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Sample records for cotton pollen promoter

  1. Cotton pollen retention in boll weevils, a laboratory experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is thought to exist in a boll weevil’s gut for at least 18 hours. In a controlled laboratory experiment examining non-cotton food sources, a cotton pollen grain was found in an individual boll weevil that had not fed on cotton for 120 hours. Because we believe that finding whole or ...

  2. Influence of abiotic stress, flower morphology, and pollen dehydration sensitivity on cotton out-crossing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified ...

  3. Cotton flowers: Pollen and petal humidity sensitivities determine reproductive competitiveness in diverse environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen and identified genetic variability among the six cotton lines studied. Genetic diversity in pollen viability was observed following a 6.5 h exposure to 25% relative humidity (RH). NM67, DP565, and...

  4. Cotton Flowers: Pollen and Petal Humidity Sensitivities Determine Reproductive Competitiveness in Diverse Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified genetic vari...

  5. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  6. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  7. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  8. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  9. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  10. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 72747); and the Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order on... published in the October 5, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 51094). This administrative action...

  11. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  12. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  13. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  14. Pollen specificity elements reside in 30 bp of the proximal promoters of two pollen-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Y; Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1995-03-01

    Functional analyses previously identified minimal promoter regions required for maintaining high-level expression of the late anther tomato LAT52 and LAT59 genes in tomato pollen. Here, we now define elements that direct pollen specificity. We used a transient assay system consisting of two cell types that differentially express the LAT genes and both "loss-of-function" and "gain-of-function" approaches. Linker substitution mutants analyzed in the transient assay and in transgenic plants identified 30-bp proximal promoter regions of LAT52 and LAT59 that are essential for their expression in pollen and that confer pollen specificity when fused to the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter. In vivo competition experiments demonstrated that a common trans-acting factor interacts with the pollen specificity region of both LAT gene promoters and suggested that a common mechanism regulates their coordinate expression. Adjacent upstream elements, the 52/56 box in LAT52 and the 56/59 box in LAT59, are involved in modulating the level of expression in pollen. The 52/56 box may be a target for the binding of a member of the GT-1 transcription factor family. PMID:7734969

  15. Pollen specificity elements reside in 30 bp of the proximal promoters of two pollen-expressed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Y; Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1995-01-01

    Functional analyses previously identified minimal promoter regions required for maintaining high-level expression of the late anther tomato LAT52 and LAT59 genes in tomato pollen. Here, we now define elements that direct pollen specificity. We used a transient assay system consisting of two cell types that differentially express the LAT genes and both "loss-of-function" and "gain-of-function" approaches. Linker substitution mutants analyzed in the transient assay and in transgenic plants identified 30-bp proximal promoter regions of LAT52 and LAT59 that are essential for their expression in pollen and that confer pollen specificity when fused to the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter. In vivo competition experiments demonstrated that a common trans-acting factor interacts with the pollen specificity region of both LAT gene promoters and suggested that a common mechanism regulates their coordinate expression. Adjacent upstream elements, the 52/56 box in LAT52 and the 56/59 box in LAT59, are involved in modulating the level of expression in pollen. The 52/56 box may be a target for the binding of a member of the GT-1 transcription factor family. PMID:7734969

  16. [Cloning and characterization of D-113 gene promoter from cotton].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Ming; Guo, Yu-Long; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan

    2002-02-01

    To study the expression of late embryogenesis abundant gene in seeds, the 1,024 bp 5' flanking sequence of D-113 gene, a late embryogenesis abundant gene of Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312, was cloned by PCR. The similarity compared with the sequence of Lea protein gene family published was 92.50%. There are three putative ABREs and one enhancer-like which riches A/T in the promoter. The promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene to form pLD II. Via a particle bombardment, pLD II was introduced into embryogenic calli of cotton and seeds of Brassica napus which were all treated with abscisic acid for 3d before bombardment, also into roots, stems and leafs of cotton. Transient expression was measured histochemically as spot number 24 h after bombardment. GUS sexpression was observed in the seeds of Brassica napus and the embryogenic calli of cotton, but not found in roots and leaves of cotton. Those results indicated that the expression of D-113 gene promoter was embryo specific. PMID:11902000

  17. LeSTIG1, an extracellular binding partner for the pollen receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2, promotes pollen tube growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Kelley, Dior; Ezcurra, Inés; Cotter, Robyn; McCormick, Sheila

    2004-08-01

    As pollen tubes grow through the pistil they are thought to perceive and respond to diverse signals. The tomato pollen-specific receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 might participate in signaling during pollen tube growth. We previously showed that the extracellular domain of LePRK2 interacts with a pollen protein, LAT52, before but not after pollen germination. To determine whether LePRK2 might have different binding partner(s) after pollen germination, we characterized two more proteins that, like LAT52, were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens using the extracellular domains of LePRK1 and LePRK2 as baits. We show that LeSHY, a leucine-rich repeat protein from pollen, and LeSTIG1, a small cysteine-rich protein from pistil, can bind the extracellular domains of both LePRK1 and LePRK2 in vitro. In vitro binding assays with the extracellular domain of LePRK2 suggested that LeSTIG1 could displace binding of LAT52, consistent with the idea that LePRK1 and LePRK2 might interact with different ligands at different stages of pollen tube growth. Exogenous LeSTIG1 promotes pollen tube growth in vitro. The interaction of these pollen kinases with LeSTIG1 supports the notion that LePRK1 and LePRK2 are involved in mediating pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:15255864

  18. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  19. Bee Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Don’t confuse bee pollen with bee venom, honey, or royal jelly. People take bee pollen for ... Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de ...

  20. A Chimeric Arabinogalactan Protein Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton Cell Culture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Simon; Heath, Robyn Louise; Clarke, Adrienne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extracellular plant proteoglycans implicated in many aspects of plant growth and development, including in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE). We found that specific AGPs were produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) calli undergoing SE and that when these AGPs were isolated and incorporated into tissue culture medium, cotton SE was promoted. When the AGPs were partly or fully deglycosylated, SE-promoting activity was not diminished. Testing of AGPs separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the SE-promoting activity resided in a hydrophobic fraction. We cloned a full-length complementary DNA (cotton PHYTOCYANIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN-PROTEIN1 [GhPLA1]) that encoded the protein backbone of an AGP in the active fraction. It has a chimeric structure comprising an amino-terminal signal sequence, a phytocyanin-like domain, an AGP-like domain, and a hydrophobic carboxyl-terminal domain. Recombinant production of GhPLA1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells enabled us to purify and analyze a single glycosylated AGP and to demonstrate that this chimeric AGP promotes cotton SE. Furthermore, the nonglycosylated phytocyanin-like domain from GhPLA1, which was bacterially produced, also promoted SE, indicating that the glycosylated AGP domain was unnecessary for in vitro activity. PMID:22858635

  1. EFFECTS OF MODERATELY HIGH TEMPERATURE ON DIURNAL POLLEN TUBE GROWTH AND FERTILIZATION IN FIELD-GROWN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For Gossypium hirsutum pollination, germination, and pollen tube growth must occur in a highly concerted fashion on the day of flowering for fertilization to occur. We hypothesized that increased temperatures under field conditions would limit fertilization by inhibiting diurnal pollen tube growth t...

  2. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions. PMID:27386392

  3. The Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Mediates Growth-Promoting Signals and Positively Regulates Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In flowering plants, the process of pollen germination and tube growth is required for successful fertilization. A pollen receptor kinase from tomato, LePRK2, has been implicated in signaling during pollen germination and tube growth as well as in mediating pollen (tube)-pistil communication. Here w...

  4. Cotton gene flow: Genetic diversity in outcrossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose pollen ...

  5. MIKC* MADS-Protein Complexes Bind Motifs Enriched in the Proximal Region of Late Pollen-Specific Arabidopsis Promoters[W

    PubMed Central

    Verelst, Wim; Saedler, Heinz; Münster, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes over 100 MADS-domain transcription factors, categorized into five phylogenetic subgroups. Most research efforts have focused on just one of these subgroups (MIKCc), whereas the other four remain largely unexplored. Here, we report on five members of the so-called Mδ or Arabidopsis MIKC* (AtMIKC*) subgroup, which are predominantly expressed during the late stages of pollen development. Very few MADS-box genes function in mature pollen, and from this perspective, the AtMIKC* genes are therefore highly exceptional. We found that the AtMIKC* proteins are able to form multiple heterodimeric complexes in planta, and that these protein complexes exhibit a for the MADS-family unusual and high DNA binding specificity in vitro. Compared to their occurrence in promoters genome wide, AtMIKC* binding sites are strongly overrepresented in the proximal region of late pollen-specific promoters. By combining our experimental data with in silico genomics and pollen transcriptomics approaches, we identified a considerable number of putative direct target genes of the AtMIKC* transcription factor complexes in pollen, many of which have known or proposed functions in pollen tube growth. The expression of several of these predicted targets is altered in mutant pollen in which all AtMIKC* complexes are affected, and in vitro germination of this mutant pollen is severely impaired. Our data therefore suggest that the AtMIKC* protein complexes play an essential role in transcriptional regulation during late pollen development. PMID:17071640

  6. Developing Fiber Specific Promoter-Reporter Transgenic Lines to Study the Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Burke, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality. PMID:26030401

  7. Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  8. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  9. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5'-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5'-RACE). Here, we provide the first report on vsi

  10. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5′-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5′-RACE). Here, we provide the first report

  11. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  16. 76 FR 31573 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Request for Comments To Be Used in a Review of 1990...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... final rules published in the Federal Register on December 10, 1991 (56 FR 64470), corrected at (56 FR... issued on March 6, 2007. USDA announced its view (72 FR 9918) not to conduct a referendum regarding the... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Request for Comments To Be Used in...

  17. Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  14. Molecular cloning and analysis of a receptor-like promoter of Gbvdr3 gene in sea island cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B-J; Zhang, H-P; Chen, Q-Z; Tang, N; Wang, L-K; Wang, R-F; Zhang, B-L

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. The Ve1 homologous gene Gbvdr3 is resistant to Verticillium wilt. In order to understand of the function of the promoter Gbvdr3 in Gossypium barbadense, the promoter region of the receptor-like gene Gbvdr3 was obtained by genome walking, and the cis-element in the promoter was identified using the PLACE software in this study. The sequence analysis showed that the promoter contained elements related to stress resistance and light regulation. The cloned promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis. GUS expression was specifically detected in roots, flowers, and seeds, suggesting that the expression of Gbvdr3 is tissue-specific. Separation and characterization analysis of the promoter of Gbvdr3 provides a platform for further research and application of this gene. Thorough understanding of the function of the Gbvdr3 promoter is important for better understanding of Gbvdr3 function. These results indicated that the promoter of Gbvdr3 was a tissue-specific promoter. PMID:27323087

  15. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2014-01-01

    The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional genepromoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. PMID:24424501

  16. THE EFFECTS ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND MORTALITY, PUPATION AND TOLERANCE TO TOXIC PROTEIN IN COTTON BOLLS, POLLEN, AND ARTIFICIAL DIET BIOASSAYS OF PINK BOLLWORM (PBW) FEEDING ON NUCOTN 33B COTTON BOLLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottons that have a gene or genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Berliner) that produce insect toxins have been grown in Arizona since 1996. The threat of pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) resistance development to the toxin has been of continuing concern. The increasin...

  17. Pollen Primer

    MedlinePlus

    ... air filters (HEPA) or an electrostatic air filter. Tree Pollen Trees produce pollen earliest, as soon as January in ... distributed miles away. Fewer than 100 kinds of trees cause allergies. Some common ones are catalpa, elm, ...

  18. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... amendments. AMS developed implementing regulations for the import assessment effective July 31, 1992 (57 FR 29181); the elimination of the producer refund effective July 31, 1992 (57 FR 29181); and provided for importer representation on the Cotton Board effective December 21, 1991 (56 FR 65979). USDA conducted...

  19. Characterization and Promoter Analysis of a Cotton Ring-Type Ubiquitin Ligase (E3) Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cDNA, GhRING1, and its corresponding gene have been cloned and characterized. The GhRING1 gene encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) containing 337 amino acids (aa). The GhRING1 protein contains a RING finger motif with conserved cysteine and histine residues at the C-terminus a...

  20. Pollen Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen count, which is often reported by local weather broadcasts or allergy websites, is a measure of how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts tend to be highest early in the morning on warm, dry, breezy days and lowest during chilly, wet periods. ...

  1. Three cotton genes preferentially expressed in flower tissues encode actin-depolymerizing factors which are involved in F-actin dynamics in cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Bao; Xu, Dan; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Huang, Geng-Qing; Luo, Juan; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Xu, Wen-Liang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the high expression levels of actin-depolymerizing factor genes are related to pollen development, three GhADF genes (cDNAs) were isolated and characterized in cotton. Among them, GhADF6 and GhADF8 were preferentially expressed in petals, whereas GhADF7 displayed the highest level of expression in anthers, revealing its anther specificity. The GhADF7 transcripts in anthers reached its peak value at flowering, suggesting that its expression is developmentally-regulated in anthers. The GhADF7 gene including the promoter region was isolated from the cotton genome. To demonstrate the specificity of the GhADF7 promoter, the 5′-flanking region, including the promoter and 5′-untranslated region, was fused with the GUS gene. Histochemical assays demonstrated that the GhADF7:GUS gene was specifically expressed in pollen grains. When pollen grains germinated, very strong GUS staining was detected in the elongating pollen tube. Furthermore, overexpression of GhADF7 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the viable pollen grains and, consequently, transgenic plants were partially male-sterile. Overexpression of GhADF7 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) altered the balance of actin depolymerization and polymerization, leading to the defective cytokinesis and multinucleate formation in the cells. Given all the above results together, it is proposed that the GhADF7 gene may play an important role in pollen development and germination. PMID:19861654

  2. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  12. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family member with no previous characterization. Results Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2) and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. Conclusions uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2) and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues. PMID:22115195

  4. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology. PMID:26728504

  5. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  10. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for...

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  12. Tomato pistil factor STIG1 promotes in vivo pollen tube growth by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The speed of pollen tube growth is a major determinant of reproductive success in flowering plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) STIGMA-SPECIFIC PROTEIN1 (STIG1), a small Cys-rich protein from the pistil, was previously identified as a binding partner of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and shown ...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  15. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  16. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  17. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  18. SPRINKLER-INDUCED FLOWER LOSSES AND YIELD REDUCTIONS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is highly sensitive to water, rupturing within 1-2 minutes of contact. Greenhouse cotton was grown for 120 d under natural light conditions (28 ± 5*C air temperature). Flowers were sprayed with known volumes of water to determine how much was needed to reduce yield. These studies sho...

  19. A cotton BURP domain protein interacts with α-expansin and their co-expression promotes plant growth and fruit production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Gou, Jin-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Chang-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth requires cell wall extension. The cotton AtRD22-Like 1 gene GhRDL1, predominately expressed in elongating fiber cells, encodes a BURP domain-containing protein. Here, we show that GhRDL1 is localized in cell wall and interacts with GhEXPA1, an α-expansin functioning in wall loosening. Transgenic cotton overexpressing GhRDL1 showed an increase in fiber length and seed mass, and an enlargement of endopleura cells of ovules. Expression of either GhRDL1 or GhEXPA1 alone in Arabidopsis led to a substantial increase in seed size; interestingly, their co-expression resulted in the increased number of siliques, the nearly doubled seed mass, and the enhanced biomass production. Cotton plants overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhEXPA1 proteins produced strikingly more fruits (bolls), leading to up to 40% higher fiber yield per plant without adverse effects on fiber quality and vegetative growth. We demonstrate that engineering cell wall protein partners has a great potential in promoting plant growth and crop yield. PMID:23041940

  20. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... them is your first step toward feeling better. Pollen is a trigger for many people who have allergies and asthma. The types of pollens that are triggers vary from person to person ...

  1. FUBT, a putative MFS transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (FA) is a key component in virulence and symptom development in cotton during infection by Fusarium oxysporum. A putative MFS transporter gene was identified upstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of FA. Disruption of the transporter gene, designated...

  2. Pollen analyses for pollination research, unacetolyzed pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollinators can significantly increase the potential yield of crops, but little is known about which pollinators pollinate various crop species. Many pollinators feed on pollen, nectar and plant secretions associated with flowers, and consequently pollen attaches to the pollinators. Identification...

  3. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  4. Phytohormonal Networks Promote Differentiation of Fiber Initials on Pre-Anthesis Cotton Ovules Grown In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Triplett, Barbara A.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Stelly, David M.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Moon, Hong S.; Gilbert, Matthew K.; Thyssen, Gregory N.; Turley, Rickie B.; Fang, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  5. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  6. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  7. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  17. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p < 0.001). For the tfd A gene, out-crossing ranged from 10.13% at 1 m to 0.04% at 50 m from the transgenic plants. For the Bt gene, out-crossing ranged from 8.16% at 1 m to 0.08% at 20 m from the transgenic plants. These data were fit to a power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  18. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Bonini, S; Nunes, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Behrendt, H; Liccardi, G; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2007-09-01

    The allergenic content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, geography and vegetation. Data on the presence and prevalence of allergenic airborne pollens, obtained from both aerobiological studies and allergological investigations, make it possible to design pollen calendars with the approximate flowering period of the plants in the sampling area. In this way, even though pollen production and dispersal from year to year depend on the patterns of preseason weather and on the conditions prevailing at the time of anthesis, it is usually possible to forecast the chances of encountering high atmospheric allergenic pollen concentrations in different areas. Aerobiological and allergological studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (for example, importation of plants such as birch and cypress for urban parklands), greater international travel (e.g. colonization by ragweed in France, northern Italy, Austria, Hungary etc.) and climate change. In this regard, the higher frequency of weather extremes, like thunderstorms, and increasing episodes of long range transport of allergenic pollen represent new challenges for researchers. Furthermore, in the last few years, experimental data on pollen and subpollen-particles structure, the pathogenetic role of pollen and the interaction between pollen and air pollutants, gave new insights into the mechanisms of respiratory allergic diseases. PMID:17521313

  19. Pollen (quick guide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is pollen, and is it haploid or diploid? Pollen is a crucial stage of the plant life cycle — without pollen there will be no seed. When someone says “Think of a plant,” the plant you think of (whether it’s a tree, a tomato plant, or a geranium) is a sporophyte. Most land plants are sporophytes...

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Deyi; Sun, Li; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lirong; Zhao, Yuanming; Lv, Shuping; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Li, Wu; Hou, Jianan; Duan, Zhengzheng; Yu, Yuebo; Yang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding. PMID:26382878

  2. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  3. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-01-01

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field. PMID:22002133

  4. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  9. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  10. A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Bong; Golovkin, Maxim; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous genetic studies have revealed that a pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, No Pollen Germination 1 (NPG1), is required for pollen germination. However, its mode of action is unknown. Here we report direct interaction of NPG1 with pectate lyase-like proteins (PLLs). A truncated form of AtNPG1 lacking the N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1) failed to interact with PLLs, suggesting that it is essential for NPG1 interaction with PLLs. Localization studies with AtNPG1 fused to a fluorescent reporter driven by its native promoter revealed its presence in the cytosol and cell wall of the pollen grain and the growing pollen tube of plasmolyzed pollen. Together, our data suggest that the function of NPG1 in regulating pollen germination is mediated through its interaction with PLLs, which may modify the pollen cell wall and regulate pollen tube emergence and growth. PMID:24919580

  11. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Jean-Claude; Leroux, Christelle; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed. PMID:27137369

  12. Impact of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Cotton on the Honey Bee and Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3rd day of 5th B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm2), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

  13. Truncated Cotton Subtilase Promoter Directs Guard Cell-Specific Expression of Foreign Genes in Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A 993-bp regulatory region upstream of the translation start codon of subtilisin-like serine protease gene was isolated from Gossypium barbadense. This (T/A)AAAG-rich region, GbSLSP, and its 5′- and 3′-truncated versions were transferred into tobacco and Arabidopsis after fusing with GUS or GFP. Histochemical and quantitative GUS analysis and confocal GFP fluorescence scanning in the transgenic plants showed that the GbSLSP-driven GUS and GFP expressed preferentially in guard cells, whereas driven by GbSLSPF2 to GbSLSPF4, the 5′-truncated GbSLSP versions with progressively reduced Dof1 elements, both GUS and GFP expressed exclusively in guard cells, and the expression strength declined with (T/A)AAAG copy decrement. Deletion of 5′-untranslated region from GbSLSP markedly weakened the activity of GUS and GFP, while deletion from the strongest guard cell-specific promoter, GbSLSPF2, not only significantly decreased the expression strength, but also completely abolished the guard cell specificity. These results suggested both guard cell specificity and expression strength of the promoters be coordinately controlled by 5′-untranslated region and a cluster of at least 3 (T/A)AAAG elements within a region of about 100 bp relative to transcription start site. Our guard cell-specific promoters will enrich tools to manipulate gene expression in guard cells for scientific research and crop improvement. PMID:23555786

  14. Dating Fossil Pollen: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Describes a hands-on simulation in which students determine the age of "fossil" pollen samples based on the pollen types present when examined microscopically. Provides instructions for the preparation of pollen slides. (MDH)

  15. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  16. Annexin5 Plays a Vital Role in Arabidopsis Pollen Development via Ca2+-Dependent Membrane Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingen; Wu, Xiaorong; Yuan, Shunjie; Qian, Dong; Nan, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of pollen development and pollen tube growth is a complicated biological process that is crucial for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Annexins are widely distributed from protists to higher eukaryotes and play multiple roles in numerous cellular events by acting as a putative “linker” between Ca2+ signaling, the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane, which are required for pollen development and pollen tube growth. Our recent report suggested that downregulation of the function of Arabidopsis annexin 5 (Ann5) in transgenic Ann5-RNAi lines caused severely sterile pollen grains. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the function of Ann5 in pollen. This study demonstrated that Ann5 associates with phospholipid membrane and this association is stimulated by Ca2+ in vitro. Brefeldin A (BFA) interferes with endomembrane trafficking and inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Both pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ann5-overexpressing plants showed increased resistance to BFA treatment, and this effect was regulated by calcium. Overexpression of Ann5 promoted Ca2+-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in pollen tubes in vivo in response to BFA. Lactrunculin (LatB) significantly prohibited pollen germination and tube growth by binding with high affinity to monomeric actin and preferentially targeting dynamic actin filament arrays and preventing actin polymerization. Overexpression of Ann5 did not affect pollen germination or pollen tube growth in response to LatB compared with wild-type, although Ann5 interacts with actin filaments in a manner similar to some animal annexins. In addition, the sterile pollen phenotype could be only partially rescued by Ann5 mutants at Ca2+-binding sites when compared to the complete recovery by wild-type Ann5. These data demonstrated that Ann5 is involved in pollen development, germination and pollen tube growth through the promotion of endomembrane trafficking modulated by

  17. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some trees Some grasses Weeds Ragweed Watch the weather and the season The amount of pollen in the air can affect whether you or your child has hay fever and asthma symptoms. On hot, dry, windy days, more pollen is in the air. ...

  18. Stable transformation of the cotton plastid genome and maternal inheritance of transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering overcomes concerns of gene containment, low levels of transgene expression, gene silencing, positional and pleiotropic effects or presence of vector sequences in transformed genomes. Several therapeutic proteins and agronomic traits have been highly expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome but extending this concept to important crops has been a major challenge; lack of 100% homologous species-specific chloroplast transformation vectors containing suitable selectable markers, ability to regulate transgene expression in developing plastids and inadequate tissue culture systems via somatic embryogenesis are major challenges. We employed a ‘Double Gene/Single Selection (DGSS)’ plastid transformation vector that harbors two selectable marker genes (aphA-6 and nptII) to detoxify the same antibiotic by two enzymes, irrespective of the type of tissues or plastids; by combining this with an efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis, cotton plastid transformation was achieved for the first time. The DGSS transformation vector is at least 8-fold (1 event/2.4 bombarded plates) more efficient than ‘Single Gene/Single Selection (SGSS)’ vector (aphA-6; 1 event per 20 bombarded plates). Chloroplast transgenic lines were fertile, flowered and set seeds similar to untransformed plants. Transgenes stably integrated into the cotton chloroplast genome were maternally inherited and were not transmitted via pollen when out-crossed with untransformed female plants. Cotton is one of the most important genetically modified crops ($ 120 billion US annual economy). Successful transformation of the chloroplast genome should address concerns about transgene escape, insects developing resistance, inadequate insect control and promote public acceptance of genetically modified cotton. PMID:15604738

  19. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  20. Pollen Tube Discharge Completes the Process of Synergid Degeneration That Is Initiated by Pollen Tube-Synergid Interaction in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Alexander R.; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Qin, Yuan; Johnson, Mark A.; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    In flowering plant reproduction, pollen tube reception is the signaling system that results in pollen tube discharge, synergid degeneration, and successful delivery of male gametes (two sperm cells) to the site where they can fuse with female gametes (egg cell and central cell). Some molecules required for this complex and essential signaling exchange have been identified; however, fundamental questions about the nature of the interactions between the pollen tube and the synergid cells remain to be clarified. Here, we monitor pollen tube arrival, pollen tube discharge, and synergid degeneration in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild type and in male and female gametophytic mutants that disrupt development and function of the gametophytes. By combining assays used previously to study these interactions and an assay that facilitates simultaneous analysis of pollen tube discharge and synergid degeneration, we find that synergid degeneration could be initiated without pollen tube discharge. Our data support the hypothesis that pollen tube-synergid contact, or signaling via secreted molecules, initiates receptive synergid degeneration. We also find that when pollen tubes successfully burst, they always discharge into a degenerated synergid. In addition to this pollen tube-dependent promotion of synergid degeneration, we also show that a basal developmental pathway mediates synergid degeneration in the absence of pollination. Our results are consistent with the model that a complex set of interactions between the pollen tube and synergid cells promote receptive synergid degeneration. PMID:26229050

  1. Dictionary of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  2. Pollen-mediated dispersal of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth under field conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being a strong competitor with cotton and other row crops, Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to numerous important agricultural herbicides, including glyphosate. The objective of this study was to determine if the glyphosate-resistance trait can be transferred via pollen moveme...

  3. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  4. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  5. Expression of CP4 EPSPS in microspores and tapetum cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is critical for male reproductive development in response to late-stage glyphosate applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chia Sophia; Hubmeier, Christopher; Tran, Minhtien; Martens, Amy; Cerny, R Eric; Sammons, R Doug; CaJacob, Claire

    2006-09-01

    Plants expressing Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) are known to be resistant to glyphosate, a potent herbicide that inhibits the activity of the endogenous plant EPSPS. The RR1445 transgenic cotton line (current commercial line for Roundup Ready Cotton) was generated using the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S promoter to drive the expression of the CP4 EPSPS gene, and has excellent vegetative tolerance to glyphosate. However, with high glyphosate application rates at developmental stages later than the four-leaf stage (late-stage applications: applications that are inconsistent with the Roundup labels), RR1445 shows male sterility. Another transgenic cotton line, RR60, was generated using the FMV 35S promoter and the Arabidopsis elongation factor-1alpha promoter (AtEF1alpha) for the expression of CP4 EPSPS. RR60 has excellent vegetative and reproductive tolerance to applications of glyphosate at all developmental stages. Histochemical analyses were conducted to examine the male reproductive development at the cellular level of these cotton lines in response to glyphosate applications, and to investigate the correlation between glyphosate injury and the expression of CP4 EPSPS in male reproductive tissues. The expression of CP4 EPSPS in RR60 was found to be strong in all male reproductive cell types. Conversely, CP4 EPSPS expression in RR1445 was low in pollen mother cells, male gametophytes and tapetum, three crucial male reproductive cell types. Our results indicate that the FMV 35S promoter, although expressing strongly in most vegetative tissues in plants, has extremely low activity in these cell types. PMID:17309724

  6. Biological and therapeutic properties of bee pollen: a review.

    PubMed

    Denisow, Bożena; Denisow-Pietrzyk, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Natural products, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimise the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. The health-enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and co-enzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic antibacterial, antifungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long-term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in the application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species-specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee-pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee-pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27013064

  7. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  8. A study on the influence of different promoter and 5'UTR (URM) cassettes from Arabidopsis thaliana on the expression level of the reporter gene β glucuronidase in tobacco and cotton.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parul; Garg, Varsha; Gautam, Taru; Pillai, Beena; Kanoria, Shaveta; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Several reports of promoters from plants, viral and artificial origin that confer high constitutive expression are known. Among these the CaMV 35S promoter is used extensively for transgene expression in plants. We identified candidate promoters from Arabidopsis based on their transcript levels (meta-analysis of available microarray control datasets) to test their activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. A set of 11 candidate genes were identified which showed high transcript levels in the aerial tissue (i.e. leaf, shoot, flower and stem). In the initial part of the study binary vectors were developed wherein the promoter and 5'UTR region of these candidate genes (Upstream Regulatory Module, URM) were cloned upstream to the reporter gene β glucuronidase (gus). The promoter strengths were tested in transformed callus of Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum. On the basis of the results obtained from the callus, the influence of the URM cassettes on transgene expression was tested in transgenic tobacco. The URM regions of the genes encoding a subunit of photosystem I (PHOTO) and geranyl geranyl reductase (GGR) in A. thaliana genome showed significantly high levels of GUS activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. Further, when the 5'UTRs of both the genes were placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter it led to a substantial increase in GUS activity in transgenic tobacco lines and cotton callus. The enhancement observed was even higher to that observed with the viral leader sequences like Ω and AMV, known translational enhancers. Our results indicate that the two URM cassettes or the 5'UTR regions of PHOTO and GGR when placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter can be used to drive high levels of transgene expression in dicotyledons. PMID:24072400

  9. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  10. 78 FR 25181 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market... Federal Register on August 4, 1988 (53 FR 29327). For each of these bona fide spot markets, the Cotton and... Service 7 CFR Part 27 RIN 0581-AD26 Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets...

  11. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published... Federal Register on August 4, 1988 (53 FR 29327). For each of these bona fide spot markets, the Cotton and... Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  12. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  13. Differentiating pollen from four species of Gossypium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium (Malvaceae) has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. Four cotton species are economically important, Gossypium arboreum (tree cotton), G. barbadense (American pima cotton), G. herbaceum (levant cotton), and G. hirsutum (American upland cotton). Some research has be...

  14. How Does Pollen Chemistry Impact Development and Feeding Behaviour of Polylectic Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Rasmont, Pierre; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Bernard; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michez, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia) to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i) Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae), (ii) weight of pollen collected, (iii) pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected) and (iv) syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors) and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional “theme” seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the degree of

  15. Nematode Management in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

  16. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  17. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  18. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  19. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  20. Secretory activity is rapidly induced in stigmatic papillae by compatible pollen, but inhibited for self-incompatible pollen in the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Safavian, Darya; Goring, Daphne R

    2013-01-01

    [In the Brassicaceae, targeted exocytosis to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the compatible pollen grain is hypothesized to be essential for pollen hydration and pollen tube penetration. In contrast, polarized secretion is proposed to be inhibited in the stigmatic papillae during the rejection of self-incompatible pollen. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we performed a detailed time-course of post-pollination events to view the cytological responses of the stigmatic papillae to compatible and self-incompatible pollinations. For compatible pollinations in Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, vesicle secretion was observed at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the pollen grain while Brassica napus stigmatic papillae appeared to use multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for secretion. Exo70A1, a component of the exocyst complex, has been previously implicated in the compatible pollen responses, and disruption of Exo70A1 in both A. thaliana and B. napus resulted in a loss of secretory vesicles/MVBs at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane. Similarly, for self-incompatible pollinations, secretory vesicles/MVBs were absent from the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane in A. lyrata and B. napus; and furthermore, autophagy appeared to be induced to direct vesicles/MVBs to the vacuole for degradation. Thus, these findings support a model where the basal pollen recognition pathway in the stigmatic papilla promotes exocytosis to accept compatible pollen, and the basal pollen recognition pathway is overridden by the self-incompatibility pathway to prevent exocytosis and reject self-pollen. PMID:24386363

  1. Secretory Activity Is Rapidly Induced in Stigmatic Papillae by Compatible Pollen, but Inhibited for Self-Incompatible Pollen in the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Safavian, Darya; Goring, Daphne R.

    2013-01-01

    [In the Brassicaceae, targeted exocytosis to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the compatible pollen grain is hypothesized to be essential for pollen hydration and pollen tube penetration. In contrast, polarized secretion is proposed to be inhibited in the stigmatic papillae during the rejection of self-incompatible pollen. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we performed a detailed time-course of post-pollination events to view the cytological responses of the stigmatic papillae to compatible and self-incompatible pollinations. For compatible pollinations in Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, vesicle secretion was observed at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the pollen grain while Brassica napus stigmatic papillae appeared to use multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for secretion. Exo70A1, a component of the exocyst complex, has been previously implicated in the compatible pollen responses, and disruption of Exo70A1 in both A. thaliana and B. napus resulted in a loss of secretory vesicles/MVBs at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane. Similarly, for self-incompatible pollinations, secretory vesicles/MVBs were absent from the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane in A. lyrata and B. napus; and furthermore, autophagy appeared to be induced to direct vesicles/MVBs to the vacuole for degradation. Thus, these findings support a model where the basal pollen recognition pathway in the stigmatic papilla promotes exocytosis to accept compatible pollen, and the basal pollen recognition pathway is overridden by the self-incompatibility pathway to prevent exocytosis and reject self-pollen. PMID:24386363

  2. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-06-01

    Pollen is unique among floral rewards in functioning as both a carrier of gametes and an attractant and nutritious resource for floral visitors. Animals that collect pollen without pollinating (pollen thieves) could reduce siring success of thieved plants and cause pollen limitation of seed set at the population level; however, such impacts on plant reproduction have not been demonstrated experimentally. To test these effects we added hives of native honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to populations of a primarily bird-pollinated plant, Aloe maculata, in eastern South Africa. In field and aviary trials, bee addition increased pollen removal from anthers but decreased pollen deposition on stigmas, and so reduced both male and female pollination components. Further, total seed production decreased with hive addition in the aviary experiment and in three of four field populations, indicating that population-level pollen theft can also compromise reproductive success. In the field, naturally occurring allodapine bees also seemed to act as pollen thieves, outweighing the effect of honey bee hive addition at one of the four aloe populations. Our results highlight the importance of social bees as pollen thieves, even of plants that have evolved in their presence, and the role of dichogamy in promoting pollen theft. Given the commonness of both social bees and dichogamy, pollen theft is likely a much more common influence on floral ecology and evolution than suggested by the sparse literature. PMID:20583711

  3. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492

  4. Elevation of Pollen Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number by WHIRLY2: Altered Respiration and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiang; Guo, Liang; Shen, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2015-09-01

    In plants, the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be much lower than the number of mitochondria. The biological significance and regulatory mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, using the pollen vegetative cell, we examined the role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mtDNA-binding protein WHIRLY2 (AtWHY2). AtWHY2 decreases during pollen development, in parallel with the rapid degradation of mtDNA; to examine the importance of this decrease, we used the pollen vegetative cell-specific promoter Lat52 to express AtWHY2. The transgenic plants (LWHY2) had very high mtDNA levels in pollen, more than 10 times more than in the wild type (ecotype Columbia-0). LWHY2 plants were fertile, morphologically normal, and set seeds; however, reciprocal crosses with heterozygous plants showed reduced transmission of LWHY2-1 through the male and slower growth of LWHY2-1 pollen tubes. We found that LWHY2-1 pollen had significantly more reactive oxygen species and less ATP compared with the wild type, indicating an effect on mitochondrial respiration. These findings reveal that AtWHY2 affects mtDNA copy number in pollen and suggest that low mtDNA copy numbers might be the normal means by which plant cells maintain mitochondrial genetic information. PMID:26195569

  5. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive potential on cotton squares of overwintered boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November, and January and after feeding them one, three, and five weeks on plant pollens was determined in the laboratory at 27ºC, 65% ...

  6. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  7. Patterns of pollen removal and deposition in Polemonium brandegeei (Polemoniaceae): the role of floral visitors, floral design and sexual interference.

    PubMed

    Kulbaba, M W; Worley, A C

    2014-11-01

    The arrangement, colour, shape and size of floral parts (collectively floral design) have evolved primarily to promote mating success via animal-mediated pollen transfer. Although numerous studies have examined variation in pollinator assemblages, relatively few have examined patterns of pollen removal and deposition in the presence of fluctuating pollinators and ineffective floral visitors; therefore, net pollen removal and deposition by entire visitor assemblages are unclear. We studied the timing (diurnal or nocturnal) and effects of floral traits on pollen removal and deposition under a dynamic visitor assemblage of Polemonium brandegeei. We quantified pollen grains remaining in anthers (pollen removal) and deposited on stigmas (pollen deposition) of plants visited during either the day (07:30-20:00 h) or night (20:30-07:30 h) in natural populations over two flowering seasons. Pollen removal and deposition occurred both diurnally and nocturnally during our study. Increased diurnal removal and deposition coincided with peak floral visitations in 2006. This increase in pollen removal and deposition may reflect increased visits by pollen consumers, effective hawkmoth pollinators and increased self-pollen deposition due to hot, dry weather. Nonlinear effects of style length significantly affected pollen removal, with less pollen remaining in flowers with intermediate style lengths. Pollen deposition was more complex, with herkogamy and anther height affecting deposition. Further, close proximity of stigmas and anthers increased the potential for sexual interference between pollen removal and deposition. Overall, flower visitations and pollen removal and deposition varied between years and populations, but sex organ placement consistently influenced the removal and deposition of pollen. PMID:24850527

  8. Pollen Dispersion, Pollen Viability and Pistil Receptivity in Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, ZEHAO; ZHU, JINMAO; MU, XIJIN; LIN, JINXING

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Leymus chinensis is an economically and ecologically important grass that is widely distributed across eastern areas of the Eurasian steppe. A major problem facing its propagation by man is its low sexual reproductivity. The causes of low fecundity are uncertain, largely because many aspects of the reproductive biology of this species remained unknown or incomplete. This study aims to address some of these issues. • Methods Pollen dispersion, pollen viability, pollen longevity and pistil receptivity were studied in a representative, natural population of L. chinensis growing in Inner Mongolia. • Key Results Flowering of L. chinensis occurred at the end of June and lasted for 5 d. Pollination peaked between 1600 h and 1700 h, and about 56·1 % of the total pollen grains were released at this time. Pollen density was highest towards the middle of flowering spikes and lowest at the bottom over the 5 d measurement period. Pollen viability (62·4 %) assessed using TTC was more accurate than using IKI (85·6 %); 50 % of pollen arriving on stigmas germinated. Pollen remained viable for only 3 h and the pollen : ovule ratio was 79 333 : 1. Pistil receptivity lasted for only 3 h and, overall, 86·7 % of pistils were pollinated. Within the spike, the relative fecundity of different positions was middle > lower > upper throughout the period of pollination; daily variation of fecundity was similar to that of the pollen flow. The spikes that opened on the day of highest pollen density exhibited the highest fecundity (36·0 %). No seeds were produced by self‐pollination. • Conclusions The data suggest that low pollen viability, short pollen longevity and short pistil receptivity all appear to contribute to the low seed production typical of this important forage crop. PMID:14744707

  9. AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Ma, Zhao-Xia; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Bai, Jin-Rong; Ye, De

    2016-07-01

    In flowering plants, pollen tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pollen tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pollen tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal callose deposition in the pollen grains and had a significant impact on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pollen grains, pollen tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pollen-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cells of pollen grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:26699939

  10. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  11. Early Warning of Cotton Bollworm Resistance Associated with Intensive Planting of Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins. PMID:21857961

  12. A New Secondary Pollen Presentation Mechanism from a Wild Ginger (Zingiber densissimum) and Its Functional Roles in Pollination Process

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong-Li; Kress, W. John; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary pollen presentation (SPP), a floral mechanism of reproductive adaptation, has been described for more than 200 years, with nine types SPP recorded. However, few studies have been done experimentally to link the floral mechanism of SPP to its functional roles in pollination process. This study aims to describe a new SPP mechanism from a wild ginger (Zingiber densissimum, Zingiberaceae) and explore how the pollen arrangement of SPP affects pollen removal during the interaction with different pollinators. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments revealed that flowers lasted for less than one day. The breeding system was partially self-incompatible. Two bee species, Macropis hedini (which carried pollen dorsally) and Amegilla zonata (which carried pollen ventrally) were the primary pollinators. About a third of pollen grains were relocated from the anther to the labellum staminode of flowers through the adherence of aggregated pollen chains, while other grains were presented on the anther. In a single visit, each bee species removed pollen grains from both the labellum staminode and the anther. Macropis hedini was more effective than Amegilla zonata. Conclusions/Significance Our study describes a new SPP mechanism in angiosperms. The new SPP mode enables pollen grains presented on the anther and the labellum staminode simultaneously via the adherence of aggregated pollen chains, thus promoting pollen to be taken away by different pollinators. This SPP mechanism plays a key role during pollen removal and may have evolved under the pressure to improve male fitness. PMID:26637125

  13. RNA Silencing of Exocyst Genes in the Stigma Impairs the Acceptance of Compatible Pollen in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Safavian, Darya; Zayed, Yara; Indriolo, Emily; Chapman, Laura; Ahmed, Abdalla; Goring, Daphne R

    2015-12-01

    Initial pollen-pistil interactions in the Brassicaceae are regulated by rapid communication between pollen grains and stigmatic papillae and are fundamentally important, as they are the first step toward successful fertilization. The goal of this study was to examine the requirement of exocyst subunits, which function in docking secretory vesicles to sites of polarized secretion, in the context of pollen-pistil interactions. One of the exocyst subunit genes, EXO70A1, was previously identified as an essential factor in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brassica napus. We hypothesized that EXO70A1, along with other exocyst subunits, functions in the Brassicaceae dry stigma to deliver cargo-bearing secretory vesicles to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane, under the pollen attachment site, for pollen hydration and pollen tube entry. Here, we investigated the functions of exocyst complex genes encoding the remaining seven subunits, SECRETORY3 (SEC3), SEC5, SEC6, SEC8, SEC10, SEC15, and EXO84, in Arabidopsis stigmas following compatible pollinations. Stigma-specific RNA-silencing constructs were used to suppress the expression of each exocyst subunit individually. The early postpollination stages of pollen grain adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen tube penetration, seed set, and overall fertility were analyzed in the transgenic lines to evaluate the requirement of each exocyst subunit. Our findings provide comprehensive evidence that all eight exocyst subunits are necessary in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen. Thus, this work implicates a fully functional exocyst complex as a component of the compatible pollen response pathway to promote pollen acceptance. PMID:26443677

  14. Grass pollen hypersensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    McCaskill, A. C.; Hosking, C. S.; Hill, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Mice were sensitized by intranasal administration of ryegrass pollen. Subsequent nasal challenge with pollen extract led to a `shock' response peaking in severity 4 hr after challenge. Histological examination of lungs revealed the development of a pneumonitis which was most severe 3 days after challenge. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:7106842

  15. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  16. CottonDB Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, was developed under a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) project as part of a national program to develop plant genome databases for all agricultural commodities. This first and most extensively used database for ...

  17. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  18. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  19. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  20. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inter...

  1. COTTON TRASH CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of cotton plant trash samples were sequentially extracted using toluene, methanol, propanol, and water to detect botanical differences. The United States currently produces around 20 million bales of cotton that is subsequently classed (length, strength, fineness, color, and trash) for mar...

  2. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g−1 [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid-treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton. PMID:20700762

  3. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  4. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  5. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  7. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  8. Pollen Tubes Lacking a Pair of K+ Transporters Fail to Target Ovules in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongxian; Chanroj, Salil; Zulkifli, Lalu; Johnson, Mark A.; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Cheung, Alice; Sze, Heven

    2011-01-01

    Flowering plant reproduction requires precise delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule by a pollen tube. Guidance signals from female cells are being identified; however, how pollen responds to those cues is largely unknown. Here, we show that two predicted cation/proton exchangers (CHX) in Arabidopsis thaliana, CHX21 and CHX23, are essential for pollen tube guidance. Male fertility was unchanged in single chx21 or chx23 mutants. However, fertility was impaired in chx21 chx23 double mutant pollen. Wild-type pistils pollinated with a limited number of single and double mutant pollen producing 62% fewer seeds than those pollinated with chx23 single mutant pollen, indicating that chx21 chx23 pollen is severely compromised. Double mutant pollen grains germinated and grew tubes down the transmitting tract, but the tubes failed to turn toward ovules. Furthermore, chx21 chx23 pollen tubes failed to enter the micropyle of excised ovules. Green fluorescent protein–tagged CHX23 driven by its native promoter was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of pollen tubes. CHX23 mediated K+ transport, as CHX23 expression in Escherichia coli increased K+ uptake and growth in a pH-dependent manner. We propose that by modifying localized cation balance and pH, these transporters could affect steps in signal reception and/or transduction that are critical to shifting the axis of polarity and directing pollen growth toward the ovule. PMID:21239645

  9. Pollen Performance in Clarkia Taxa with Contrasting Mating Systems: Implications for Male Gametophytic Evolution in Selfers and Outcrossers

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Alisa A.; Mazer, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    We tested three predictions regarding the joint evolution of pollen performance and mating system. First, due to the potential for intense intrasexual competition in outcrossing populations, we predicted that outcrossers would produce faster-growing pollen than their selfing relatives. Second, if elevated competition promotes stronger selection on traits that improve pollen performance, then, among-plant variation in pollen performance would be lower in outcrossers than in selfers. Third, given successive generations of adaptation to the same maternal genotype in selfers, we predicted that, in selfing populations (but not in outcrossing ones), pollen would perform better following self- than cross-pollinations. We tested these predictions in field populations of two pairs of Clarkia (Onagraceae) sister taxa. Consistent with our predictions, one outcrosser (C. unguiculata) exhibited faster pollen germination and less variation in pollen tube growth rate (PTGR) among pollen donors than its selfing sister species, C. exilis. Contrary to our predictions, the selfing C. xantiana ssp. parviflora exhibited faster PTGR than the outcrossing ssp. xantiana, and these taxa showed similar levels of variation in this trait. Pollen performance following self- vs. cross-pollinations did not differ within either selfing or outcrossing taxa. While these findings suggest that mating system and pollen performance may jointly evolve in Clarkia, other factors clearly contribute to pollen performance in natural populations. PMID:27137375

  10. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  11. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  12. F-actin forms mobile and unwinding ring-shaped structures in germinating Arabidopsis pollen expressing Lifeact

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Frank; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The flowering plant pollen tube is the fastest elongating plant cell and transports the sperm cells for double fertilization. The highly dynamic formation and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. To drive pollen-specific expression of fluorescent marker proteins, commonly the strong Lat52 promoter is used. Here we show by quantitative fluorescent analysis that the gametophyte-specific ARO1 promoter from Arabidopsis drives an about 3.5 times weaker transgene expression than the Lat52 promoter. In one third of the pollen of F-actin-labeled ARO1p:tagRFP-T-Lifeact transgenic lines we observed mobile ring-shaped actin structures in pollen grains and pollen tubes. Pollen tube growth, transgene transmission and seed production were not affected by tagRFP-T-Lifeact expression. F-actin rings were able to integrate into emerging actin filaments and they may reflect a particular physiological state of the pollen or a readily available storage form provided for rapid actin network remodeling. PMID:26337326

  13. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  14. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  15. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  16. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  17. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  18. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    1987-11-01

    Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  19. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  20. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  1. Long-term monitoring of airborne pollen in Alaska and the Yukon: Possible implications for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne pollen and spores have been sampled since 1978 in Fairbanks and 1982 Anchorage and other Alaska-Yukon locations for medical and ecological purposes. Comparative analyses of pre- and post-1986 data subsets reveal that after 1986 (1) pollen is in the air earlier, (2) the multiyear average of degree-days promoting pollen onset is little changed while (3) annual variation in degree-days at onset is greater, (4) pollen and spore annual productions are considerably higher, and (5) there is more year-to-year variation in pollen production. These changes probably reflect directional changes in certain weather variables, and there is some indication that they are of global change significance, i.e., related to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Correlations with pollen data suggest that weather variables of high influence are temperatures during specific periods following pollen dispersal in the preceding year and the average temperature in April of the current year. Annual variations in pollen dispersal might be roughly linked to the 11 year sunspot cycle through air temperature mediators. Weather in 1990, apparent pollen production cycles under endogenous control, and the impending sunspot maximum portend a very severe pollen season in 199 existing but unfunded sampling projects.

  2. Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties?

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Michael; Haider, Mare; Dorn, Silvia; Müller, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Generalist herbivorous insects, which feed on plant tissue that is nutritionally heterogeneous or varies in its content of secondary metabolites, often benefit from dietary mixing through more balanced nutrient intake or reduced exposure to harmful secondary metabolites. Pollen is similarly heterogeneous as other plant tissue in its content of primary and secondary metabolites, suggesting that providing their offspring with mixed pollen diets might be a promising strategy for pollen generalist bees to complement nutrient imbalances or to mitigate harmful secondary metabolites of unfavourable pollen. In the present study, we compared larval performance of the pollen generalist solitary bee species Osmia cornuta (Megachilidae) on five experimental pollen diets that consisted of different proportions of unfavourable pollen diet of Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae) and favourable pollen diet of Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae). In addition, we microscopically analysed the pollen contained in the scopal brushes of field-collected females of O. cornuta and three closely related species to elucidate to what degree these pollen generalist bees mix pollen of different hosts in their brood cells. In striking contrast to a pure Ranunculus pollen diet, which had a lethal effect on most developing larvae of O. cornuta, larval survival, larval development time and adult body mass of both males and females remained nearly unaffected by the admixture of up to 50% of Ranunculus pollen diet to the larval food. Between 42% and 66% of all female scopal pollen loads analysed contained mixtures of pollen from two to six plant families, indicating that pollen mixing is a common behaviour in O. cornuta and the three related bee species. The present study provides the first evidence that the larvae of pollen generalist bees can benefit from the nutrient content of unfavourable pollen without being negatively affected by its unfavourable chemical properties if such pollen is mixed with

  3. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  4. Preferential expression of an alpha-tubulin gene of Arabidopsis in pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J L; Ploense, S E; Snustad, D P; Silflow, C D

    1992-01-01

    The pool of tubulin protein in tissues of Arabidopsis is provided by the expression of multiple alpha-tubulin (TUA) and beta-tubulin genes. Whereas most tubulin genes are expressed in many tissues, previous evidence suggested that the TUA1 gene might be expressed primarily in pollen. We now report a detailed analysis of TUA1 expression during Arabidopsis development. In RNA from tissues of dissected flowers, TUA1 transcripts were detected only in stamens and mature pollen. Chimeric genes containing TUA1 5' flanking DNA fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were used to create transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plants containing a chimeric gene with 533 bp of 5' flanking sequence were analyzed by histochemical assay to localize GUS expression within the plant. The blue product of GUS enzyme activity accumulated very rapidly in postmitotic pollen grains. Much lower levels of GUS activity were detected in anthers with uninucleate pollen grains, in flower receptacles, and in a few vegetative tissues. Analysis of 5' deletions of the TUA1 promoter suggested that 97 bp of 5' flanking DNA is sufficient to drive GUS expression in pollen and young anthers, whereas at least 380 bp is required to detect GUS expression in the receptacle. Examination of the TUA1 promoter sequence revealed several motifs that are repeated within the TUA1 promoter and are similar to sequences in other pollen-specific promoters. PMID:1498610

  5. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  6. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  7. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  8. RNA Silencing of Exocyst Genes in the Stigma Impairs the Acceptance of Compatible Pollen in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Safavian, Darya; Indriolo, Emily; Chapman, Laura; Ahmed, Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Initial pollen-pistil interactions in the Brassicaceae are regulated by rapid communication between pollen grains and stigmatic papillae and are fundamentally important, as they are the first step toward successful fertilization. The goal of this study was to examine the requirement of exocyst subunits, which function in docking secretory vesicles to sites of polarized secretion, in the context of pollen-pistil interactions. One of the exocyst subunit genes, EXO70A1, was previously identified as an essential factor in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brassica napus. We hypothesized that EXO70A1, along with other exocyst subunits, functions in the Brassicaceae dry stigma to deliver cargo-bearing secretory vesicles to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane, under the pollen attachment site, for pollen hydration and pollen tube entry. Here, we investigated the functions of exocyst complex genes encoding the remaining seven subunits, SECRETORY3 (SEC3), SEC5, SEC6, SEC8, SEC10, SEC15, and EXO84, in Arabidopsis stigmas following compatible pollinations. Stigma-specific RNA-silencing constructs were used to suppress the expression of each exocyst subunit individually. The early postpollination stages of pollen grain adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen tube penetration, seed set, and overall fertility were analyzed in the transgenic lines to evaluate the requirement of each exocyst subunit. Our findings provide comprehensive evidence that all eight exocyst subunits are necessary in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen. Thus, this work implicates a fully functional exocyst complex as a component of the compatible pollen response pathway to promote pollen acceptance. PMID:26443677

  9. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  10. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  11. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  12. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Year-round pollen producion can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality.

  13. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25416245

  14. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain

    PubMed Central

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Neumann, Max

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015) in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N), prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen) and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion. PMID:26568978

  15. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Neumann, Max

    2015-12-01

    Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015) in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N), prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen) and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion. PMID:26568978

  16. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30 % of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine. PMID:27002515

  17. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. PMID:24750956

  18. Sulfinylated azadecalins act as functional mimics of a pollen germination stimulant in Arabidopsis pistils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Wysocki, Ronald J; Somogyi, Arpad; Feinstein, Yelena; Franco, Jessica Y; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Levy, Clara; Smith, Steven; Simpson, Robert; Gang, David; Johnson, Mark A; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2011-12-01

    Polarized cell elongation is triggered by small molecule cues during development of diverse organisms. During plant reproduction, pollen interactions with the stigma result in the polar outgrowth of a pollen tube, which delivers sperm cells to the female gametophyte to effect double fertilization. In many plants, pistils stimulate pollen germination. However, in Arabidopsis, the effect of pistils on pollen germination and the pistil factors that stimulate pollen germination remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that stigma, style, and ovules in Arabidopsis pistils stimulate pollen germination. We isolated an Arabidopsis pistil extract fraction that stimulates Arabidopsis pollen germination, and employed ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization (ESI), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) and MS/MS techniques to accurately determine the mass (202.126 Da) of a compound that is specifically present in this pistil extract fraction. Using the molecular formula (C10H19NOS) and tandem mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the m/z (mass to charge ratio) 202.126 ion, we postulated chemical structures, devised protocols, synthesized N-methanesulfinyl 1- and 2-azadecalins that are close structural mimics of the m/z 202.126 ion, and showed that they are sufficient to stimulate Arabidopsis pollen germination in vitro (30 μm stimulated approximately 50% germination) and elicit accession-specific response. Although N-methanesulfinyl 2-azadecalin stimulated pollen germination in three species of Lineage I of Brassicaceae, it did not induce a germination response in Sisymbrium irio (Lineage II of Brassicaceae) and tobacco, indicating that activity of the compound is not random. Our results show that Arabidopsis pistils promote germination by producing azadecalin-like molecules to ensure rapid fertilization by the appropriate pollen. PMID:21801250

  19. Pollen Recovery from Insects: Light Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insect species feed on the pollen, nectar, and other plant exudates that are associated with flowers. As a result of this feeding activity, pollen becomes attached to the insects. Analysis of the pollen attached to these insects can reveal what insects eat, their dispersal patterns in and...

  20. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery. PMID:25442716

  1. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage. PMID:26934148

  2. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion...

  3. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    PubMed

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  4. Pollen contamination of boll weevil traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the Twentieth Century, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, was the most devastating insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus, in the southern United States of America (U.S.A.). Although thought to feed only on cotton, the list of non-cotton alternative food sources incr...

  5. Kinetic of NO2 uptake by Phleum pratense pollen: chemical and allergenic implications.

    PubMed

    Chassard, Guillaume; Choël, Marie; Gosselin, Sylvie; Vorng, Han; Petitprez, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Visez, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Phleum pratense pollen was exposed to NO(2) in a reactor allowing a continuous analysis of NO(2) concentration by FTIR. The uptake coefficient of NO(2) on pollen was calculated postulating a first order kinetic reaction and a value of (1.1 ± 0.1) x 10(-7) was determined. NO(2) uptake was faster when the pollen water content was increased and when the pollen was pre-treated with ozone. The effect of NO(2) exposure on pollen allergic properties was investigated by quantifying Th2- and Th1-associated chemokines in a model of human dendritic cells. Cellular analysis clearly showed that cells exposed to fumigated pollen favored the production of chemokines known to promote Th2-cell responses. Altogether these data demonstrate that NO(2) uptake by pollen directly correlates with increased Th2 response in human cells,and are in favor of the involvement of NO(2) pollution in the increase of allergic diseases. PMID:25463703

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant. PMID:27356912

  7. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  8. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  9. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  10. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  11. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis. PMID:6298081

  12. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    PubMed

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  13. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  14. Linking pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt.

    PubMed

    Cayenne Engel, E; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2003-11-01

    The majority of flowering plants require animals for pollination, a critical ecosystem service in natural and agricultural systems. However, quantifying useful estimates of pollinator visitation rates can be nearly impossible when pollinator visitation is infrequent. We examined the utility of an indirect measure of pollinator visitation, namely pollen receipt by flowers, using the hummingbird-pollinated plant, Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). Our a priori hypothesis was that increased pollinator visitation should result in increased pollen receipt by stigmas. However, the relationship between pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt may be misleading if pollen receipt is a function of both the number of pollinator visits and variation in pollinator efficiency at depositing pollen, especially in the context of variable floral morphology. Therefore, we measured floral and plant characters known to be important to pollinator visitation and/or pollen receipt in I. aggregata (corolla length and width and plant height) and used path analysis to dissect and compare the effect of pollinator visitation rate vs. pollinator efficiency on pollen receipt. Of the characters we measured, pollinator visitation rate (number of times plants were visited multiplied by the mean percentage of flowers probed per visit) had the strongest direct positive effect on pollen receipt, explaining 36% of the variation in pollen receipt. Plant height had a direct positive effect on pollinator visitation rate and an indirect positive effect on pollen receipt. Despite the supposition that floral characters would directly affect pollen receipt as a result of changes in pollinator efficiency, corolla length and width only weakly affected pollen receipt. These results suggest a direct positive link between pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt across naturally varying floral morphology in I. aggregata. Understanding the relationship between pollinator visitation rate and pollen

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia pollen grains extracts in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Varpe, Saroj S.; Juvekar, Archana R.; Bidikar, Mukta P.; Juvekar, Parikshit R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of Typha angustifolia. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of pollen grains of T. angustifolia was studied using the carrageenan as phlogistic agent, whereas its chronic anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by the percentage inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: Both aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the control (P<0.001). It was observed that both the extracts at dose of 125 mg/kg inhibited the granuloma formation by 44.30% which is higher than at dose of 500, 250 mg/kg, thus causing a significant (P<0.001) non-dose-related inhibition of granuloma formation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia are effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and thus support its traditional utilization. PMID:23248413

  16. High temperature limits in vivo pollen tube growth rates by altering diurnal carbohydrate balance in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum pistils.

    PubMed

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Kawakami, Eduardo M

    2011-07-15

    It has recently been reported that high temperature slows in vivo pollen tube growth rates in Gossypium hirsutum pistils under field conditions. Although numerous physical and biochemical pollen-pistil interactions are necessary for in vivo pollen tube growth to occur, studies investigating the influence of heat-induced changes in pistil biochemistry on in vivo pollen tube growth rates are lacking. We hypothesized that high temperature would alter diurnal pistil biochemistry and that pollen tube growth rates would be dependent upon the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth. G. hirsutum seeds were sown on different dates to obtain flowers exposed to contrasting ambient temperatures but at the same developmental stage. Diurnal pistil measurements included carbohydrate balance, glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.8.1.7), soluble protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and water-soluble calcium. Soluble carbohydrate levels in cotton pistils were as much as 67.5% lower under high temperature conditions (34.6 °C maximum air temperature; August 4, 2009) than under cooler conditions (29.9 °C maximum air temperature; August 14, 2009). Regression analysis revealed that pollen tube growth rates were highly correlated with the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth (r² = 0.932). Higher ambient temperature conditions on August 4 increased GR activity in the pistil only during periods not associated with in vivo pollen tube growth; pistil protein content declined earlier in the day under high temperatures; SOD and NOX were unaffected by either sample date or time of day; pistil ATP and water soluble calcium were unaffected by the warmer temperatures. We conclude that moderate heat stress significantly alters diurnal carbohydrate balance in the pistil and suggest that pollen tube growth rate through the style may be limited by soluble carbohydrate

  17. A Tale of Two Morphs: Modeling Pollen Transfer, Magic Traits, and Reproductive Isolation in Parapatry

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Benjamin C.; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Keller, Barbara; Hendry, Andrew P.; Conti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the flower is commonly thought to have spurred angiosperm diversification. Similarly, particular floral traits might have promoted diversification within specific angiosperm clades. We hypothesize that traits promoting the precise positional transfer of pollen between flowers might promote diversification. In particular, precise pollen transfer might produce partial reproductive isolation that facilitates adaptive divergence between parapatric populations differing in their reproductive-organ positions. We investigate this hypothesis with an individual-based model of pollen transfer dynamics associated with heterostyly, a floral syndrome that depends on precise pollen transfer. Our model shows that precise pollen transfer can cause sexual selection leading to divergence in reproductive-organ positions between populations served by different pollinators, pleiotropically causing an increase in reproductive isolation through a “magic trait” mechanism. Furthermore, this increased reproductive isolation facilitates adaptive divergence between the populations in an unlinked, ecologically selected trait. In a different pollination scenario, however, precise pollen transfer causes a decrease in adaptive divergence by promoting asymmetric gene flow. Our results highlight the idea that magic traits are not “magic” in isolation; in particular, the effect size of magic traits in speciation depends on the external environment, and also on other traits that modify the strength of the magic trait's influence on non-random mating. Overall, we show that the evolutionary consequences of pollen transfer dynamics can depend strongly on the available pollinator fauna and on the morphological fit between flowers and pollinators. Furthermore, our results illustrate the potential importance of even weak reproductive isolating barriers in facilitating adaptive divergence. PMID:25211280

  18. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  19. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  20. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  1. Control of Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow in Transgenic Trees[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsheng; Norris-Caneda, Kim H.; Rottmann, William H.; Gulledge, Jon E.; Chang, Shujun; Kwan, Brian Yow-Hui; Thomas, Anita M.; Mandel, Lydia C.; Kothera, Ronald T.; Victor, Aditi D.; Pearson, Leslie; Hinchee, Maud A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Pollen elimination provides an effective containment method to reduce direct gene flow from transgenic trees to their wild relatives. Until now, only limited success has been achieved in controlling pollen production in trees. A pine (Pinus radiata) male cone-specific promoter, PrMC2, was used to drive modified barnase coding sequences (barnaseH102E, barnaseK27A, and barnaseE73G) in order to determine their effectiveness in pollen ablation. The expression cassette PrMC2-barnaseH102E was found to efficiently ablate pollen in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), pine, and Eucalyptus (spp.). Large-scale and multiple-year field tests demonstrated that complete prevention of pollen production was achieved in greater than 95% of independently transformed lines of pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) that contained the PrMC2-barnaseH102E expression cassette. A complete pollen control phenotype was achieved in transgenic lines and expressed stably over multiple years, multiple test locations, and when the PrMC2-barnaseH102E cassette was flanked by different genes. The PrMC2-barnaseH102E transgenic pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) trees grew similarly to control trees in all observed attributes except the pollenless phenotype. The ability to achieve the complete control of pollen production in field-grown trees is likely the result of a unique combination of three factors: the male cone/anther specificity of the PrMC2 promoter, the reduced RNase activity of barnaseH102E, and unique features associated with a polyploid tapetum. The field performance of the PrMC2-barnaseH102E in representative angiosperm and gymnosperm trees indicates that this gene can be used to mitigate pollen-mediated gene flow associated with large-scale deployment of transgenic trees. PMID:22723085

  2. Mineral content of commercial pollen.

    PubMed

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Díaz Marquina, A; Bravo Serrano, R; Blaźquez Abellán, G

    2001-05-01

    Pollen is a natural product which is extending its marketing day by day, given that it is considered to be a dietetic product and it is consumed everyday by a broad sector of the Spanish population. In its composition it presents valuable nutrients, among which we can find minerals, which is the main object of this study. We have analysed sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 15 pollen samples which correspond to different brands. The technique we have used is atomic absortion spectroscopy. The results show us the great potassium contribution of this natural product, with values over 400 mg/100 g, and about microelements, mainly iron and zinc, although with different results, depending on the brand which markets it, with average values of 4.01 +/- 1.00 and 3.66 +/- 1.02, respectively. PMID:11400473

  3. Non-symmetrical cytosine methylation in tobacco pollen DNA.

    PubMed

    Oakeley, E J; Jost, J P

    1996-07-01

    We have detected sequence-specific non-symmetrical cytosine methylation within a 140 bp region of the promoter for the tobacco auxin-binding protein gene T85 in pollen DNA. Direct sequencing of the population of bisulphite reaction products showed that, in this region. 10 out of a possible 49 cytosine residues were methylated at a high frequency in pollen whereas the corresponding region from somatic cells (leaf DNA) did not show a detectable level of methylation. The context of these sites was 1 x m5CpTpC, 1 x m5CpGpT, 1 x m5CpCpT, 2 x m5CpTpT, 2 x m5CpGpG, and 3 x m5CpApT of which only m5CpGpG and m5CpGpT fitted the consensus sequence for symmetrical methylation in plants. PMID:8806424

  4. Particulate matter modifies the association between airborne pollen and daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Nishihata, Shinichi; Shinsugi, Chisa; Ueda, Kayo; Takami, Akinori; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-11-15

    Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for pollinosis. A total of 11,713 daily pollinosis cases (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10, J30.1) from January to May, 2001-2011, were obtained from a clinic in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Daily pollen counts and the daily mean values of air pollutants (PM2.5, SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) were collected from monitoring stations across Tokyo. The effects of pollen were stratified by the level of PM2.5 and SPM to examine the interaction effect of pollen and particulate pollutants. We found a statistically significant interaction between pollen concentration and PM2.5/SPM. On days with a high level of PM2.5 (>95th percentile), an interquartile increase in the mean cumulative pollen count (an average of 28 pollen grains per cm(2) during lag-days 0 to 5) corresponded to a 10.30% (95%CI: 8.48%-12.16%) increase in daily new pollinosis cases, compared to 8.04% (95%CI: 7.28%-8.81%) on days with a moderate level of PM2.5 (5th-95th percentile). This interaction persisted when different percentile cut-offs were used and was robust to the inclusion of other air pollutants. A similar interaction pattern was observed between SPM and pollen when a less extreme cut-off for SPM was used to stratify the effect of pollen. Our study showed the acute effect of pollen was greater when the concentration of air particulate pollutant, specifically PM2.5 and SPM, was higher. These findings are consistent with the notion that particulate air pollution may act as an adjuvant that promotes allergic disease (i

  5. A Pollen Coat–Inducible Autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase Expressed in Stigmatic Papilla Cells Is Required for Compatible Pollination in the Brassicaceae[W

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Megumi; Igarashi, Motoko; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kaothien-Nakayama, Pulla; Nakayama, Hideki; Moriyama, Hideki; Yakabe, Ryo; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Ueki, Masao; Tamiya, Gen; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca2+ export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca2+ transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca2+ transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca2+ export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca2+ to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization. PMID:24569769

  6. A pollen coat-inducible autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase expressed in stigmatic papilla cells is required for compatible pollination in the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Megumi; Igarashi, Motoko; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kaothien-Nakayama, Pulla; Nakayama, Hideki; Moriyama, Hideki; Yakabe, Ryo; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Ueki, Masao; Tamiya, Gen; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca(2+) export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca(2+) transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca(2+) transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca(2+) export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca(2+) to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization. PMID:24569769

  7. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  8. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  9. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230