cotton fiber quality property is micronaire, which is an air flow resistance measurement that is highly correlated to the fibers maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity and fineness can impact the downstream processing of the fiber into yarn and fabric and the fibers dyeability. Previous studi...

  2. Effect of Machine-Fiber Interaction on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to the Fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in fiber quality and attachment forces between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied at multi stages from the time of harvest through lint cleaning to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 sam...

  3. COTTON FIBER/SEED COAT STRUCTURE AND FLAX FIBER ENZYME TREATMENT AS ANALYZED BY MID-IR MICROSPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are bound within the seed coat, and the bond strength influences cotton quality. High bond strengths can result, after ginning, in fibers contaminated with seed coat fragments or with increased short fiber contents. Mid-infrared micro- spectroscopy was used to derive fundamental data ...

  4. Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated. PMID:22661979

  5. Comparative Evolutionary and Developmental Dynamics of the Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Fiber Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ?5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution. PMID:24391525

  6. UV/visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of cotton fiber and trash content in lint cotton waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Gamble, Gary R.; Thibodeaux, Devron

    2010-04-01

    Lint cleaning at cotton processing facilities is performed in order to remove the non-lint materials with minimal fiber damage. The resultant waste contains some degree of cotton fiber having good equal qualities, and hence is of great concern for operating cost. Traditional methods for measuring non-lint trash are labor intensive and time consuming. UV / visible / NIR technique was examined for its feasibility in determining the portions of cotton fiber and trash. Overall result indicated that NIR prediction was limited to screening purpose for probable reasons as heterogeneous trash distribution, relatively small sampling, and gravimetric reference method.

  7. A Study to Improve the Measrement of Cotton Length Distribution from a Fiber Beard.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton length measurement from a tapered fiber beard provides a rapid account for fiber length parameters. The High Volume Instrument (HVI) that is used in cotton classification employs this method to determinate fiber length parameters. This manuscript reports the preliminary results from an e...

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES PUTATIVELY RELATED TO COTTON FIBER QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry, the demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited because of the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Hence, th...

  9. Gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is an economically important seed trichome and the world's leading natural fiber used in the manufacture of textiles. As a step towards elucidating the genomic organization and distribution of gene networks responsible for cotton fiber development, we investigated the distribution of f...

  10. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  11. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  12. Advances in the measurement of cotton fiber maturity using near infrared (NIR) instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity is an important property of cotton fiber, as it can impact the fibers downstream processability and dye performance. Maturity is often indicated indirectly by the fibers micronaire, a combination of fiber maturity and fineness. Maturity can be measured directly, but most of these method...

  13. Distribution and evolution of cotton fiber development genes in the fibreless Gossypium raimondii genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Beavis, William D; Main, Dorrie; Yu, John Z

    2015-07-01

    Cotton fiber represents the largest single cell in plants and they serve as models to study cell development. This study investigated the distribution and evolution of fiber Unigenes anchored to recombination hotspots between tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) At and Dt subgenomes, and within a parental diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii) D genome. Comparative analysis of At vs D and Dt vs D showed that 1) the D genome provides many fiber genes after its merger with another parental diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) A genome although the D genome itself does not produce any spinnable fiber; 2) similarity of fiber genes is higher between At vs D than between Dt vs D genomic hotspots. This is the first report that fiber genes have higher similarity between At and D than between Dt and D. The finding provides new insights into cotton genomic regions that would facilitate genetic improvement of natural fiber properties. PMID:25796538

  14. Fruiting Branch K(+) Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K(+) contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha(-1)) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (V max) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K(+) was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K(+) accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K(+) absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  15. Fruiting Branch K+ Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  16. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and...

  17. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in the prediction of cotton fiber strength indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite relatively low correlation between 2 cotton strength readings from the automation oriented HVI and laboratory based Stelometer device, the present study demonstrates the consistence of cotton fiber strength measurements between the two methods if the strength readings were modified by cotton...

  18. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses Revealed a Detailed Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway in Brown Cotton Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yue-Hua; Yan, Qian; Ding, Hui; Luo, Ming; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mi; Yao, Dan; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jia; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs). To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols) were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin), and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively). Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3?, 5?-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber. PMID:24466041

  19. Developing Fiber Specific Promoter-Reporter Transgenic Lines to Study the Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Burke, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality. PMID:26030401

  20. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

  1. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) Instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber componentsfiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  2. Silencing the vacuolar invertase gene GhVIN1 blocks cotton fiber initiation from the ovule epidermis, probably by suppressing a cohort of regulatory genes via sugar signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cook, Akiko; Patrick, John W; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Cotton fibers, the most important source of cellulose for the global textile industry, are single-celled trichomes derived from the ovule epidermis at or just prior to anthesis. Despite progress in understanding cotton fiber elongation and cell-wall biosynthesis, knowledge regarding the molecular basis of fiber cell initiation, the first step of fiber development determining the fiber yield potential, remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that expression of a vacuolar invertase (VIN) is an early event that is essential for cotton fiber initiation. RNAi-mediated suppression of GhVIN1, a major VIN gene that is highly expressed in wild-type fiber initials, resulted in significant reduction of VIN activity and consequently a fiberless seed phenotype in a dosage dependent manner. The absence of a negative effect on seed development in these fiberless seeds indicates that the phenotype is unlikely to be due to lack of carbon nutrient. Gene expression analyses coupled with in vitro ovule culture experiments revealed that GhVIN1-derived hexose signaling may play an indispensable role in cotton fiber initiation, probably by regulating the transcription of several MYB transcription factors and auxin signaling components that were previously identified as required for fiber initiation. Together, the data represent a significant advance in understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber initiation, and provide the first indication that VIN-mediated hexose signaling may act as an early event modulating the expression of regulatory genes and hence cell differentiation from the ovule epidermis. PMID:24654806

  3. COTTON FIBERS: PROPERTIES AND INTERACTION WITH FLAX FIBERS IN BLENDS (FOCUS ON ROTOR SPUN YARN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FASHION DICTATES WHAT FIBERS AND YARNS WILL BE UTILIZED TO MAKE APPAREL AND OTHER TEXTILE FASHION ITEMS. IN RECENT YEARS, THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN FLAX/COTTON BLENDS, PARTICULARLY IN APPAREL. TRADITIONALLY, FLAX HAS BEEN SPUN AS "LONG LINE" STAPLE LENGTH, AS WOULD BE THE CASE IN THE SPINNING ...

  4. Understanding the influence of fiber length on the HVI measurement of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An earlier study confirmed the influence of cotton fiber length characteristics on the HVITM strength measurement and devised a quantitative correction factor to compensate for the effect. The current paper investigated the validity of two important assumptions utilised in the previous study. Firs...

  5. Measurements of cotton fiber maturity and fineness: method comparisons and fiber growth analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity (degree of secondary wall development) and fineness (linear density) are important cotton fiber quality and processing properties. Most maturity and fineness measurements are slow, laborious, require chemicals, and/or require expensive instruments. The Cottonscope is a small-footprint instr...

  6. Preliminary comparisons of portable near infrared (nir) instrumentation for laboratory measurements of cotton fiber micronaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber. A program was implemented to determine the capabilities of portable Near Infrared (NIR) instrumentation to monitor cotton fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and in/near the field. Previous evaluations on one NIR unit demon...

  7. A comparative study on cotton fiber length parameters’ effects on modeling yarn property

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber length is one of the key properties of cotton and has important influences on yarn production and yarn quality. Various parameters have been developed to characterize cotton fiber length in the past decades. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of these parameters and their ...

  8. Preliminary study of relating cotton fiber tenacity and elongation with crystallinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fundamental understanding of the relationship between cotton fiber strength (or tenacity) / elongation and structure is important, as cotton breeders could modify their varieties for enhancing end-use qualities. In this study, the Stelometer instrument was employed to measure bundle fiber tenacity a...

  9. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  10. Analysis of fiber quality traits in a seven-parent upland cotton diallel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to raising yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of variation for fiber quali...

  11. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  12. Distribution and evolution of cotton fiber development genes in the fibreless Gossypium raimondii genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers represent the largest single cell in the plant kingdom, and they have been used as a model to study cell function, differentiation, maturation, and cell death. The cotton fiber transcriptome can be clustered into two genomic regions: conserved and recombination hotspots. Genetic link...

  13. Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. New high-speed roller ginning technology has advanced to the point that processing capacities have approached that of saw ginning. Producers seeking a better price for their upland cotton are interested in fiber property and textile m...

  14. Polysaccharide and glycoprotein distribution in the epidermis of cotton ovules during early fiber initiation and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton fiber is a model system to study cell wall biosynthesis because the fiber cell elongates (~3 cm in ~20 days) without mitosis. In this study, developing cotton ovules, examined from 1 day before anthesis (DBA) to 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), that would be difficult to investigate via class...

  15. Cotton revenue apportioned between lint yield and fiber quality: a precision agriculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The issue of cotton fiber quality has been emphasized by breeders, ginners, and textile processors but has not aroused much attention among growers. Whereas many studies have shown in-field variation of cotton fiber quality, the variation observed is usually small compared to that of lint yield, ca...

  16. Registration of SJ-U86 Cotton Germplasm Line with High Yield and Excellent Fiber Quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm line SJU86 (Reg. no. GP-868; PI 642414 and NSSL 441398.01) was developed by USDA-ARS and Cotton Incorporated, and jointly released with the University of California in 2006. This line possesses superior lint yield, fiber length, and competitive fiber str...

  17. Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks, and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and gu...

  18. Fiber Longitudinal Measurements for Predicting White Speck Contents of Dyed Cotton Fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber Image Analysis System (FIAS) was developed to provide an automatic method for measuring cotton maturity from fiber snippets or cross-sections . An uncombed cotton bundle is chopped and sprayed on a microscopic slide. The snippets are imaged sequentially on an microscope and measured with custo...

  19. Distribution of fiber development genes and transcription factors between At and Dt subgenomes in tetraploid cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the worlds leading natural material used in the manufacture of textiles, cotton fibers are important seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fiber development is determined by large numbers of genes and transcription factors. However, little ...

  20. Genetic variation for agronomic and fiber quality traits in a population derived from high quality cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of fiber quality is necessary to meet the requirements of processors and users of cotton fiber. To foster genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, adequate genetic variation for the quantitatively inherited physical properties of cotton is required. Additionally, knowledge of...

  1. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  2. Designing and transgenic expression of melanin gene in tobacco trichome and cotton fiber.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Wu, M; Zhao, Q; Li, R; Chen, J; Ao, G; Yu, J

    2007-01-01

    In Streptomyces antibioticus, there are two genes TYRA and ORF438 required for the melanin biogenesis. To investigate whether expression of these two genes in cotton can change cotton fiber colour, we modified the TYRA and ORF438 genes to make their codon usage closer to the codon preference of cotton fiber genes. The resulting versions of these two genes were referred to as DTYRA and DORF438, respectively. Vacuolar targeting signals were also added to their ends. Under the cotton fiber specific LTP3 promoter, DORF438 and DTYRA were first transformed into model plant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Molecular analyses showed that both the DORF438 and DTYRA genes were successfully expressed in transgenic plants, and the melanin deposition was observed in the trichomes of transgenic tobacco. Excitedly, when the same DORF438 and DTYRA expression cassettes were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by pollen tube pathway, the colour of cotton fiber changed from white to brown. Molecular analyses confirmed that both genes were transformed into cotton and expressed successfully. All these results indicate that the synthesized DOFR438 and DTYRA genes can work well in tobacco and cotton. Our study may provide a potential method for modifying the colour of cotton fiber. PMID:17006798

  3. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  4. cDNA-AFLP-based genetical genomics in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Michel; Souquet, Marlne; Jean, Janine; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Lepitre, Vincent; Pr, Martial; Jacobs, John; Llewellyn, Danny; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-01

    Genetical genomics, or genetic analysis applied to gene expression data, has not been widely used in plants. We used quantitative cDNA-AFLP to monitor the variation in the expression level of cotton fiber transcripts among a population of inter-specific Gossypium hirsutum G. barbadense recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two key fiber developmental stages, elongation (10 days post anthesis, dpa), and secondary cell wall thickening (22 dpa), were studied. Normalized intensity ratios of 3,263 and 1,201 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) segregating over 88 RILs were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for the 10 and 22 dpa fibers, respectively. Two-thirds of all TDFs mapped between 1 and 6 eQTLs (LOD > 3.5). Chromosome 21 had a higher density of eQTLs than other chromosomes in both data sets and, within chromosomes, hotspots of presumably trans-acting eQTLs were identified. The eQTL hotspots were compared to the location of phenotypic QTLs for fiber characteristics among the RILs, and several cases of co-localization were detected. Quantitative RT-PCR for 15 sequenced TDFs showed that 3 TDFs had at least one eQTL at a similar location to those identified by cDNA-AFLP, while 3 other TDFs mapped an eQTL at a similar location but with opposite additive effect. In conclusion, cDNA-AFLP proved to be a cost-effective and highly transferable platform for genome-wide and population-wide gene expression profiling. Because TDFs are anonymous, further validation and interpretation (in silico analysis, qPCR gene profiling) of the eQTL and eQTL hotspots will be facilitated by the increasing availability of cDNA and genomic sequence resources in cotton. PMID:22080217

  5. Rapid and routine assessment of cotton fiber cellulose maturity: current and future trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is a type of natural cellulose I and the end-use qualities depend on the amount of cellulose component deposited. The term fiber maturity has been used to describe the degree of cellulosic development or the secondary cell wall thickening of fibers. Useful information about fiber maturi...

  6. Registration of TTU-0782 upland cotton germplasm line with superior fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A germplasm line of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) designated as TTU 0782 with improved fiber quality was developed. It possesses longer fiber length, higher fiber bundle strength, high uniformity index, low short fiber content, high maturity ratio, and low nep counts. Spinning tests also ind...

  7. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen-Qin; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

  8. Gibberellin Overproduction Promotes Sucrose Synthase Expression and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Juan; Song, Shui-Qing; Hu, Lin; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Li, Xian-Bi; Hou, Lei; Luo, Ming; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression. PMID:24816840

  9. The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J.; Fox, S.V.

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

  10. How cotton fibers elongate: a tale of linear cell-growth mode.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2011-02-01

    Cotton fibers (cotton lint) are single-celled trichomes that differentiate from the ovule epidermis. Unidirectional and fast-growing cells generally expand at the dome-shaped apical zone (tip-growth mode); however, previous studies suggest that elongating fiber cells expand via a diffuse-growth mode. Tip-localized Ca(2+) gradient and active secretary vesicle trafficking are two important phenomena of tip-growth. Recently, a high Ca(2+) gradient is found in the cytoplasm of fast-elongating cotton fiber cells near the growing tip. Several protein coding genes participating in vesicle coating and transport are highly expressed in elongating fiber cells. Taken together with the observation that ethylene acts as a positive regulator for cotton fiber and several Arabidopsis tissues that are known to elongate via tip growth prompted us to propose a linear-growth mode for similar cell types. PMID:20943428

  11. Understanding the Relationship between Cotton Fiber Properties and Non-Cellulosic Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William G. T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Selbig, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength, elongation and micronaire were measured. The relationship between the two datasets was established in an integrative manner using linear regression methods. In the conducted analysis, we demonstrated the usefulness of regression based approaches in establishing a relationship between glycan measurements and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further experimental validation. PMID:25383868

  12. Improvement of a Harvester Based, Multispectral, Seed Cotton Fiber Quality Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multispectral sensor for in-situ seed cotton fiber quality measurement was developed and tested at Texas A&M University. Results of initial testing of the sensor using machine harvested seed cotton have shown promise. Improvements have been made to the system and the measurement method to meet t...

  13. Nitrogen and Plant Growth Regulator Rates on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of two plant growth regulator (PGR) strategies with and without a high application PGR rate, prior to harvest, on cotton yield and fiber quality across two N rates for a cotton conservation tillage system. Nitrogen rates and PGR strategie...

  14. Nitrogen Plant Growth Regulator Rates on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of two plant growth regulator (PGR) strategies with and without a high application PGR rate, prior to harvest, on cotton yield and fiber quality across two N rates for a cotton conservation tillage system. Nitrogen rates and PGR strategie...

  15. The Impact of Short Fiber Content on the Quality of Cotton Ring Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried to obtain a quantitative assessment of how the presence of short fiber (< 12.5 mm long) in raw cotton affect the quality of ring yarn spun from the mix. Properties of the raw cotton were measured on HVI and AFIS instruments and by the manual Suter-Webb Array method. Twenty-nine...

  16. Reinforcement of cotton yarns with the nominal addition of high performance fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring- and rotor-spun yarns of predominantly cotton content have been produced by using a high performance, gel-spun polyethylene (PE) fiber, Dyneema, in intimate blend with selected white and naturally colored cottons of different qualities. Test results show that a nominal (10 to 15%) addition of ...

  17. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  18. Comparison of NIR and FT-IR spectral models in the prediction of cotton fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strength quality in cotton fibers is one of several important end-use characteristics. In routine programs, it has been mostly assessed by automation-oriented high volume instrument (HVI) system. An alternative method for cotton strength is near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Although previous NIR mod...

  19. Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulator rates on cotton yield and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two tillage systems, two row spacings, and three cotton varieties on yield, fiber quality, soil moisture, weed management, and economic returns. Cotton varieties, tillage systems, and row spacings were implemented at the Field Crops Unit of...

  20. NONCELLULOSIC CONSTITUENTS ON RAW COTTON AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO FIBER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw cottons contain a number of noncellulosic materials that are generally considered surface related. Therefore, they may affect fiber quality. Chemical tests were conducted on cottons originating from different U. S. growing locations to determine reducing sugars, wax, metal contents, and total ...

  1. Cotton fiber cell wall development for three cultivars: an Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of FT-IR vibrational band development in spectra of cotton fiber at different developmental dates (18 – 40 days post-anthesis; DPA) will be presented in this talk. Results from three cotton cultivars will be presented. Two of the cultivars are nearly identical genetic lines, which ha...

  2. Influence of Cotton Fiber Quality on the Strength Properties of Cotton Fabrics Treated with Flame-resistant and Easy Care Finishes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cotton fabrics treated with modern flame-resistant and easy-care finishes cannot meet the high performance standards required by the military, and are being replaced by fabrics made from synthetic fibers, or blends of cotton with synthetic fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate th...

  3. COTTON FIBER MOISTURE MEASUREMENT—FROM the BALE to the LABORATORY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is an important quality, processing, and marketing parameter for cotton fiber. The accurate and precise measurement of fiber moisture continues to be an issue of importance in the global marketplace. There are several commercially available moisture measurement instruments for fiber moist...

  4. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF 1 MAFOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. All the changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially for strength. We used a G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as having good fiber quality, develope...

  5. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Initiation: Inheritance Studies on Three Fiberless Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber initiation, or the protuberate expansion of individual cells in the epidermis of cotton ovules, is a key component of lint percentage. Ovular trichomes are classified as either lint or fuzz based on the timing of fiber initiation. Initiation of lint fiber begins at anthesis and continues for ...

  6. Use of FTIR spectroscopy technique in the determination of cotton fiber maturity and crystallinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber consists of natural cellulose I component and its end-use qualities depend on the amount of cellulose deposited during the growth. The term fiber maturity has been used to describe the degree of cellulosic development or the secondary cell wall thickening of fibers. Useful information a...

  7. A cotton fiber associated cyclin-dependent kinase A gene: Characterization and chromosomal location

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cell normally originates and elongates as a single ovular epidermal cell. The cessation of fiber cell division and ensuing elongation imply that the cell cycle is differentially regulated in fiber cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cy...

  8. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  9. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subjected to heat, a wooden bulkhead must be erected between the bulkhead and any cotton or vegetable fibers... loaded or unloaded. Each fire pump must be operated before any loading or unloading. Pressure must...

  10. New Uses for Immobilized Enzymes and Substrates on Cotton and Cellulose Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design, preparation, and application of both immobilized enzymes and enzyme substrates on cotton fibers for biomedical and specialty applications includes antibacterial fabrics, decontamination wipes, debridement and chronic wound dressing prototypes, and protease detection devices. The molecula...

  11. Stable transformation and expression of GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene to improve fiber length and micronaire value in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Kamran S.; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Rao, Abdul Q.; Bashir, Aftab; Aftab, Asia; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fiber is multigenic trait controlled by number of genes. Previous studies suggest that one of these genes may be responsible for switching cotton fiber growth on and off to influence the fiber quality produced from a cotton seed. In the present study, the Gossypium hirsutum GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene was introduced into local cotton variety NIAB 846 by using an Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene was used as a selection marker for screening of putative transgenic cotton plants. Integration and expression of the fiber expansin gene in cotton plants was confirmed with molecular techniques including Southern blot analyses, real-time PCR. Cellulose assay was used for measurement of cellulose contents of transgenic cotton fiber. The data collected from 3 years of field performance of the transgenic cotton plants expressing GhEXPA8 showed that significant improvement has been made in fiber lengths and micronaire values as compared to control G. hirsutum variety NIAB 846 cotton plants. Statistical techniques were also used for analysis of fiber and agronomic characteristics. The results of this study support improvement of cotton fiber through genetic modification. PMID:26583018

  12. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for...

  13. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  14. Use of fiber and fuzz mutants to detect QTL for yield components, seed, and fiber traits of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the worlds leading fiber crop and an important source of protein and oil. The purpose of this research was to detect QTL or molecular markers associated with yield components, fiber, and seed traits within multiple fuzzless loci genetic backgrounds. Two F2 populations dev...

  15. Comparison of the Transcriptome between Two Cotton Lines of Different Fiber Color and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiahuan; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Jia, Yinhua; Sun, Gaofei; Du, Xiongming

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of fiber development and pigmentation formation, the mRNAs of two cotton lines were sequenced: line Z128 (light brown fiber) was a selected mutant from line Z263 (dark brown fiber). The primary walls of the fiber cell in both Z263 and Z128 contain pigments; more pigments were laid in the lumen of the fiber cell in Z263 compared with that in Z128. However, Z263 contained less cellulose than Z128. A total of 71,895 unigenes were generated: 13,278 (20.26%) unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the library of Z128 with that of Z263; 5,345 (8.16%) unigenes were up-regulated and 7,933 (12.10%) unigenes were down-regulated. qRT-PCR and comparative transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the pigmentation formation in brown cotton fiber was possibly the consequence of an interaction between oxidized tannins and glycosylated anthocyanins. Furthermore, our results showed the pigmentation related genes not only regulated the fiber color but also influenced the fiber quality at the fiber elongation stage (10 DPA). The highly expressed flavonoid gene in the fiber elongation stage could be related to the fiber quality. DEGs analyses also revealed that transcript levels of some fiber development genes (Ca2+/CaM, reactive oxygen, ethylene and sucrose phosphate synthase) varied dramatically between these two cotton lines. PMID:25401744

  16. Delineating the glycoproteome of elongating cotton fiber cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Pandey, Pankaj; Kumar, Krishan; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2015-01-01

    The data presented here delineates the glycoproteome component in the elongating cotton fiber cells attained using complementary proteomic approaches followed by protein and N-linked glycosylation site identification (Kumar et al., 2013) [1]. Utilizing species specific protein sequence databases in proteomic approaches often leads to additional information that may not be obtained using cross-species databases. In this context we have reanalyzed our glycoproteome dataset with the Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii (version 2.0) and Gossypium hirsutum protein databases that has led to the identification of 21 N-linked glycosylation sites and 18 unique glycoproteins that were not reported in our previous study. The 1D PAGE and solution based glycoprotein identification data is publicly available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD000178 and the 2D PAGE based protein identification and glycopeptide approach based N-linked glycosylation site identification data is available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD002849. PMID:26693171

  17. USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION TO OBTAIN COTTON FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEARD TESTING METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beard testing method for measuring cotton fiber length is based on the fibrogram theory. However, in the instrumental implementations, the engineering complexity alters the original fiber length distribution observed by the instrument. This causes challenges in obtaining the entire original le...

  18. A Comparison of Methods for Measuring the Short Fiber Content of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of excess amounts of short fibers can cause significant problems for the spinner including excess waste, loss of yarn strength, increases in ends-down, and yarn defects. Twenty-nine bales of cotton with a wide range of short fiber content were selected for the purpose of comparing the e...

  19. Evaluation of cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with high fiber strength lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton chromosome substitution lines (CS-B16, CS-B22sh, CS-B25) and TM-1 were crossed with eight strong fiber lines. These 12 parents and their F2 hybrids were grown at Mississippi State in two locations with replicated field plots in 2006. Agronomic and fiber traits were measured and analyzed...

  20. Influence of seed cotton extractors and cleaning rate on gin turnout and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and high volume instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  1. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  2. A Study On The Hidden Portion Of The Fiber Beard In Cotton Lenght Measurements.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beard method is used to make a fiber beard, and then this beard is scanned to generate a fibrogram. Cotton fiber length parameters can be derived from the fibrogram. The method used for making such a beard impacts the resulted fibrogram, hence could influence the derived length parameters. When ...

  3. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE FILM WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one year bale storage test was initiated to determine the effects of two different long-term storage conditions on baled fiber quality. Fiber quality will eventually be evaluated by textile processing the stored cotton through to dyed cloth. Ten bales were stored in an approved warehouse and ten...

  4. Cotton fiber properties relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  5. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  6. THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN SEMI-DISPOSABLE BLANKETS FROM RECYCLED POLYESTER/COTTON FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recycled polyester fibers and cotton fibers that require no chemical processing were used to produce a low-cost, semi-durable, nonwoven thermal blanket. Thermal blankets were given carboxylic acid finish to improve structural stability during use and laundering. A Steady-State Heat Flow meter FOX ...

  7. Cotton Fiber Quality Characterization with Vis-NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: Toward an Optimal Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to (1) assess the performance of the Vis-NIR method for predicting cotton fiber quality parameters with different calibration methods, and (2) determine useful spectral wavebands and bandwidths for predicting various fiber quality parameters. This study is direct...

  8. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    PubMed

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented. PMID:22524051

  9. Cotton fiber cell walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense have differences related to loosely-bound xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L; Hahn, Michael G; Haigler, Candace H

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species. PMID:23457548

  10. Cotton Fiber Cell Walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense Have Differences Related to Loosely-Bound Xyloglucan

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Singh, Bir; Brown, Virginia L.; Hahn, Michael G.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an important natural textile fiber due to its exceptional length and thickness. These properties arise largely through primary and secondary cell wall synthesis. The cotton fiber of commerce is a cellulosic secondary wall surrounded by a thin cuticulated primary wall, but there were only sparse details available about the polysaccharides in the fiber cell wall of any cotton species. In addition, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) fiber was known to have an adhesive cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML) that joins adjacent fibers into tissue-like bundles, but it was unknown whether a CFML existed in other commercially important cotton fibers. We compared the cell wall chemistry over the time course of fiber development in Gh and Gossypium barbadense (Gb), the two most important commercial cotton species, when plants were grown in parallel in a highly controlled greenhouse. Under these growing conditions, the rate of early fiber elongation and the time of onset of secondary wall deposition were similar in fibers of the two species, but as expected the Gb fiber had a prolonged elongation period and developed higher quality compared to Gh fiber. The Gb fibers had a CFML, but it was not directly required for fiber elongation because Gb fiber continued to elongate rapidly after CFML hydrolysis. For both species, fiber at seven ages was extracted with four increasingly strong solvents, followed by analysis of cell wall matrix polysaccharide epitopes using antibody-based Glycome Profiling. Together with immunohistochemistry of fiber cross-sections, the data show that the CFML of Gb fiber contained lower levels of xyloglucan compared to Gh fiber. Xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity was also higher in Gb fiber. In general, the data provide a rich picture of the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of the two most important commercial cotton species. PMID:23457548

  11. Oil removal from water by selective sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 1. Study of sorption properties and comparison with other cotton fiber-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Hydrophobic cotton fibers, obtained by acylation of cellulose with fatty acid using microwaves radiations, have a high selective affinity for vegetable or mineral oil, fuel, and petroleum, in aqueous medium. Their sorption capacity (SC) (weight of liquid picked up by a given weight of sorbent) is about 20 g/g, after draining. They are reusable after simple squeezing, and their SC reaches a constant value, ca. 12 g/g. Moreover, this product is stable in water, whereas raw cotton can develop molds, after oil sorption. Besides, it is also biodegradable. PMID:12666934

  12. Transposable elements play an important role during cotton genome evolution and fiber cell development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Gai; Zhu, Yuxian

    2016-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) usually occupy largest fractions of plant genome and are also the most variable part of the structure. Although traditionally it is hallmarked as "junk and selfish DNA", today more and more evidence points out TE's participation in gene regulations including gene mutation, duplication, movement and novel gene creation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The recently sequenced genomes of diploid cottons Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) together with their allotetraploid progeny Gossypium hirsutum (AtAtDtDt) provides a unique opportunity to compare genome variations in the Gossypium genus and to analyze the functions of TEs during its evolution. TEs accounted for 57%, 68.5% and 67.2%, respectively in DD, AA and AtAtDtDt genomes. The 1,694 Mb A-genome was found to harbor more LTR(long terminal repeat)-type retrotransposons that made cardinal contributions to the twofold increase in its genome size after evolution from the 775.2 Mb D-genome. Although the 2,173 Mb AtAtDtDt genome showed similar TE content to the A-genome, the total numbers of LTR-gypsy and LTR-copia type TEs varied significantly between these two genomes. Considering their roles on rewiring gene regulatory networks, we believe that TEs may somehow be involved in cotton fiber cell development. Indeed, the insertion or deletion of different TEs in the upstream region of two important transcription factor genes in At or Dt subgenomes resulted in qualitative differences in target gene expression. We suggest that our findings may open a window for improving cotton agronomic traits by editing TE activities. PMID:26687725

  13. Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall sythesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber morphogenesis reflects extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation in an easily isolated single cell. Uncovering the cellular control mechanisms can lead to strategies for producing improved cotton fiber for textiles and other uses. To identify potential controls of the high...

  14. Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutan...

  15. Impact of drought and high temperature stresses on cotton fiber development and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the number one cash crop in the Texas High Plains. About 25% US cotton is produced in this region. However, increasingly shortage in water supply for irrigation has made cotton growers to either reduce water usage and/or grow cotton on dry-land conditions. Drought combined with frequent ...

  16. The Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fiber Entailed Prolonged Development and a Novel Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hovav, Ran; Udall, Joshua A; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Hovav, Einat; Flagel, Lex; Hu, Guanjing; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2008-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium (cotton fiber). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with ?22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long spinnable fibers in cotton was accompanied by novel expression of genes assisting in the regulation of reactive oxygen species levels. Our data suggest a model for the evolutionary origin of a novel morphology through differential gene regulation causing prolongation of an ancestral developmental program. PMID:18248099

  17. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 19th century, new uses emerged for cottonseed left over from ginning harvested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Oil from cottonseed was determined to be useful in a range of food products, and cotton is now considered second only to soybean in the value of its oil products. Use of cottonseed ha...

  18. Cotton-derived bulk and fiber aerogels grafted with nitrogen-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong; Ding, Yujie; Peng, Qingyu; Zhao, Wenqi; Shi, Enzheng; Wu, Shiting; Cao, Anyuan

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional graphene-based structures such as graphene aerogels or foams have shown applications in energy, environmental matters, and many other areas. Here, we present a method to convert raw cotton into functional aerogels containing a significant amount of nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) sheets grafted on carbonized cellulose fibers. Urea was introduced into raw cotton as a molecular template as well as a nitrogen source to synthesize mushroom-like N-graphene sheets strongly attached to cotton skeletons. The excellent processability of raw cotton allows us to configure bulk or meter-long fiber shaped aerogels, with high porosity and flexibility. Synergistic effects stemming from the integration of N-graphene and carbonized cotton skeletons promise potential applications as conductive electrodes for supercapacitors, with a measured specific capacitance of 107.5 F g-1 in a two-electrode system. Our results indicate a low-cost and scalable approach toward high-performance graphene-based aerogels and electrodes via biomass templating.Three-dimensional graphene-based structures such as graphene aerogels or foams have shown applications in energy, environmental matters, and many other areas. Here, we present a method to convert raw cotton into functional aerogels containing a significant amount of nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) sheets grafted on carbonized cellulose fibers. Urea was introduced into raw cotton as a molecular template as well as a nitrogen source to synthesize mushroom-like N-graphene sheets strongly attached to cotton skeletons. The excellent processability of raw cotton allows us to configure bulk or meter-long fiber shaped aerogels, with high porosity and flexibility. Synergistic effects stemming from the integration of N-graphene and carbonized cotton skeletons promise potential applications as conductive electrodes for supercapacitors, with a measured specific capacitance of 107.5 F g-1 in a two-electrode system. Our results indicate a low-cost and scalable approach toward high-performance graphene-based aerogels and electrodes via biomass templating. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00996k

  19. Variations and relationship of quality and NIR spectral characteristics of cotton fibers collected from multi-location field performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High volume instrumentation (HVITM) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements are increasingly being utilized as primary and routine means of acquiring fiber quality data by cotton breeders and fiber processors. There is amount of information regarding fiber and yarn qualities, but l...

  20. Rapid measurement of cotton fiber maturity and fineness by image analysis microscopy using the Cottonscope®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two of the important cotton fiber quality and processing parameters are fiber maturity and fineness. Fiber maturity is the degree of development of the fiber’s secondary wall, and fiber fineness is a measure of the fiber’s linear density and can be expressed as mass per unit length. A well-known m...

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals long noncoding RNAs involved in fiber development in cotton (Gossypium arboreum).

    PubMed

    Zou, Changsong; Wang, Qiaolian; Lu, Cairui; Yang, Wencui; Zhang, Youping; Cheng, Hailiang; Feng, Xiaoxu; Prosper, Mtawa Andrew; Song, Guoli

    2016-02-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in various biological regulatory processes in yeast, mammals, and plants. However, no systematic identification of lncRNAs has been reported in Gossypium arboreum. In this study, the strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq) of samples from cotton fibers and leaves was performed, and lncRNAs involved in fiber initiation and elongation processes were systematically identified and analyzed. We identified 5,996 lncRNAs, of which 3,510 and 2,486 can be classified as long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) and natural antisense transcripts (lncNAT), respectively. LincRNAs and lncNATs are similar in many aspects, but have some differences in exon number, exon length, and transcript length. Expression analysis revealed that 51.9% of lincRNAs and 54.5% of lncNATs transcripts were preferentially expressed at one stage of fiber development, and were significantly highly expressed than protein-coding transcripts (21.7%). During the fiber and rapid elongation stages, rapid and dynamic changes in lncRNAs may contribute to fiber development in cotton. This work describes a set of lncRNAs that are involved in fiber development. The characterization and expression analysis of lncRNAs will facilitate future studies on their roles in fiber development in cotton. PMID:26803302

  2. FT-IR examination of the development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The secondary cell wall development of cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering was examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Generally, a progressive intensity increase for bands assigned to cellulose Iß was ...

  3. YIELD AND FIBER QUALITY OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency decreases yield in cotton, and may thus influence fiber quality. Plants were grown outdoors in large pots using half-strength Hoagland's (control) solution via a drip-irrigation system until some three-row plots received a restricted supply of N. The five treatments were co...

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of cotton fiber qualities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world. Its production and profitability are determined by at least three main factors including genotype, environment, and production practices that interact to one another and ultimately affects the yield and quality of cotto...

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  6. FIBER QUALITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF NEW MEXICO ACALA COTTON RELEASED SINCE 1930S: 2005 RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acala 1517 cultivars released from the New Mexico State University cotton breeding program since the 1930s were evaluated in Las Cruces, NM in 2005 for fiber quality and agronomic traits. The study confirmed our previous report that yield improvement in Acala 1517 cultivars has been accompanied by a...

  7. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  8. Effect of simultaneous water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection on cotton yield and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection reduce cotton yield. Drought affects fiber quality, but nematode effects on quality are not known. To determine whether nematodes affect quality and whether the combined effects of nematodes and drought on yield and quality are independent, a seven ...

  9. Comprehensive analysis of TCP transcription factors and their expression during cotton (Gossypium arboreum) fiber early development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qinglian; Wang, Kunbo; Jones, Don C.; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors implicated to perform a variety of physiological functions during plant growth and development. In the current study, we performed for the first time the comprehensive analysis of TCP gene family in a diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum, including phylogenetic analysis, chromosome location, gene duplication status, gene structure and conserved motif analysis, as well as expression profiles in fiber at different developmental stages. Our results showed that G. arboreum contains 36 TCP genes, distributing across all of the thirteen chromosomes. GaTCPs within the same subclade of the phylogenetic tree shared similar exon/intron organization and motif composition. In addition, both segmental duplication and whole-genome duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of GaTCPs. Many these TCP transcription factor genes are specifically expressed in cotton fiber during different developmental stages, including cotton fiber initiation and early development. This suggests that TCP genes may play important roles in cotton fiber development. PMID:26857372

  10. DNA polymorphisms of genes involved in fiber development in a selected set of cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lack of genetic diversity within cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has hindered the construction of genomewide linkage maps and their applications in genetics and breeding. The objective of this investigation was to develop candidate gene markers for fiber quality and yield on th...

  11. Comprehensive analysis of TCP transcription factors and their expression during cotton (Gossypium arboreum) fiber early development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qinglian; Wang, Kunbo; Jones, Don C; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors implicated to perform a variety of physiological functions during plant growth and development. In the current study, we performed for the first time the comprehensive analysis of TCP gene family in a diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum, including phylogenetic analysis, chromosome location, gene duplication status, gene structure and conserved motif analysis, as well as expression profiles in fiber at different developmental stages. Our results showed that G. arboreum contains 36 TCP genes, distributing across all of the thirteen chromosomes. GaTCPs within the same subclade of the phylogenetic tree shared similar exon/intron organization and motif composition. In addition, both segmental duplication and whole-genome duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of GaTCPs. Many these TCP transcription factor genes are specifically expressed in cotton fiber during different developmental stages, including cotton fiber initiation and early development. This suggests that TCP genes may play important roles in cotton fiber development. PMID:26857372

  12. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  13. Laboratory ginning and blending impacts on cotton fiber micronaire measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire, a critical cotton quality parameter, is normally measured in a conditioned laboratory, but increasing interest has been shown in new technologies that can measure micronaire both in and outside of the laboratory. Near Infrared (NIR) technology has demonstrated its ability to measure cot...

  14. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  15. Relationships of cotton fiber properties to ring-spun yarn quality on selected High Plains cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the adequacy of High Volume Instruement (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) fiber quality parameters for predicting quality parameters of ring-spun yarns considering differences in harvest method. Fiber properties measured using the HVI (...

  16. Dynamic Roles for Small RNAs and DNA Methylation during Ovule and Fiber Development in Allotetraploid Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingxin; Guan, Xueying; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for plant and animal development. In plants, methylation occurs at CG, CHG, and CHH (H = A, C or T) sites via distinct pathways. Cotton is an allotetraploid consisting of two progenitor genomes. Each cotton fiber is a rapidly-elongating cell derived from the ovule epidermis, but the molecular basis for this developmental transition is unknown. Here we analyzed methylome, transcriptome, and small RNAome and revealed distinct changes in CHH methylation during ovule and fiber development. In ovules, CHH hypermethylation in promoters correlated positively with siRNAs, inducing RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM), and up-regulation of ovule-preferred genes. In fibers, the ovule-derived cells generated additional heterochromatic CHH hypermethylation independent of RdDM, which repressed transposable elements (TEs) and nearby genes including fiber-related genes. Furthermore, CHG and CHH methylation in genic regions contributed to homoeolog expression bias in ovules and fibers. Inhibiting DNA methylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in cultured ovules has reduced fiber cell number and length, suggesting a potential role for DNA methylation in fiber development. Thus, RdDM-dependent methylation in promoters and RdDM-independent methylation in TEs and nearby genes could act as a double-lock feedback mechanism to mediate gene and TE expression, potentiating the transition from epidermal to fiber cells during ovule and seed development. PMID:26710171

  17. Dynamic Roles for Small RNAs and DNA Methylation during Ovule and Fiber Development in Allotetraploid Cotton.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingxin; Guan, Xueying; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    DNA methylation is essential for plant and animal development. In plants, methylation occurs at CG, CHG, and CHH (H = A, C or T) sites via distinct pathways. Cotton is an allotetraploid consisting of two progenitor genomes. Each cotton fiber is a rapidly-elongating cell derived from the ovule epidermis, but the molecular basis for this developmental transition is unknown. Here we analyzed methylome, transcriptome, and small RNAome and revealed distinct changes in CHH methylation during ovule and fiber development. In ovules, CHH hypermethylation in promoters correlated positively with siRNAs, inducing RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM), and up-regulation of ovule-preferred genes. In fibers, the ovule-derived cells generated additional heterochromatic CHH hypermethylation independent of RdDM, which repressed transposable elements (TEs) and nearby genes including fiber-related genes. Furthermore, CHG and CHH methylation in genic regions contributed to homoeolog expression bias in ovules and fibers. Inhibiting DNA methylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in cultured ovules has reduced fiber cell number and length, suggesting a potential role for DNA methylation in fiber development. Thus, RdDM-dependent methylation in promoters and RdDM-independent methylation in TEs and nearby genes could act as a double-lock feedback mechanism to mediate gene and TE expression, potentiating the transition from epidermal to fiber cells during ovule and seed development. PMID:26710171

  18. Characterization of mRNA for a proline-rich protein of cotton fiber.

    PubMed Central

    John, M E; Keller, G

    1995-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mRNA (H6) is expressed predominantly in fiber cells and is present during early primary cell wall formation. However, H6 protein is found to accumulate during later stages, when active secondary cell wall formation occurs, indicating possible regulation at the translational level and function in the secondary cell wall assembly. The nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of pCK-H6 is proline rich (35 mol %) with a calculated molecular mass of 21 kD. Cotton protein H6 contains a repetitive pentameric motif (17) of alanine (serine)-threonine (serine)-proline-proline-proline. Its amino acid composition and solubility indicate that it may belong to the group of arabinogalactan proteins. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (55 kD) and size-exclusion chromatography (77-83 kD) overestimated the size of in vitro synthesized H6 protein compared to the molecular mass derived from the nucleotide sequence (21 kD). The conformation of the molecule determined by its unusual primary structure may be the cause of its anomalous mobility. The presence of a proline-rich, arabinogalactan-type protein in cotton fiber raises the interesting possibility that it may be an integral part of the plasmalemma taking part in the development and architecture of the secondary wall of cotton fiber. PMID:7610164

  19. Fiber quality of cultivars and breeding lines in the cotton winter nursery and U.S. environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in the United States routinely use the Cotton Winter Nursery (CWN), located in Tecoman, Mexico, for seed increase and generational advancement of breeding materials in cotton (Gossypium spp.). The objective of this study was to establish the typicality of fiber quality of materials grow...

  20. Effects of harvesting methods on foreign matter content, fiber quality, and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the high plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest treatments were compared for a variety of cotton commonly grown on the High Plains of Texas. Foreign matter, fiber quality, and yarn quality were compared for cotton harvested using a spindle picker, a brush-roll stripper with a field cleaner, and the same stripper harvester without a field ...

  1. Performance of the Cottonscan Instrument for Measuring the Average Fiber Linear Density (Fineness) of Cotton Lint Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper explores the CottonscanTM instrument, a new technology designed for routine measurement of the average linear density (fineness) of cotton fiber. A major international inter-laboratory trial of the CottonscanTM system is presented. This expands the range of cottons and laboratories fro...

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  3. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND INTO MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as good fiber quality properti...

  4. MOLECULAR TAGGING OF A MAJOR QTL FOR FIBER STRENGTH IN UPLAND COTTON AND ITS MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a Gossypium anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized by good fiber quality...

  5. Effect of simultaneous drought stress and root-knot nematode infection on cotton yield and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both drought stress and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection can reduce cotton yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but it not known what effect the nematodes have on fiber quality. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effec...

  6. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines (NILs), Gossypium hirs...

  7. Elevated growing degree days influence transition stage timing during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development and result in increased fiber strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing degree days required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development were recorded for four growing seasons and compared with fiber quality measurements and gene expression data indicative of different stages of fiber development. Comparative fiber bundle strength differences betw...

  8. Functional Characterization of a Dihydroflavanol 4-Reductase from the Fiber of Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Peng; Fan, Qiang; Wu, Yao; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Xia, Gui-Xian; Wu, Jia-He

    2016-01-01

    Dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (DFR) is a key later enzyme involved in two polyphenols' (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs)) biosynthesis, however it is not characterized in cotton yet. In present reports, a DFR cDNA homolog (designated as GhDFR1) was cloned from developing fibers of upland cotton. Silencing GhDFR1 in cotton by virus-induced gene silencing led to significant decrease in accumulation of anthocyanins and PAs. More interestingly, based on LC-MS analysis, two PA monomers, (-)-epicatachin and (-)-epigallocatachin, remarkably decreased in content in fibers of GhDFR1-silenced plants, but two new monomers, (-)-catachin and (-)-gallocatachin were present compared to the control plants infected with empty vector. The ectopic expression of GhDFR1 in an Arabidopsis TT3 mutant allowed for reconstruction of PAs biosynthesis pathway and led to accumulation of PAs in seed coat. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GhDFR1 contributes to the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and PAs in cotton. PMID:26821011

  9. Documentation of the endotoxins present in the ambient air of cotton fiber textile mills in Qubec.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Genevive; Lalonde, Michle; Beaudet, Yves; Boivin, Gilles; Villeneuve, Sylvie; Ppin, Carole

    2007-08-01

    Cotton workers are recognized as being at risk of developing occupational lung diseases. Some researchers have identified endotoxins as being a potential etiologic agent for some of the respiratory problems. This study wants to document the concentration of endotoxins found in the ambient air of textile mills where cotton fibers are handled and to identify the processing steps where the highest endotoxins concentrations in the air were found and the one where the relative limit values (RLVs) are exceeded. The 4 mills studied process cotton fibers. All the air samples were analyzed using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocytes lysate LAL method using a kinetic detection principle based on the IRSST's standard method. In this study, a large variability in the concentrations of endotoxins in the air was observed, depending on the mill, the processing step, and the time. Despite these variations, some processes can be identified as being major generators of endotoxins in the ambient air of the mills. The highest concentrations were measured in the weaving and drawing processes and reached 10,000 EU m(-3) of air. The opening, cleaning, carding, spinning and drawing processes are the other major endotoxins generating processes with concentrations from 24 to 8,700 EU m(-3) of air. The endotoxins concentrations exceeded the RLVs for 55% of the workstations in this project. This study demonstrated that endotoxins levels in the cotton industry are high and appropriate control measures are needed. PMID:17671669

  10. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  11. Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature ...

  12. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  13. Changes in Biochemical Composition of the Cell Wall of the Cotton Fiber During Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Meinert, Maureen C.; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1977-01-01

    The composition of the cell wall of the cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. Acala SJ-1) has been studied from the early stages of elongation (5 days postanthesis) through the period of secondary wall formation, using cell walls derived both from fibers developing on the plant and from fibers obtained from excised, cultured ovules. The cell wall of the elongating cotton fiber was shown to be a dynamic structure. Expressed as a weight per cent of the total cell wall, cellulose, neutral sugars (rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and noncellulosic glucose), uronic acids, and total protein undergo marked changes in content during the elongation period. As a way of analyzing absolute changes in the walls with time, data have also been expressed as grams component per millimeter of fiber length. Expressed in this way for plant-grown fibers, the data show that the thickness of the cell wall is relatively constant until about 12 days postanthesis; after this time it markedly increases until secondary wall cellulose deposition is completed. Between 12 and 16 days postanthesis increases in all components contribute to total wall increase per millimeter fiber length. The deposition of secondary wall cellulose begins at about 16 days postanthesis (at least 5 days prior to the cessation of elongation) and continues until about 32 days postanthesis. At the time of the onset of secondary wall cellulose deposition, a sharp decline in protein and uronic acid content occurs. The content of some of the individual neutral sugars changes during development, the most prominent change being a large increase in noncellulosic glucose which occurs just prior to the onset of secondary wall cellulose deposition. Methylation analyses indicate that this glucose, at least in part, is 3-linked. In contrast to the neutral sugars, no significant changes in cell wall amino acid composition are observed during fiber development. Compositional analyses of cell walls derived from culture-grown fibers indicate that these walls are remarkably similar to those derived from fibers grown on the plant, both in terms of composition and in terms of relative changes in composition during development. A comparison of our results on total cell wall composition and linkages of sugars as determined by a preliminary methylation analysis of unfractionated fiber walls indicates that the primary cell wall of cotton fibers is similar to that of primary cell walls of other dicotyledons and of gymnosperms as reported in the literature. PMID:16660000

  14. An ATP-binding cassette transporter GhWBC1 from elongating cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Qing; Xu, Ke-Xiang; Luo, Bin; Wang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2003-10-01

    We have isolated a cDNA (GhWBC1) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter of the WBC (white/brown complex) subfamily. Members of this subfamily are half-sized transporters and are reported to mediate lipid and drug excretion in human (Homo sapiens). GhWBC1 is highly expressed in developing fiber cells, but transcripts were also detectable in other tissues except roots. The transcript level peaked in rapidly expanding fibers from 5 to 9 DPA and then decreased. The GhWBC1 expression was weak in fiber cells of an li (ligon-lintless) mutant, which is defective in fiber cell elongation. These data indicate that GhWBC1 gene expression correlates with cotton fiber elongation. Transient expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein-GhWBC1 fusion protein in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization. The GhWBC1 cDNA driven by a constitutive 35S promoter was introduced into Arabidopsis. About 13% of the transformants produced short siliques (SSs), whereas others had normal siliques (long siliques [LSs]). In siliques of SS lines, most embryos were severely shriveled, and only several seeds per silique could be found at maturity. The transgene expression level was higher in SS lines than in LS lines. Expression of AtWBC11, the closest homolog of GhWBC1 in Arabidopsis, was not altered in either SS or LS transgenic plants examined. These data suggest that GhWBC1 interferes with substance translocation that is required for Arabidopsis seed and silique development. Characterization of Arabidopsis WBC members, particularly AtWBC11, will help to dissect the role of GhWBC1 in cotton fiber development and elongation. PMID:12972649

  15. Genetic Mapping and Characteristics of Genes Specifically or Preferentially Expressed during Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ximei; Yuan, Daojun; Zhang, Jinfa; Lin, Zhongxu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs), the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum) and 379 (G. barbadense). Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO) categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength. PMID:23372723

  16. Concentration and metabolic turnover of UDP-glucose in developing cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, N.C.; Delmer, D.P.

    1981-01-10

    The flow of carbon in vivo from glucose to cellulose in developing cotton fibers which were actively engaged in the deposition of a cellulosic secondary cell wall was traced. Steady state levels of nucleotide sugars were analyzed from developing cotton fibers harvested between 13 and 36 days post-anthesis (DPA). The UDP-sugars were the predominant nucleotide sugars. UDP-glucose constituted over 75% of the UDP-sugar fraction, but UDP-galactose and traces of other UDP-sugars were also detected. The UDP-glucose levels increased from 0.2 ..mu..mol/boll at 13 DPA to over 2.1 ..mu..mol/boll by 24 DPA, just prior to the maximum rate of secondary wall cellulose synthesis; the levels dropped precipitously at the time when cellulose synthesis ceased. Fibers, cultured in vitro possess a very similar nucleotide-sugar composition to that of plant-grown fibers. When such fibers are pulse-labeled in vivo with (/sup 14/C)glucose, UDP-glucose is the predominant nucleotide sugar labeled. Pool size and rates of labeling of glucose, glucose-phosphate, and UDP-glucose pool data were analyzed using a computer simulation model, and it was determined that the rate of synthesis and turnover of UDP-glucose is more than sufficient to account for the combined rates of accumulation of sucrose, sterylglucosides, ..beta..-1,3-glucan, and cellulose. These data strongly indicate that UDP-glucose is a precursor to secondary wall cellulose in the cotton fiber.

  17. Adsorption behaviour of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, L. F. M.; Sallam, H. B.; Abo Farha, S. A.; Gamal, A. M.; Mahmoud, G. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of direct yellow 50 onto cotton fiber from aqueous solution by using parameters, such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and the effect of sodium sulphate, tetrasodium edate and trisodium citrate. The extent of dye adsorption increased with increasing contact time, temperature and solution concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the Freundlich equation. The results show that the presence of SE and SC significantly enhance the dye adsorption onto cotton fiber. In addition, the adsorption data obtained at different temperatures of DY50 onto cotton fiber were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to pseudo second-order kinetics with good correlation. Also, free energy of adsorption (ΔG#), enthalpy (ΔH#), and entropy (ΔS#) changes were determined to predict the nature of adsorption. The positive value of the enthalpy change indicated that the adsorption is endothermic process. The activation energy, Ea, is ranged between 1.9 and 3.9 kJ mol-1 indicated that the adsorption process is a physisorption. This low value of Ea generally indicates diffusion controlled process.

  18. Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

  19. Molecular analysis of late-stage fiber development in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world's most important textile and the number one value-added crop. It plays a crucial role in the economy of Texas – supporting close to 50,000 jobs and supplying $2 billion to the state economy. Its role is even more evident in the South Plains of Texas, which supplies approximately...

  20. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  1. Effect of Late Planting and Shading on Cellulose Synthesis during Cotton Fiber Secondary Wall Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Lv, Fengjuan; Liu, Jingran; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP) and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June) each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR). Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%–25.5%) produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%–20.9%) was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%–5.6%). The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38–45 days post-anthesis). The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase. PMID:25133819

  2. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that energy deprivation may occur in the im mutant fibers. PMID:24341782

  3. Precision of the upgraded cottonscan instrument for measuring the average fiber linear density (fineness) of cotton lint samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inter-laboratory trial was conducted to validate the operation of the CottonscanTM technology as useful technique for determining the average fiber linear density of cotton. A significant inter-laboratory trial was completed and confirmed that the technology is quite acceptable. For fibers fin...

  4. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I ( 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  5. Assessment of the level of microbial combination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

  6. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  7. Rapid Cotton Fiber Micronaire Measurements with Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy-From the Laboratory to the Cotton Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise. Most of the cotton produced in the U.S. today is exported globally, primarily to China. Improved and fast response quality measurement systems are needed in the global marketplace to assess the quality of cotton. One key need is the development of ...

  8. High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO2 nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Michael K H

    2013-12-15

    In this study, TiO2 nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO2-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO2 was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (qm) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and qm of TiO2-CCFs-1000 (9.0mg/g) was 6-7 times higher than that of TiO2 nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu)4 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO2-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO2 immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO2-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron-hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO2 on carbon fibers for environmental remediation. PMID:24220193

  9. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Hu, Yan; Jiang, Wenkai; Fang, Lei; Guan, Xueying; Chen, Jiedan; Zhang, Jinbo; Saski, Christopher A; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M; Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Wan, Qun; Liu, Bingliang; Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Sen; Pan, Mengqiao; Wang, Yangkun; Wang, Dawei; Ye, Wenxue; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Wenpan; Song, Qingxin; Kirkbride, Ryan C; Chen, Xiaoya; Dennis, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Peterson, Daniel G; Thaxton, Peggy; Jones, Don C; Wang, Qiong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Huaitong; Zhou, Lei; Mei, Gaofu; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Yue; Xiang, Dan; Li, Xinghe; Ding, Jian; Zuo, Qiyang; Tao, Linna; Liu, Yunchao; Li, Ji; Lin, Yu; Hui, Yuanyuan; Cao, Zhisheng; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Jiang, Zhi; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Li, Ruiqiang; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Upland cotton is a model for polyploid crop domestication and transgenic improvement. Here we sequenced the allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1 genome by integrating whole-genome shotgun reads, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences and genotype-by-sequencing genetic maps. We assembled and annotated 32,032 A-subgenome genes and 34,402 D-subgenome genes. Structural rearrangements, gene loss, disrupted genes and sequence divergence were more common in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome, suggesting asymmetric evolution. However, no genome-wide expression dominance was found between the subgenomes. Genomic signatures of selection and domestication are associated with positively selected genes (PSGs) for fiber improvement in the A subgenome and for stress tolerance in the D subgenome. This draft genome sequence provides a resource for engineering superior cotton lines. PMID:25893781

  10. Genome-wide analysis of small RNAs reveals eight fiber elongation-related and 257 novel microRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other types of small regulatory RNAs play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Cotton is one of the most economically important crops, but little is known about the roles of miRNAs during cotton fiber elongation. Results Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational analysis to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) related to cotton fiber elongation in Gossypium hirsutum L. (G. hirsutum). The sequence analysis confirmed the expression of 79 known miRNA families in elongating fiber cells and identified 257 novel miRNAs, primarily derived from corresponding specific loci in the Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. (G. raimondii) genome. Furthermore, a comparison of the miRNAomes revealed that 46 miRNA families were differentially expressed throughout the elongation period. Importantly, the predicted and experimentally validated targets of eight miRNAs were associated with fiber elongation, with obvious functional relationships with calcium and auxin signal transduction, fatty acid metabolism, anthocyanin synthesis and the xylem tissue differentiation. Moreover, one tasiRNA was also identified, and its target, ARF4, was experimentally validated in vivo. Conclusion This study not only facilitated the discovery of 257 novel low-abundance miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells but also revealed a potential regulatory network of nine sRNAs important for fiber elongation. The identification and characterization of miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells might promote the further study of fiber miRNA regulation mechanisms and provide insight into the importance of miRNAs in cotton. PMID:24044642

  11. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  12. Phytosterol content and the campesterol:sitosterol ratio influence cotton fiber development: role of phytosterols in cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shasha; Wei, Ting; Tan, Kunling; Hu, Mingyu; Li, Fang; Zhai, Yunlan; Ye, Shue; Xiao, Yuehua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan; Luo, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Phytosterols play an important role in plant growth and development, including cell division, cell elongation, embryogenesis, cellulose biosynthesis, and cell wall formation. Cotton fiber, which undergoes synchronous cell elongation and a large amount of cellulose synthesis, is an ideal model for the study of plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. The role of phytosterols in fiber growth was investigated by treating the fibers with tridemorph, a sterol biosynthetic inhibitor. The inhibition of phytosterol biosynthesis resulted in an apparent suppression of fiber elongation in vitro or in planta. The determination of phytosterol quantity indicated that sitosterol and campesterol were the major phytosterols in cotton fibers; moreover, higher concentrations of these phytosterols were observed during the period of rapid elongation of fibers. Furthermore, the decrease and increase in campesterol:sitosterol ratio was associated with the increase and decease in speed of elongation, respectively, during the elongation stage. The increase in the ratio was associated with the transition from cell elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, a number of phytosterol biosynthetic genes were down-regulated in the short fibers of ligon lintless-1 mutant, compared to its near-isogenic wild-type TM-1. These results demonstrated that phytosterols play a crucial role in cotton fiber development, and particularly in fiber elongation. PMID:26803301

  13. Targeted Lipidomics Studies Reveal that Linolenic Acid Promotes Cotton Fiber Elongation by Activating Phosphatidylinositol and Phosphatidylinositol Monophosphate Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao-Jun; Xiao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Ning-Jing; Liu, Dan; Chen, Pei-Shuang; Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2015-06-01

    The membrane lipids from fast-elongating wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers at 10days post-anthesis, wild-type ovules with fiber cells removed, and ovules from the fuzzless-lintless mutant harvested at the same age, were extracted, separated, and quantified. Fiber cells contained significantly higher amounts of phosphatidylinositol (PI) than both ovule samples with PI 34:3 being the most predominant species. The genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (?(15)GhFAD), PI synthase (PIS) and PI kinase (PIK) were expressed in a fiber-preferential manner. Further analysis of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) indicated that elongating fibers contained four- to five-fold higher amounts of PIP 34:3 than the ovules. Exogenously applied linolenic acid (C18:3), soybean L-?-PI, and PIPs containing PIP 34:3 promoted significant fiber growth, whereas a liver PI lacking the C18:3 moiety, linoleic acid, and PIP 36:2 were completely ineffective. The growth inhibitory effects of carbenoxolone, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and wortmannin were reverted by C18:3, PI, or PIP, respectively, suggesting that PIP signaling is essential for fiber cell growth. Furthermore, cotton plants expressing virus-induced gene-silencing constructs that specifically suppressed Gh?(15)FAD, GhPIS, or GhPIK expression, resulted in significantly short-fibered phenotypes. Our data provide the basis for in-depth studies on the roles of PI and PIP in mediating cotton fiber growth. PMID:25731673

  14. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) Reveals Critical Genes and Key Pathways in Cotton Fiber Elongation and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenhua; Fang, Lei; Xiang, Dan; Hu, Yan; Feng, Hao; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    For efficient spinning and superior fabric production, long fiber length is a desired trait for cotton production. To unveil the molecular basis of the cotton fiber length regulation, a short fiber mutant, Ligon lintless-1 (Li1), is selected to compare with its corresponding wild type (WT). Li1 is a monogenic dominant cotton mutant causing extremely short fibers (<6mm) on mature seeds with visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. In this research, we compared the transcriptome of fiber bearing ovules at 1 DPA, 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf between Li1 mutant and WT. A total of 7,852 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in ovules and leaves, which mainly participated in sugar, secondary metabolite and lipid metabolism pathways based on KEGG analysis. The common DEGs at 1 DPA and 3 DPA were involved in the responses to endogenous stimulus, signal transduction and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. For 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf, the common DEGs were involved in the responses to auxin and receptor kinases related pathway. Further analysis showed that 37 genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis were suppressed in Li1 mutant during fiber fast elongation development. Most of the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, such cellulose synthase, expansin family, and glycosyl hydrolase were differentially expressed at 3 DPA and 8 DPA. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of fiber elongation, and offer novel genes as potential objects for fiber length improvement. PMID:26600249

  16. Influence of planting date on stink bug injury, yield, fiber quality, and economic returns in Georgia cotton.

    PubMed

    Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Shurley, Donald; Toews, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late. PMID:24772545

  17. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 12 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  18. Activation of Arabidopsis Seed Hair Development by Cotton Fiber-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Mingxiong; Shi, Xiaoli; Stelly, David M.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1) that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY). Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2), a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) activated fiber-like hair production in 46% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ?8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ?10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs) in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular. PMID:21779324

  19. GTPase activity and biochemical characterization of a recombinant cotton fiber annexin

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.; Brown, R.M. Jr. . Dept. of Botany)

    1999-03-01

    A cDNA encoding annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified. The authors then investigated some biochemical properties of the recombinant annexin based on the current understanding of plant annexins. An add-back experiment was performed to study the effect of the recombinant annexin on [beta]-glucan synthase activity, but no effect was found. However, it was found that the recombinant annexin could display ATPase/GTPase activities. The recombinant annexin showed much higher GTPase than ATPase activity. Mg[sup 2+] was essential for these activities, whereas a high concentration of Ca[sup 2+] was inhibitory. A photolabeling assay showed that this annexin could bind GTP more specifically than ATP. The GTP-binding site on the annexin was mapped into the carboxyl-terminal fourth repeat of annexin from the photolabeling experiment using domain-deletion mutants of this annexin. Northern-blot analysis showed that the annexin gene was highly expressed in the elongation stages of cotton fiber differentiation, suggesting a role of this annexin in cell elongation.

  20. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieying Zheng; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 2.6 ?m and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 C.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yunling; Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ► Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ► The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

  2. Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. )

    1990-05-01

    ({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

  3. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), ? (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (?plateau, ?? and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (?plateau) varied from ?22 to ?61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to ?plateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed. PMID:25459983

  4. Phytohormonal Networks Promote Differentiation of Fiber Initials on Pre-Anthesis Cotton Ovules Grown In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Triplett, Barbara A.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Stelly, David M.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Moon, Hong S.; Gilbert, Matthew K.; Thyssen, Gregory N.; Turley, Rickie B.; Fang, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  5. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  6. The effects of fruiting positions on cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  7. The Effects of Fruiting Positions on Cellulose Synthesis and Sucrose Metabolism during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fiber Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  8. Association of SSR Markers with Cotton Yield Components and Fiber Traits Analyzed in a Polycross Population Derived from Tetraploid Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement in fiber quality is needed for U.S.A. cotton in order to meet the needs of modern textile processing and international competition. A random mated population derived from multiple crosses among tetraploid species, designated as Species Polycross (SP), was used in this study to id...

  9. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  10. USE OF PRIMITIVE DERIVED COTTON ACCESSIONS FOR AGRONOMIC AND FIBER TRAITS IMPROVEMENT: VARIANCE COMPONENTS AND GENETIC EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is cultivated in warmer climates throughout the world. The genetic base of modern upland cultivars is narrow. As yield and fiber quality traits are improved the genetic base should be extended by the incorporation of new germplasm into cultivars. In this stud...

  11. Facile preparation of biocompatible sulfhydryl cotton fiber-based sorbents by "thiol-ene" click chemistry for biological analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Shao-Ting; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-10-22

    Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis. PMID:25268138

  12. Cotton Benzoquinon Reductase: Up-Regulation During Early Fiber Development and Heterologous Expresson and Characterization in Pichia Pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR) is an enzyme which catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage. These proteins were excis...

  13. Two-dimensional attenuated total reflection infrared correlation spectroscopy study of desorption process of water-soaked cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of native cotton fibers with various water contents. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity ...

  14. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  15. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  16. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  17. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  18. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  19. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER AND TEXTILE QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  20. Near-Isogenic Cotton Germplasm Lines that Differ in Fiber-Bundle Strength have Temporal Differences in Fiber Gene Expression Pattern as Revealed by Comparative High-Throughput Profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression profiles of developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers from two near-isogenic lines (NILs) that differ in fiber-bundle strength, short-fiber content, and in fewer than two genetic loci were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray. Fiber gene expression was compared at fiv...

  1. Heteromannan and Heteroxylan Cell Wall Polysaccharides Display Different Dynamics During the Elongation and Secondary Cell Wall Deposition Phases of Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Gomez, Mercedes C.; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Bourot, Stéphane; Benians, Thomas A.S.; Willats, William G.T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    The roles of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in cotton fiber development are poorly understood. Combining glycan microarrays and in situ analyses with monoclonal antibodies, polysaccharide linkage analyses and transcript profiling, the occurrence of heteromannan and heteroxylan polysaccharides and related genes in developing and mature cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers has been determined. Comparative analyses on cotton fibers at selected days post-anthesis indicate different temporal and spatial regulation of heteromannan and heteroxylan during fiber development. The LM21 heteromannan epitope was more abundant during the fiber elongation phase and localized mainly in the primary cell wall. In contrast, the AX1 heteroxylan epitope occurred at the transition phase and during secondary cell wall deposition, and localized in both the primary and the secondary cell walls of the cotton fiber. These developmental dynamics were supported by transcript profiling of biosynthetic genes. Whereas our data suggest a role for heteromannan in fiber elongation, heteroxylan is likely to be involved in the regulation of cellulose deposition of secondary cell walls. In addition, the relative abundance of these epitopes during fiber development varied between cotton lines with contrasting fiber characteristics from four species (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum), suggesting that these non-cellulosic polysaccharides may be involved in determining final fiber quality and suitability for industrial processing. PMID:26187898

  2. Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

  3. A transcript profiling approach reveals an abscisic acid specific glycosyltransferase (UGT73C14) induced in developing fiber of Ligon lintless-2 mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ligon lintless-2, a monogenic dominant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, causing extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth, represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. A UDP-glycosyltransferase that was highly expressed i...

  4. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  5. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based analysis provides global insights into the cotton ovule and fiber proteomes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiang; Wang, Limin; He, Liping; Feng, Weiqiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-02-01

    Proteomic analysis of upland cotton was performed to profile the global detectable proteomes of ovules and fibers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 1,203 independent protein spots were collected from representative 2DE gels, which were digested with trypsin and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time-offlight/ time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry (MS or MS/MS) data were then searched against a local database constructed from Gossypium hirsutum genome sequences, resulting in successful identification of 975 protein spots (411 for ovules and 564 for fibers). Functional annotation analysis of the 975 identified proteins revealed that ovule-specific proteins were mainly enriched in functions related to fatty acid elongation, sulfur amino acid metabolism and post-replication repair, while fiber-specific proteins were enriched in functions related to root hair elongation, galactose metabolism and D-xylose metabolic processes. Further annotation analysis of the most abundant protein spots showed that 28.96% of the total proteins in the ovule were mainly located in the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion and ribosome, whereas in fibers, 27.02% of the total proteins were located in the cytoskeleton, nuclear envelope and cell wall. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses of the ovule-specific protein spots P61, P93 and P198 and fiber-specific protein spots 230, 477 and 511 were performed to validate the proteomics data. Protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed very different network cluster patterns between ovules and fibers. This work provides the largest protein identification dataset of 2DE-detectable proteins in cotton ovules and fibers and indicates potentially important roles of tissue-specific proteins, thus providing insights into the cotton ovule and fiber proteomes on a global scale. PMID:26803300

  6. Cotton GhMYB7 is predominantly expressed in developing fibers and regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junfeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Siyu; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenliang

    2016-02-01

    The secondary cell wall in mature cotton fibers contains over 90% cellulose with low quantities of xylan and lignin. However, little is known regarding the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. In this study, we characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GhMYB7, in cotton. GhMYB7 is expressed at a high level in developing fibers and encodes a MYB protein that is targeted to the cell nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis resulted in small, curled, dark green leaves and also led to shorter inflorescence stems. A cross-sectional assay of basal stems revealed that cell wall thickness of vessels and interfascicular fibers was higher in transgenic lines overexpressing GhMYB7 than in the wild type. Constitutive expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of a suite of secondary cell wall biosynthesis-related genes (including some secondary cell wall-associated transcription factors), leading to the ectopic deposition of cellulose and lignin. The ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls may have been initiated before the cessation of cell expansion. Moreover, GhMYB7 was capable of binding to the promoter regions of AtSND1 and AtCesA4, suggesting that GhMYB7 may function upstream of NAC transcription factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that GhMYB7 is a potential transcriptional activator, which may participate in regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis of cotton fibers. PMID:26803299

  7. Apyrase (Nucleoside Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase) and Extracellular Nucleotides Regulate Cotton Fiber Elongation in Cultured Ovules1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Greg; Torres, Jonathan; Finlayson, Scott; Guan, Xueying; Handley, Craig; Lee, Jinsuk; Kays, Julia E.; Chen, Z. Jeffery; Roux, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    Ectoapyrase enzymes remove the terminal phosphate from extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two ectoapyrases, AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, have been implicated as key modulators of growth. In fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), transcript levels for GhAPY1 and GhAPY2, two closely related ectoapyrases that have high sequence similarity to AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, are up-regulated when fibers enter their rapid growth phase. In an ovule culture system, fibers release ATP as they grow, and when their ectoapyrase activity is blocked by the addition of polyclonal anti-apyrase antibodies or by two different small molecule inhibitors, the medium ATP level rises and fiber growth is suppressed. High concentrations of the poorly hydrolyzable nucleotides ATP?S and ADP?S applied to the medium inhibit fiber growth, and low concentrations of them stimulate growth, but treatment with adenosine 5?-O-thiomonophosphate causes no change in the growth rate. Both the inhibition and stimulation of growth by applied nucleotides can be blocked by an antagonist that blocks purinoceptors in animal cells, and by adenosine. Treatment of cotton ovule cultures with ATP?S induces increased levels of ethylene, and two ethylene antagonists, aminovinylglycine and silver nitrate, block both the growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory effects of applied nucleotides. In addition, the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, lowers the concentration of nucleotide needed to promote fiber growth. These data indicate that ectoapyrases and extracellular nucleotides play a significant role in regulating cotton fiber growth and that ethylene is a likely downstream component of the signaling pathway. PMID:20018604

  8. Effect of harvesting method on fiber and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Texas cotton production has represented almost half of all the US cotton production, with most of that production coming from the High Plains. Due to the harsh weather conditions, most cotton on the High Plains is of more storm-proof varieties that are harvested using stripper harve...

  9. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  10. Creation of a set of reference material for cotton fiber maturity measurements.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was the goal of the authors to create a set of reference cottons for maturity measurements. To achieve this they selected 104 cotton bales representing the two principal cultivated species. The vast majority of the bales orginated in the USA, but some foreign-grown cotton bales werew also selec...

  11. HVI AND GLUCOSE ANALYSIS OF ACID TREATED, RINSED, AND, OR HEATED AND AUTOCLAVED COTTON FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It remains difficult to understand all chemical and physical cotton properties that are affected by production, processing, and utilization. Cotton differences are not well understood chemically and the protective exterior complexity of cotton further entangles matters. This study evaluates how cot...

  12. QTL Mapping for Fiber and Yield Traits in Upland Cotton under Multiple Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hantao; Huang, Cong; Guo, Huanle; Li, Ximei; Zhao, Wenxia; Dai, Baosheng; Yan, Zhenhua; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    A population of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using a single seed descendant from a cross between G. hirsutum. acc DH962 and G. hirsutum. cv Jimian5, was used to construct a genetic map and to map QTL for fiber and yield traits. A total of 644 polymorphic loci were used to construct a final genetic map, containing 616 loci and spanning 2016.44 cM, with an average of 3.27 cM between adjacent markers. Statistical analysis revealed that segregation distortion in the intraspecific population was more serious than that in the interspecific population. The RIL population and the two parents were phenotyped under 8 environments (two locations, six years), revealing a total of 134 QTL, including 64 for fiber qualities and 70 for yield components, independently detected in seven environments, explaining 4.40–15.28% of phenotypic variation (PV). Among the 134 QTL, 9 common QTL were detected in more than one environment, and 22 QTL and 19 new QTL were detected in combined analysis (E9). A total of 26 QTL hotspot regions were observed on 13 chromosomes and 2 larger linkage groups, and some QTL clusters related to fiber qualities or yield components were also observed. The results obtained in the present study suggested that to map accurate QTL in crops with larger plant types, such as cotton, phenotyping under multiple environments is necessary to effectively apply the obtained results in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding and QTL cloning. PMID:26110526

  13. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  14. Natural cotton fibers as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Liu, Shengquan; Chen, Chunyan; Zou, Ying; Hu, Huiping; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-07-21

    A natural material, cotton fiber, has been applied as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for sample preparation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. The cotton fiber was used directly without any chemical modifications, which avoided a complex synthesis process and consumption of a large volume of organic solvent. The conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized to achieve high detection sensitivity, and included elution solvent, ultrasonic elution time, extraction time, sample volume, salt concentration and organic modifier addition. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for seven PAH compounds could reach up to 0.1-2.0 ng L(-1). The method accuracy was evaluated using recovery measurements in standard spiked samples and good recoveries of 70.69-110.04% with relative standard deviations of less than 10% have been achieved. Consequently, the method developed was successfully applied for determining PAH in environmental samples: snow water, metal-fabrication factory wastewater and Xiangjiang River water, with PAH contents ranging from 13.2 to 83.1 ng L(-1). Therefore, using cotton fiber as a new SPE adsorbent, was easy to prepare, had a low cost and great reusability, and this implies it is a promising method for sample preparation. PMID:24872029

  15. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from UV to visible region simply by tuning the ratio of the precursor during the fabrication. Our results suggest an approach to the fabrication of large-area NCs with a tunable bandgap on a silicon substrate by the standard MOCVD method that offers an immense opportunity for electronic and photonic applications and allows the scale-up from a research laboratory to industrial scale.

  16. EPR study of free radicals in cotton fiber for its potential use as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiological accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudprasert, W.; Insuan, P.; Khamkhrongmee, S.

    2015-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was applied to characterize radiation-induced free radicals in the cotton fiber in order to determine the possibility for using cotton as a fortuitous dosimeter in accidental exposures to radiation. Cotton fabrics were irradiated at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 10, 50 and 500 Gy using a 137Cs gamma source. The irradiated samples were then stored in the dark under controlled environmental conditions for 1, 15, 35 and 60 days. The EPR spectra were observed in samples using a Bruker EMX X-band spectrometer equipped with a TE102 rectangular cavity. The EPR signal intensities of irradiated samples were determined from peak-to-peak amplitudes of EPR spectra and compared to those of unirradiated samples. The following optimum parameters were used: 100 kHz modulation frequency, 9.84 GHz microwave frequency, 1.8 mT modulation amplitude, 1.0 mW microwave power, 655 ms time constant, 41 ms conversion time and 41.98 s sweep time. The EPR spectra of unirradiated samples showed a singlet line with g = 2.006 due to pre-existing stable organic radicals in the cotton fibers, whereas those of irradiated samples showed the same pattern with different signal intensities according to the doses. Irradiation increased the signal intensity in a dose dependent manner. The signal intensity exhibited an exponential decay with storage time from 1 to 60 days. Obviously, the degree of fading of EPR intensity did not depend on the absorbed dose from 0.1 - 50 Gy. The maximum fading was about 60% at 60 days of storage for irradiated samples at all doses. However, this post-irradiation signal appeared to be detectable for up to 60 days. The EPR study results indicated the potential of using cotton as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiological accidents.

  17. A Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan Protein, GhFLA1, Is Involved in Fiber Initiation and Elongation of Cotton1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Geng-Qing; Gong, Si-Ying; Xu, Wen-Liang; Li, Wen; Li, Peng; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Deng-Di; Zheng, Yong; Li, Fu-Guang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2013-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in many aspects of plant development. In this study, biochemical and genetic approaches demonstrated that AGPs are abundant in developing fibers and may be involved in fiber initiation and elongation. To further investigate the role of AGPs during fiber development, a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene (GhFLA1) was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Overexpression of GhFLA1 in cotton promoted fiber elongation, leading to an increase in fiber length. In contrast, suppression of GhFLA1 expression in cotton slowed down fiber initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibers of the transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of the wild type. In addition, expression levels of GhFLAs and the genes related to primary cell wall biosynthesis were remarkably enhanced in the GhFLA1 overexpression transgenic fibers, whereas the transcripts of these genes were dramatically reduced in the fibers of GhFLA1 RNA interference plants. An immunostaining assay indicated that both AGP composition and primary cell wall composition were changed in the transgenic fibers. The levels of glucose, arabinose, and galactose were also altered in the primary cell wall of the transgenic fibers compared with those of the wild type. Together, our results suggested that GhFLA1 may function in fiber initiation and elongation by affecting AGP composition and the integrity of the primary cell wall matrix. PMID:23349362

  18. Integrated metabolomics and genomics analysis provides new insights into the fiber elongation process in Ligon lintless-2 mutant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutation, Ligon lintless-2, is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2) and results in extremely shortened lint fibers on mature seeds with no visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. The Li2 mutant phenotype provides an ideal model system to study fiber elongation. To understand metabolic processes involved in cotton fiber elongation, changes in metabolites and transcripts in the Li2 mutant fibers were compared to wild-type fibers during development. Results Principal component analysis of metabolites from GC-MS data separated Li2 mutant fiber samples from WT fiber samples at the WT elongation stage, indicating that the Li2 mutation altered the metabolome of the mutant fibers. The observed alterations in the Li2 metabolome included significant reductions in the levels of detected free sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, and sugar phosphates. Biological processes associated with carbohydrate biosynthesis, cell wall loosening, and cytoskeleton were also down-regulated in Li2 fibers. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as a signaling factor in many organisms, was significantly elevated in mutant fibers. Higher accumulation of 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, and malate suggested higher nitrate assimilation in the Li2 line. Transcriptional activation of genes involved in nitrogen compound metabolism along with changes in the levels of nitrogen transport amino acids suggested re-direction of carbon flow into nitrogen metabolism in Li2 mutant fibers. Conclusions This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of metabolite and transcript changes in response to the Li2 mutation in elongating fibers. A number of factors associated with cell elongation found in this study will facilitate further research in understanding metabolic processes of cotton fiber elongation. PMID:23497242

  19. Regional, varietal, and crop year variations of metal contents associated with the separate structural components of upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the presence of metal cations in raw cotton fiber has been well documented in previous studies, little information exists in the literature regarding the relative proportions of these metals in or on the different structural components of the fiber. Such information may prove useful in attemp...

  20. Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (CesA) genes associated with primary or secondary wall biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and consist of almost pure cellulose. During the transition from elongation growth to secondary wall thickening, the rate of cellulose biosynthesis in fibers rises nearly 100-fold. Although the first two cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) wer...

  1. Broadening the genetic base of upland cotton in U.S. cultivars: genetics variation for lint yield and fiber quality in germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of both lint yield and fiber quality is a challenge to cotton breeders because of the negative associations between lint yield and fiber quality. The limited success in the breakup of unfavorable associations in breeding might be a result of the narrow genetic base in Upland cott...

  2. A Specialized Outer Layer of the Primary Cell Wall Joins Elongating Cotton Fibers into Tissue-Like Bundles1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bir; Avci, Utku; Eichler Inwood, Sarah E.; Grimson, Mark J.; Landgraf, Jeff; Mohnen, Debra; Srensen, Iben; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Willats, William G.T.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the world's dominant renewable textile fiber, and cotton fiber is valued as a research model because of its extensive elongation and secondary wall thickening. Previously, it was assumed that fibers elongated as individual cells. In contrast, observation by cryo-field emission-scanning electron microscopy of cotton fibers developing in situ within the boll demonstrated that fibers elongate within tissue-like bundles. These bundles were entrained by twisting fiber tips and consolidated by adhesion of a cotton fiber middle lamella (CFML). The fiber bundles consolidated via the CFML ultimately formed a packet of fiber around each seed, which helps explain how thousands of cotton fibers achieve their great length within a confined space. The cell wall nature of the CFML was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, including polymer epitope labeling. Toward the end of elongation, up-regulation occurred in gene expression and enzyme activities related to cell wall hydrolysis, and targeted breakdown of the CFML restored fiber individuality. At the same time, losses occurred in certain cell wall polymer epitopes (as revealed by comprehensive microarray polymer profiling) and sugars within noncellulosic matrix components (as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized neutral and acidic glycosyl residues). Broadly, these data show that adhesion modulated by an outer layer of the primary wall can coordinate the extensive growth of a large group of cells and illustrate dynamic changes in primary wall structure and composition occurring during the differentiation of one cell type that spends only part of its life as a tissue. PMID:19369592

  3. Comparative Proteomics Indicates That Biosynthesis of Pectic Precursors Is Important for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Hair Elongation*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L.; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2010-01-01

    The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-l-rhamnose, UDP-d-galacturonic acid, or UDP-d-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-d-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-l-rhamnose and UDP-d-galacturonic acid synthesis. PMID:20525998

  4. Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Song, Wenqiang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yuxian

    2009-03-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and elongation, whereas, application of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the wild-type cotton ovule culture significantly suppressed fiber growth, respectively. Their inhibitory effects were caused by the reduction of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Ten GhPOX genes (cDNAs) encoding cotton class III peroxidases were isolated, among them eight GhPOX genes were reported for the first time. Microarray analyses indicated that GhPOX1 was the mostly predominantly expressed in fast-elongating cotton fiber cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the transcript level of GhPOX1 was over 400-fold higher in growing fiber cells than in ovules, flowers, roots, stems and leaves. To reveal the role of GhPOX1 in plant development, its Arabidopsis orthologue atpox13 mutant was demonstrated to be defective in branch root development. Taken together, the data suggest that GhPOX1 plays an important role during fiber cell elongation possibly by mediating production of reactive oxygen species. PMID:19302970

  5. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and environments for complex fiber traits. The consistent chromosomal regions contributing to fiber quality traits constitute good candidates for the further dissection of the genetic and genomic factors underlying important fiber characteristics, and for marker-assisted selection. PMID:20584292

  6. Seed-Coat Fragment Fiber and Fabric Quality in World Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) can be neps that can cause spinning problems and fabric defects, which ultimately cause losses to the cotton industry. 12 US and 10 International cottons were processed with AFIS and compared to the fabric samples. Fabrics were tested on the new Autorate (for dark specks)...

  7. The Effects of Three Module Types on Cotton Ginning and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally seed cotton has been stored in modules from the time it was harvested until it was ginned. These modules have been formed using additional equipment and operators. In an effort to improve the efficiency of cotton production by reducing the number of operators and equipment, two newer...

  8. The Effect of Higher Temperatures on Cotton Lint Yield Production and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optimum temperature range for growth exists for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), as is typical for all plant species. When Mississippi Delta cotton experiences temperatures above the upper threshold, as can often occur during the months of July and August, it is not entirely clear what growth par...

  9. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fibre and a significant oilseed crop. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an allotetraploid derived from A- and D-genome progenitors, accounts for >95% of world production. Here, we sequenced and assembled 88% of the 2.5-gigabase genome of the ...

  10. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  11. The analysis of colored acrylic, cotton, and wool textile fibers using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Part 2: comparison with the traditional methods of fiber examination.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    In the second part of this survey, the ability of micro-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate 180 fiber samples of blue, black, and red cottons, wools, and acrylics was compared to that gathered with the traditional methods for the examination of textile fibers in a forensic context (including light microscopy methods, UV-vis microspectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography). This study shows that the Raman technique plays a complementary and useful role to obtain further discriminations after the application of light microscopy methods and UV-vis microspectrophotometry and assure the nondestructive nature of the analytical sequence. These additional discriminations were observed despite the lower discriminating powers of Raman data considered individually, compared to those of light microscopy and UV-vis MSP. This study also confirms that an instrument equipped with several laser lines is necessary for an efficient use as applied to the examination of textile fibers in a forensic setting. PMID:25731068

  12. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers affects secondary cell wall biosynthesis and deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Gong, Si-Ying; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Wen; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cell wall (SCW) is an important industrial raw material for pulping, papermaking, construction, lumbering, textiles and potentially for biofuel production. The process of SCW thickening of cotton fibers lays down the cellulose that will constitute the bulk (up to 96%) of the fiber at maturity. In this study, a gene encoding a MYB-domain protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhMYBL1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that GhMYBL1 was specifically expressed in cotton fibers at the stage of secondary wall deposition. Further analysis indicated that this protein is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, and is targeted to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhMYBL1 in Arabidopsis affected the formation of SCW in the stem xylem of the transgenic plants. The enhanced SCW thickening also occurred in the interfascicular fibers, xylary fibers and vessels of the GhMYBL1-overexpression transgenic plants. The expression of secondary wall-associated genes, such as CesA4, CesA7, CesA8, PAL1, F5H and 4CL1, were upregulated, and consequently, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were enhanced in the GhMYBL1 transgenic plants. These data suggested that GhMYBL1 may participate in modulating the process of secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition of cotton fibers. PMID:25534543

  13. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with bagging on at least three-fourths of its surface, including both ends. Cut cotton linters may be... closed with hatch covers, tarpaulins, and dunnage; however, metal hatch covers which are sealed by...

  14. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... both ends. Cut cotton linters may be accepted for transportation by vessel when baled and covered with...; (5) Each 'tween deck hatch must be closed with hatch covers, tarpaulins, and dunnage; however,...

  15. Seed Quality and Plant Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having to use poorer quality cotton seed, due to unfavorable growing conditions in seed production areas, complicates planting decisions for producers, particularly when higher priced transgenic cultivars are involved. This study investigated how varying planting dates and genetic backgrounds affec...

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Fiber Strength in Upland Cotton Chromosome Introgression Lines Carrying Different Gossypium barbadense Chromosomal Segments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process. PMID:24762562

  17. Comparative Proteomic and Biochemical Analyses Reveal Different Molecular Events Occurring in the Process of Fiber Initiation between Wild-Type Allotetraploid Cotton and Its Fuzzless-Lintless Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Chun-Juan; Du, Ying; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    To explore lint fiber initiation-related proteins in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a comparative proteomic analysis was performed between wild-type cotton (Xu-142) and its fuzzless-lintless mutant (Xu-142-fl) at five developmental time points for lint fiber initiation from -3 to +3 days post-anthesis (dpa). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, 91 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) species that are related to fiber initiation were successfully identified, of which 58 preferentially accumulated in the wild-type and 33 species in the fl mutant. These DAPs are involved in various cellular and metabolic processes, mainly including important energy/carbohydrate metabolism, redox homeostasis, amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis, protein quality control, cytoskeleton dynamics, and anthocyanidin metabolism. Further physiological and biochemical experiments revealed dynamic changes in the carbohydrate flux and H2O2 levels in the cotton fiber initiation process. Compared with those in the fl mutant, the contents of glucose and fructose in wild-type ovules sharply increased after anthesis with a relatively higher rate of amino acid biosynthesis. The relative sugar starvation and lower rate of amino acid biosynthesis in the fl mutant ovules may impede the carbohydrate/energy supply and cell wall synthesis, which is consistent with the proteomic results. However, the H2O2 burst was only observed in the wild-type ovules on the day of anthesis. Cotton boll injection experiments in combination with electron microscope observation collectively indicated that H2O2 burst, which is negatively regulated by ascorbate peroxidases (APx), plays an important role in the fiber initiation process. Taken together, our study demonstrates a putative network of DAP species related to fiber initiation in cotton ovules and provides a foundation for future studies on the specific functions of these proteins in fiber development. PMID:25700002

  18. Genes Involved in Osmoregulation during Turgor-Driven Cell Expansion of Developing Cotton Fibers Are Differentially Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Lawrence B.; Vojdani, Fakrieh; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Wilkins, Thea A.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are single-celled trichomes that synchronously undergo a phase of rapid cell expansion, then a phase including secondary cell wall deposition, and finally maturation. To determine if there is coordinated regulation of gene expression during fiber expansion, we analyzed the expression of components involved in turgor regulation and a cytoskeletal protein by measuring levels of mRNA and protein accumulation and enzyme activity. Fragments of the genes for the plasma membrane proton-translocating ATPase, vacuole-ATPase, proton-translocating pyrophosphatase (PPase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, major intrinsic protein, and ?-tubulin were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and used as probes in ribonuclease protection assays of RNA from a fiber developmental series, revealing two discrete patterns of mRNA accumulation. Transcripts of all but the PPase accumulated to highest levels during the period of peak expansion (+1215 d postanthesis [dpa]), then declined with the onset of secondary cell wall synthesis. The PPase was constitutively expressed through fiber development. Activity of the two proton-translocating-ATPases peaked at +15 dpa, whereas PPase activity peaked at +20 dpa, suggesting that all are involved in the process of cell expansion but with varying roles. Patterns of protein accumulation and enzyme activity for some of the proteins examined suggest posttranslational regulation through fiber development. PMID:9536073

  19. Cotton fibers nano-TiO{sub 2} composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.H.; Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ► The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ► The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ► UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ► The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid {sup 13}C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO{sub 2} was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

  20. High Resolution Consensus Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fiber Strength, Length and Micronaire on Chromosome 25 of the Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shi, Yuzhen; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Li, Wei; Sun, Linyang; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural crop that provides renewable natural fiber resources for the global textile industry. Technological developments in the textile industry and improvements in human living standards have increased the requirement for supplies and better quality cotton. Upland cotton 0–153 is an elite cultivar harboring strong fiber strength genes. To conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for fiber quality in 0–153, we developed a population of 196 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 0–153 and sGK9708. The fiber quality traits in 11 environments were measured and a genetic linkage map of chromosome 25 comprising 210 loci was constructed using this RIL population, mainly using simple sequence repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. QTLs were identified across diverse environments using the composite interval mapping method. A total of 37 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified on chromosome 25, of which 17 were stably expressed in at least in two environments. A stable fiber strength QTL, qFS-chr25-4, which was detected in seven environments and was located in the marker interval between CRI-SNP120491 and BNL2572, could explain 6.53%–11.83% of the observed phenotypic variations. Meta-analysis also confirmed the above QTLs with previous reports. Application of these QTLs could contribute to improving fiber quality and provide information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26262992

  1. Whiteness and absorbency of hydroentangled cotton-based nonwoven fabrics of different constituent fibers and fiber blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reports result of the research efforts devoted to the exploration and development of greige (non-bleached) cotton-containing nonwoven fabrics that likely could be made optimally competitive in cost, quality and performance to existing products that presently and predominantly use man...

  2. Two cotton fiber-associated glycosyltransferases, GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, function in hemicellulose glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during plant development.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Lixia; Huang, Yuying; Zeng, Wei; Rao, Yue; Li, Juan; Li, Xuebao; Xu, Wenliang

    2014-10-01

    Xylan is the major hemicellulosic constituent in dicot secondary cell walls. Cell wall composition of cotton fiber changes dynamically throughout development. Not only the amounts but also the molecular sizes of the hemicellulosic polysaccharides show substantial changes during cotton fiber development. However, none of the genes encoding glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for synthesizing xylan have been isolated and characterized in cotton fiber. In this study, we applied a bioinformatics approach and identified two putative GTs from cotton, designated GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1, which belong to the CAZy GT43 family and are closely related to Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. We show that GhGT43A1 is highly and preferentially expressed in 15 and 20 days post-anthesis (dpa) cotton fiber, whereas GhGT43C1 is ubiquitously expressed in most organs, with especially high expression in 15 dpa fiber and hypocotyl. Complementation analysis demonstrates that GhG43A1 and GhGT43C1 are orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 in Arabidopsis results in increased xylan content. We also show that overexpression of GhGT43A1 or GhGT43C1 leads to more cellulose deposition. These findings suggest that GhGT43A1 and GhGT43C1 likely participate in xylan synthesis during fiber development. PMID:24641584

  3. Preliminary evaluation of gin stand feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile pProcessing of western cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  4. Characterization of attenuated total reflection infrared spectral intensity variations of immature and mature cotton fibers by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of immature and mature cotton fibers. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity of 660 cm-1 to ...

  5. Accumulation of genome-specific transcripts, transciption factors and phytohormonal regulators during early stages of fiber cell development in allotetraploid cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression during early stages of cotton fiber development is poorly understood. Here we report the development of a full-length cDNA library derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. Texas Marker-1 (TM1) immature ovules (TMO) collected from 3 days pre-anthesis, the day of anthesis, and 3 days post-a...

  6. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) RIL population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). Genomic regions were identifi...

  7. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  8. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  9. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  10. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  11. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  12. Use of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy in Direct, Nondestructive, and Rapid Assessment of Developmental Cotton Fibers Grown In Planta and in Culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured in controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton breeding programs at reduced expenses. In this work, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectra of cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture were collected to explore the potential of FT-IR technique as a simple, rapid, and direct method for characterizing the fiber development. Complementary to visual inspection of spectral variations, principal component analysis (PCA) of ATR FT-IR spectra revealed the occurrence of phase transition from primary to secondary cell wall synthesis and also the difference of starting the phase transition between two types of fibers. Like PCA observation, three simple algorithms were capable of monitoring the secondary cell wall formation effectively. Interestingly and uniquely, simple algorithms were able to detect the subtle discrepancies in fibers older than 25 days post-anthesis, which was not apparent from PCA results. The observation indicated the feasibility of FT-IR technique in rapid, routine, nondestructive, and direct assessment of fiber development for cotton physiology and breeding applications. PMID:26162559

  13. Fiber and cardiovascular disease risk: how strong is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, Arja T; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2006-01-01

    Dietary fiber consists of edible parts of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine. Fiber can be classified as a dietary source (eg, cereal, fruit, vegetable, or legume) or as a supplement. Based on chemical properties, fiber can be divided to water-soluble (eg, beta-glucans, pectin, and guar) and insoluble (eg, cellulose and lignin) forms. An increasing number of observational findings have reported a lower incidence of coronary heart disease in subjects who report consuming diets high in fiber. Dietary fiber is thought to affect several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Soluble fiber decreases serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and improves insulin resistance. The effect of fiber on inflammatory markers and coagulation is not yet well established. While soluble, gel-forming fiber has beneficially affected CVD risk factors, food sources of mainly insoluble fibers, primarily contributed by cereal products, have been the most consistently associated with lower incidence rates of CVD. Despite this contradiction, the evidence promotes a food-based approach favoring increased intake of whole-grain cereals, fruit, and vegetables providing a mixture of different types of fibers for CVD prevention. PMID:16407729

  14. Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  15. Development of Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid determination of cotton fiber maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTIR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region,...

  16. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG STINK BUG MANAGEMENT, COTTON FIBER QUALITY AND BOLL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bug feeding and associated boll damage has become an important economic cotton production issue in the southeastern United States. Previous research showed that stink bug feeding directly resulted in increased lint staining, decreased lint yield, decreased gin turnout, and decreased lint value...

  17. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  18. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  19. Cotton AnnGh3 encoding an annexin protein is preferentially expressed in fibers and promotes initiation and elongation of leaf trichomes in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Jie; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Li, Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

    2013-10-01

    The annexins are a multifamily of calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding proteins. To investigate the roles of annexins in fiber development, four genes encoding putative annexin proteins were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated AnnGh3, AnnGh4, AnnGh5, and AnnGh6. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that AnnGh3, AnnGh4, and AnnGh5 were preferentially expressed in fibers, while the transcripts of AnnGh6 were predominantly accumulated in roots. During fiber development, the transcripts of AnnGh3/4/5 genes were mainly accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers. With fiber cells further developed, their expression activity was dramatically declined to a relatively low level. In situ hybridization results indicated that AnnGh3 and AnnGh5 were expressed in initiating fiber cells (0-2 DPA). Additionally, their expression in fibers was also regulated by phytohormones and [Ca(2+)]. Subcellular localization analysis discovered that AnnGh3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AnnGh3 in Arabidopsis resulted in a significant increase in trichome density and length on leaves of the transgenic plants, suggesting that AnnGh3 may be involved in fiber cell initiation and elongation of cotton. PMID:23651035

  20. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  1. The synchronized wash-off of reactive-dyed cotton fabrics and decolorization of resultant wastewater using titanium dioxide nano-fibers.

    PubMed

    Hao, Longyun; Wang, Rui; Fang, Kuanjun; Liu, Jingquan; Sun, Yong; Men, Yajing

    2015-07-10

    In this research, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-fibers with a well-organized anatase structure were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Their structural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis, respectively. Subsequently, the TiO2 nano-fibers were optically excited under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to decolorize the reactive dye solution. The influences of initial pH, concentrations of reactive dye and TiO2 nano-fibers as well as irradiation time on rate of photocatalytic decolorization were investigated. Based on their excellent photocatalytic performance, a novel method for achieving the synchronized wash-off of reactive-dyed cotton and decolorization of resultant wastewater was developed. It was found that the wash fastness of reactive-dyed cotton after TiO2-based wash-off was equal to that after standard way. The influences of TiO2-based wash-off on the properties of cotton substrates were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRD, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, respectively, which indicated that this new synchronized method would exert few damages to the cotton substrate. PMID:25857994

  2. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle. PMID:26314907

  3. Hand-ginned cotton length distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Instrumentation such as the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) analyzes cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber length distributions because variations in fiber length distribution impacts spinning performance. AFIS provides mean length, upper quartile length, fineness, and maturity for fibers ...

  4. AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression in cotton increases fiber length differentially under drought stress and delays flowering.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amandeep; Jiang, Yingwen; Ritchie, Glen L; Burke, John J; Rock, Christopher D

    2015-12-01

    There is a longstanding problem of an inverse relationship between cotton fiber qualities versus high yields. To better understand drought stress signaling and adaptation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development, we expressed the Arabidopsis transcription factors RELATED_TO_ABA-INSENSITIVE3/VIVIPAROUS1/(RAV1) and AtRAV2, which encode APETALA2-Basic3 domain proteins shown to repress transcription of FLOWERING_LOCUS_T (FT) and to promote stomatal opening cell-autonomously. In three years of field trials, we show that AtRAV1 and AtRAV2-overexpressing cotton had ?5% significantly longer fibers with only marginal decreases in yields under well-watered or drought stress conditions that resulted in 40-60% yield penalties and 3-7% fiber length penalties in control plants. The longer transgenic fibers from drought-stressed transgenics could be spun into yarn which was measurably stronger and more uniform than that from well-watered control fibers. The transgenic AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 lines flowered later and retained bolls at higher nodes, which correlated with repression of endogenous GhFT-Like (FTL) transcript accumulation. Elevated expression early in development of ovules was observed for GhRAV2L, GhMYB25-Like (MYB25L) involved in fiber initiation, and GhMYB2 and GhMYB25 involved in fiber elongation. Altered expression of RAVs controlling critical nodes in developmental and environmental signaling hierarchies has the potential for phenotypic modification of crops. PMID:26706061

  5. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1. PMID:24279997

  6. Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

    A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. It's proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

  7. Study and Realization of Image Segmentation on the Cotton Foreign Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenxiu; Wang, Jinxing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wei, Xinhua

    A method of foreign fibers image segmentation based on Mean shift, dilation and filtering algorithm is presented. For the representative gray images of hair, chicken feather and mixed foreign fibers, the Mean shift algorithm is used to carry on image segmentation; then dilation and filtering process is carried on to the divided image element. In this way the precise image segmentation of foreign fibers is realized. Its proved by experiments that the image segmentation method proposed by this article can suppress the noise well, and the segmentation results are satisfied for all kinds of foreign fibers image.

  8. Cotton Quality Indices of Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton was spun into yarn at the Cotton Quality Research Station by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex, and open end spinning) to determine if a relationship exits between cotton fiber properties and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was grown and harvested in 2001-2005 from three of the l...

  9. Commercial cotton variety spinning study quality indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  10. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  11. Mutagenicity tests of fabric-finishing agents in Salmonella typhimurium: fiber-reactive wool dyes and cotton flame retardants.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, J T; Diamond, M J; Mazzeno, L W; Friedman, M

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine fabric-finishing agents were tested for mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. Twenty-four fiber-reactive wool dyes and three acid dyes (not fiber-reactive) were screened by spot tests in strains TA100, TA98, TA1535, and TA1537. Among these dyes, seven bromoacrylamide dyes and one vinyl sulfone dye were mutagenic. Additionally, one of the three acid dyes was mutagenic in spot tests. The mutagenicity of the acid dye was due to an impurity or breakdown product rather than to the dye itself; the origin of the activities of the other dyes is unknown. No mutagenicity was observed among five chlorotriazine or four sulfonyl-ethane sulfonic acid dyes. Eight phosphorus-containing flame retardants (phosphonium, phosphine, phosphine oxide, and phosphonic acid derivatives) and methyl-N-methylolcarbamate, which is employed to obtain a flame-retardant finish on cotton, were tested for mutagenicity in strains TA100, TA98, TA1535, and TA1537, using quantitative incorporation assays. All were nonmutagenic. Two of three bromoalkyl-substituted triazine flame retardants were mutagenic in strains TA100 and TA1535. It is unknown whether this activity is due to impurities or to the parent compound. The flame retardants tested were either in actual commercial use or in experimental development for potential commercial processes. These results indicate the need for early testing of potential fabric-finishing agents and processes. PMID:7032902

  12. MOLECULAR TAGGING AND MAPPING OF QTLS FOR SUPER QUALITY FIBER PROPERTIES IN UPLAND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A G. anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized as super quality fiber properties, was used to identify molecular markers linked to fiber property QTLs. By use of (7235 x TM-1)F2 in Nanjing and College Station, USA, and (7235 x TM-1)F3 in Nanjing and Hainan. Bulked segregation analysis was e...

  13. Nondestructive identification of dye mixtures in polyester and cotton fibers using raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia. PMID:25588115

  14. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye. PMID:26585007

  15. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  16. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  17. A novel filler for natural fiber polymer composites from cotton gin waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural fiber polymer composites market has significantly grown in the last decade. The majority of these composites are manufactured using wood flour as a principal component. The price and availability of quality wood flour is uncertain in several markets, therefore there is a great potential ...

  18. Protein and fiber profiles of cottonseed from upland cotton with different fertilizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cottonseed and its derived products can be used as human food, animal feed, and industrial raw material. Chemical composition of cottonseed is one of the critical parameters for evaluating its quality and potential end use. Especially, protein and dietary fibers are two desirable nutritional ...

  19. Mapping and validation of fiber strength quantitative trait loci on chromosome 24 in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major fiber strength QTL has been identified on chromosome 24 in the Chinese germplasm line Suyuan 7235, however the effects of this QTL have not been tested in different genetic backgrounds. In this study, we confirmed the effects of this QTL by crossing Suyuan 7235 with two U.S. germplasm line...

  20. The cotton fiber zinc-binding domain of cellulose synthase A1 from Gossypium hirsutum displays rapid turnover in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Wilk, Debora; Kurek, Isaac; Hogan, Patrick; Delmer, Deborah P.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the assembly and turnover of cellulose synthase complexes commonly called rosettes. Recent work indicates that rosette assembly could involve the dimerization of CesA (cellulose synthase catalytic subunit) proteins regulated by the redox state of the CesA zinc-binding domain (ZnBD). Several studies in the 1980s led to the suggestion that synthase complexes may have very short half-lives in vivo, but no recent work has directly addressed this issue. In the present work, we show that the half-life of cotton fiber GhCesA1 protein is <30 min in vivo, far less than the average membrane protein. We also show that the reduced monomer of GhCesA1 ZnBD is rapidly degraded when exposed to cotton fiber extracts, whereas the oxidized dimer is resistant to degradation. Low rates of degradation activity were detected in vitro by using extracts from fibers harvested during primary cell-wall formation, but activity increased markedly during transition to secondary cell-wall synthesis. In vitro degradation of reduced GhCesA1 ZnBD is inhibited by proteosome inhibitor MG132 and also by E64 and EGTA, suggesting that proteolysis is initiated by cysteine protease activity rather than the proteosome. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify a putative cotton fiber metallothionein and to confirm it as a protein that could interact with the GhCesA1 ZnBD. A model is proposed wherein active cellulose synthase complexes contain CesA proteins in dimerized form, and turnover and degradation of the complexes are mediated through reductive zinc insertion by metallothionein and subsequent proteolysis involving a cysteine protease. PMID:16873546

  1. Evidence of intraguild predation on a key member of the cotton predator complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding trophic level interactions of arthropods is vital for identifying the biological control services provided by the predator complex. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to examine the gut contents of the cotton predator community for the presence of the DNA of green l...

  2. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parametersRd (diffuse...

  3. X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

    2006-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

  4. Genetic variation for yield and fiber quality response to supplemental irrigation within the Pee Dee Upland cotton germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability is a major factor influencing the development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars and sustainable cotton production in the southeast USA because of endemic, intermittent drought events occurring in the region resulting from shallow, coarse textured soils and irregul...

  5. Effects of a Short-term Corn Rotation on Cotton Dry Matter Partitioning, Lint Yield, and Fiber Quality Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has traditionally been grown under a continuous monoculture production system in the Mississippi Delta, some cotton producers have begun rotating their land with corn (Zea mays L.) because of economic and agronomic factors. Because of the lack of knowledge re...

  6. Combining ability, heritability, and genotypic correlations for lint yield and fiber quality of Upland cotton in delayed planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed planting is a necessary practice in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production when double cropping cotton with small grain crops. All current cultivars used for delayed planting were selected under environments of normal planting. The information of genetic values in parents under e...

  7. Whitefly-mediated transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite: evidence for betasatellite encapsidation in coat protein of helper begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Tabein, S; Behjatnia, S A Akbar; Anabestani, A; Izadpanah, K

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease of cotton in the Indian subcontinent. CLCuMB depends on helper virus replication-associated protein for its replication and on viral coat protein (CP) for its encapsidation. However, no direct evidence of encapsidation of CLCuMB in viral CP has been available. In the present study, non-viruliferous whiteflies were placed on tomato plants that had been agroinoculated with infectious clones of an Iranian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) and CLCuMB for an acquisition access period of 72 h and then transferred to healthy tomato seedlings at the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Typical symptoms of TYLCV-[Ab] appeared on inoculated seedlings 30-45 days post-inoculation. The presence of TYLCV-[Ab] and CLCuMB DNAs in symptomatic test plants and viruliferous whiteflies was confirmed by PCR analysis using specific primers and DIG Southern blotting. Furthermore, the possibility of CLCuMB DNA encapsidation in TYLCV-[Ab] CP within infected plants was examined by immunocapture PCR. The results showed that CLCuMB DNA was encapsidated in TYLCV-[Ab] CP. Whitefly-mediated transmission of CLCuMB in the presence of helper virus is additional evidence for encapsidation of CLCuMB by TYLCV-[Ab] CP. PMID:22923008

  8. Integrating genomics and phenomics to improve abiotic stress tolerance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet the global demand for natural cotton fiber and clothe an ever-growing population, world cotton production systems must increase productivity. Simultaneously, cotton production systems must also improve the structural properties of cotton fiber to meet fiber quality demands of global...

  9. Conservation tillage, irrigation and variety selection impacts on cotton quality premiums, discounts and profitability: evidence from the gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluctuating market prices, increasing production costs, and shifting mill demand, has made cotton markets more uncertain, making cotton quality a more important aspect of the profitability of cotton. The purpose of this research project is to examine the effect conservation tillage systems and varie...

  10. FLAME RETARDANT COTTON BLEND HIGHLOFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highloft nonwovens are low density fabrics characterized by a high ratio of thickness to weight per unit area. They are usually made of synthetic fibers. Incorporating cotton into highloft fabrics is the focus of the present research effort. The major problems with cotton are its high flammabilit...

  11. Evidence for Light-Dependent Recycling of Respired Carbon Dioxide by the Cotton Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Oosterhuis, Derrick M.; Hurren, Robert G.; Hanson, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Conservation of respired CO2 by an efficient recycling mechanism in fruit could provide a significant source of C for yield productivity. However, the extent to which such a mechanism operates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is unknown. Therefore, a combination of CO2 exchange, stable C isotope, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence techniques were used to examine the recycling of respired CO2 in cotton fruit. Respiratory CO2 losses of illuminated fruit were reduced 15 to 20% compared with losses for dark-incubated fruit. This light-dependent reduction in CO2 efflux occurred almost exclusively via the fruit's outer capsule wall. Compared with the photosynthetic activity of leaves, CO2 recycling by the outer capsule wall was 35 to 40% as efficient. Calculation of 14CO2 fixation on a per Chl basis revealed that the rate of CO2 recycling for the capsule wall was 62.2 micromoles 14CO2 per millimole Chl per second compared with an assimilation rate of 64.6 micromoles 14CO2 per millimole Chl per second for leaves. During fruit development, CO2 recycling contributed more than 10% of that C necessary for fruit dry weight growth. Carbon isotope analyses (?13C) showed significant differences among the organs examined, but the observed isotopic compositions were consistent with a C3 pathway of photosynthesis. Pulse-modulated Chl fluorescence indicated that leaves and fruit were equally efficient in photochemical and nonphotochemical dissipation of light energy. These studies demonstrated that the cotton fruit possesses a highly efficient, light-dependent CO2 recovery mechanism that aids in the net retention of plant C and, therein, contributes to yield productivity. PMID:16668437

  12. Evidence for light-dependent recycling of respired carbon dioxide by the cotton fruit.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, S D; Oosterhuis, D M; Hurren, R G; Hanson, P J

    1991-10-01

    Conservation of respired CO(2) by an efficient recycling mechanism in fruit could provide a significant source of C for yield productivity. However, the extent to which such a mechanism operates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is unknown. Therefore, a combination of CO(2) exchange, stable C isotope, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence techniques were used to examine the recycling of respired CO(2) in cotton fruit. Respiratory CO(2) losses of illuminated fruit were reduced 15 to 20% compared with losses for dark-incubated fruit. This light-dependent reduction in CO(2) efflux occurred almost exclusively via the fruit's outer capsule wall. Compared with the photosynthetic activity of leaves, CO(2) recycling by the outer capsule wall was 35 to 40% as efficient. Calculation of (14)CO(2) fixation on a per Chl basis revealed that the rate of CO(2) recycling for the capsule wall was 62.2 micromoles (14)CO(2) per millimole Chl per second compared with an assimilation rate of 64.6 micromoles (14)CO(2) per millimole Chl per second for leaves. During fruit development, CO(2) recycling contributed more than 10% of that C necessary for fruit dry weight growth. Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) showed significant differences among the organs examined, but the observed isotopic compositions were consistent with a C(3) pathway of photosynthesis. Pulse-modulated Chl fluorescence indicated that leaves and fruit were equally efficient in photochemical and nonphotochemical dissipation of light energy. These studies demonstrated that the cotton fruit possesses a highly efficient, light-dependent CO(2) recovery mechanism that aids in the net retention of plant C and, therein, contributes to yield productivity. PMID:16668437

  13. Preparation of activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and its application for oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Huang, Lihui; Yao, Fujiang; Xu, Xing

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this research is to produce high surface area-activated carbon derived from cotton linter fibers by fused NaOH activation and to examine the feasibility of removing oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous solution. The cotton linter fibers activated carbon (CLAC) was characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CLAC had a predominantly microporous structure with a large surface area of 2143 m(2)/g. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and equilibrium was achieved within 24h. The equilibrium data were described well by Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic reaction at low concentration and became endothermic nature with the concentration increasing. Competitive adsorption took place in the weakly acidic to neutral conditions. Under the strong acidity or strong alkaline condition, the adsorption of the oxytetracycline was hindered by electrostatic repulsion. The adsorption mechanism depended on the pH of the solutions as well as the pK(a) of the oxytetracycline. PMID:22137171

  14. MODERN COLOR MEASUREMENTS for COTTON FUNDAMENTALS and ISSUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are key and critical quality and process measurements. Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cotton have been performed on the Uster High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Color measurements of cotton tex...

  15. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  16. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  17. FLAX FIBER IN TEXTILES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    REFINED, SHORT STAPLE FLAX FIBER CAN BE BLENDED WITH COTTON AND SPUN ON DRY SYSTEMS THAT ARE PREVALENT IN THE U.S. RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE THE FIBER PROPERTIES AND THE PROCESSING SYSTEMS TO MORE EFFICIENTLY BLEND FLAX WITH COTTON. INCLUSION OF FLAX WITH COTTON PROVIDES YARN AND FABRIC PROPE...

  18. A Customized Microscopic System for High Volume Measurements of Cotton Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton maturity, which refers to the degree of development of the fiber wall, is one of the determinants of cotton quality because it affects many properties of cotton fibers. Mature fibers usually possess greater strength and better resilience. The presence of immature fibers may cause excessive d...

  19. Meta-analysis of polyploid cotton QTL shows unequal contributions of subgenomes to a complex network of genes and gene clusters implicated in lint fiber development.

    PubMed

    Rong, Junkang; Feltus, F Alex; Waghmare, Vijay N; Pierce, Gary J; Chee, Peng W; Draye, Xavier; Saranga, Yehoshua; Wright, Robert J; Wilkins, Thea A; May, O Lloyd; Smith, C Wayne; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Paterson, Andrew H

    2007-08-01

    QTL mapping experiments yield heterogeneous results due to the use of different genotypes, environments, and sampling variation. Compilation of QTL mapping results yields a more complete picture of the genetic control of a trait and reveals patterns in organization of trait variation. A total of 432 QTL mapped in one diploid and 10 tetraploid interspecific cotton populations were aligned using a reference map and depicted in a CMap resource. Early demonstrations that genes from the non-fiber-producing diploid ancestor contribute to tetraploid lint fiber genetics gain further support from multiple populations and environments and advanced-generation studies detecting QTL of small phenotypic effect. Both tetraploid subgenomes contribute QTL at largely non-homeologous locations, suggesting divergent selection acting on many corresponding genes before and/or after polyploid formation. QTL correspondence across studies was only modest, suggesting that additional QTL for the target traits remain to be discovered. Crosses between closely-related genotypes differing by single-gene mutants yield profoundly different QTL landscapes, suggesting that fiber variation involves a complex network of interacting genes. Members of the lint fiber development network appear clustered, with cluster members showing heterogeneous phenotypic effects. Meta-analysis linked to synteny-based and expression-based information provides clues about specific genes and families involved in QTL networks. PMID:17565937

  20. MATURITY-RELATED STRUCTURAL CORRELATION OF COTTON MOISTURE PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture in cotton fibers affects physical properties such as length, strength, and processing properties. It is also a major factor in cotton garment comfort. Moisture absorption is improved by removing hydrophobic chemicals from the fiber primary wall. Cottons from various lots (varieties, grow...

  1. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  2. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster High Volume Instrument (HVI) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  3. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from cotton nonowoven fabric. For the ACF acoustical application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glass fiber ...

  4. Commercial cotton variety spinning study classic/supplementary measurement relationahips.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  5. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  6. SINGLE FIBER TESTING VIA FAVIMAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is usually tested in bulk form utilizing a mass or beard of fibers to be presented to a test instrument for measurement. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is that handling single cotton fibers is tedious and time consuming. Cotton breeders are being pushed to mak...

  7. Moisture in cotton by oven drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are strongly dependent on the moisture content in the fiber matrix. The standard test methods for moisture in lint cotton are almost all based on oven drying. All of the loss in weight by oven drying, due to moisture and other volatiles, is attributable to moisture. The U....

  8. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  9. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  10. Development of Simple Algorithms in Direct, Non-destructive, and Rapid Determination of Cotton Fiber Maturity from FT-IR/ATR Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FT-IR/ATR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 re...

  11. Genetics of ginning efficiency and its genotypic and phenotypic correlations with agronomic and fiber traits in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding genetic variability and correlations of desirable traits provide a reliable basis for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improvement. The objective of this research was to study the genetics of ginning efficiency and estimate genotypic correlations of ginning energy requirements an...

  12. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDAs AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  13. Relationships between SSR-based genetic distance and cotton F2 hybrid performance for lint yield and fiber properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of relationship between genetic distance and hybrid performance may promote the utilization of exotic germplasm in hybrid production. This study was designed to determine the relationship between SSR based genetic distance (GD) and F2 hybrid performance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). ...

  14. Preliminary examinations for the identification of U.S. domestic and international cotton fibers by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick rel...

  15. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  16. Characterization of an ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase Small Subunit Gene Expressed in Developing Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGp) plays a rate limiting role in the biosynthesis of starch and has been shown to be involved in cell expansion of tobacco sepals. A cotton gene encoding ADPGp small subunit was isolated and sequenced. The gene contains 8 introns similar to other ADPGp genes. The o...

  17. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  18. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  19. HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

  20. Photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf of cotton boll at different fruiting branch nodes and their relationships with lint yield and fiber quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingran; Meng, Yali; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf at the 2-3rd and 10-11th fruiting branch (FBN, FB2-3, and FB10-11), and their relationship with cotton yield and quality, field experiments were conducted using two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15. The results showed that with FBN increasing, chlorophyll (Chl) components, Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the subtending leaf significantly declined, while soluble sugar, amino acid and their ratio (C SS/C AA) as well as F v/F m increased. These results indicated that (1) non-radiative dissipation of excess light energy at FB2-3 was reduced to improve solar energy utilization efficiency to compensate for lower Pn, (2) higher NPQ at FB10-11 played a role in leaf photo-damage avoidance, (3) boll weight was related to the C SS/C AA ratio rather than carbohydrates content alone, (4) with FBN increasing, lint biomass and lint/seed ratio increased significantly, but lint yield decreased due to lower relative amount of bolls, and (5) the decreases in Pn, sucrose content and C SS /C AA in the subtending leaf at FB2-3 resulted in lower boll weight and fiber strength. PMID:26442060

  1. Photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf of cotton boll at different fruiting branch nodes and their relationships with lint yield and fiber quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingran; Meng, Yali; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Binglin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate photosynthetic characteristics of the subtending leaf at the 2–3rd and 10–11th fruiting branch (FBN, FB2–3, and FB10–11), and their relationship with cotton yield and quality, field experiments were conducted using two cotton cultivars, Kemian 1 and Sumian 15. The results showed that with FBN increasing, chlorophyll (Chl) components, Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the subtending leaf significantly declined, while soluble sugar, amino acid and their ratio (CSS/CAA) as well as Fv/Fm increased. These results indicated that (1) non-radiative dissipation of excess light energy at FB2–3 was reduced to improve solar energy utilization efficiency to compensate for lower Pn, (2) higher NPQ at FB10−11 played a role in leaf photo-damage avoidance, (3) boll weight was related to the CSS/CAA ratio rather than carbohydrates content alone, (4) with FBN increasing, lint biomass and lint/seed ratio increased significantly, but lint yield decreased due to lower relative amount of bolls, and (5) the decreases in Pn, sucrose content and CSS/CAA in the subtending leaf at FB2–3 resulted in lower boll weight and fiber strength. PMID:26442060

  2. No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.

    PubMed

    Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

    2012-08-01

    Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed. PMID:22314028

  3. Direct photolabeling with ( sup 32 P)UDP-glucose for identification of a subunit of cotton fiber callose synthase. [Gossypium hirsutum

    SciTech Connect

    Delmer, D.P.; Solomon, M.; Read, S.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have identified a 52 kilodalton polypeptide as being a likely candidate for the catalytic subunit of the UDP-glucose: (1{r arrow}3)-{beta}-glucan (callose) synthase of developing fibers of Gossypium hirsutum (cotton). Such a polypeptide migrates coincident with callose synthase during glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of EDTA, and can be directly photolabeled with the radioactive substrate, {alpha}-({sup 32}P)UDP-glucose. Interaction with the labeled probe requires Ca{sup 2+}, a specific activator of callose synthase which is known to lower the K{sub m} of higher plant callose synthases for the substrate UDP-glucose. Using this probe and several other related ones, several other proteins which interact with UDP-glucose were also identified, but none satisfied all of the above criteria for being components of the callose synthase.

  4. FIAS fiber maturity measurement based on ribbon width and Fiber Density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  5. Tensile Properties of Cotton Polyethylene Blends: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton historically has been the fiber of choice for many textile applications, especially those for apparel and household fabrics. However, cotton is a relatively weak fiber when compared to today’s most commonly used synthetic fibers, such as polyester and nylon. Consequently, beneficial blending...

  6. Breeding potential of introgressions into cotton: genetic effects and heterosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As new technology in the textile industry demands higher quality fibers, improving cotton fiber quality has become increasingly important. Twelve cotton lines selected from different breeding programs with diverse fiber characteristics were used for this study. These lines and their F2 hybrids were ...

  7. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  8. Extended chromatin fibers: evidence from scanning force microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuba, Sanford S.; Yang, Guoliang; Robert, Charles; van Holde, Kensal; Zlatanova, Jordanka; Bustamante, Carlos J.

    1995-03-01

    Unfixed chicken erythrocyte fibers in very low salt have been imaged using the scanning force microscope (SFM) operating in the tapping mode in air at ambient humidity. These images reveal a 3D organization of the fibers. The planar 'zig-zag' conformation is rare, and extended 'beads- on-a-string' fibers are seen only in chromatin depleted of H1 and H5. Glutaraldehyde fixation reveals very similar structures. Fibers fixed in 10 mM salt appear somewhat more compacted. These results, when compared with modeling studies indicate that chromatin fibers may exist as irregular 3D arrays of nucleosomes even at low ionic strength. The basic subunit of chromatin, the nucleosome, is composed of a core particle of 146 bp of DNA wrapping 1.75 left-handed superhelical turns around an octamer of core histones and of DNA connecting consecutive core particles. The linker of lysine-rich histones (H1 family) bind the DNA entering and exiting the nucleosome core particle. We suggest that by binding the entry/exit DNA, histone H1 may fix the entry/exit DNA angle. The fixed entry/exit angle, the rigidity of the linker DNA at low ionic strength, and the natural variability of the linker DNA length determine an irregular 3D fiber of chromatin. Our results emphasize the role of H1 in determining the entry/exit DNA angle, which further helps determine the mutual disposition of adjacent nucleosomes an the packing of the chromatin fiber.

  9. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  10. Cotton-based nonwovens and their potential scope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the overall use of cotton fiber in modern nonwovens has been limited, certain recent commercial and research developments make the use of cotton and its derivatives more attractive in nonwovens. The commercial developments include the availability of pre-cleaned greige cotton, purified (ble...

  11. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  12. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  13. Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Developing Cotton Stems and Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. These reserves may not be available to support seed and fiber development when cotton is grown as an annual crop. Analysis of developing cotton plants i...

  15. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  16. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber qualit...

  17. Spindle speed optimization for cotton pickers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes to cotton pickers over the years regarding the operating speed and size of the spindles have resulted in a general decrease in cotton fiber quality, particularly regarding spindle twists, preparation, and neps. Previous research showed that spindle speeds of 3000 and 4000 rpm had more detri...

  18. Characterizing the Pee Dee cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the Pee Dee germplasm program represents one of the most historically significant Upland cotton breeding programs and is known as a key source of fiber quality genes for commercial cultivars. The foundation of the Pee Dee germplasm is known to represent a wi...

  19. Atypical Ligon Lintless-2 Phenotype in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutant Li2 is reported to be a dominant single gene mutation in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. It has normal vegetative phenotypic morphology and the phenotype of the seed cotton is reported to be fuzzy seed with short fibers. The objective of this research was to report on atypical phenotypes ob...

  20. Effect of laundering hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study has been conducted to investigate, for the first time ever, the effect of household washing and drying of hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics (~70 gm/m2) made with several pre-cleaned greige (raw) cottons of considerably different fiber quality characteristics, such as the micronaire, len...

  1. Registration of 'Acala 1517-08' Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Acala 1517-08’ (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2010 as a new Acala cotton cultivar. This cultivar was a single plant selection derived from a cross between B7636 and ‘LA 887’ and possesses superior Acala cotton type fiber quali...

  2. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  3. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Van Deynze, Allen; Stoffel, Kevin; Lee, Mike; Wilkins, Thea A; Kozik, Alexander; Cantrell, Roy G; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russel J; Stelly, David M

    2009-01-01

    Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum) 3-79 (G. barbadense) have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels) within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton. PMID:19840401

  4. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800 nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  5. Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA, Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

  6. HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENTS OF COTTON MATURITY BY A CUSTOMIZED MICROSCOPIC SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about cotton maturity is desirable to cotton breeders and growers for cotton enhancement and to textile manufacturers for quality control. Cotton maturity, which refers to the degree of development of the fiber wall relative to its perimeter, directly or indirectly affects most of the o...

  7. Current and Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

  8. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (I. Identification of [beta]-1,4- and [beta]-1,3-Glucans Synthesized in Vitro).

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, K.; Li, L.; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg2+, Ca2+, cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose II. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase I. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. PMID:12231764

  9. Cotton Wool Derived Carbon Fiber Aerogel Supported Few-Layered MoSe2 Nanosheets As Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youfang; Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Huang, Yunpeng; Lu, Hengyi; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-03-23

    Recent studies have proven that newly emerging two-dimensional molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is a promising noble-metal-free electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Increasing the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanostructures is a key issue to fully realize the excellent electrochemical properties of MoSe2. In this work, a few-layered MoSe2/carbon fiber aerogel (CFA) hybrids have been facilely obtained through the combination of high-temperature carbonization and one-pot solvothermal reaction. CFA derived from cotton wool is used as a three-dimensional conductive network for construction of hierarchical MoSe2/CFA hybrids, where few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets are uniformly and perpendicularly decorated on the surfaces of CFA. In the designed and prepared hybrids, CFA effectively increases the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanosheets as well as provides reduced lengths for both electron transportation and ion diffusion. Therefore, the obtained optimal MoSe2/CFA hybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical activity as HER electrocatalyst with a small onset potential of -0.104 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode and a small Tafel slope of 62 mV per decade, showing its great potential as a next-generation Pt-free electrocatalyst for HER. PMID:26927526

  10. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, HS 46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  11. GENETIC EFFECTS OF THIRTEEN GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE L. CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION LINES IN TOPCROSSES WITH UPLAND COTTON CULTIVARS: II. FIBER QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen chromosome substitution lines (CS-B) lines with individual 3-79 Gossypium barbadense L. chromosome or arms substituted into TM-1, G. hirsutum L., were crossed with 5 upland cultivars and additive and dominance effects for fiber micronaire, elongation, length, and strength were measured over...

  12. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  13. Saved-Ends Analysis of Fiber Breakage in Cotton Processing by use of Number-Based Averages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of USDAs existing research data on fiber processing include mean values of length-distribution parameters, but not complete length histogram data. A specific goal of this work was to derive mathematically and demonstrate experimentally in the laboratory new engineering research tools that uti...

  14. Optical Metrologic Evaluation Of Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoshi, Y.; Lotz, B.; Meyrueis, P.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of cotton fabrics (twills, velvets, moleskin, and satin) have been analyzed by means of Frauenhofer patterns. While determination of geometrical parameters is possible, it appears that cotton fabrics, and for that matter, most fabrics made of natural fibers, are less suited for analysis by optical methods than spun filaments (i.e. artificial fibers and silk) due to an important contribution to scattering of the small fibrils which give the yarns their shagginess.

  15. Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

    2009-08-01

    Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

  16. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  17. Timing of episodic drought can be critical in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Episodes of drought stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) can be detrimental to vegetative growth, yield characteristics, and fiber quality, depending on the specific growth stage drought occurs. Growth, yield, fiber quality, and boll distribution were compared among four cotton cultivars ...

  18. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  19. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  20. Comparison of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Harvester performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvester performance, fiber quality, and harvest system costs are important considerations when comparing cotton harvesting systems. Harvester performance was measured as a function of time-in-motion, harvest efficiency, foreign matter content of seed cotton, and lint turnout at the gin at seven ir...

  1. Enrichment of chromosome 17 specific molecular markers of Pima cotton substituted in Upland cotton lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the primary source of non-synthetic textile fiber, as well as an important source of food, feed, fuel and other products. In the USA cotton is a major crop in 13 states and grown in 17 states on about 5 million hectares, more than all crops except maize, wheat or soybean, with a return of...

  2. Fiber Chemistry Effects on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dyeing efficiency of cotton knits was investigated as a function both of metal contents native to the cotton fiber as well as the presence of sugar-protein reaction products which contribute to +b. Results indicate that aged cotton fiber exhibits both a higher +b value and a tendency to incorpor...

  3. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications. PMID:24471981

  4. A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  5. In vitro hemostatic, hydrogen peroxide production and elastase sequestration properties of nonwoven ultra clean greige cotton dressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cotton cdh-like gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells elongate without dividing to form economically valuable spinnable fiber. Reports of the ploidy level of fiber cells are variable. Early reports on young fibers indicated an increase in nuclear DNA content; however, subsequent reports failed to observe such a significant increase i...

  7. Fibers under fire: suggestions for improving their use to provide forensic evidence.

    PubMed

    Grieve, M C; Wiggins, K G

    2001-07-01

    The current emphasis on DNA technology in forensic science has led many to believe that trace evidence examinations, including fibers, may be of little value. Reasons are given here to show that this is an erroneous assumption. In the face of this situation, fibers examiners have been challenged to consider ways in which they can improve the services they offer to the Criminal Justice System not only by increasing the efficiency of the examinations, but also by expressing the evidential value of the findings in a clearer way. The separate stages within fibers casework from evidence collection to report writing are critically examined. Suggestions are made on how improvements may be achieved. Areas where particular progress can be made include improving communication and exchange of information between the investigator and the scientist and streamlining analysis by using the latest equipment in conjunction with effective case management. In addition, ways of making better use of existing data pertaining to fiber frequencies, accumulating new data by using the resources of working groups, and improving training procedures with respect to evidence interpretation are discussed. PMID:11451064

  8. SWEETPOTATO WHITEFLIES, COTTON APHIDS, AND STICKY COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the sugars extracted and cotton lint exposed to SPW and CA under laboratory conditions; also their effects on cotton lint stickiness as measured by thermodetector counts. Sweetpotato whitefly and cotton aphid are the two most common honeydew producing insect species that occur on cotton...

  9. A 2-year field study shows little evidence that the long-term planting of transgenic insect-resistant cotton affects the community structure of soil nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical 'real world' conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects-adverse or otherwise-on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  10. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  11. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  12. Evaluation of commercial cotton harvesting systems in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production practices have changed in the Southern High Plains of the US over the last decade resulting in increased yeilds and improved fiber quality. Moreover, the majority of US cotton now competes in a global fiber market that demands higher quality fiber for ring spun yarn than the former...

  13. Functionalization of medical cotton by direct incorporation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Saleh, N H; Nagy, Khaled S; Zahran, M K

    2015-07-01

    Medical cotton is usually used to clean skin, pack wounds and in other surgical tasks. Such important usages make imparting the antibacterial property to medical cotton is so essential research. The current research focuses on functionalization of medical cotton by direct incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in two-step process namely, pre-alkalization followed by sorption. Decorative color and antibacterial action were accomplished for medical cotton after in situ incorporation of AgNPs without using any other external reducing agent. AgNPs were produced due to the reduction action of alcoholic and aldehydic groups of cotton's skeletal blocks. Cotton fibers were acquired a decorative color attributed to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. The treated cotton was characterized by using electron microscope. Results showed that Ag(0) with size distribution of 0-160 nm was formed in the cotton fibers and their size majority (70%) was less than 80 nm. The reduction of Ag(+) to Ag(0) was confirmed by measuring the carboxylic and aldehydic contents. The treated cotton exhibited excellent antibacterial action at low silver contents. The absorbency of cotton was not affected by treatment. The produced medical cotton could be used to safe cleaning of wounds without getting any microbial infections. PMID:25907009

  14. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2013-10-01

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

  15. Adverse health effects of fluoro-edenitic fibers: epidemiological evidence and public health priorities.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Caterina; Comba, Pietro; Zona, Amerigo

    2006-09-01

    Subsequent to the detection of a cluster of mesothelioma cases in the Sicilian town of Biancavilla, located at the slopes of Etna volcano, ad hoc epidemiological studies and environmental monitoring suggested an etiological role of an asbestiform fiber present in a stone quarry. The fiber was shown to constitute a new mineral species named fluoro-edenite. Fluoro-edenitic fibers were found in the materials extracted from the quarry and used in the local building industry, as well as in soils. Besides the risk of mesothelioma, residents in Biancavilla showed a significantly increased mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which was particularly evident among women. In the light of these findings, Biancavilla was defined a site of national interest for environmental reclamation. The first preventive action involved termination of quarrying activity, covering with asphalt of roads previously paved with local soil materials, and removal of sources of dust in the urban area. Concurrent to the implementation of environmental cleanup, some specific "second generation" studies are now being designed and performed, namely morbidity surveys based on hospital discharge cards, monitoring of fibers in sputum and health surveillance in selected population groups. In this frame, special emphasis is given to the issue of communication, both to the general public and to target groups like family doctors, teachers, and media professionals. This experience could represent a useful basis for the elaboration of a strategy to approach similar environmental issues. PMID:17119254

  16. Chromosome substituution lines: Concept, development and utilization in the genetic improvement of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New alleles useful for agronomic and fiber quality must be discovered and bred into Upland cotton germplasm to remain competitive in the world economy of cotton production. Two of the primary challenges to genetic improvement of cotton are: 1) insufficient information about complex agronomic and fi...

  17. Impact of starter fertilizer on cotton growth, development, lint yield, and fiber quality production for an early planted no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved yield potentials occur when planting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) early, but cool conditions often associated with early planting can hamper early seedling growth. Starter fertilizers could be good source of P for seedling growth under cool conditions due to reduced soil P mineralizatio...

  18. Quantitative trait loci analysis of fiber quality traits using a random-mated recombinant inbred population in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 11 diverse Upland cotton cultivars as parents, a random-mated recombinant inbred (RI) population consisting of 550 RI lines was developed after 6 cycles of random-mating and 6 generations of self-pollination. The 550 RILs were planted in triplicates for three years in Mississippi State, MS, US...

  19. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule. PMID:23143480

  20. FIAS, A NEW METHOD OF FIBER MATURITY MEASUREMENT, IS IT A GOOD INDICATOR OF WHITE SPECK NEPS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  1. Enhancement and diversity of primitive cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is an important cultivated crop that is grown throughout the world. Improvements in agronomic performance and fiber quality are needed to ensure its economic viability. Primitive accessions of cotton offer a wealth of genetic variability; however, since most of these...

  2. FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS ON MODIFIED COTTON TRASH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size of botanical cotton trash (e.g., leaves, hulls, bracts, stems, and seeds) decreases throughout the ginning process. This physical change causes small trash to remain entangled within the cotton fibers, and also creates problems in identifying the type of trash. As further processing occur...

  3. TOWARD POSITIONAL CLONING OF A MAJOR GLANDLESS GENE IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton(Gossypium spp.)is not only the leading natural fiber crop, but also an excellent source of oil and protein that are stored in its seed. Cotton breeders have an opportunity to exploit and manipulate many thousands of genes in this important field crop. We report some of our work that is relate...

  4. Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

  5. Ginning U.S. cotton for domestic and export markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. cotton crop is produced by a highly mechanized production system that seeks to minimize manual labor while maximizing fiber quality. It is estimated that a bale of U.S. cotton is produced using approximately three man hours of labor while foreign producers may utilize several hundred man h...

  6. Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead for Cotton Genome Mapping.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of genetic linkage mapping is to discover genes for improving trait performance. The process of manipulating the cotton genome is complex because the cotton fibers (lint) used in textiles are derived from the seed trichomes (hairs) of four Gossypium species. In just over a decade, our under...

  7. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  8. APPLICATIONS OF LARG-INSERT DNA LIBRARIES IN COTTON GENOMICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a major crop species and leading natural fiber crop in the world, cotton has a potentially broad genetic base, reflected in the collections of Gossypium species. Cotton breeders therefore have an opportunity to exploit and manipulate many thousand genes in the Gossypium reservoir. To positionally...

  9. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source of textile manufacturers. In the U.S., upland cotton is produced along the southern most portion of the country in sixteen states from California to Virginia. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cott...

  10. FORMATION OF NEPS IN PIMA COTTON DURING MECHANICAL HARVESTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neps are a major concern as American Pima cotton competes with other extra-long staple (ELS) cotton at the textile mills. A nep is defined as a tight knot-like mass of unorganized fibers. Research has showed that 27% of the total increase in nep counts from the boll to the bale press occurs during...

  11. Variability in four diverse cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A broad range of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm resources exist with characteristics useful for improving modern cotton cultivars. However, much of this germplasm is not well utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic and fiber traits of four germplasm populations to...

  12. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  13. Dictionary of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  14. Cotton Marker Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address the lack of available molecular markers for cotton, Cotton Incorporated has spearheaded an initiative to create the Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD), and several groups are actively involved in projects to generate, screen and map cotton molecular markers. CMD is a centralized databas...

  15. Hyperbranched polymer functional cotton fabric for its in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Desuo; Jiao, Chenlu; Xiong, Jiaqing; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yuyue

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a strategy of fabricating silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) finished cotton fabric through in situ synthesis method. In order to endow the cotton fabric with the capability of in situ synthesis of Ag NPs without any other reagents, an amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) was employed to functionalize the cotton fabric. To this end, cotton fabric was oxidized to generate aldehyde groups and then HBP-NH2 was grafted on the oxidized cotton fabric based on the reaction between amino groups and aldehyde groups. Due to numerous imino and amino groups in the polymer and its special three-dimensional structure, the functional cotton fabric could take initiative to capture and reduce silver ions, control the formation of Ag NPs and fix them on the cotton fabric. The sizes of Ag NPs in situ synthesized on cotton fibers range from 4 to 10 nm. The prepared Ag NPs finished cotton fabric has excellent laundering durability.

  16. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

  17. Fiber

    MedlinePLUS

    ... short period of time can cause intestinal gas ( flatulence ), bloating , and abdominal cramps . This problem often goes ... 213. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and ...

  18. Comparison of a wire belt conveyor and cross auger conveyor for conveying burr cotton on a stripper harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll, and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper-harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality including on average lower micronaire, length...

  19. Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polydimethylsiloxane-coated cotton for oil-water separation process: An evidence of the relationship between its loading capacity and oil absorption ability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yangxin; Jiang, Peng; Ke, Qingping; Cheng, Feihuan; Zhu, Yinshengnan; Zhang, Yixiang

    2015-12-30

    Developing functional porous materials with highly efficient oil-water separation ability are of great importance due to the global scale of severe water pollution arising from oil spillage and chemical leakage. A solution immersion process was used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated cotton, which exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. The water contact angle of ∼ 157° and mass of ∼ 1.49 g were retained after 1000 compression cycles, indicating that the PDMS was strongly attached to the cotton fibres. The PDMS-coated cotton absorbed various oils and organic solvents with high selectivity, high absorption capacity (up to 7080 wt.%), and good recyclability (exceeding 500 cycles). Notably, the loading capacity of the PDMS-coated cotton against water exhibited a similar trend to its oil absorption capacity. These findings will further the application of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic porous materials in oil/water separation. PMID:26184799

  20. Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. These reserves are not available to produce seed and fiber when cott...

  1. REGISTRATION OF AGC85, AGC208, AND AGC375 UPLAND COTTON GERMPLASM LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern spinning techniques and new end uses have created demands for improved fiber quality in upland cotton. However, genetic variation available for fiber improvement is restricted in commercial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and occurs in genotypes that exhibit high levels of heat sensit...

  2. TRANSCRIPTION PROFILING OF DROUGHT STRESS-INDUCED EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS DURING COTTON BOLL FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the world's major crops and is grown in more than 80 countries worldwide. One of the major factors limiting fiber yield and lint quality in cotton is drought stress following bloom. Many genes are expressed specifically during fiber initiation, development, and maturation. As drough...

  3. TRANSCRIPTION PROFILING OF DROUGHT STRESS INDUCED EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS DURING COTTON BOLL FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the world's major crops and is grown in more than 80 countries worldwide. One of the major factors limiting fiber yield and lint quality in cotton is drought stress following bloom. Many genes are expressed specifically during fiber initiation, development, and maturation. As drough...

  4. LOSSES IN YIELD, QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY OF COTTON FROM IMPROPER HARVEST TIMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive weathering may diminish cotton lint yield and fiber quality to the extent that economic losses occur for the producer. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of systematic delayed harvest on cotton lint yield, fiber quality and profitability. Experiments were co...

  5. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  6. INHERITANCE AND VARIABILITY OF SOME AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN GENETICALLY REMOTE HYBRIDIZATION OF COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop in Uzbekistan. But, most of commercial varieties have a narrow genetic base. The objective of our research is to develop cotton breeding lines with a high percentage of (+)-gossypol in seeds for feed for non ruminant animals, and with good fiber quality and ...

  7. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF. PMID:19664919

  8. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... their predominance by weight, as for example: 60% Wool 40% Man-made fibers Rayon Acetate Nylon (b) Where... Reclaimed Fibers. 35% recycled Wool30% Acetate15% Cotton20% Undetermined Reclaimed Fibers. In making...

  9. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... their predominance by weight, as for example: 60% Wool 40% Man-made fibers Rayon Acetate Nylon (b) Where... Reclaimed Fibers. 35% recycled Wool30% Acetate15% Cotton20% Undetermined Reclaimed Fibers. In making...

  10. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fibers, as for example: 45% Rayon 30% Acetate 25% Miscellaneous scraps of undetermined fiber content. 60...% Secondhand materialsfiber content unknown. 45% Acetate 30% Cotton 25% Miscellaneous ragsundetermined...

  11. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fibers, as for example: 45% Rayon 30% Acetate 25% Miscellaneous scraps of undetermined fiber content. 60.... 50% Polyester 30% Cotton 20% Textile by-products of undetermined fiber content. 50% Rayon...

  12. Experimental evidence for the formation of divalent ytterbium in the photodarkening process of Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, S; Engholm, M

    2013-03-25

    In this work we present experimental evidence that the valence instability of the ytterbium ion play a key role for the observed photodarkening mechanism in Yb-doped fiber lasers. Luminescence and excitation spectroscopy performed on UV irradiated Yb/Al doped silica glass preforms and near-infrared diode pumped photodarkened fibers show a concentration increase of Yb(2+) ions. A concentration decrease in Yb(3+) could also be observed for the UV irradiated preform. The findings contribute to an increased understanding of the kinetic processes related to photodarkening in Yb-doped high power fiber lasers. PMID:23546049

  13. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  14. Differentially expressed genes in drought stressed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable crop production. Many efforts have been incorporated using genetic and genomic approaches to identify valuable molecular resources. Cotton, the worlds primary fiber crop, provides major economic value to farmers and ind...

  15. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  16. Resistance mechanisms against arthropod herbivores in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton plants from the genus Gossypium are grown on more than 30 million hectares worldwide and are a major source of fiber. The plants possess a wide-range of indirect and direct-defense mechanisms against arthropod pests. Direct defense mechanisms include morphological traits such as trichomes and...

  17. HARVESTING AND GINNING STICKY COTTON (CHAPTER XI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., honeydew-contaminated cottons have caused problems, mainly during manufacturing and processing of yarn. The honeydew causes fibers to stick to the equipment during carding, drawing, roving, and spinning. Stickiness problems can become so severe, either from whitefly or aphid infestati...

  18. Can natural fibers be a silver bullet? Antibacterial cellulose fibers through the covalent bonding of silver nanoparticles to electrospun fibers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingying; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Fuming; Monty, Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J; Simmons, Trevor J

    2016-02-01

    Natural cotton was dissolved in a room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl acetate and wet-jet electrospun to obtain nanoscale cotton fibers with a substantially reduced diameter-and therefore an increased surface area-relative to natural cotton fibers. The resulting nano-cotton fibers were esterified with trityl-3-mercaptopropionic acid, which after selective de-tritylation afforded nano-cotton fibers containing reactive thiol functionality. Silver nanoparticles that were covalently attached to these sulfhydryl groups were assembled next. The microstructure of the resulting nanocomposite was characterized, and the antibacterial activity of the resulting nano-cotton Ag-nanoparticle composite was also studied. This nanocomposite showed significant activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26751520

  19. Can natural fibers be a silver bullet? Antibacterial cellulose fibers through the covalent bonding of silver nanoparticles to electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yingying; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Fuming; Monty, Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.; Simmons, Trevor J.

    2016-02-01

    Natural cotton was dissolved in a room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl acetate and wet-jet electrospun to obtain nanoscale cotton fibers with a substantially reduced diameter—and therefore an increased surface area—relative to natural cotton fibers. The resulting nano-cotton fibers were esterified with trityl-3-mercaptopropionic acid, which after selective de-tritylation afforded nano-cotton fibers containing reactive thiol functionality. Silver nanoparticles that were covalently attached to these sulfhydryl groups were assembled next. The microstructure of the resulting nanocomposite was characterized, and the antibacterial activity of the resulting nano-cotton Ag-nanoparticle composite was also studied. This nanocomposite showed significant activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather; Klein, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling, syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus other diverse symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, precluding definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established etiologies, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, e.g., diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled with fibromyalgia have unrecognized SFPN causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, signs, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 matched normal controls. Fibromyalgia subjects had to satisfy American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present documented evidence of a physicians actual fibromyalgia diagnosis. Study instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). 41% of skin biopsies from fibromyalgia subjects vs. 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher among fibromyalgia than control subjects (all P ? 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from all 13 fibromyalgia subjects with SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into etiologies. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but eight subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and one family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as fibromyalgia have unrecognized small-fiber polyneuropathy, a distinct disease that can be objectively tested for and sometimes definitively treated. PMID:23748113

  1. Hydrophobic modification of cotton fabric with octadecylamine via laccase/TEMPO mediated grafting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Jiugang; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Ping; Cui, Li

    2016-02-10

    Hydrophobic cotton fabrics were prepared by grafting octadecylamine (ODA) onto cotton fiber surfaces via the laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) treatment. The cotton fibers were oxidized by laccase/TEMPO to introduce aldehyde groups, which reacted with the amino groups of ODA to form Schiff base. First, ODA was coupled to glucan, used as a model compound of cellulose. The results of FT-IR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy prove the formation of a Schiff base between ODA and glucan. Moreover, the existence of ODA in the grafted cotton fibers was verified by ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, the hydrophobicity of the ODA-grafted cotton fabrics was estimated. The surface hydrophobicity of the cotton fabrics increased after the enzymatic grafting reaction. PMID:26686162

  2. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  3. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  4. Nematode Management in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

  5. Comparisons of Cottonscope and AFIS fiber maturity distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity and fineness are important fiber properties. The Cottonscope is a new instrument that provides rapid, precise, and accurate measurements of MR and fineness, and much interest has been expressed in its use by cotton breeders and geneticists. In addition to fiber MR, fineness, ...

  6. Methods for reducing exposure to cotton dust. Progress report, 1 January 1981-30 September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, S.P.; Batra, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of additives and the blending of fibers on dust emission during carding, the relationship between dust-particle size and grade of cotton, and amount of oil mist in dust from treated cottons were investigated. Six additives were evaluated for dust-suppressant abilities on high-micronaire cotton. A substantial reduction in dust generated was achieved by the addition of very small amounts of five of the additives. For polyester and cotton blends, the dust generated increased as the cotton content of the blend increased and as the production rate increased.

  7. Harvesting to optimize fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces over 50% of the U.S. cotton crop annually, it is critical that production and p...

  8. Evidence for ACTN3 as a Speed Gene in Isolated Human Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Broos, Siacia; Malisoux, Laurent; Theisen, Daniel; van Thienen, Ruud; Ramaekers, Monique; Jamart, Cécile; Deldicque, Louise; Thomis, Martine A.; Francaux, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency due to homozygosity for the ACTN3 577X-allele on contractile and morphological properties of fast muscle fibers in non-athletic young men. Methods A biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis of 4 RR and 4 XX individuals to test for differences in morphologic and contractile properties of single muscle fibers. The cross-sectional area of the fiber and muscle fiber composition was determined using standard immunohistochemistry analyses. Skinned single muscle fibers were subjected to active tests to determine peak normalized force (P0), maximal unloading velocity (V0) and peak power. A passive stretch test was performed to calculate Young’s Modulus and hysteresis to assess fiber visco-elasticity. Results No differences were found in muscle fiber composition. The cross-sectional area of type IIa and IIx fibers was larger in RR compared to XX individuals (P<0.001). P0 was similar in both groups over all fiber types. A higher V0 was observed in type IIa fibers of RR genotypes (P<0.001) but not in type I fibers. The visco-elasticity as determined by Young’s Modulus and hysteresis was unaffected by fiber type or genotype. Conclusion The greater V0 and the larger fast fiber CSA in RR compared to XX genotypes likely contribute to enhanced whole muscle performance during high velocity contractions. PMID:26930663

  9. Development and commercial use of Bollgard cotton in the USA--early promises versus today's reality.

    PubMed

    Perlak, F J; Oppenhuizen, M; Gustafson, K; Voth, R; Sivasupramaniam, S; Heering, D; Carey, B; Ihrig, R A; Roberts, J K

    2001-09-01

    Bollgard cotton is the trademark given to a number of varieties of cotton bio-engineered to produce an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). When produced by the modified cotton plants, this protein controls certain lepidopterous cotton insect pests. Commercially available since 1996, these cotton varieties are purchased under a license agreement in which the growers pay a fee and agree to abide by the terms, which include a 1-year license to use the technology and agreement to participate in an insect resistance management program. Today, Bollgard cotton is grown on more than one-third of all cotton acreage in the USA. This product has reduced cotton production costs and insecticide use by providing an effective alternative to chemical insecticides for the control of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens; cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea; and pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. The specificity and safety profile of the Bt protein produced in planta in cotton was maintained. It has retained its selectivity for lepidopterous insects and lacks the characteristics found in potential allergenic proteins. Fiber quality, the agronomic characteristics of the plant and seed composition remain unchanged. New cotton technology is being developed to provide improved insect control and a wider spectrum of activity. These future products could further reduce insecticide use in the production of cotton, while maintaining the high level of safety and reliability that has been demonstrated by five seasons of Bollgard cotton use. PMID:11576434

  10. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  11. Comparisons of cotton maturity and fineness measurements (Cottonscope, AFIS, HVI™)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cottonscope, a new instrument for fiber maturity (MR) and fineness, utilizes polarized light microscopy and image analysis to measure longitudinal, weighted fiber snippets in water. Interest has been expressed by the Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton (CSITC) on the pote...

  12. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  13. Ginning picker and stripper harvested High Plains cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to average fiber length and strength have been observed for Texas High Plains cotton over the last decade due to improved varieties. Varietal improvements have also increased irrigated yields in the region. New harvest methods and ginning practices are needed to better preserve fiber qu...

  14. Ginning picker and stripper harvested high plains cotton - update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and High Volume Instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  15. Identification of natural dyes on laboratory-dyed wool and ancient wool, silk, and cotton fibers using attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Silvia; De Luca, Eleonora; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Pozzi, Federica

    2011-09-01

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared and Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectra were obtained from wool threads dyed in the laboratory with natural dyes used in antiquity, following a procedure similar to ancient methods for dyeing wool. The ATR spectra were primarily dominated by the signals of the wool, making it difficult to identify the dye on the fibers only by visual inspection of the infrared spectrum. However, the Raman spectra showed more significant characteristics attributable to the dyes as previously studied in the literature on modern synthetic dyes. A library-search method was thus applied to the second derivatives of both the ATR and Raman spectra to verify the possibility of identifying the dye. Two libraries were constructed, one consisting of the ATR spectra of undyed wool (raw, washed, and mordanted) and the transmission spectra of pure dyes and the other consisting of the Raman spectra of undyed wool and of pure dyes. Correlation and first-derivative correlation search algorithms were used. The results presented here suggest that the two types of spectroscopy are complementary in this kind of work, allowing the almost complete identification of historic dyes on wool. In fact, through the combined use of the two searches, most dyes were identified with a good index of similarity and within the first five hits. Only for annatto was identification totally impossible using either technique. Subsequently the same method was applied to wool, silk, and cotton threads taken from ancient Caucasian and Chinese textiles. PMID:21929856

  16. Evaluation of thermal treatments to improve physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites made from cotton byproducts and other agricultural fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for wood products continues to grow at levels that challenge the available resources. Alternative materials are sought to sustainably supplement the wood fiber industry. Experiments were conducted on composite boards made from agricultural residues. The boards were subjected to thermal tre...

  17. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  18. Biomimetic superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W

    2007-12-18

    We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939

  19. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    McRorie, Johnson W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this “fiber gap,” many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods. Of the fiber supplements on the market today, only a minority possess the physical characteristics that underlie the mechanisms driving clinically meaningful health benefits. In this 2-part series, the first part (previous issue) described the 4 main characteristics of fiber supplements that drive clinical efficacy (solubility, degree/rate of fermentation, viscosity, and gel formation), the 4 clinically meaningful designations that identify which health benefits are associated with specific fibers, and the gel-dependent mechanisms in the small bowel that drive specific health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control). The second part (current issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the effects of fiber supplements in the large bowel, including the 2 mechanisms by which fiber prevents/relieves constipation (insoluble mechanical irritant and soluble gel-dependent water-holding capacity), the gel-dependent mechanism for attenuating diarrhea and normalizing stool form in irritable bowel syndrome, and the combined large bowel/small bowel fiber effects for weight loss/maintenance. The second part will also discuss how processing for marketed products can attenuate efficacy, why fiber supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and how to avoid symptoms for better long-term compliance. PMID:25972619

  20. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    McRorie, Johnson W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this “fiber gap,” many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods. Of the fiber supplements on the market today, only a minority possess the physical characteristics that underlie the mechanisms driving clinically meaningful health benefits. The first part (current issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the 4 main characteristics of fiber supplements that drive clinical efficacy (solubility, degree/rate of fermentation, viscosity, and gel formation), the 4 clinically meaningful designations that identify which health benefits are associated with specific fibers, and the gel-dependent mechanisms in the small bowel that drive specific health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control). The second part (next issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the effects of fiber supplements in the large bowel, including the 2 mechanisms by which fiber prevents/relieves constipation (insoluble mechanical irritant and soluble gel-dependent water-holding capacity), the gel-dependent mechanism for attenuating diarrhea and normalizing stool form in irritable bowel syndrome, and the combined large bowel/small bowel fiber effects for weight loss/maintenance. The second part will also discuss how processing for marketed products can attenuate efficacy, why fiber supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and how to avoid symptoms for better long-term compliance. PMID:25972618