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Sample records for cotton pollen promoter

  1. Cotton pollen retention in boll weevils, a laboratory experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is thought to exist in a boll weevil’s gut for at least 18 hours. In a controlled laboratory experiment examining non-cotton food sources, a cotton pollen grain was found in an individual boll weevil that had not fed on cotton for 120 hours. Because we believe that finding whole or ...

  2. Influence of abiotic stress, flower morphology, and pollen dehydration sensitivity on cotton out-crossing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified ...

  3. Cotton flowers: Pollen and petal humidity sensitivities determine reproductive competitiveness in diverse environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen and identified genetic variability among the six cotton lines studied. Genetic diversity in pollen viability was observed following a 6.5 h exposure to 25% relative humidity (RH). NM67, DP565, and...

  4. Cotton Flowers: Pollen and Petal Humidity Sensitivities Determine Reproductive Competitiveness in Diverse Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified genetic vari...

  5. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  6. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  7. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  8. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  9. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  10. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 72747); and the Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order on... published in the October 5, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 51094). This administrative action...

  11. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  12. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  13. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic cotton under greenhouse conditions is dependent on different pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Li, Zhen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Luo, Junyu; Cui, Jinjie; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    With the large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) crops, there are ecological concerns on transgene movement from GM crops to non-GM counterparts and wild relatives. In this research, we conducted greenhouse experiments to measure pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) in the absence and presence of pollinators (Bombus ignitus, Apis mellifera and Pieris rapae) in one GM cotton (resistant to the insect Helicoverpa armigera and the herbicide glyphosate) and two non-GM lines (Shiyuan321 and Hai7124) during 2012 and 2013. Our results revealed that: (1) PGF varied depending on the pollinator species, and was highest with B. ignitus (10.83%) and lowest with P. rapae (2.71%); (2) PGF with B. ignitus depended on the distance between GM and non-GM cottons; (3) total PGF to Shiyuan321 (8.61%) was higher than to Hai7124 (4.10%). To confirm gene flow, we tested hybrids carrying transgenes for their resistance to glyphosate and H. armigera, and most hybrids showed strong resistance to the herbicide and insect. Our research confirmed that PGF depended on pollinator species, distance between plants and the receptor plant. PMID:26525573

  14. Pollen specificity elements reside in 30 bp of the proximal promoters of two pollen-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Y; Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1995-03-01

    Functional analyses previously identified minimal promoter regions required for maintaining high-level expression of the late anther tomato LAT52 and LAT59 genes in tomato pollen. Here, we now define elements that direct pollen specificity. We used a transient assay system consisting of two cell types that differentially express the LAT genes and both "loss-of-function" and "gain-of-function" approaches. Linker substitution mutants analyzed in the transient assay and in transgenic plants identified 30-bp proximal promoter regions of LAT52 and LAT59 that are essential for their expression in pollen and that confer pollen specificity when fused to the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter. In vivo competition experiments demonstrated that a common trans-acting factor interacts with the pollen specificity region of both LAT gene promoters and suggested that a common mechanism regulates their coordinate expression. Adjacent upstream elements, the 52/56 box in LAT52 and the 56/59 box in LAT59, are involved in modulating the level of expression in pollen. The 52/56 box may be a target for the binding of a member of the GT-1 transcription factor family. PMID:7734969

  15. Pollen specificity elements reside in 30 bp of the proximal promoters of two pollen-expressed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Y; Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1995-01-01

    Functional analyses previously identified minimal promoter regions required for maintaining high-level expression of the late anther tomato LAT52 and LAT59 genes in tomato pollen. Here, we now define elements that direct pollen specificity. We used a transient assay system consisting of two cell types that differentially express the LAT genes and both "loss-of-function" and "gain-of-function" approaches. Linker substitution mutants analyzed in the transient assay and in transgenic plants identified 30-bp proximal promoter regions of LAT52 and LAT59 that are essential for their expression in pollen and that confer pollen specificity when fused to the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter. In vivo competition experiments demonstrated that a common trans-acting factor interacts with the pollen specificity region of both LAT gene promoters and suggested that a common mechanism regulates their coordinate expression. Adjacent upstream elements, the 52/56 box in LAT52 and the 56/59 box in LAT59, are involved in modulating the level of expression in pollen. The 52/56 box may be a target for the binding of a member of the GT-1 transcription factor family. PMID:7734969

  16. [Cloning and characterization of D-113 gene promoter from cotton].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Ming; Guo, Yu-Long; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan

    2002-02-01

    To study the expression of late embryogenesis abundant gene in seeds, the 1,024 bp 5' flanking sequence of D-113 gene, a late embryogenesis abundant gene of Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312, was cloned by PCR. The similarity compared with the sequence of Lea protein gene family published was 92.50%. There are three putative ABREs and one enhancer-like which riches A/T in the promoter. The promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene to form pLD II. Via a particle bombardment, pLD II was introduced into embryogenic calli of cotton and seeds of Brassica napus which were all treated with abscisic acid for 3d before bombardment, also into roots, stems and leafs of cotton. Transient expression was measured histochemically as spot number 24 h after bombardment. GUS sexpression was observed in the seeds of Brassica napus and the embryogenic calli of cotton, but not found in roots and leaves of cotton. Those results indicated that the expression of D-113 gene promoter was embryo specific. PMID:11902000

  17. LeSTIG1, an extracellular binding partner for the pollen receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2, promotes pollen tube growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Kelley, Dior; Ezcurra, Inés; Cotter, Robyn; McCormick, Sheila

    2004-08-01

    As pollen tubes grow through the pistil they are thought to perceive and respond to diverse signals. The tomato pollen-specific receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 might participate in signaling during pollen tube growth. We previously showed that the extracellular domain of LePRK2 interacts with a pollen protein, LAT52, before but not after pollen germination. To determine whether LePRK2 might have different binding partner(s) after pollen germination, we characterized two more proteins that, like LAT52, were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens using the extracellular domains of LePRK1 and LePRK2 as baits. We show that LeSHY, a leucine-rich repeat protein from pollen, and LeSTIG1, a small cysteine-rich protein from pistil, can bind the extracellular domains of both LePRK1 and LePRK2 in vitro. In vitro binding assays with the extracellular domain of LePRK2 suggested that LeSTIG1 could displace binding of LAT52, consistent with the idea that LePRK1 and LePRK2 might interact with different ligands at different stages of pollen tube growth. Exogenous LeSTIG1 promotes pollen tube growth in vitro. The interaction of these pollen kinases with LeSTIG1 supports the notion that LePRK1 and LePRK2 are involved in mediating pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:15255864

  18. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  19. Bee Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Don’t confuse bee pollen with bee venom, honey, or royal jelly. People take bee pollen for ... Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de ...

  20. A Chimeric Arabinogalactan Protein Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton Cell Culture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Simon; Heath, Robyn Louise; Clarke, Adrienne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extracellular plant proteoglycans implicated in many aspects of plant growth and development, including in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE). We found that specific AGPs were produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) calli undergoing SE and that when these AGPs were isolated and incorporated into tissue culture medium, cotton SE was promoted. When the AGPs were partly or fully deglycosylated, SE-promoting activity was not diminished. Testing of AGPs separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the SE-promoting activity resided in a hydrophobic fraction. We cloned a full-length complementary DNA (cotton PHYTOCYANIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN-PROTEIN1 [GhPLA1]) that encoded the protein backbone of an AGP in the active fraction. It has a chimeric structure comprising an amino-terminal signal sequence, a phytocyanin-like domain, an AGP-like domain, and a hydrophobic carboxyl-terminal domain. Recombinant production of GhPLA1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells enabled us to purify and analyze a single glycosylated AGP and to demonstrate that this chimeric AGP promotes cotton SE. Furthermore, the nonglycosylated phytocyanin-like domain from GhPLA1, which was bacterially produced, also promoted SE, indicating that the glycosylated AGP domain was unnecessary for in vitro activity. PMID:22858635

  1. EFFECTS OF MODERATELY HIGH TEMPERATURE ON DIURNAL POLLEN TUBE GROWTH AND FERTILIZATION IN FIELD-GROWN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For Gossypium hirsutum pollination, germination, and pollen tube growth must occur in a highly concerted fashion on the day of flowering for fertilization to occur. We hypothesized that increased temperatures under field conditions would limit fertilization by inhibiting diurnal pollen tube growth t...

  2. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions. PMID:27386392

  3. The Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Mediates Growth-Promoting Signals and Positively Regulates Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In flowering plants, the process of pollen germination and tube growth is required for successful fertilization. A pollen receptor kinase from tomato, LePRK2, has been implicated in signaling during pollen germination and tube growth as well as in mediating pollen (tube)-pistil communication. Here w...

  4. Cotton gene flow: Genetic diversity in outcrossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose pollen ...

  5. MIKC* MADS-Protein Complexes Bind Motifs Enriched in the Proximal Region of Late Pollen-Specific Arabidopsis Promoters[W

    PubMed Central

    Verelst, Wim; Saedler, Heinz; Münster, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes over 100 MADS-domain transcription factors, categorized into five phylogenetic subgroups. Most research efforts have focused on just one of these subgroups (MIKCc), whereas the other four remain largely unexplored. Here, we report on five members of the so-called Mδ or Arabidopsis MIKC* (AtMIKC*) subgroup, which are predominantly expressed during the late stages of pollen development. Very few MADS-box genes function in mature pollen, and from this perspective, the AtMIKC* genes are therefore highly exceptional. We found that the AtMIKC* proteins are able to form multiple heterodimeric complexes in planta, and that these protein complexes exhibit a for the MADS-family unusual and high DNA binding specificity in vitro. Compared to their occurrence in promoters genome wide, AtMIKC* binding sites are strongly overrepresented in the proximal region of late pollen-specific promoters. By combining our experimental data with in silico genomics and pollen transcriptomics approaches, we identified a considerable number of putative direct target genes of the AtMIKC* transcription factor complexes in pollen, many of which have known or proposed functions in pollen tube growth. The expression of several of these predicted targets is altered in mutant pollen in which all AtMIKC* complexes are affected, and in vitro germination of this mutant pollen is severely impaired. Our data therefore suggest that the AtMIKC* protein complexes play an essential role in transcriptional regulation during late pollen development. PMID:17071640

  6. Developing Fiber Specific Promoter-Reporter Transgenic Lines to Study the Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Burke, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality. PMID:26030401

  7. Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  8. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  9. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5'-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5'-RACE). Here, we provide the first report on vsi

  10. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5′-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5′-RACE). Here, we provide the first report

  11. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  16. 76 FR 31573 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Request for Comments To Be Used in a Review of 1990...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... final rules published in the Federal Register on December 10, 1991 (56 FR 64470), corrected at (56 FR... issued on March 6, 2007. USDA announced its view (72 FR 9918) not to conduct a referendum regarding the... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Request for Comments To Be Used in...

  17. Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  14. Molecular cloning and analysis of a receptor-like promoter of Gbvdr3 gene in sea island cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B-J; Zhang, H-P; Chen, Q-Z; Tang, N; Wang, L-K; Wang, R-F; Zhang, B-L

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. The Ve1 homologous gene Gbvdr3 is resistant to Verticillium wilt. In order to understand of the function of the promoter Gbvdr3 in Gossypium barbadense, the promoter region of the receptor-like gene Gbvdr3 was obtained by genome walking, and the cis-element in the promoter was identified using the PLACE software in this study. The sequence analysis showed that the promoter contained elements related to stress resistance and light regulation. The cloned promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis. GUS expression was specifically detected in roots, flowers, and seeds, suggesting that the expression of Gbvdr3 is tissue-specific. Separation and characterization analysis of the promoter of Gbvdr3 provides a platform for further research and application of this gene. Thorough understanding of the function of the Gbvdr3 promoter is important for better understanding of Gbvdr3 function. These results indicated that the promoter of Gbvdr3 was a tissue-specific promoter. PMID:27323087

  15. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2014-01-01

    The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional genepromoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. PMID:24424501

  16. THE EFFECTS ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND MORTALITY, PUPATION AND TOLERANCE TO TOXIC PROTEIN IN COTTON BOLLS, POLLEN, AND ARTIFICIAL DIET BIOASSAYS OF PINK BOLLWORM (PBW) FEEDING ON NUCOTN 33B COTTON BOLLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottons that have a gene or genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki (Berliner) that produce insect toxins have been grown in Arizona since 1996. The threat of pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) resistance development to the toxin has been of continuing concern. The increasin...

  17. Pollen Primer

    MedlinePlus

    ... air filters (HEPA) or an electrostatic air filter. Tree Pollen Trees produce pollen earliest, as soon as January in ... distributed miles away. Fewer than 100 kinds of trees cause allergies. Some common ones are catalpa, elm, ...

  18. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... amendments. AMS developed implementing regulations for the import assessment effective July 31, 1992 (57 FR 29181); the elimination of the producer refund effective July 31, 1992 (57 FR 29181); and provided for importer representation on the Cotton Board effective December 21, 1991 (56 FR 65979). USDA conducted...

  19. Characterization and Promoter Analysis of a Cotton Ring-Type Ubiquitin Ligase (E3) Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cDNA, GhRING1, and its corresponding gene have been cloned and characterized. The GhRING1 gene encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) containing 337 amino acids (aa). The GhRING1 protein contains a RING finger motif with conserved cysteine and histine residues at the C-terminus a...

  20. Pollen Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen count, which is often reported by local weather broadcasts or allergy websites, is a measure of how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts tend to be highest early in the morning on warm, dry, breezy days and lowest during chilly, wet periods. ...

  1. Three cotton genes preferentially expressed in flower tissues encode actin-depolymerizing factors which are involved in F-actin dynamics in cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Bao; Xu, Dan; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Huang, Geng-Qing; Luo, Juan; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Xu, Wen-Liang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the high expression levels of actin-depolymerizing factor genes are related to pollen development, three GhADF genes (cDNAs) were isolated and characterized in cotton. Among them, GhADF6 and GhADF8 were preferentially expressed in petals, whereas GhADF7 displayed the highest level of expression in anthers, revealing its anther specificity. The GhADF7 transcripts in anthers reached its peak value at flowering, suggesting that its expression is developmentally-regulated in anthers. The GhADF7 gene including the promoter region was isolated from the cotton genome. To demonstrate the specificity of the GhADF7 promoter, the 5′-flanking region, including the promoter and 5′-untranslated region, was fused with the GUS gene. Histochemical assays demonstrated that the GhADF7:GUS gene was specifically expressed in pollen grains. When pollen grains germinated, very strong GUS staining was detected in the elongating pollen tube. Furthermore, overexpression of GhADF7 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the viable pollen grains and, consequently, transgenic plants were partially male-sterile. Overexpression of GhADF7 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) altered the balance of actin depolymerization and polymerization, leading to the defective cytokinesis and multinucleate formation in the cells. Given all the above results together, it is proposed that the GhADF7 gene may play an important role in pollen development and germination. PMID:19861654

  2. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  12. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family member with no previous characterization. Results Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2) and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. Conclusions uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2) and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues. PMID:22115195

  4. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology. PMID:26728504

  5. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  10. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for...

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  12. Tomato pistil factor STIG1 promotes in vivo pollen tube growth by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The speed of pollen tube growth is a major determinant of reproductive success in flowering plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) STIGMA-SPECIFIC PROTEIN1 (STIG1), a small Cys-rich protein from the pistil, was previously identified as a binding partner of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and shown ...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  15. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  16. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  17. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  18. SPRINKLER-INDUCED FLOWER LOSSES AND YIELD REDUCTIONS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is highly sensitive to water, rupturing within 1-2 minutes of contact. Greenhouse cotton was grown for 120 d under natural light conditions (28 ± 5*C air temperature). Flowers were sprayed with known volumes of water to determine how much was needed to reduce yield. These studies sho...

  19. A cotton BURP domain protein interacts with α-expansin and their co-expression promotes plant growth and fruit production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Gou, Jin-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Chang-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth requires cell wall extension. The cotton AtRD22-Like 1 gene GhRDL1, predominately expressed in elongating fiber cells, encodes a BURP domain-containing protein. Here, we show that GhRDL1 is localized in cell wall and interacts with GhEXPA1, an α-expansin functioning in wall loosening. Transgenic cotton overexpressing GhRDL1 showed an increase in fiber length and seed mass, and an enlargement of endopleura cells of ovules. Expression of either GhRDL1 or GhEXPA1 alone in Arabidopsis led to a substantial increase in seed size; interestingly, their co-expression resulted in the increased number of siliques, the nearly doubled seed mass, and the enhanced biomass production. Cotton plants overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhEXPA1 proteins produced strikingly more fruits (bolls), leading to up to 40% higher fiber yield per plant without adverse effects on fiber quality and vegetative growth. We demonstrate that engineering cell wall protein partners has a great potential in promoting plant growth and crop yield. PMID:23041940

  20. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... them is your first step toward feeling better. Pollen is a trigger for many people who have allergies and asthma. The types of pollens that are triggers vary from person to person ...

  1. FUBT, a putative MFS transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (FA) is a key component in virulence and symptom development in cotton during infection by Fusarium oxysporum. A putative MFS transporter gene was identified upstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of FA. Disruption of the transporter gene, designated...

  2. Pollen analyses for pollination research, unacetolyzed pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollinators can significantly increase the potential yield of crops, but little is known about which pollinators pollinate various crop species. Many pollinators feed on pollen, nectar and plant secretions associated with flowers, and consequently pollen attaches to the pollinators. Identification...

  3. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  4. Phytohormonal Networks Promote Differentiation of Fiber Initials on Pre-Anthesis Cotton Ovules Grown In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Triplett, Barbara A.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Stelly, David M.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Moon, Hong S.; Gilbert, Matthew K.; Thyssen, Gregory N.; Turley, Rickie B.; Fang, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  5. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  6. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  7. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317...

  17. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p < 0.001). For the tfd A gene, out-crossing ranged from 10.13% at 1 m to 0.04% at 50 m from the transgenic plants. For the Bt gene, out-crossing ranged from 8.16% at 1 m to 0.08% at 20 m from the transgenic plants. These data were fit to a power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  18. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Bonini, S; Nunes, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Behrendt, H; Liccardi, G; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2007-09-01

    The allergenic content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, geography and vegetation. Data on the presence and prevalence of allergenic airborne pollens, obtained from both aerobiological studies and allergological investigations, make it possible to design pollen calendars with the approximate flowering period of the plants in the sampling area. In this way, even though pollen production and dispersal from year to year depend on the patterns of preseason weather and on the conditions prevailing at the time of anthesis, it is usually possible to forecast the chances of encountering high atmospheric allergenic pollen concentrations in different areas. Aerobiological and allergological studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (for example, importation of plants such as birch and cypress for urban parklands), greater international travel (e.g. colonization by ragweed in France, northern Italy, Austria, Hungary etc.) and climate change. In this regard, the higher frequency of weather extremes, like thunderstorms, and increasing episodes of long range transport of allergenic pollen represent new challenges for researchers. Furthermore, in the last few years, experimental data on pollen and subpollen-particles structure, the pathogenetic role of pollen and the interaction between pollen and air pollutants, gave new insights into the mechanisms of respiratory allergic diseases. PMID:17521313

  19. Pollen (quick guide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is pollen, and is it haploid or diploid? Pollen is a crucial stage of the plant life cycle — without pollen there will be no seed. When someone says “Think of a plant,” the plant you think of (whether it’s a tree, a tomato plant, or a geranium) is a sporophyte. Most land plants are sporophytes...

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Deyi; Sun, Li; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lirong; Zhao, Yuanming; Lv, Shuping; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Li, Wu; Hou, Jianan; Duan, Zhengzheng; Yu, Yuebo; Yang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding. PMID:26382878

  2. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  3. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-01-01

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field. PMID:22002133

  4. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.516 - Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. 1205.516... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.516 Reports and remittance to the Cotton Board. (a) Handler reports and remittances. Each collecting handler shall...

  9. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  10. A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Bong; Golovkin, Maxim; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous genetic studies have revealed that a pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, No Pollen Germination 1 (NPG1), is required for pollen germination. However, its mode of action is unknown. Here we report direct interaction of NPG1 with pectate lyase-like proteins (PLLs). A truncated form of AtNPG1 lacking the N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1) failed to interact with PLLs, suggesting that it is essential for NPG1 interaction with PLLs. Localization studies with AtNPG1 fused to a fluorescent reporter driven by its native promoter revealed its presence in the cytosol and cell wall of the pollen grain and the growing pollen tube of plasmolyzed pollen. Together, our data suggest that the function of NPG1 in regulating pollen germination is mediated through its interaction with PLLs, which may modify the pollen cell wall and regulate pollen tube emergence and growth. PMID:24919580

  11. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Jean-Claude; Leroux, Christelle; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed. PMID:27137369

  12. Impact of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Cotton on the Honey Bee and Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3rd day of 5th B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm2), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

  13. Truncated Cotton Subtilase Promoter Directs Guard Cell-Specific Expression of Foreign Genes in Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A 993-bp regulatory region upstream of the translation start codon of subtilisin-like serine protease gene was isolated from Gossypium barbadense. This (T/A)AAAG-rich region, GbSLSP, and its 5′- and 3′-truncated versions were transferred into tobacco and Arabidopsis after fusing with GUS or GFP. Histochemical and quantitative GUS analysis and confocal GFP fluorescence scanning in the transgenic plants showed that the GbSLSP-driven GUS and GFP expressed preferentially in guard cells, whereas driven by GbSLSPF2 to GbSLSPF4, the 5′-truncated GbSLSP versions with progressively reduced Dof1 elements, both GUS and GFP expressed exclusively in guard cells, and the expression strength declined with (T/A)AAAG copy decrement. Deletion of 5′-untranslated region from GbSLSP markedly weakened the activity of GUS and GFP, while deletion from the strongest guard cell-specific promoter, GbSLSPF2, not only significantly decreased the expression strength, but also completely abolished the guard cell specificity. These results suggested both guard cell specificity and expression strength of the promoters be coordinately controlled by 5′-untranslated region and a cluster of at least 3 (T/A)AAAG elements within a region of about 100 bp relative to transcription start site. Our guard cell-specific promoters will enrich tools to manipulate gene expression in guard cells for scientific research and crop improvement. PMID:23555786

  14. Dating Fossil Pollen: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Describes a hands-on simulation in which students determine the age of "fossil" pollen samples based on the pollen types present when examined microscopically. Provides instructions for the preparation of pollen slides. (MDH)

  15. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  16. Annexin5 Plays a Vital Role in Arabidopsis Pollen Development via Ca2+-Dependent Membrane Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingen; Wu, Xiaorong; Yuan, Shunjie; Qian, Dong; Nan, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of pollen development and pollen tube growth is a complicated biological process that is crucial for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Annexins are widely distributed from protists to higher eukaryotes and play multiple roles in numerous cellular events by acting as a putative “linker” between Ca2+ signaling, the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane, which are required for pollen development and pollen tube growth. Our recent report suggested that downregulation of the function of Arabidopsis annexin 5 (Ann5) in transgenic Ann5-RNAi lines caused severely sterile pollen grains. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the function of Ann5 in pollen. This study demonstrated that Ann5 associates with phospholipid membrane and this association is stimulated by Ca2+ in vitro. Brefeldin A (BFA) interferes with endomembrane trafficking and inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Both pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ann5-overexpressing plants showed increased resistance to BFA treatment, and this effect was regulated by calcium. Overexpression of Ann5 promoted Ca2+-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in pollen tubes in vivo in response to BFA. Lactrunculin (LatB) significantly prohibited pollen germination and tube growth by binding with high affinity to monomeric actin and preferentially targeting dynamic actin filament arrays and preventing actin polymerization. Overexpression of Ann5 did not affect pollen germination or pollen tube growth in response to LatB compared with wild-type, although Ann5 interacts with actin filaments in a manner similar to some animal annexins. In addition, the sterile pollen phenotype could be only partially rescued by Ann5 mutants at Ca2+-binding sites when compared to the complete recovery by wild-type Ann5. These data demonstrated that Ann5 is involved in pollen development, germination and pollen tube growth through the promotion of endomembrane trafficking modulated by

  17. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some trees Some grasses Weeds Ragweed Watch the weather and the season The amount of pollen in the air can affect whether you or your child has hay fever and asthma symptoms. On hot, dry, windy days, more pollen is in the air. ...

  18. Stable transformation of the cotton plastid genome and maternal inheritance of transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering overcomes concerns of gene containment, low levels of transgene expression, gene silencing, positional and pleiotropic effects or presence of vector sequences in transformed genomes. Several therapeutic proteins and agronomic traits have been highly expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome but extending this concept to important crops has been a major challenge; lack of 100% homologous species-specific chloroplast transformation vectors containing suitable selectable markers, ability to regulate transgene expression in developing plastids and inadequate tissue culture systems via somatic embryogenesis are major challenges. We employed a ‘Double Gene/Single Selection (DGSS)’ plastid transformation vector that harbors two selectable marker genes (aphA-6 and nptII) to detoxify the same antibiotic by two enzymes, irrespective of the type of tissues or plastids; by combining this with an efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis, cotton plastid transformation was achieved for the first time. The DGSS transformation vector is at least 8-fold (1 event/2.4 bombarded plates) more efficient than ‘Single Gene/Single Selection (SGSS)’ vector (aphA-6; 1 event per 20 bombarded plates). Chloroplast transgenic lines were fertile, flowered and set seeds similar to untransformed plants. Transgenes stably integrated into the cotton chloroplast genome were maternally inherited and were not transmitted via pollen when out-crossed with untransformed female plants. Cotton is one of the most important genetically modified crops ($ 120 billion US annual economy). Successful transformation of the chloroplast genome should address concerns about transgene escape, insects developing resistance, inadequate insect control and promote public acceptance of genetically modified cotton. PMID:15604738

  19. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  20. Pollen Tube Discharge Completes the Process of Synergid Degeneration That Is Initiated by Pollen Tube-Synergid Interaction in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Alexander R.; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Qin, Yuan; Johnson, Mark A.; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    In flowering plant reproduction, pollen tube reception is the signaling system that results in pollen tube discharge, synergid degeneration, and successful delivery of male gametes (two sperm cells) to the site where they can fuse with female gametes (egg cell and central cell). Some molecules required for this complex and essential signaling exchange have been identified; however, fundamental questions about the nature of the interactions between the pollen tube and the synergid cells remain to be clarified. Here, we monitor pollen tube arrival, pollen tube discharge, and synergid degeneration in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild type and in male and female gametophytic mutants that disrupt development and function of the gametophytes. By combining assays used previously to study these interactions and an assay that facilitates simultaneous analysis of pollen tube discharge and synergid degeneration, we find that synergid degeneration could be initiated without pollen tube discharge. Our data support the hypothesis that pollen tube-synergid contact, or signaling via secreted molecules, initiates receptive synergid degeneration. We also find that when pollen tubes successfully burst, they always discharge into a degenerated synergid. In addition to this pollen tube-dependent promotion of synergid degeneration, we also show that a basal developmental pathway mediates synergid degeneration in the absence of pollination. Our results are consistent with the model that a complex set of interactions between the pollen tube and synergid cells promote receptive synergid degeneration. PMID:26229050

  1. Dictionary of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  2. Pollen-mediated dispersal of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth under field conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being a strong competitor with cotton and other row crops, Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to numerous important agricultural herbicides, including glyphosate. The objective of this study was to determine if the glyphosate-resistance trait can be transferred via pollen moveme...

  3. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  4. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  5. Expression of CP4 EPSPS in microspores and tapetum cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is critical for male reproductive development in response to late-stage glyphosate applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chia Sophia; Hubmeier, Christopher; Tran, Minhtien; Martens, Amy; Cerny, R Eric; Sammons, R Doug; CaJacob, Claire

    2006-09-01

    Plants expressing Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) are known to be resistant to glyphosate, a potent herbicide that inhibits the activity of the endogenous plant EPSPS. The RR1445 transgenic cotton line (current commercial line for Roundup Ready Cotton) was generated using the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S promoter to drive the expression of the CP4 EPSPS gene, and has excellent vegetative tolerance to glyphosate. However, with high glyphosate application rates at developmental stages later than the four-leaf stage (late-stage applications: applications that are inconsistent with the Roundup labels), RR1445 shows male sterility. Another transgenic cotton line, RR60, was generated using the FMV 35S promoter and the Arabidopsis elongation factor-1alpha promoter (AtEF1alpha) for the expression of CP4 EPSPS. RR60 has excellent vegetative and reproductive tolerance to applications of glyphosate at all developmental stages. Histochemical analyses were conducted to examine the male reproductive development at the cellular level of these cotton lines in response to glyphosate applications, and to investigate the correlation between glyphosate injury and the expression of CP4 EPSPS in male reproductive tissues. The expression of CP4 EPSPS in RR60 was found to be strong in all male reproductive cell types. Conversely, CP4 EPSPS expression in RR1445 was low in pollen mother cells, male gametophytes and tapetum, three crucial male reproductive cell types. Our results indicate that the FMV 35S promoter, although expressing strongly in most vegetative tissues in plants, has extremely low activity in these cell types. PMID:17309724

  6. Biological and therapeutic properties of bee pollen: a review.

    PubMed

    Denisow, Bożena; Denisow-Pietrzyk, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Natural products, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimise the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. The health-enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and co-enzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic antibacterial, antifungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long-term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in the application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species-specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee-pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee-pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27013064

  7. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  8. A study on the influence of different promoter and 5'UTR (URM) cassettes from Arabidopsis thaliana on the expression level of the reporter gene β glucuronidase in tobacco and cotton.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parul; Garg, Varsha; Gautam, Taru; Pillai, Beena; Kanoria, Shaveta; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Several reports of promoters from plants, viral and artificial origin that confer high constitutive expression are known. Among these the CaMV 35S promoter is used extensively for transgene expression in plants. We identified candidate promoters from Arabidopsis based on their transcript levels (meta-analysis of available microarray control datasets) to test their activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. A set of 11 candidate genes were identified which showed high transcript levels in the aerial tissue (i.e. leaf, shoot, flower and stem). In the initial part of the study binary vectors were developed wherein the promoter and 5'UTR region of these candidate genes (Upstream Regulatory Module, URM) were cloned upstream to the reporter gene β glucuronidase (gus). The promoter strengths were tested in transformed callus of Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum. On the basis of the results obtained from the callus, the influence of the URM cassettes on transgene expression was tested in transgenic tobacco. The URM regions of the genes encoding a subunit of photosystem I (PHOTO) and geranyl geranyl reductase (GGR) in A. thaliana genome showed significantly high levels of GUS activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. Further, when the 5'UTRs of both the genes were placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter it led to a substantial increase in GUS activity in transgenic tobacco lines and cotton callus. The enhancement observed was even higher to that observed with the viral leader sequences like Ω and AMV, known translational enhancers. Our results indicate that the two URM cassettes or the 5'UTR regions of PHOTO and GGR when placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter can be used to drive high levels of transgene expression in dicotyledons. PMID:24072400

  9. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  10. 78 FR 25181 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market... Federal Register on August 4, 1988 (53 FR 29327). For each of these bona fide spot markets, the Cotton and... Service 7 CFR Part 27 RIN 0581-AD26 Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets...

  11. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published... Federal Register on August 4, 1988 (53 FR 29327). For each of these bona fide spot markets, the Cotton and... Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  12. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  13. Differentiating pollen from four species of Gossypium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium (Malvaceae) has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. Four cotton species are economically important, Gossypium arboreum (tree cotton), G. barbadense (American pima cotton), G. herbaceum (levant cotton), and G. hirsutum (American upland cotton). Some research has be...

  14. How Does Pollen Chemistry Impact Development and Feeding Behaviour of Polylectic Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Rasmont, Pierre; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Bernard; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michez, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia) to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i) Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae), (ii) weight of pollen collected, (iii) pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected) and (iv) syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors) and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional “theme” seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the degree of

  15. Nematode Management in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

  16. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  17. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  18. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  19. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  20. Secretory activity is rapidly induced in stigmatic papillae by compatible pollen, but inhibited for self-incompatible pollen in the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Safavian, Darya; Goring, Daphne R

    2013-01-01

    [In the Brassicaceae, targeted exocytosis to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the compatible pollen grain is hypothesized to be essential for pollen hydration and pollen tube penetration. In contrast, polarized secretion is proposed to be inhibited in the stigmatic papillae during the rejection of self-incompatible pollen. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we performed a detailed time-course of post-pollination events to view the cytological responses of the stigmatic papillae to compatible and self-incompatible pollinations. For compatible pollinations in Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, vesicle secretion was observed at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the pollen grain while Brassica napus stigmatic papillae appeared to use multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for secretion. Exo70A1, a component of the exocyst complex, has been previously implicated in the compatible pollen responses, and disruption of Exo70A1 in both A. thaliana and B. napus resulted in a loss of secretory vesicles/MVBs at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane. Similarly, for self-incompatible pollinations, secretory vesicles/MVBs were absent from the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane in A. lyrata and B. napus; and furthermore, autophagy appeared to be induced to direct vesicles/MVBs to the vacuole for degradation. Thus, these findings support a model where the basal pollen recognition pathway in the stigmatic papilla promotes exocytosis to accept compatible pollen, and the basal pollen recognition pathway is overridden by the self-incompatibility pathway to prevent exocytosis and reject self-pollen. PMID:24386363

  1. Secretory Activity Is Rapidly Induced in Stigmatic Papillae by Compatible Pollen, but Inhibited for Self-Incompatible Pollen in the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Safavian, Darya; Goring, Daphne R.

    2013-01-01

    [In the Brassicaceae, targeted exocytosis to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the compatible pollen grain is hypothesized to be essential for pollen hydration and pollen tube penetration. In contrast, polarized secretion is proposed to be inhibited in the stigmatic papillae during the rejection of self-incompatible pollen. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we performed a detailed time-course of post-pollination events to view the cytological responses of the stigmatic papillae to compatible and self-incompatible pollinations. For compatible pollinations in Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, vesicle secretion was observed at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane under the pollen grain while Brassica napus stigmatic papillae appeared to use multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for secretion. Exo70A1, a component of the exocyst complex, has been previously implicated in the compatible pollen responses, and disruption of Exo70A1 in both A. thaliana and B. napus resulted in a loss of secretory vesicles/MVBs at the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane. Similarly, for self-incompatible pollinations, secretory vesicles/MVBs were absent from the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane in A. lyrata and B. napus; and furthermore, autophagy appeared to be induced to direct vesicles/MVBs to the vacuole for degradation. Thus, these findings support a model where the basal pollen recognition pathway in the stigmatic papilla promotes exocytosis to accept compatible pollen, and the basal pollen recognition pathway is overridden by the self-incompatibility pathway to prevent exocytosis and reject self-pollen. PMID:24386363

  2. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-06-01

    Pollen is unique among floral rewards in functioning as both a carrier of gametes and an attractant and nutritious resource for floral visitors. Animals that collect pollen without pollinating (pollen thieves) could reduce siring success of thieved plants and cause pollen limitation of seed set at the population level; however, such impacts on plant reproduction have not been demonstrated experimentally. To test these effects we added hives of native honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to populations of a primarily bird-pollinated plant, Aloe maculata, in eastern South Africa. In field and aviary trials, bee addition increased pollen removal from anthers but decreased pollen deposition on stigmas, and so reduced both male and female pollination components. Further, total seed production decreased with hive addition in the aviary experiment and in three of four field populations, indicating that population-level pollen theft can also compromise reproductive success. In the field, naturally occurring allodapine bees also seemed to act as pollen thieves, outweighing the effect of honey bee hive addition at one of the four aloe populations. Our results highlight the importance of social bees as pollen thieves, even of plants that have evolved in their presence, and the role of dichogamy in promoting pollen theft. Given the commonness of both social bees and dichogamy, pollen theft is likely a much more common influence on floral ecology and evolution than suggested by the sparse literature. PMID:20583711

  3. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492

  4. Elevation of Pollen Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number by WHIRLY2: Altered Respiration and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiang; Guo, Liang; Shen, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2015-09-01

    In plants, the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be much lower than the number of mitochondria. The biological significance and regulatory mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, using the pollen vegetative cell, we examined the role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mtDNA-binding protein WHIRLY2 (AtWHY2). AtWHY2 decreases during pollen development, in parallel with the rapid degradation of mtDNA; to examine the importance of this decrease, we used the pollen vegetative cell-specific promoter Lat52 to express AtWHY2. The transgenic plants (LWHY2) had very high mtDNA levels in pollen, more than 10 times more than in the wild type (ecotype Columbia-0). LWHY2 plants were fertile, morphologically normal, and set seeds; however, reciprocal crosses with heterozygous plants showed reduced transmission of LWHY2-1 through the male and slower growth of LWHY2-1 pollen tubes. We found that LWHY2-1 pollen had significantly more reactive oxygen species and less ATP compared with the wild type, indicating an effect on mitochondrial respiration. These findings reveal that AtWHY2 affects mtDNA copy number in pollen and suggest that low mtDNA copy numbers might be the normal means by which plant cells maintain mitochondrial genetic information. PMID:26195569

  5. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive potential on cotton squares of overwintered boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November, and January and after feeding them one, three, and five weeks on plant pollens was determined in the laboratory at 27ºC, 65% ...

  6. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  7. Patterns of pollen removal and deposition in Polemonium brandegeei (Polemoniaceae): the role of floral visitors, floral design and sexual interference.

    PubMed

    Kulbaba, M W; Worley, A C

    2014-11-01

    The arrangement, colour, shape and size of floral parts (collectively floral design) have evolved primarily to promote mating success via animal-mediated pollen transfer. Although numerous studies have examined variation in pollinator assemblages, relatively few have examined patterns of pollen removal and deposition in the presence of fluctuating pollinators and ineffective floral visitors; therefore, net pollen removal and deposition by entire visitor assemblages are unclear. We studied the timing (diurnal or nocturnal) and effects of floral traits on pollen removal and deposition under a dynamic visitor assemblage of Polemonium brandegeei. We quantified pollen grains remaining in anthers (pollen removal) and deposited on stigmas (pollen deposition) of plants visited during either the day (07:30-20:00 h) or night (20:30-07:30 h) in natural populations over two flowering seasons. Pollen removal and deposition occurred both diurnally and nocturnally during our study. Increased diurnal removal and deposition coincided with peak floral visitations in 2006. This increase in pollen removal and deposition may reflect increased visits by pollen consumers, effective hawkmoth pollinators and increased self-pollen deposition due to hot, dry weather. Nonlinear effects of style length significantly affected pollen removal, with less pollen remaining in flowers with intermediate style lengths. Pollen deposition was more complex, with herkogamy and anther height affecting deposition. Further, close proximity of stigmas and anthers increased the potential for sexual interference between pollen removal and deposition. Overall, flower visitations and pollen removal and deposition varied between years and populations, but sex organ placement consistently influenced the removal and deposition of pollen. PMID:24850527

  8. Pollen Dispersion, Pollen Viability and Pistil Receptivity in Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, ZEHAO; ZHU, JINMAO; MU, XIJIN; LIN, JINXING

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Leymus chinensis is an economically and ecologically important grass that is widely distributed across eastern areas of the Eurasian steppe. A major problem facing its propagation by man is its low sexual reproductivity. The causes of low fecundity are uncertain, largely because many aspects of the reproductive biology of this species remained unknown or incomplete. This study aims to address some of these issues. • Methods Pollen dispersion, pollen viability, pollen longevity and pistil receptivity were studied in a representative, natural population of L. chinensis growing in Inner Mongolia. • Key Results Flowering of L. chinensis occurred at the end of June and lasted for 5 d. Pollination peaked between 1600 h and 1700 h, and about 56·1 % of the total pollen grains were released at this time. Pollen density was highest towards the middle of flowering spikes and lowest at the bottom over the 5 d measurement period. Pollen viability (62·4 %) assessed using TTC was more accurate than using IKI (85·6 %); 50 % of pollen arriving on stigmas germinated. Pollen remained viable for only 3 h and the pollen : ovule ratio was 79 333 : 1. Pistil receptivity lasted for only 3 h and, overall, 86·7 % of pistils were pollinated. Within the spike, the relative fecundity of different positions was middle > lower > upper throughout the period of pollination; daily variation of fecundity was similar to that of the pollen flow. The spikes that opened on the day of highest pollen density exhibited the highest fecundity (36·0 %). No seeds were produced by self‐pollination. • Conclusions The data suggest that low pollen viability, short pollen longevity and short pistil receptivity all appear to contribute to the low seed production typical of this important forage crop. PMID:14744707

  9. AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Ma, Zhao-Xia; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Bai, Jin-Rong; Ye, De

    2016-07-01

    In flowering plants, pollen tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pollen tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pollen tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal callose deposition in the pollen grains and had a significant impact on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pollen grains, pollen tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pollen-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cells of pollen grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:26699939

  10. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  11. Early Warning of Cotton Bollworm Resistance Associated with Intensive Planting of Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins. PMID:21857961

  12. A New Secondary Pollen Presentation Mechanism from a Wild Ginger (Zingiber densissimum) and Its Functional Roles in Pollination Process

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong-Li; Kress, W. John; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary pollen presentation (SPP), a floral mechanism of reproductive adaptation, has been described for more than 200 years, with nine types SPP recorded. However, few studies have been done experimentally to link the floral mechanism of SPP to its functional roles in pollination process. This study aims to describe a new SPP mechanism from a wild ginger (Zingiber densissimum, Zingiberaceae) and explore how the pollen arrangement of SPP affects pollen removal during the interaction with different pollinators. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments revealed that flowers lasted for less than one day. The breeding system was partially self-incompatible. Two bee species, Macropis hedini (which carried pollen dorsally) and Amegilla zonata (which carried pollen ventrally) were the primary pollinators. About a third of pollen grains were relocated from the anther to the labellum staminode of flowers through the adherence of aggregated pollen chains, while other grains were presented on the anther. In a single visit, each bee species removed pollen grains from both the labellum staminode and the anther. Macropis hedini was more effective than Amegilla zonata. Conclusions/Significance Our study describes a new SPP mechanism in angiosperms. The new SPP mode enables pollen grains presented on the anther and the labellum staminode simultaneously via the adherence of aggregated pollen chains, thus promoting pollen to be taken away by different pollinators. This SPP mechanism plays a key role during pollen removal and may have evolved under the pressure to improve male fitness. PMID:26637125

  13. RNA Silencing of Exocyst Genes in the Stigma Impairs the Acceptance of Compatible Pollen in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Safavian, Darya; Zayed, Yara; Indriolo, Emily; Chapman, Laura; Ahmed, Abdalla; Goring, Daphne R

    2015-12-01

    Initial pollen-pistil interactions in the Brassicaceae are regulated by rapid communication between pollen grains and stigmatic papillae and are fundamentally important, as they are the first step toward successful fertilization. The goal of this study was to examine the requirement of exocyst subunits, which function in docking secretory vesicles to sites of polarized secretion, in the context of pollen-pistil interactions. One of the exocyst subunit genes, EXO70A1, was previously identified as an essential factor in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brassica napus. We hypothesized that EXO70A1, along with other exocyst subunits, functions in the Brassicaceae dry stigma to deliver cargo-bearing secretory vesicles to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane, under the pollen attachment site, for pollen hydration and pollen tube entry. Here, we investigated the functions of exocyst complex genes encoding the remaining seven subunits, SECRETORY3 (SEC3), SEC5, SEC6, SEC8, SEC10, SEC15, and EXO84, in Arabidopsis stigmas following compatible pollinations. Stigma-specific RNA-silencing constructs were used to suppress the expression of each exocyst subunit individually. The early postpollination stages of pollen grain adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen tube penetration, seed set, and overall fertility were analyzed in the transgenic lines to evaluate the requirement of each exocyst subunit. Our findings provide comprehensive evidence that all eight exocyst subunits are necessary in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen. Thus, this work implicates a fully functional exocyst complex as a component of the compatible pollen response pathway to promote pollen acceptance. PMID:26443677

  14. Grass pollen hypersensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    McCaskill, A. C.; Hosking, C. S.; Hill, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Mice were sensitized by intranasal administration of ryegrass pollen. Subsequent nasal challenge with pollen extract led to a `shock' response peaking in severity 4 hr after challenge. Histological examination of lungs revealed the development of a pneumonitis which was most severe 3 days after challenge. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:7106842

  15. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  16. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inter...

  17. CottonDB Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, was developed under a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) project as part of a national program to develop plant genome databases for all agricultural commodities. This first and most extensively used database for ...

  18. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  19. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  20. COTTON TRASH CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of cotton plant trash samples were sequentially extracted using toluene, methanol, propanol, and water to detect botanical differences. The United States currently produces around 20 million bales of cotton that is subsequently classed (length, strength, fineness, color, and trash) for mar...

  1. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  2. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g−1 [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid-treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton. PMID:20700762

  3. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  4. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  5. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  7. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  8. Pollen Tubes Lacking a Pair of K+ Transporters Fail to Target Ovules in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongxian; Chanroj, Salil; Zulkifli, Lalu; Johnson, Mark A.; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Cheung, Alice; Sze, Heven

    2011-01-01

    Flowering plant reproduction requires precise delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule by a pollen tube. Guidance signals from female cells are being identified; however, how pollen responds to those cues is largely unknown. Here, we show that two predicted cation/proton exchangers (CHX) in Arabidopsis thaliana, CHX21 and CHX23, are essential for pollen tube guidance. Male fertility was unchanged in single chx21 or chx23 mutants. However, fertility was impaired in chx21 chx23 double mutant pollen. Wild-type pistils pollinated with a limited number of single and double mutant pollen producing 62% fewer seeds than those pollinated with chx23 single mutant pollen, indicating that chx21 chx23 pollen is severely compromised. Double mutant pollen grains germinated and grew tubes down the transmitting tract, but the tubes failed to turn toward ovules. Furthermore, chx21 chx23 pollen tubes failed to enter the micropyle of excised ovules. Green fluorescent protein–tagged CHX23 driven by its native promoter was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of pollen tubes. CHX23 mediated K+ transport, as CHX23 expression in Escherichia coli increased K+ uptake and growth in a pH-dependent manner. We propose that by modifying localized cation balance and pH, these transporters could affect steps in signal reception and/or transduction that are critical to shifting the axis of polarity and directing pollen growth toward the ovule. PMID:21239645

  9. Pollen Performance in Clarkia Taxa with Contrasting Mating Systems: Implications for Male Gametophytic Evolution in Selfers and Outcrossers

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Alisa A.; Mazer, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    We tested three predictions regarding the joint evolution of pollen performance and mating system. First, due to the potential for intense intrasexual competition in outcrossing populations, we predicted that outcrossers would produce faster-growing pollen than their selfing relatives. Second, if elevated competition promotes stronger selection on traits that improve pollen performance, then, among-plant variation in pollen performance would be lower in outcrossers than in selfers. Third, given successive generations of adaptation to the same maternal genotype in selfers, we predicted that, in selfing populations (but not in outcrossing ones), pollen would perform better following self- than cross-pollinations. We tested these predictions in field populations of two pairs of Clarkia (Onagraceae) sister taxa. Consistent with our predictions, one outcrosser (C. unguiculata) exhibited faster pollen germination and less variation in pollen tube growth rate (PTGR) among pollen donors than its selfing sister species, C. exilis. Contrary to our predictions, the selfing C. xantiana ssp. parviflora exhibited faster PTGR than the outcrossing ssp. xantiana, and these taxa showed similar levels of variation in this trait. Pollen performance following self- vs. cross-pollinations did not differ within either selfing or outcrossing taxa. While these findings suggest that mating system and pollen performance may jointly evolve in Clarkia, other factors clearly contribute to pollen performance in natural populations. PMID:27137375

  10. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  11. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  12. F-actin forms mobile and unwinding ring-shaped structures in germinating Arabidopsis pollen expressing Lifeact

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Frank; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The flowering plant pollen tube is the fastest elongating plant cell and transports the sperm cells for double fertilization. The highly dynamic formation and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. To drive pollen-specific expression of fluorescent marker proteins, commonly the strong Lat52 promoter is used. Here we show by quantitative fluorescent analysis that the gametophyte-specific ARO1 promoter from Arabidopsis drives an about 3.5 times weaker transgene expression than the Lat52 promoter. In one third of the pollen of F-actin-labeled ARO1p:tagRFP-T-Lifeact transgenic lines we observed mobile ring-shaped actin structures in pollen grains and pollen tubes. Pollen tube growth, transgene transmission and seed production were not affected by tagRFP-T-Lifeact expression. F-actin rings were able to integrate into emerging actin filaments and they may reflect a particular physiological state of the pollen or a readily available storage form provided for rapid actin network remodeling. PMID:26337326

  13. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  14. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  15. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  16. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  17. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  18. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    1987-11-01

    Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  19. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  20. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  1. Long-term monitoring of airborne pollen in Alaska and the Yukon: Possible implications for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne pollen and spores have been sampled since 1978 in Fairbanks and 1982 Anchorage and other Alaska-Yukon locations for medical and ecological purposes. Comparative analyses of pre- and post-1986 data subsets reveal that after 1986 (1) pollen is in the air earlier, (2) the multiyear average of degree-days promoting pollen onset is little changed while (3) annual variation in degree-days at onset is greater, (4) pollen and spore annual productions are considerably higher, and (5) there is more year-to-year variation in pollen production. These changes probably reflect directional changes in certain weather variables, and there is some indication that they are of global change significance, i.e., related to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Correlations with pollen data suggest that weather variables of high influence are temperatures during specific periods following pollen dispersal in the preceding year and the average temperature in April of the current year. Annual variations in pollen dispersal might be roughly linked to the 11 year sunspot cycle through air temperature mediators. Weather in 1990, apparent pollen production cycles under endogenous control, and the impending sunspot maximum portend a very severe pollen season in 199 existing but unfunded sampling projects.

  2. Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties?

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Michael; Haider, Mare; Dorn, Silvia; Müller, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Generalist herbivorous insects, which feed on plant tissue that is nutritionally heterogeneous or varies in its content of secondary metabolites, often benefit from dietary mixing through more balanced nutrient intake or reduced exposure to harmful secondary metabolites. Pollen is similarly heterogeneous as other plant tissue in its content of primary and secondary metabolites, suggesting that providing their offspring with mixed pollen diets might be a promising strategy for pollen generalist bees to complement nutrient imbalances or to mitigate harmful secondary metabolites of unfavourable pollen. In the present study, we compared larval performance of the pollen generalist solitary bee species Osmia cornuta (Megachilidae) on five experimental pollen diets that consisted of different proportions of unfavourable pollen diet of Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae) and favourable pollen diet of Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae). In addition, we microscopically analysed the pollen contained in the scopal brushes of field-collected females of O. cornuta and three closely related species to elucidate to what degree these pollen generalist bees mix pollen of different hosts in their brood cells. In striking contrast to a pure Ranunculus pollen diet, which had a lethal effect on most developing larvae of O. cornuta, larval survival, larval development time and adult body mass of both males and females remained nearly unaffected by the admixture of up to 50% of Ranunculus pollen diet to the larval food. Between 42% and 66% of all female scopal pollen loads analysed contained mixtures of pollen from two to six plant families, indicating that pollen mixing is a common behaviour in O. cornuta and the three related bee species. The present study provides the first evidence that the larvae of pollen generalist bees can benefit from the nutrient content of unfavourable pollen without being negatively affected by its unfavourable chemical properties if such pollen is mixed with

  3. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  4. Preferential expression of an alpha-tubulin gene of Arabidopsis in pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J L; Ploense, S E; Snustad, D P; Silflow, C D

    1992-01-01

    The pool of tubulin protein in tissues of Arabidopsis is provided by the expression of multiple alpha-tubulin (TUA) and beta-tubulin genes. Whereas most tubulin genes are expressed in many tissues, previous evidence suggested that the TUA1 gene might be expressed primarily in pollen. We now report a detailed analysis of TUA1 expression during Arabidopsis development. In RNA from tissues of dissected flowers, TUA1 transcripts were detected only in stamens and mature pollen. Chimeric genes containing TUA1 5' flanking DNA fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were used to create transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plants containing a chimeric gene with 533 bp of 5' flanking sequence were analyzed by histochemical assay to localize GUS expression within the plant. The blue product of GUS enzyme activity accumulated very rapidly in postmitotic pollen grains. Much lower levels of GUS activity were detected in anthers with uninucleate pollen grains, in flower receptacles, and in a few vegetative tissues. Analysis of 5' deletions of the TUA1 promoter suggested that 97 bp of 5' flanking DNA is sufficient to drive GUS expression in pollen and young anthers, whereas at least 380 bp is required to detect GUS expression in the receptacle. Examination of the TUA1 promoter sequence revealed several motifs that are repeated within the TUA1 promoter and are similar to sequences in other pollen-specific promoters. PMID:1498610

  5. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  6. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  7. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  8. RNA Silencing of Exocyst Genes in the Stigma Impairs the Acceptance of Compatible Pollen in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Safavian, Darya; Indriolo, Emily; Chapman, Laura; Ahmed, Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Initial pollen-pistil interactions in the Brassicaceae are regulated by rapid communication between pollen grains and stigmatic papillae and are fundamentally important, as they are the first step toward successful fertilization. The goal of this study was to examine the requirement of exocyst subunits, which function in docking secretory vesicles to sites of polarized secretion, in the context of pollen-pistil interactions. One of the exocyst subunit genes, EXO70A1, was previously identified as an essential factor in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brassica napus. We hypothesized that EXO70A1, along with other exocyst subunits, functions in the Brassicaceae dry stigma to deliver cargo-bearing secretory vesicles to the stigmatic papillar plasma membrane, under the pollen attachment site, for pollen hydration and pollen tube entry. Here, we investigated the functions of exocyst complex genes encoding the remaining seven subunits, SECRETORY3 (SEC3), SEC5, SEC6, SEC8, SEC10, SEC15, and EXO84, in Arabidopsis stigmas following compatible pollinations. Stigma-specific RNA-silencing constructs were used to suppress the expression of each exocyst subunit individually. The early postpollination stages of pollen grain adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen tube penetration, seed set, and overall fertility were analyzed in the transgenic lines to evaluate the requirement of each exocyst subunit. Our findings provide comprehensive evidence that all eight exocyst subunits are necessary in the stigma for the acceptance of compatible pollen. Thus, this work implicates a fully functional exocyst complex as a component of the compatible pollen response pathway to promote pollen acceptance. PMID:26443677

  9. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  10. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  11. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  12. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Year-round pollen producion can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality.

  13. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25416245

  14. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Neumann, Max

    2015-12-01

    Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015) in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N), prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen) and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion. PMID:26568978

  15. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain

    PubMed Central

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Neumann, Max

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015) in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N), prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen) and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion. PMID:26568978

  16. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. PMID:24750956

  17. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30 % of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine. PMID:27002515

  18. Sulfinylated azadecalins act as functional mimics of a pollen germination stimulant in Arabidopsis pistils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Wysocki, Ronald J; Somogyi, Arpad; Feinstein, Yelena; Franco, Jessica Y; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Levy, Clara; Smith, Steven; Simpson, Robert; Gang, David; Johnson, Mark A; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2011-12-01

    Polarized cell elongation is triggered by small molecule cues during development of diverse organisms. During plant reproduction, pollen interactions with the stigma result in the polar outgrowth of a pollen tube, which delivers sperm cells to the female gametophyte to effect double fertilization. In many plants, pistils stimulate pollen germination. However, in Arabidopsis, the effect of pistils on pollen germination and the pistil factors that stimulate pollen germination remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that stigma, style, and ovules in Arabidopsis pistils stimulate pollen germination. We isolated an Arabidopsis pistil extract fraction that stimulates Arabidopsis pollen germination, and employed ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization (ESI), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) and MS/MS techniques to accurately determine the mass (202.126 Da) of a compound that is specifically present in this pistil extract fraction. Using the molecular formula (C10H19NOS) and tandem mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the m/z (mass to charge ratio) 202.126 ion, we postulated chemical structures, devised protocols, synthesized N-methanesulfinyl 1- and 2-azadecalins that are close structural mimics of the m/z 202.126 ion, and showed that they are sufficient to stimulate Arabidopsis pollen germination in vitro (30 μm stimulated approximately 50% germination) and elicit accession-specific response. Although N-methanesulfinyl 2-azadecalin stimulated pollen germination in three species of Lineage I of Brassicaceae, it did not induce a germination response in Sisymbrium irio (Lineage II of Brassicaceae) and tobacco, indicating that activity of the compound is not random. Our results show that Arabidopsis pistils promote germination by producing azadecalin-like molecules to ensure rapid fertilization by the appropriate pollen. PMID:21801250

  19. Pollen Recovery from Insects: Light Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insect species feed on the pollen, nectar, and other plant exudates that are associated with flowers. As a result of this feeding activity, pollen becomes attached to the insects. Analysis of the pollen attached to these insects can reveal what insects eat, their dispersal patterns in and...

  20. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery. PMID:25442716

  1. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage. PMID:26934148

  2. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion...

  3. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    PubMed

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  4. Pollen contamination of boll weevil traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the Twentieth Century, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, was the most devastating insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus, in the southern United States of America (U.S.A.). Although thought to feed only on cotton, the list of non-cotton alternative food sources incr...

  5. Kinetic of NO2 uptake by Phleum pratense pollen: chemical and allergenic implications.

    PubMed

    Chassard, Guillaume; Choël, Marie; Gosselin, Sylvie; Vorng, Han; Petitprez, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Visez, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Phleum pratense pollen was exposed to NO(2) in a reactor allowing a continuous analysis of NO(2) concentration by FTIR. The uptake coefficient of NO(2) on pollen was calculated postulating a first order kinetic reaction and a value of (1.1 ± 0.1) x 10(-7) was determined. NO(2) uptake was faster when the pollen water content was increased and when the pollen was pre-treated with ozone. The effect of NO(2) exposure on pollen allergic properties was investigated by quantifying Th2- and Th1-associated chemokines in a model of human dendritic cells. Cellular analysis clearly showed that cells exposed to fumigated pollen favored the production of chemokines known to promote Th2-cell responses. Altogether these data demonstrate that NO(2) uptake by pollen directly correlates with increased Th2 response in human cells,and are in favor of the involvement of NO(2) pollution in the increase of allergic diseases. PMID:25463703

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant. PMID:27356912

  7. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  8. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  9. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  10. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  11. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis. PMID:6298081

  12. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    PubMed

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  13. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  14. Linking pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt.

    PubMed

    Cayenne Engel, E; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2003-11-01

    The majority of flowering plants require animals for pollination, a critical ecosystem service in natural and agricultural systems. However, quantifying useful estimates of pollinator visitation rates can be nearly impossible when pollinator visitation is infrequent. We examined the utility of an indirect measure of pollinator visitation, namely pollen receipt by flowers, using the hummingbird-pollinated plant, Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). Our a priori hypothesis was that increased pollinator visitation should result in increased pollen receipt by stigmas. However, the relationship between pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt may be misleading if pollen receipt is a function of both the number of pollinator visits and variation in pollinator efficiency at depositing pollen, especially in the context of variable floral morphology. Therefore, we measured floral and plant characters known to be important to pollinator visitation and/or pollen receipt in I. aggregata (corolla length and width and plant height) and used path analysis to dissect and compare the effect of pollinator visitation rate vs. pollinator efficiency on pollen receipt. Of the characters we measured, pollinator visitation rate (number of times plants were visited multiplied by the mean percentage of flowers probed per visit) had the strongest direct positive effect on pollen receipt, explaining 36% of the variation in pollen receipt. Plant height had a direct positive effect on pollinator visitation rate and an indirect positive effect on pollen receipt. Despite the supposition that floral characters would directly affect pollen receipt as a result of changes in pollinator efficiency, corolla length and width only weakly affected pollen receipt. These results suggest a direct positive link between pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt across naturally varying floral morphology in I. aggregata. Understanding the relationship between pollinator visitation rate and pollen

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia pollen grains extracts in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Varpe, Saroj S.; Juvekar, Archana R.; Bidikar, Mukta P.; Juvekar, Parikshit R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of Typha angustifolia. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of pollen grains of T. angustifolia was studied using the carrageenan as phlogistic agent, whereas its chronic anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by the percentage inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: Both aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the control (P<0.001). It was observed that both the extracts at dose of 125 mg/kg inhibited the granuloma formation by 44.30% which is higher than at dose of 500, 250 mg/kg, thus causing a significant (P<0.001) non-dose-related inhibition of granuloma formation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia are effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and thus support its traditional utilization. PMID:23248413

  16. High temperature limits in vivo pollen tube growth rates by altering diurnal carbohydrate balance in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum pistils.

    PubMed

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Kawakami, Eduardo M

    2011-07-15

    It has recently been reported that high temperature slows in vivo pollen tube growth rates in Gossypium hirsutum pistils under field conditions. Although numerous physical and biochemical pollen-pistil interactions are necessary for in vivo pollen tube growth to occur, studies investigating the influence of heat-induced changes in pistil biochemistry on in vivo pollen tube growth rates are lacking. We hypothesized that high temperature would alter diurnal pistil biochemistry and that pollen tube growth rates would be dependent upon the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth. G. hirsutum seeds were sown on different dates to obtain flowers exposed to contrasting ambient temperatures but at the same developmental stage. Diurnal pistil measurements included carbohydrate balance, glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.8.1.7), soluble protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and water-soluble calcium. Soluble carbohydrate levels in cotton pistils were as much as 67.5% lower under high temperature conditions (34.6 °C maximum air temperature; August 4, 2009) than under cooler conditions (29.9 °C maximum air temperature; August 14, 2009). Regression analysis revealed that pollen tube growth rates were highly correlated with the soluble carbohydrate content of the pistil during pollen tube growth (r² = 0.932). Higher ambient temperature conditions on August 4 increased GR activity in the pistil only during periods not associated with in vivo pollen tube growth; pistil protein content declined earlier in the day under high temperatures; SOD and NOX were unaffected by either sample date or time of day; pistil ATP and water soluble calcium were unaffected by the warmer temperatures. We conclude that moderate heat stress significantly alters diurnal carbohydrate balance in the pistil and suggest that pollen tube growth rate through the style may be limited by soluble carbohydrate

  17. A Tale of Two Morphs: Modeling Pollen Transfer, Magic Traits, and Reproductive Isolation in Parapatry

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Benjamin C.; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Keller, Barbara; Hendry, Andrew P.; Conti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the flower is commonly thought to have spurred angiosperm diversification. Similarly, particular floral traits might have promoted diversification within specific angiosperm clades. We hypothesize that traits promoting the precise positional transfer of pollen between flowers might promote diversification. In particular, precise pollen transfer might produce partial reproductive isolation that facilitates adaptive divergence between parapatric populations differing in their reproductive-organ positions. We investigate this hypothesis with an individual-based model of pollen transfer dynamics associated with heterostyly, a floral syndrome that depends on precise pollen transfer. Our model shows that precise pollen transfer can cause sexual selection leading to divergence in reproductive-organ positions between populations served by different pollinators, pleiotropically causing an increase in reproductive isolation through a “magic trait” mechanism. Furthermore, this increased reproductive isolation facilitates adaptive divergence between the populations in an unlinked, ecologically selected trait. In a different pollination scenario, however, precise pollen transfer causes a decrease in adaptive divergence by promoting asymmetric gene flow. Our results highlight the idea that magic traits are not “magic” in isolation; in particular, the effect size of magic traits in speciation depends on the external environment, and also on other traits that modify the strength of the magic trait's influence on non-random mating. Overall, we show that the evolutionary consequences of pollen transfer dynamics can depend strongly on the available pollinator fauna and on the morphological fit between flowers and pollinators. Furthermore, our results illustrate the potential importance of even weak reproductive isolating barriers in facilitating adaptive divergence. PMID:25211280

  18. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  19. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  20. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  1. Control of Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow in Transgenic Trees[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsheng; Norris-Caneda, Kim H.; Rottmann, William H.; Gulledge, Jon E.; Chang, Shujun; Kwan, Brian Yow-Hui; Thomas, Anita M.; Mandel, Lydia C.; Kothera, Ronald T.; Victor, Aditi D.; Pearson, Leslie; Hinchee, Maud A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Pollen elimination provides an effective containment method to reduce direct gene flow from transgenic trees to their wild relatives. Until now, only limited success has been achieved in controlling pollen production in trees. A pine (Pinus radiata) male cone-specific promoter, PrMC2, was used to drive modified barnase coding sequences (barnaseH102E, barnaseK27A, and barnaseE73G) in order to determine their effectiveness in pollen ablation. The expression cassette PrMC2-barnaseH102E was found to efficiently ablate pollen in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), pine, and Eucalyptus (spp.). Large-scale and multiple-year field tests demonstrated that complete prevention of pollen production was achieved in greater than 95% of independently transformed lines of pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) that contained the PrMC2-barnaseH102E expression cassette. A complete pollen control phenotype was achieved in transgenic lines and expressed stably over multiple years, multiple test locations, and when the PrMC2-barnaseH102E cassette was flanked by different genes. The PrMC2-barnaseH102E transgenic pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) trees grew similarly to control trees in all observed attributes except the pollenless phenotype. The ability to achieve the complete control of pollen production in field-grown trees is likely the result of a unique combination of three factors: the male cone/anther specificity of the PrMC2 promoter, the reduced RNase activity of barnaseH102E, and unique features associated with a polyploid tapetum. The field performance of the PrMC2-barnaseH102E in representative angiosperm and gymnosperm trees indicates that this gene can be used to mitigate pollen-mediated gene flow associated with large-scale deployment of transgenic trees. PMID:22723085

  2. Mineral content of commercial pollen.

    PubMed

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Díaz Marquina, A; Bravo Serrano, R; Blaźquez Abellán, G

    2001-05-01

    Pollen is a natural product which is extending its marketing day by day, given that it is considered to be a dietetic product and it is consumed everyday by a broad sector of the Spanish population. In its composition it presents valuable nutrients, among which we can find minerals, which is the main object of this study. We have analysed sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 15 pollen samples which correspond to different brands. The technique we have used is atomic absortion spectroscopy. The results show us the great potassium contribution of this natural product, with values over 400 mg/100 g, and about microelements, mainly iron and zinc, although with different results, depending on the brand which markets it, with average values of 4.01 +/- 1.00 and 3.66 +/- 1.02, respectively. PMID:11400473

  3. Non-symmetrical cytosine methylation in tobacco pollen DNA.

    PubMed

    Oakeley, E J; Jost, J P

    1996-07-01

    We have detected sequence-specific non-symmetrical cytosine methylation within a 140 bp region of the promoter for the tobacco auxin-binding protein gene T85 in pollen DNA. Direct sequencing of the population of bisulphite reaction products showed that, in this region. 10 out of a possible 49 cytosine residues were methylated at a high frequency in pollen whereas the corresponding region from somatic cells (leaf DNA) did not show a detectable level of methylation. The context of these sites was 1 x m5CpTpC, 1 x m5CpGpT, 1 x m5CpCpT, 2 x m5CpTpT, 2 x m5CpGpG, and 3 x m5CpApT of which only m5CpGpG and m5CpGpT fitted the consensus sequence for symmetrical methylation in plants. PMID:8806424

  4. Particulate matter modifies the association between airborne pollen and daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Nishihata, Shinichi; Shinsugi, Chisa; Ueda, Kayo; Takami, Akinori; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-11-15

    Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for pollinosis. A total of 11,713 daily pollinosis cases (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10, J30.1) from January to May, 2001-2011, were obtained from a clinic in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Daily pollen counts and the daily mean values of air pollutants (PM2.5, SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) were collected from monitoring stations across Tokyo. The effects of pollen were stratified by the level of PM2.5 and SPM to examine the interaction effect of pollen and particulate pollutants. We found a statistically significant interaction between pollen concentration and PM2.5/SPM. On days with a high level of PM2.5 (>95th percentile), an interquartile increase in the mean cumulative pollen count (an average of 28 pollen grains per cm(2) during lag-days 0 to 5) corresponded to a 10.30% (95%CI: 8.48%-12.16%) increase in daily new pollinosis cases, compared to 8.04% (95%CI: 7.28%-8.81%) on days with a moderate level of PM2.5 (5th-95th percentile). This interaction persisted when different percentile cut-offs were used and was robust to the inclusion of other air pollutants. A similar interaction pattern was observed between SPM and pollen when a less extreme cut-off for SPM was used to stratify the effect of pollen. Our study showed the acute effect of pollen was greater when the concentration of air particulate pollutant, specifically PM2.5 and SPM, was higher. These findings are consistent with the notion that particulate air pollution may act as an adjuvant that promotes allergic disease (i

  5. A pollen coat-inducible autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase expressed in stigmatic papilla cells is required for compatible pollination in the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Megumi; Igarashi, Motoko; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kaothien-Nakayama, Pulla; Nakayama, Hideki; Moriyama, Hideki; Yakabe, Ryo; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Ueki, Masao; Tamiya, Gen; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca(2+) export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca(2+) transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca(2+) transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca(2+) export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca(2+) to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization. PMID:24569769

  6. A Pollen Coat–Inducible Autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase Expressed in Stigmatic Papilla Cells Is Required for Compatible Pollination in the Brassicaceae[W

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Megumi; Igarashi, Motoko; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kaothien-Nakayama, Pulla; Nakayama, Hideki; Moriyama, Hideki; Yakabe, Ryo; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Ueki, Masao; Tamiya, Gen; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca2+ export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca2+ transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca2+ transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca2+ export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca2+ to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization. PMID:24569769

  7. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  8. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  9. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  11. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  16. 75 FR 28231 - Cotton Classing, Testing and Standards: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Classing, Testing and Standards: Notice of Request for an Extension and... approved information collection Cotton Classing, Testing, and Standards. DATES: Comments received by July... submit written comments concerning this proposal to Shethir Riva, Chief, Research and Promotion,...

  17. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  18. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  19. COTTON FIBER CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cotton production exceeds 25 million metric tons and accounts for more than 40 percent of the textile fiber consumed worldwide. A key textile fiber for over 5000 years, this complex carbohydrate is also one of the leading crops to benefit from genetic engineering. Cotton Fiber Chemistry and...

  20. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  1. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  2. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  3. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  4. Cadmium Stress Disrupts the Endomembrane Organelles and Endocytosis during Picea wilsonii Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Li, Xue; Wei, Qian; Sheng, Xianyong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most severe pollutants, cadmium has been reported to be harmful to plant cells, but the effects of cadmium on gymnosperm pollen germination and tube growth and the mechanism of this involvement are still unclear. Here, we report that cadmium not only strongly inhibited P. wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, but also significantly altered tube morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Time-lapse images obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope revealed that endocytosis was dramatically inhibited by cadmium stress. Further investigation with ER-Tracker dye indicated that cadmium stress reduced the number of the Golgi apparatus, and induced dilation of ER. Additionally, Lyso-Tracker staining showed that cadmium distinctly promoted the formation of acidic organelles in pollen tubes, likely derived from the dilated ER. Taken together, our studies indicated that P. wilsonii pollens were highly susceptible to cadmium stress, and that cadmium stress strongly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth by disrupting the endomembrane organelles, inhibiting endo/exocytosis, and forming acidic vacuoles, resulting in swollen tube tips and irregularly broadened tube diameters. These findings provide a new insight into the effects of cadmium toxicity on the tip growth of pollen tubes. PMID:24722362

  5. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  6. Cotton Quality Indices of Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton was spun into yarn at the Cotton Quality Research Station by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex, and open end spinning) to determine if a relationship exits between cotton fiber properties and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was grown and harvested in 2001-2005 from three of the l...

  7. The effect of some non-protein amino acids on pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in five species of the Vicieae.

    PubMed

    Simola, L K

    1967-12-01

    The effects of canavanine, α,γ-diaminobutyric acid, homoarginine and lathyrine on the germination of pollen and on in-vitro growth of pollen tubes were studied in the following species: Lathyrus niger, L. silvestris, Vicia unijuga, Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum.The effects of these non-protein amino acids depended on their quantity and on the plant species. Every amino acid had a promoting effect on germination and growth at some concentration in some species. Inhibition or promotion of pollen germination and pollen-tube growth were usually parallel. The stronger influence of some amino acid on growth than on germination may be due to slow penetration of the acid into the cell.Homoarginine and lathyrine had a promoting effect at all concentrations in L. niger, a species in which these amino acids occur naturally. In most other species they had, if anything, a very slight inhibitory effect, α,γ-Diaminobutyric acid and canavanine had the strongest inhibitory effects on the species studied. It seems possible that these amino acids are antimetabolites of common amino acids.It is obvious that non-protein amino acids can form effective hybridization barries, although the conditions in nature are more complex than in vitro. The ability to synthesize a new amino acid may therefore be of evolutionary significance in the isolation of new species and genera. PMID:24522605

  8. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?

    PubMed

    Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors. PMID:18459342

  9. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  10. The pollen tube paradigm revisited.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-12-01

    The polar growth process characterizing pollen tube elongation has attracted numerous modeling attempts over the past years. While initial models focused on recreating the correct cellular geometry, recent models are increasingly based on experimentally assessed cellular parameters such as the dynamics of signaling processes and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Recent modeling attempts have therefore substantially gained in biological relevance and predictive power. Different modeling methods are explained and the power and limitations of individual models are compared. Focus is on several recent models that use closed feedback loops in order to generate limit cycles representing the oscillatory behavior observed in growing tubes. PMID:23000432

  11. Polyamines in Pollen: From Microsporogenesis to Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Aloisi, Iris; Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The entire pollen life span is driven by polyamine (PA) homeostasis, achieved through fine regulation of their biosynthesis, oxidation, conjugation, compartmentalization, uptake, and release. The critical role of PAs, from microsporogenesis to pollen–pistil interaction during fertilization, is suggested by high and dynamic transcript levels of PA biosynthetic genes, as well as by the activities of the corresponding enzymes. Moreover, exogenous supply of PAs strongly affects pollen maturation and pollen tube elongation. A reduction of endogenous free PAs impacts pollen viability both in the early stages of pollen development and during fertilization. A number of studies have demonstrated that PAs largely function by modulating transcription, by structuring pollen cell wall, by modulating protein (mainly cytoskeletal) assembly as well as by modulating the level of reactive oxygen species. Both free low-molecular weight aliphatic PAs, and PAs conjugated to proteins and hydroxyl-cinnamic acids take part in these complex processes. Here, we review both historical and recent evidence regarding molecular events underlying the role of PAs during pollen development. In the concluding remarks, the outstanding issues and directions for future research that will further clarify our understanding of PA involvement during pollen life are outlined. PMID:26925074

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Sonoran Desert Bee Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee products have been consumed by mankind since antiquity and their health benefits are becoming more apparent. Bee pollen (pollen collected by honey bees) was collected in the high intensity ultraviolet (UV) Sonoran desert and was analyzed by the anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and...

  13. The involvement of nitric oxide in ultraviolet-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Min; Bai, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Rui-Bin; Cao, Bing; She, Xiao-Ping

    2007-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B)-induced reduction of in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied. Results showed that exposure of the pollen to 0.4 and 0.8 W m(-2) UV-B radiation for 2 h resulted in not only the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth but also the enhancement of NO synthase (NOS, EC 1.14.13.39) activity and NO production in pollen grain and tube. Also, exogenous NO donors sodium nitroprusside and S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited both pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependence manner. NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-Arg-methyl eater (l-NAME) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) not only largely prevented the NO generation but also partly reversed the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. These results indicate that UV-B radiation inhibits pollen germination and tube growth partly via promoting NO production in pollen grain and tube by a NOS-like enzyme. Additionally, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY-83583) prevented both the UV-B- and NO donors-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth, suggesting that the NO function is mediated by cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. However, the effects of c-PTIO, l-NAME and LY-83583 on the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth were only partial, suggesting that there are NO-independent pathways in UV-B signal networks. PMID:18251898

  14. Arabidopsis Rho-Related GTPases: Differential Gene Expression in Pollen and Polar Localization in Fission Yeast1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Wu, Guang; Ware, Doreen; Davis, Keith R.; Yang, Zhenbiao

    1998-01-01

    The Rho small GTP-binding proteins are versatile, conserved molecular switches in eukaryotic signal transduction. Plants contain a unique subfamily of Rho-GTPases called Rop (Rho-related GTPases from plants). Our previous studies involving injection of antibodies indicated that the pea Rop GTPase Rop1Ps is critical for pollen tube growth. In this study we show that overexpression of an apparent Arabidopsis ortholog of Rop1Ps, Rop1At, induces isotropic cell growth in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and that green fluorescence protein-tagged Rop1At displays polar localization to the site of growth in yeast. We found that Rop1At and two other Arabidopsis Rops, Rop3At and Rop5At, are all expressed in mature pollen. All three pollen Rops fall into the same subgroup as Rop1Ps and diverge from those Rops that are not expressed in mature pollen, suggesting a coupling of the structural conservation of Rop GTPases to their gene expression in pollen. However, pollen-specific transcript accumulation for Rop1At is much higher than that for Rop3At and Rop5At. Furthermore, Rop1At is specifically expressed in anthers, whereas Rop3At and Rop5At are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In transgenic plants containing the Rop1At promoter:GUS fusion gene, GUS is specifically expressed in mature pollen and pollen tubes. We propose that Rop1At may play a predominant role in the regulation of polarized cell growth in pollen, whereas its close relatives Rop3At and Rop5At may be functionally redundant to Rop1At in pollen. PMID:9765526

  15. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome. PMID:26383916

  16. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  17. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Kelly, R. D.; Gerow, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    While the biophysics of anemophilous pollen dispersal is understood in principle, empirical studies for testing such principles are rare, particularly in native ecosystems. This paper describes mechanisms underlying the dispersal of Artemisia pollen in a Wyoming sagebrush steppe. The relationships between meteorological variables and pollen flux were defined during the 1999 Artemisia flowering season, and detailed processes at the individual plant level were experimentally tested in the field in 2000. Results indicated that Artemisia pollen presentation is continuous but with early morning maxima. Atmospheric pollen concentrations and potential dispersal rates are controlled at diurnal time scales by individual flower development together with characteristic changes in temperature/humidity and wind speeds, at multi-day scales by frontal weather patterns, and at week-long scales by flowering phenology.

  18. Acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase influences fertility by regulating lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biogenesis in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wenfeng; Shen, Ying; Hao, Juan; Wu, Jianyong; Ke, Liping; Wu, Caiyun; Huang, Kai; Luo, Binglun; Xu, Mingfeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xueping; Sun, Jie; Xing, Chaozhu; Sun, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther development and fertility. Suppression of GhACNAT by virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic cotton (G. hirsutum L. cv. C312) resulted in indehiscent anthers that were full of pollen, diminished filaments and stamens, and plant sterility. We found GhACNAT was involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The genes differentially expressed in GhACNAT-silenced plants and C312 were mainly involved in catalytic activity and transcription regulator activity in lipid metabolism. In GhACNAT-silenced plants, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biosynthesis were significantly changed, the amount of JA in leaves and reproductive organs was significantly decreased compared with the amounts in C312. Treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate rescued anther dehiscence and pollen release in GhACNAT-silenced plants and caused self-fertility. The GhACNAT gene may play an important role in controlling cotton fertility by regulating the pathways of lipid synthesis and JA biogenesis. PMID:26134787

  19. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton. PMID:27552108

  20. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton. PMID:27552108

  1. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  2. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  3. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  4. A cotton dust study unmasked.

    PubMed

    Levine, C

    1984-08-01

    The Dan River Company, citing news reports damaging to its image, has abandoned a proposed study to test a theory that byssinosis (brown lung disease) is caused by a bacterium growing in cotton rather than by inhalation of cotton dust. With state approval to exceed federal standards on cotton dust exposure, the company submitted the study to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as a "variance," not as human subjects research. Levine contends that the proposal violated all major criteria of the federal regulations for protection of research subjects--scientific objectivity, balanced risks and benefits, and voluntary and informed consent. PMID:6480334

  5. Poaceae pollen in Galicia (N.W. Spain): characterisation and recent trends in atmospheric pollen season.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Seijo, M C; Aira, M J

    2009-07-01

    Airborne Poaceae pollen counts are greatly influenced by weather-related parameters, but may also be governed by other factors. Poaceae pollen is responsible for most allergic reactions in the pollen-sensitive population of Galicia (Spain), and it is therefore essential to determine the risk posed by airborne pollen counts. The global climate change recorded over recent years may prompt changes in the atmospheric pollen season (APS). This survey used airborne Poaceae pollen data recorded for four Galician cities since 1993, in order to characterise the APS and note any trends in its onset, length and severity. Pollen sampling was performed using Hirst-type volumetric traps; data were subjected to Spearman's correlation test and regression models, in order to detect possible correlations between different parameters and trends. The APS was calculated using ten different methods, in order to assess the influence of each on survey results. Finally, trends detected for the major weather-related parameters influencing pollen counts over the study period were compared with those recorded over the last 30 years. All four cities displayed a trend towards lower annual total Poaceae pollen counts, lower peak values and a smaller number of days on which counts exceeded 30, 50 and 100 pollen grains/m(3). Moreover, the survey noted a trend towards delayed onset and shorter duration of the APS, although differences were observed depending on the criteria used to define the first and the last day of the APS. PMID:19347372

  6. Poaceae pollen in Galicia (N.W. Spain): characterisation and recent trends in atmospheric pollen season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jato, V.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.; Seijo, M. C.; Aira, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    Airborne Poaceae pollen counts are greatly influenced by weather-related parameters, but may also be governed by other factors. Poaceae pollen is responsible for most allergic reactions in the pollen-sensitive population of Galicia (Spain), and it is therefore essential to determine the risk posed by airborne pollen counts. The global climate change recorded over recent years may prompt changes in the atmospheric pollen season (APS). This survey used airborne Poaceae pollen data recorded for four Galician cities since 1993, in order to characterise the APS and note any trends in its onset, length and severity. Pollen sampling was performed using Hirst-type volumetric traps; data were subjected to Spearman’s correlation test and regression models, in order to detect possible correlations between different parameters and trends. The APS was calculated using ten different methods, in order to assess the influence of each on survey results. Finally, trends detected for the major weather-related parameters influencing pollen counts over the study period were compared with those recorded over the last 30 years. All four cities displayed a trend towards lower annual total Poaceae pollen counts, lower peak values and a smaller number of days on which counts exceeded 30, 50 and 100 pollen grains/m3. Moreover, the survey noted a trend towards delayed onset and shorter duration of the APS, although differences were observed depending on the criteria used to define the first and the last day of the APS.

  7. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, James A.; Lumsden, John C.; Kilburn, Kaye H.; Germino, Victor H.; Hamilton, John D.; Lynn, William S.; Byrd, H.; Baucom, D.

    1973-01-01

    Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach. In the study described, it was possible to be directed by both biological observations and the results of manufacturing trials. An exposure chamber was built in a cotton textile mill which had been previously studied as part of a large cross-sectional survey. The chamber was provided with an independent air conditioning system and a carding machine which served as a dust generator. Sixteen subjects, who had shown reductions in expiratory flow rate with exposure to cotton dust, were chosen to form a panel for exposure to raw cottons and cottons which had been preprocessed by heating, washing, and steaming. Indicators of effects were symptoms of chest tightness and/or dyspnoea, change in FEV1·0, and fine dust levels over 6 hours of exposure. Exposure of the panel to no cotton dust resulted in no change in FEV1·0 and served as the control for subsequent trials. Exposure to strict middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 22%, a significant decrement in FEV1·0 of 2·9%, and a fine dust level of 0·26 mg/m3. Exposure to strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 79%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 8·5%, and a fine dust level of 0·89 mg/m3. Oven heating strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 56% and a relatively greater drop in FEV1·0 of 8·3% for 0·48 mg/m3 of fine dust. Washing the strict low grade cotton eliminated detectable biological effects with a symptom prevalence of 8%, an increase of 1·4% in FEV1·, and a dust level of 0·16 mg/m3, but the cotton

  8. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  9. Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common grasses that can cause allergies are: Bermuda grass Johnson grass Kentucky bluegrass Orchard grass Sweet ... Health Sciences 111 T.W. Alexander Drive Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27709 Last Reviewed: July 14, ...

  10. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Thins Pear Fruits by Inhibiting Pollen Tube Growth via Ca2+-ATPase-Mediated Ca2+ Efflux

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Li, Jie; Duan, Chunhui; Liu, Longbo; Sun, Yongping; Cao, Rongxiang; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Chemical fruit thinning has become a popular practice in modern fruit orchards for achieving high quality fruits, reducing costs of hand thinning and promoting return bloom. However, most of the suggested chemical thinners are often concerned for their detrimental effects and environmental problems. 5-Aminolevulic acid (ALA) is a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly plant growth regulator. One of its outstanding roles is improving plant photosynthesis and fruit quality. Here, results showed that applying 100–200 mg/L ALA at full bloom stage significantly reduced pear fruit set. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that ALA significantly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. ALA decreased not only cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) but also “tip-focused” [Ca2+]cyt gradient, indicating that ALA inhibited pollen tube growth by down-regulating calcium signaling. ALA drastically enhanced pollen Ca2+-ATPase activity, suggesting that ALA-induced decrease of calcium signaling probably resulted from activating calcium pump. The significant negative correlations between Ca2+-ATPase activity and pollen germination or pollen tube length further demonstrated the critical role of calcium pump in ALA's negative effect on pollen germination. Taken together, our results suggest that ALA at low concentrations is a potential biochemical thinner, and it inhibits pollen germination and tube growth via Ca2+ efflux by activating Ca2+-ATPase, thereby thinning fruits by preventing fertilization. PMID:26904082

  11. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies—consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions. PMID:26804186

  12. Isolation of total RNA from pollens.

    PubMed

    Bijli, K M; Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Arora, N

    2001-05-01

    Isolation of total RNA from plant materials has been difficult, due to the presence of complex organic substances and the associated pigmentation. In fact, there is a dearth of standardized protocols for isolating total RNA from pollens. To find a simple and reliable method for isolating total RNA from pollen, four methods, viz. phenol/SDS (PS), guanidine HCl (GH), tri-reagent (TR), and modified SDS-betaME (SB) were tested with fresh pollen of Ricinus communis (procured at -70 degrees C) and pollen dried at 30-37 degrees C. The quality and quantity of RNA was superior for the material processed at -70 degrees C. SB gave the highest RNA yield (2.35 mg/g, OD260/280 >2.0), compared to other methods. The results obtained by the SB method were found to be comparable with the widely used tri-reagent method. This was validated with other pollens of Imperata cylindrica and Xanthium strumarium. The yield obtained from graded amounts of pollen was consistent with SB, compared to the TR method. The RNA isolated by SB gave good quality mRNA for synthesizing cDNA. The SDS-betaME method is simple, efficient, and uses less expensive reagents. Hence, we recommend the modified SDS-betaME method for isolating total RNA from pollens. PMID:11426703

  13. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  14. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  15. Preparations of meiotic pachytene chromosomes and extended DNA fibers from cotton suitable for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renhai; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established

  16. Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established

  17. Pollen sequence at Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1962-01-01

    A pollen diagram from Kirchner Marsh, southeastern Minnesota, records a continuous vegetation sequence from the time of Late Wisconsin ice retreat from the region. The late-glacial and early postglacial portions of the diagram are correlated with a radiocarbon-dated diagram from Madelia, Minnesota. Both diagrams show a series of maxima of pollen types in the early postglacial that suggest a significant climatic change at that time. The Kirchner diagram, in addition, shows high percentages of nonarboreal pollen later in the postglacial that indicate an advance of prairie elements into the area between 7200 and 5000 years ago.

  18. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process. PMID:25861358

  19. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  20. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  1. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  2. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  3. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  4. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  5. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  6. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  7. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  8. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  9. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  12. Intracellular auxin transport in pollen

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bosco, Cristina; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cellular auxin homeostasis is controlled at many levels that include auxin biosynthesis, auxin metabolism, and auxin transport. In addition to intercellular auxin transport, auxin homeostasis is modulated by auxin flow through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PIN5, a member of the auxin efflux facilitators PIN protein family, was the first protein to be characterized as an intracellular auxin transporter. We demonstrated that PIN8, the closest member of the PIN family to PIN5, represents another ER-residing auxin transporter. PIN8 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is located in the ER. By combining genetic, physiological, cellular and biochemical data we demonstrated a role for PIN8 in intracellular auxin homeostasis. Although our investigation shed light on intracellular auxin transport in pollen, the physiological function of PIN8 still remains to be elucidated. Here we discuss our data taking in consideration other recent findings. PMID:22990451

  13. Phosphorylation of a WRKY Transcription Factor by MAPKs Is Required for Pollen Development and Function in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yuefeng; Meng, Xiangzong; Khanna, Reshma; LaMontagne, Erica; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2014-01-01

    Plant male gametogenesis involves complex and dynamic changes in gene expression. At present, little is known about the transcription factors involved in this process and how their activities are regulated. Here, we show that a pollen-specific transcription factor, WRKY34, and its close homolog, WRKY2, are required for male gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. When overexpressed using LAT52, a strong pollen-specific promoter, epitope-tagged WRKY34 is temporally phosphorylated by MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, or MPKs), at early stages in pollen development. During pollen maturation, WRKY34 is dephosphorylated and degraded. Native promoter-driven WRKY34-YFP fusion also follows the same expression pattern at the protein level. WRKY34 functions redundantly with WRKY2 in pollen development, germination, and pollen tube growth. Loss of MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation sites in WRKY34 compromises the function of WRKY34 in vivo. Epistasis interaction analysis confirmed that MPK6 belongs to the same genetic pathway of WRKY34 and WRKY2. Our study demonstrates the importance of temporal post-translational regulation of WRKY transcription factors in the control of developmental phase transitions in plants. PMID:24830428

  14. A Pollen-Specific RALF from Tomato That Regulates Pollen Tube Elongation12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Paul A.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Parsons, Ronald L.; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Ryan, Clarence A.; Bedinger, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 μm peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 μm in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window. PMID:20388667

  15. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved. PMID:26792808

  16. Pistillate flowers experience more pollen limitation and less geitonogamy than perfect flowers in a gynomonoecious herb.

    PubMed

    Mamut, Jannathan; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Tan, Dun-Yan; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gynomonoecy, a sexual system in which plants have both pistillate (female) flowers and perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers, occurs in at least 15 families, but the differential reproductive strategies of the two flower morphs within one individual remain unclear. Racemes of Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae) have basal pistillate and distal perfect flowers. To compare sex allocation and reproductive success between the two flower morphs, we measured floral traits, pollinator preferences, and pollen movement in the field. Pollen limitation was more severe in pistillate flowers; bee pollinators preferred to visit perfect flowers, which were also capable of partial self-fertilization. Pollen-staining experiments indicated that perfect flowers received a higher proportion of intra-plant pollen (geitonogamy) than pistillate flowers. Plants with greater numbers of pistillate flowers received more outcross pollen. The differential reproductive success conformed with differential floral sex allocation, in which pistillate flowers produce fewer but larger ovules, resulting in outcrossed seeds. Our flower manipulations in these nectarless gynomonoecious plants demonstrated that perfect flowers promote seed quantity in that they are more attractive to pollinators, while pistillate flowers compensate for the loss of male function through better seed quality. These results are consistent with the outcrossing-benefit hypothesis for gynomonoecy. PMID:24111788

  17. Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dudley, Sarah; Monk, Phillip; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2013-07-01

    The airway epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against inhaled environmental substances. In asthma, these barrier properties are thought to be abnormal. In this study, we analysed the effect of grass pollen on the physical and immunological barrier properties of differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Following exposure to Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract, the integrity of the physical barrier was not impaired as monitored by measuring the transepithelial resistance and immunofluorescence staining of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pollen exposure affected the immunological barrier properties by modulating vectorial mediator release. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8/interleukin (IL)-8 showed the greatest increase in response to pollen exposure with preferential release to the apical compartment. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively blocked apical CXCL8/IL-8 release via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Apical release of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, CCL22/monocyte-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α was significantly increased only in severe asthma cultures, while CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CXCL10/interferon-γ-induced protein-10 were reduced in nonasthmatic cultures. The bronchial epithelial barrier modulates polarised release of mediators in response to pollen without direct effects on its physical barrier properties. The differential response of cells from normal and asthmatic donors suggests the potential for the bronchial epithelium to promote immune dysfunction in asthma. PMID:23143548

  18. Evolutionarily conserved phenylpropanoid pattern on angiosperm pollen.

    PubMed

    Fellenberg, Christin; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. PMID:25739656

  19. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. PMID:26803684

  20. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  1. Quarternary Pollen Analysis in Secondary School Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    Describes techniques for studying historic changes in climate by analysis of pollen preserved in peat bogs. Illustrates the methodology and data analysis techniques by reference to results from English research. (AL)

  2. Water-Deficit Inducible Expression of a Cytokinin Biosynthetic Gene IPT Improves Drought Tolerance in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Kuppu, Sundaram; Mishra, Neelam; Hu, Rongbin; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Shen, Guoxin; Blumwald, Eduardo; Payton, Paxton; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Water-deficit stress is a major environmental factor that limits agricultural productivity worldwide. Recent episodes of extreme drought have severely affected cotton production in the Southwestern USA. There is a pressing need to develop cotton varieties with improved tolerance to water-deficit stress for sustainable production in water-limited regions. One approach to engineer drought tolerance is by delaying drought-induced senescence via up-regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis. The isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) that encodes a rate limiting enzyme in cytokinin biosynthesis, under the control of a water-deficit responsive and maturation specific promoter PSARK was introduced into cotton and the performance of the PSARK::IPT transgenic cotton plants was analyzed in the greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. The data indicate that PSARK::IPT-transgenic cotton plants displayed delayed senescence under water deficit conditions in the greenhouse. These plants produced more root and shoot biomass, dropped fewer flowers, maintained higher chlorophyll content, and higher photosynthetic rates under reduced irrigation conditions in comparison to wild-type and segregated non-transgenic lines. Furthermore, PSARK::IPT-transgenic cotton plants grown in growth chamber condition also displayed greater drought tolerance. These results indicate that water-deficit induced expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene in cotton could significantly improve drought tolerance. PMID:23675526

  3. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  4. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R.

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future. PMID:26492534

  5. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  6. Pollen as atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Allison L.; Brooks, Sarah D.; Deng, Chunhua; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pendleton, Michael W.; Bryant, Vaughn

    2015-05-01

    Anemophilous (wind-dispersed) pollen grains are emitted in large quantities by vegetation in the midlatitudes for reproduction. Pollen grains are coarse particles (5-150 µm) that can rupture when wet to form submicron subpollen particles (SPP) that may have a climatic role. Laboratory CCN experiments of six fresh pollen samples show that SPP activate as CCN at a range of sizes, requiring supersaturations from 0.81 (± 0.07)% for 50 nm particles, 0.26 (± 0.03)% for 100 nm particles, and 0.12 (± 0.00)% for 200 nm particles. Compositional analyses indicate that SPP contain carbohydrates and proteins. The SPP contribution to global CCN is uncertain but could be important depending on pollen concentrations outside the surface layer and the number of SPP generated from a single pollen grain. The production of hygroscopic SPP from pollen represents a novel, biologically driven cloud formation pathway that may influence cloud optical properties and lifetimes, thereby influencing climate.

  7. Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health. PMID:23940803

  8. Perspectives of the International Cotton Genome Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.), an immensely important crop worldwide, has lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination, and it has lagged behind other major crops in genome research. For these reasons, the International Cotton...

  9. Parietaria judaica flowering phenology, pollen production, viability and atmospheric circulation, and expansive ability in the urban environment: impacts of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiou, Christina; Damialis, Athanasios; Krigas, Nikolaos; Halley, John M.; Vokou, Despoina

    2011-01-01

    Parietaria judaica (Urticaceae) grows abundantly in urban areas of the Mediterranean region. Its pollen is a major allergy source. We studied the species' distribution and abundance in and around Thessaloniki (Greece), pollen production and pollen season. We also examined how urban pollution affects pollen viability. Our ultimate goal was to obtain an estimate of the species' performance and ability to expand under different environmental conditions related to climate change. We mapped P. judaica and the other Urticaceae species. In a north- and a south-facing population, we recorded the progress of P. judaica flowering and estimated the pollen content per flower, shoot and surface unit. We concurrently assessed atmospheric circulation of Urticaceae pollen. We estimated P. judaica pollen viability and Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in plants collected from sites differing in traffic intensity. P. judaica is the most abundant Urticaceae species in the area; its occurrence has increased dramatically over the last 100 years. Production of flowers is intense in spring and autumn. Flowering started 12 days earlier in the south-facing population in spring, and 3 days later in autumn. Pollen production was higher in spring and in the south-facing population. Flower and pollen production were positively correlated with the size of the plant and the flower, respectively. Copper and lead concentrations in plants were positively correlated with pollen viability, which was higher for plants collected from high-traffic sites. P. judaica has a high phenotypic plasticity; this is a feature that promotes success of expansive and invasive species. It is also well adapted to warm and polluted urban environments. The climatic change forecast for the Mediterranean region could provoke earlier, longer, and more pronounced flowering and, consequently, more P. judaica pollen in the air. In return, this would result in increased severity of Parietaria pollinosis.

  10. Parietaria judaica flowering phenology, pollen production, viability and atmospheric circulation, and expansive ability in the urban environment: impacts of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Christina; Damialis, Athanasios; Krigas, Nikolaos; Halley, John M; Vokou, Despoina

    2011-01-01

    Parietaria judaica (Urticaceae) grows abundantly in urban areas of the Mediterranean region. Its pollen is a major allergy source. We studied the species' distribution and abundance in and around Thessaloniki (Greece), pollen production and pollen season. We also examined how urban pollution affects pollen viability. Our ultimate goal was to obtain an estimate of the species' performance and ability to expand under different environmental conditions related to climate change. We mapped P. judaica and the other Urticaceae species. In a north- and a south-facing population, we recorded the progress of P. judaica flowering and estimated the pollen content per flower, shoot and surface unit. We concurrently assessed atmospheric circulation of Urticaceae pollen. We estimated P. judaica pollen viability and Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in plants collected from sites differing in traffic intensity. P. judaica is the most abundant Urticaceae species in the area; its occurrence has increased dramatically over the last 100 years. Production of flowers is intense in spring and autumn. Flowering started 12 days earlier in the south-facing population in spring, and 3 days later in autumn. Pollen production was higher in spring and in the south-facing population. Flower and pollen production were positively correlated with the size of the plant and the flower, respectively. Copper and lead concentrations in plants were positively correlated with pollen viability, which was higher for plants collected from high-traffic sites. P. judaica has a high phenotypic plasticity; this is a feature that promotes success of expansive and invasive species. It is also well adapted to warm and polluted urban environments. The climatic change forecast for the Mediterranean region could provoke earlier, longer, and more pronounced flowering and, consequently, more P. judaica pollen in the air. In return, this would result in increased severity of Parietaria pollinosis. PMID:20411278

  11. [Factors affecting the estimation of pollen limitation in Sagittaria trifolia].

    PubMed

    Qin, Dao-feng; Li, Ting; Dai, Can

    2015-12-01

    This study explored whether the degree of pollen limitation was affected by the experimental level (a single flower or inflorescence) and pollen quality (self-pollen or outcross-pollen) of supplemental pollination in Sagittaria trifolia. The results showed that the experimental level caused varying degree of pollen limitation. Compared with the inflorescence level, pollination at the single flower level led to a redistribution of resources among flowers, therefore affecting seed numbers. Pollen quality also played a vital role in the estimation of pollen limitation. Compared with self-pollen, supplemental pollination with outcross-pollen resulted in significantly more seeds and a higher germination rate. This proved that in the research system the reproduction was limited by pollen quality rather than quantity. Our study revealed that both experimental level and pollen quality had effects on the estimation of pollen limitation. It was suggested that in future studies we should evaluate pollen limitation at the inflorescence or whole plant level, and also consider comparing self- and outcross-pollen when applicable. PMID:27112030

  12. Does an 'oversupply' of ovules cause pollen limitation?

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Williams, Neal M

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime seed production can be constrained by shortfalls of pollen receipt ('pollen limitation'). The ovule oversupply hypothesis states that, in response to unpredictable pollen availability, plants evolve to produce more ovules than they expect to be fertilized, and that this results in pollen limitation of seed production. Here, we present a cartoon model and a model of optimal plant reproductive allocations under stochastic pollen receipt to evaluate the hypothesis that an oversupply of ovules leads to increased pollen limitation. We show that an oversupply of ovules has two opposing influences on pollen limitation of whole-plant seed production. First, ovule oversupply increases the likelihood that pollen receipt limits the number of ovules that can be fertilized ('prezygotic pollen limitation'). Second, ovule oversupply increases the proportion of pollen grains received that are used to fertilize ovules ('pollen use efficiency'). As a result of these opposing influences, ovule oversupply has only a modest effect on the degree to which lifetime seed production is constrained by pollen receipt, producing a small decrease in the incidence of pollen limitation. Ovule oversupply is not the cause of the pollen limitation problem, but rather is part of the evolutionary solution to that problem. PMID:26574903

  13. A 12,000-Yr Pollen Record off Cape Hatteras: Pollen Sources and Mechanisms of Pollen Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L.; Peteet, D.; Costas, S.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; de Vernal, A.; Voelker, A.; Abrantes, F.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating both marine and terrestrial signals from the same sediment core is one of the primary challenges for understanding the role of ocean-atmosphere coupling throughout past climate changes. It is therefore vital to understand how the pollen signal of a given marine record reflects the vegetation changes of the neighboring continent. The comparison between the pollen record of marine core JPC32 (KNR178JPC32) and available terrestrial pollen sequences from eastern North America over the last 12,170 years indicates that the pollen signature off Cape Hatteras gives an integrated image of the regional vegetation encompassing the Pee Dee river, Chesapeake and Delaware hydrographic basins and is reliable in reconstructing the past climate of the adjacent continent. Extremely high quantities of pollen grains included in the marine sediments off Cape Hatteras were transferred from the continent to the sea, at intervals 10,100-8800 cal yr BP, 8300-7500 cal yr BP, 5800- 4300 cal yr BP and 2100-730 cal yr BP, during storm events favored by episodes of rapid sea-level rise in the eastern coast of US. In contrast, pollen grains export was reduced during 12,170-10,150 cal yr BP and 4200- 2200 cal yr BP, during episodes of intense continental dryness and slow sea level rise episodes or lowstands in the eastern coast of US. The near absence of reworked pollen grains in core JPC32 contrasts with the high quantity of reworked material in nearby but deeper located marine sites, suggesting that the JPC32 recordwas not affected by the DeepWestern Boundary Current (DWBC) since the end of the Younger Dryas and should be considered a key site for studying past climate changes in the western North Atlantic.

  14. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Meiling; Yu, Youjian; Jiang, Jingjing; Song, Limin; Liang, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xiong, Xingpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a) and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants. PMID:26153985

  15. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Meiling; Yu, Youjian; Jiang, Jingjing; Song, Limin; Liang, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xiong, Xingpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a) and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants. PMID:26153985

  16. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  17. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  18. RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF COTTON GIN DRYERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews gin dryer designs and compiles most of the significant research conducted on the drying of seed cotton at cotton gins since about 1928. it describes the operation of various types of dryers and gives a critical appraisal of dryer designs that may be useful at current cotton gins....

  19. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  20. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  1. Trash particle distribution measurements in ginned cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beltwide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the USDA-ARS Southwester...

  2. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  3. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  4. Morphology and structure of the pollen cone and pollen grain of the Araucaria species from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Del Fueyo, Georgina M; Caccavari, Marta A; Dome, Elizabeth A

    2008-04-01

    The pollen cone and the pollen grain of the two Argentinean species of Araucaria are described with LM, SEM and TEM. Primordia of pollen cones are formed in April and May and reach maturity by mid-October in A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze and by mid-November in A. araucana. (Mol.) K. Koch. Characters of the mature pollen cones and microsporophylls between both taxa are clearly differentiated. Pollen grains are spheroidal-subspheroidal, inaperturate, and asaccate with granulate exine and a subequatorial annular area that corresponds to the sexine thickness. Sculpturing consists of irregularly dispersed granules that are sometimes fused to each other (A. angustifolia) or forming microrugulae (A. araucana). Microgranules and microspinules are also present. The pollen wall ultrastructure is formed by a granular ectexine and lamellated endexine. Granular elements in A. angustifolia are more loosely disposed, form more interstices, and are gradually smaller towards the endexine than in A. araucana. To asses the probable relationships within the family, we compared the pollen grains of the two Araucaria species with those of other extant genera (Agathis, Wollemia) and also with fossil pollen (Araucariacites, Balmeiopsis, Cyclusphaera, Dilwynites) attributed to Araucariaceae. PMID:18669323

  5. Ultraviolet radiation environment of pollen and its effect on pollen germination. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The damage to pollen caused by natural ultraviolet radiation was investigated. Experimental and literature research into the UV radiation environment is reported. Viability and germination of wind and insect pollinated species were determined. Physiological, developmental, and protective factors influencing UV sensitivity of binucleate, advanced binucleate, and trinucleate pollen grains are compared.

  6. Exposure to grass pollen--but not birch pollen--affects lung function in Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, O; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M

    2015-09-01

    Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung-function- and IgE-tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure to grass pollen during the preceding day was associated with a reduced forced expiratory volume in 8-yr-olds; -32.4 ml; 95% CI: -50.6 to -14.2, for an increase in three pollen counts/m³. Associations appeared stronger in children sensitized to pollen allergens. As the grass species flower late in the pollen season, the allergy care routines might be weakened during this period. Therefore, allergy information may need to be updated to increase awareness among grass pollen-sensitized individuals. PMID:26011717

  7. The ultraviolet radiation environment of pollen and its effect on pollen germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The damage to pollen caused by natural ultraviolet radiation was investigated. Experimental and literature research into the UV radiation environment is reported. Viability and germination of wind and insect pollinated species were determined. Physiological, developmental, and protective factors influencing UV sensitivity of binucleate, advanced binucleate, and trinucleate pollen grains are compared.

  8. Functional Characterization and Expression Analyses of the Glucose-Specific AtSTP9 Monosaccharide Transporter in Pollen of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Schneidereit, Alexander; Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Büttner, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A genomic clone and the corresponding cDNA of a new Arabidopsis monosaccharide transporter AtSTP9 were isolated. Transport analysis of the expressed protein in yeast showed that AtSTP9 is an energy-dependent, uncoupler-sensitive, high-affinity monosaccharide transporter with a Km for glucose in the micromolar range. In contrast to all previously characterized monosaccharide transporters, AtSTP9 shows an unusual specificity for glucose. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that AtSTP9 is exclusively expressed in flowers, and a more detailed approach using AtSTP9 promoter/reporter plants clearly showed that AtSTP9 expression is restricted to the male gametophyte. AtSTP9 expression is not found in other floral organs or vegetative tissues. Further localization on the cellular level using a specific antibody revealed that in contrast to the early accumulation of AtSTP9 transcripts in young pollen, the AtSTP9 protein is only found weakly in mature pollen but is most prominent in germinating pollen tubes. This preloading of pollen with mRNAs has been described for genes that are essential for pollen germination and/or pollen tube growth. The pollen-specific expression found for AtSTP9 is also observed for other sugar transporters and indicates that pollen development and germination require a highly regulated supply of sugars. PMID:12970485

  9. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  10. Analysis of Allergenic Pollen by FTIR Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B; Tafintseva, V; Bağcıoğlu, M; Høegh Berdahl, M; Kohler, A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of pollen and spores. However, interpretation and multivariate analysis of infrared microscopy spectra of single pollen grains are hampered by Mie-type scattering. In this paper, we introduce a novel sampling setup for infrared microspectroscopy of pollens preventing strong Mie-type scattering. Pollen samples were embedded in a soft paraffin layer between two sheets of polyethylene foils without any further sample pretreatment. Single-grain infrared spectra of 13 different pollen samples, belonging to 11 species, were obtained and analyzed by the new approach and classified by sparse partial least-squares regression (PLSR). For the classification, chemical and physical information were separated by extended multiplicative signal correction and used together to build a classification model. A training set of 260 spectra and an independent test set of 130 spectra were used. Robust sparse classification models allowing the biochemical interpretation of the classification were obtained by the sparse PLSR, because only a subset of variables was retained for the analysis. With accuracy values of 95% and 98%, for the independent test set and full cross-validation respectively, the method is outperforming the previously published studies on development of an automated pollen analysis. Since the method is compatible with standard air-samplers, it can be employed with minimal modification in regular aerobiology studies. When compared with optical microscopy, which is the benchmark method in pollen analysis, the infrared microspectroscopy method offers better taxonomic resolution, as well as faster, more economical, and bias-free measurement. PMID:26599685

  11. Wind-pollination and the roles of pollen allergenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Songnuan, Wisuwat

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of understanding of the molecular nature of major allergens contained within pollens from the most important allergenic plant species. Most major allergens belong to only a few protein families. Protein characteristics, cross-reactivity, structures, and IgE binding epitopes have been determined for several allergens. These efforts have led to significant improvements in specific immunotherapy, yet there has been little discussion about the physiological functions of these proteins. Even with large amounts of available information about allergenic proteins from pollens, the incidence of pollen allergy continuously increases worldwide. The reason for this increase is unclear and is most likely due to a combination of factors. One important culprit might be a change in the pollen itself. Knowledge about pollen biology and how pollen is changing as a result of more extreme environmental conditions might improve our understanding of the disease. This review focuses on the characteristics of plants producing allergenic pollens that are relevant to pollen allergy, including the phylogenetic relationships, pollen dispersal distances, amounts of pollen produced, amounts of protein in each type of pollen, and how allergenic proteins are released from pollens. In addition, the physiological roles of major allergenic protein families will be discussed to help us understand why some of these proteins become allergens and why GMO plants with hypoallergenic pollens may not be successful. PMID:24383968

  12. Bees associate colour cues with differences in pollen rewards.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to the wealth of knowledge concerning sucrose-rewarded learning, the question of whether bees learn when they collect pollen from flowers has been little addressed. The nutritional value of pollen varies considerably between species, and it may be that bees learn the features of flowers that produce pollen best suited to the dietary requirements of their larvae. It is still unknown, however, whether a non-ingestive reward pathway for pollen learning exists, and how foraging bees sense differences between pollen types. Here we adopt a novel experimental approach testing the learning ability of bees with pollen rewards. Bumblebees were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. To establish which pollen rewards are distinguishable, individual bees were given the choice of collecting two types of pollen, diluted to varying degrees with indigestible α-cellulose. Bees preferentially collected a particular pollen type, but this was not always the most concentrated sample. Preferences were influenced by the degree of similarity between samples and also by the period of exposure, with bees more readily collecting samples of lower pollen concentration after five trials. When trained differentially, bees were able to associate an initially less-preferred contextual colour with the more concentrated sample, whilst their pollen preferences did not change. Successful learning of contextual cues seems to maintain pollen foraging preferences over repeated exposures, suggesting that fast learning of floral cues may preclude continuous sampling and evaluation of alternative reward sources, leading to constancy in pollen foraging. PMID:24855678

  13. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  14. Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Keynan, N; Tamir, R; Waisel, Y; Reshef, A; Spitz, E; Shomer-Ilan, A; Geller-Bernstein, C

    1997-03-01

    Differences in IgE binding and skin responses to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia, and some immunochemical characteristics of this pollen were investigated. The incidence of positive SPT among atopic patients varied between 31.5% to the pollen extracts of P. vera and 24.6% to P. palaestina. The antigens are located on the exine of the grains as well as in their cytoplasm. Some of the antigens are common to all four species, whereas others seem to be specific. Cross-reactivity was found among the four species of Pistacia and between them and Schinus terebintifolious. Five conspicuous IgE-binding bands were observed in the immunoblots of the four examined species, the bands of 49, 57, 64, 68, and 79 kDa. The 36-37-kDa band of P. lentiscus and the 60- and 84-kDa bands of P. atlantica and P. vera were also noticeable. As the flowering seasons of Pistacia and Schinus do not overlap, the patients are exposed to such pollen for more than 4 months a year. Apparently, Pistacia pollen is a major source of allergy. PMID:9140524

  15. Effect of water absorption on pollen adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Carson Meredith, J

    2015-03-15

    Pollens possess a thin liquid coating, pollenkitt, which plays a major role in adhesion by forming capillary menisci at interfaces. Unfortunately, the influence of humidity on pollenkitt properties and capillary adhesion is unknown. Because humidity varies widely in the environment, the answers have important implications for better understanding plant reproduction, allergy and asthma, and pollen as atmospheric condensation nuclei. Here, pollenkitt-mediated adhesion of sunflower pollen to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of humidity. The results quantify for the first time the significant water absorption of pollenkitt and the resulting complex dependence of adhesion on humidity. On hydrophilic Si, adhesion increased with increasing RH for pollens with or without pollenkitt, up to 200nN at 70% RH. In contrast, on hydrophobic PS, adhesion of pollenkitt-free pollen is independent of RH. Surprisingly, when pollenkitt was present adhesion forces on hydrophobic PS first increased with RH up to a maximum value at 35% RH (∼160nN), and then decreased with further increases in RH. Independent measurement of pollenkitt properties is used with models of capillary adhesion to show that humidity-dependent changes in pollenkitt wetting and viscosity are responsible for this complex adhesion behavior. PMID:25524008

  16. An ABCG/WBC-type ABC transporter is essential for transport of sporopollenin precursors for exine formation in developing pollen.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunju; Jin, Jun-Young; Choi, Setbyoul; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Kim, Yu-Young; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Youngsook

    2011-01-01

    The exine of the pollen wall shows an intricate pattern, primarily comprising sporopollenin, a polymer of fatty acids and phenolic compounds. A series of enzymes synthesize sporopollenin precursors in tapetal cells, and the precursors are transported from the tapetum to the pollen surface. However, the mechanisms underlying the transport of sporopollenin precursors remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that strongly suggests that the Arabidopsis ABC transporter ABCG26/WBC27 is involved in the transport of sporopollenin precursors. Two independent mutations at ABCG26 coding region caused drastic decrease in seed production. This defect was complemented by expression of ABCG26 driven by its native promoter. The severely reduced fertility of the abcg26 mutants was caused by a failure to produce mature pollen, observed initially as a defect in pollen-wall development. The reticulate pattern of the exine of wild-type microspores was absent in abcg26 microspores at the vacuolate stage, and the vast majority of the mutant pollen degenerated thereafter. ABCG26 was expressed specifically in tapetal cells at the early vacuolate stage of pollen development. It showed high co-expression with genes encoding enzymes required for sporopollenin precursor synthesis, i.e. CYP704B1, ACOS5, MS2 and CYP703A2. Similar to two other mutants with defects in pollen-wall deposition, abcg26 tapetal cells accumulated numerous vesicles and granules. Taken together, these results suggest that ABCG26 plays a crucial role in the transfer of sporopollenin lipid precursors from tapetal cells to anther locules, facilitating exine formation on the pollen surface. PMID:21223384

  17. Spring Allergies? Don't Assume It's Only Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Spring Allergies? Don't Assume It's Only Pollen Identifying your triggers is the first step toward ... reducing your symptoms, experts say. You may believe pollen is the culprit. But, other substances such as ...

  18. A Pollen Primer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies A Pollen Primer Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents ... National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) . Plant Pollen Ragweed and other weeds, such as curly dock, ...

  19. Quantification of airway deposition of intact and fragmented pollens.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Alpár; Balásházy, Imre; Farkas, Arpád; Sárkány, Zoltán; Hofmann, Werner; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Dobos, Erik

    2011-12-01

    Although pollen is one of the most widespread agents that can cause allergy, its airway transport and deposition is far from being fully explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the airway deposition of pollens and to contribute to the debate related to the increasing number of asthma attacks registered after thunderstorms. For the quantification of the deposition of inhaled pollens in the airways computer simulations were performed. Our results demonstrated that smaller and fragmented pollens may penetrate into the thoracic airways and deposit there, supporting the theory that fragmented pollen particles are responsible for the increasing incidence of asthma attacks following thunderstorms. Pollen deposition results also suggest that children are the most exposed to the allergic effects of pollens. Finally, pollens between 0.5 and 20 μm deposit more efficiently in the lung of asthmatics than in the healthy lung, especially in the bronchial region. PMID:21563012

  20. Wavelet-based fractal analysis of airborne pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaudenzi, M. E.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    1999-06-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self-protection of a pollen allergy is possible through information about future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pollen concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of daily pollen forecasts result in failures. Previous analyses of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply a wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an airborne pollen time series. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing a loss of information with time evolution.

  1. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity. PMID:20587396

  2. The Cotton Ginning Industry: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton ginning industry has adopted many changes in cotton production, processing and marketing over the past years. Current trends show reduced cotton acreage, shifts in cotton production regions, and changes in cotton markets. To be competitive, gins must look for every opportunity to improv...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  4. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  5. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  6. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  7. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  8. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  9. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  10. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  11. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  12. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  13. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  14. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  16. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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  17. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  18. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  20. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  1. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  2. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  3. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  7. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  8. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  9. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  10. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  11. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  12. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  13. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  14. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  16. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  17. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  18. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  1. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  3. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  4. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  5. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  7. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  8. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  9. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  10. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  11. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  14. Modern pollen deposition in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beuning, Kristina R.M.; Fransen, Lindsey; Nakityo, Berna; Mecray, Ellen L.; Bucholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of 20 surface sediment samples collected from Long Island Sound show a pollen assemblage dominated by Carya, Betula, Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Ambrosia, as is consistent with the regional vegetation. No trends in relative abundance of these pollen types occur either from west to east or associated with modern riverine inputs throughout the basin. Despite the large-scale, long-term removal of fine-grained sediment from winnowed portions of the eastern Sound, the composition of the pollen and spore component of the sedimentary matrix conforms to a basin-wide homogeneous signal. These results strongly support the use of select regional palynological boundaries as chronostratigraphic tools to provide a framework for interpretation of the late glacial and Holocene history of the Long Island Sound basin sediments.

  15. Pollen tubes and the physical world.

    PubMed

    Winship, Lawrence J; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Geitmann, Anja; Hepler, Peter K

    2011-07-01

    The primary goal of our previous opinion paper (Winship, L.J. et al. (2010) Trends Plant Sci. 15, 363-369) [1] was to put two models for the control of pollen tube growth on the same theoretical and biophysical footing, and to then test both for consistency with basic principles and with experimental data. Our central thesis, then and now, is that the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms that enable pollen tubes to grow and to respond to their environment evolved in a physical context constrained by known, inescapable principles. First, pressure is a scalar, not a vector quantity. Second, the water movement in and out of plant cells that generates pressure is passive, not active, and is controlled by differences in water potential. Here we respond to the issues raised by Zonia and Munnik (Trends Plant Sci. 2011; this issue) [2] in the light of new evidence concerning turgor pressure and pollen tube growth rates. PMID:21536475

  16. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding. PMID:26475922

  17. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation. PMID:9693274

  18. Composition of polyphenol and polyamide compounds in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and sub-pollen particles.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, Luka; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Burazer, Lidija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen and sub-pollen particles (SPP) aqueous extracts was determined, using a novel extraction procedure. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined, as well as the antioxidative properties of the extract. Main components of water-soluble pollen phenolics are monoglycosides and malonyl-mono- and diglycosides of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol, while spermidine derivatives were identified as the dominant polyamides. SPP are similar in composition to pollen phenolics (predominant isorhamnetin and quercetin monoglycosides), but lacking small phenolic molecules (<450Da). Ethanol-based extraction protocol revealed one-third lower amount of total phenolics in SPP than in pollen. For the first time in any pollen species, SPP and pollen phenolic compositions were compared in detail, with an UHPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS-MS approach, revealing the presence of spermidine derivatives in both SPP and pollen, not previously reported in Ambrosia species. PMID:25468540

  19. Functional Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus/Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite RNA Silencing Suppressors.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W; Dalakouras, Athanasios; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and βC1 proteins encoded by Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV)/CLCuMuB were assessed in Nicotiana benthamiana. A variable degree of local silencing suppression was observed for each viral protein tested, with V2 protein exhibiting the strongest suppression activity and only the C4 protein preventing the spread of systemic silencing. The CLCuKoV-encoded TrAP, C4, V2 and CLCuMuB-encoded βC1 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrAP was shown to bind various small and long nucleic acids including single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA and DNA molecules. C4, V2, and βC1 bound ssDNA and dsDNA with varying affinities. Transgenic expression of C4 under the constitutive 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and βC1 under a dexamethasone inducible promoter induced severe developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana. The results indicate that homologous proteins from even quite closely related begomoviruses may differ in their suppressor activity and mechanism of action. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:26512705

  20. Functional Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus/Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite RNA Silencing Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W.; Dalakouras, Athanasios; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and βC1 proteins encoded by Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV)/CLCuMuB were assessed in Nicotiana benthamiana. A variable degree of local silencing suppression was observed for each viral protein tested, with V2 protein exhibiting the strongest suppression activity and only the C4 protein preventing the spread of systemic silencing. The CLCuKoV-encoded TrAP, C4, V2 and CLCuMuB-encoded βC1 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrAP was shown to bind various small and long nucleic acids including single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA and DNA molecules. C4, V2, and βC1 bound ssDNA and dsDNA with varying affinities. Transgenic expression of C4 under the constitutive 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and βC1 under a dexamethasone inducible promoter induced severe developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana. The results indicate that homologous proteins from even quite closely related begomoviruses may differ in their suppressor activity and mechanism of action. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:26512705

  1. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  2. Diversity and conservation in maize pollen: Phenotypes and transcripts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to its crucial role in seed production, pollen serves as a vector for gene flow between plant populations. Recently, pollen was identified as a mechanism for introduction of transgenes into non-transgenic populations. To investigate the genetic basis for pollen fitn...

  3. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  4. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  5. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  6. Pollen Germination--A Challenging and Educational Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, H. L. H.; Chan, G. Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the recent research on pollen germination and introduces some basic studies on pollen tube growth that can be conducted in a secondary school laboratory. Discusses the use of a light microscope and refrigerator to study pollen. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Landon D; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %. PMID:25008113

  8. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  9. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  10. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  11. COTTON STICKINESS MITIGATION BY BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars deposited on lint by late season sucking insects can make cotton difficult to spin and difficult to market. This study evaluated a lacto bacillus strain that metabolizes insect sugars under low moisture conditions. Lint with known levels of stickiness was sprayed with water containing Lasil...

  12. New Low Gossypol Cotton Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated cotton and its wild relatives typically have glands on both the reproductive and vegetative parts of the plant. These glands contain compounds that are toxic to many pests and help protect the plant from tobacco budworms (TBW), bollworms (BW), plant bugs and possibly some diseases. Unfort...

  13. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  14. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  15. Sources of heterosis in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Due to the predominance of these breeding methods, we hypothesize that modern cultivars, as opposed to obsolete cultivars, have accu...

  16. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  17. Isolation of Cytoplasmic Enzymes from Pollen 1

    PubMed Central

    Weeden, Norman F.; Gottlieb, Leslie D.

    1980-01-01

    The cytoplasmic isozyme of many cytoplasmic-organelle isozyme pairs, as well as other cytoplasmic enzymes in plants, can be readily obtained from pollen by soaking it in an appropriate buffer for 4 hours. Enzymes localized in subcellular organelles appear not to be released during the soaking period, although they are released if the pollen is crushed. The technique is a useful initial step in studies of subcellular localization of enzymes or for obtaining small quantities of cytoplasmic enzymes free of organellar contaminants. Images PMID:16661444

  18. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Lanan, Michele C; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40-50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious 'bee bread' as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself. PMID:25319366

  19. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40–50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious ‘bee bread’ as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself. PMID:25319366

  20. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  1. Modelling the structural response of cotton plants to mepiquat chloride and population density

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shenghao; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen; Mao, Lili; Zhang, Siping; Zhao, Xinhua; Liu, Shaodong; van der Werf, Wopke; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) has indeterminate growth. The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is used worldwide to restrict vegetative growth and promote boll formation and yield. The effects of MC are modulated by complex interactions with growing conditions (nutrients, weather) and plant population density, and as a result the effects on plant form are not fully understood and are difficult to predict. The use of MC is thus hard to optimize. Methods To explore crop responses to plant density and MC, a functional–structural plant model (FSPM) for cotton (named CottonXL) was designed. The model was calibrated using 1 year's field data, and validated by using two additional years of detailed experimental data on the effects of MC and plant density in stands of pure cotton and in intercrops of cotton with wheat. CottonXL simulates development of leaf and fruits (square, flower and boll), plant height and branching. Crop development is driven by thermal time, population density, MC application, and topping of the main stem and branches. Key Results Validation of the model showed good correspondence between simulated and observed values for leaf area index with an overall root-mean-square error of 0·50 m2 m−2, and with an overall prediction error of less than 10 % for number of bolls, plant height, number of fruit branches and number of phytomers. Canopy structure became more compact with the decrease of leaf area index and internode length due to the application of MC. Moreover, MC did not have a substantial effect on boll density but increased lint yield at higher densities. Conclusions The model satisfactorily represents the effects of agronomic measures on cotton plant structure. It can be used to identify optimal agronomic management of cotton to achieve optimal plant structure for maximum yield under varying environmental conditions. PMID:24489020

  2. A distinct mechanism regulating a pollen-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rop in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rop/Rac small GTPases are central to diverse developmental and cellular activities in plants, playing an especially important role in polar growth of pollen tubes. Although it is established that a class of plant-specific RopGEFs promotes the activity of Rop/Rac through the catalytic PRONE (Plant sp...

  3. Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5, an Actin Bundling Factor, Is Required for Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Youjun; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Ren, Sulin; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

    2010-01-01

    Actin cables in pollen tubes serve as molecular tracks for cytoplasmic streaming and organelle movement and are formed by actin bundling factors like villins and fimbrins. However, the precise mechanisms by which actin cables are generated and maintained remain largely unknown. Fimbrins comprise a family of five members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterized a fimbrin isoform, Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5 (FIM5). Our results show that FIM5 is required for the organization of actin cytoskeleton in pollen grains and pollen tubes, and FIM5 loss-of-function associates with a delay of pollen germination and inhibition of pollen tube growth. FIM5 decorates actin filaments throughout pollen grains and tubes. Actin filaments become redistributed in fim5 pollen grains and disorganized in fim5 pollen tubes. Specifically, actin cables protrude into the extreme tips, and their longitudinal arrangement is disrupted in the shank of fim5 pollen tubes. Consequently, the pattern and velocity of cytoplasmic streaming were altered in fim5 pollen tubes. Additionally, loss of FIM5 function rendered pollen germination and tube growth hypersensitive to the actin-depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. In vitro biochemical analyses indicated that FIM5 exhibits actin bundling activity and stabilizes actin filaments. Thus, we propose that FIM5 regulates actin dynamics and organization during pollen germination and tube growth via stabilizing actin filaments and organizing them into higher-order structures. PMID:21098731

  4. Human granulocyte/pollen-binding protein. Recognition and identification as transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Sass-Kuhn, S P; Moqbel, R; Mackay, J A; Cromwell, O; Kay, A B

    1984-01-01

    Normal human serum was found to contain a heat-stable protein which promoted the binding of granulocytes to timothy grass pollen (granulocyte/pollen-binding protein [GPBP]). GPBP was purified by gel filtration, anion exchange, and affinity chromatography. Virtually all of the granulocyte/pollen-binding activity was associated with a beta-1-protein having a molecular mass of approximately 77,000 D and an isoelectric point of between 5.5 and 6.1. By immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein was identified as transferrin. Monospecific antisera raised against either GPBP or transferrin removed biological activity from GPBP preparations, and GPBP and transferrin gave lines of identity with these two antisera. The apparent heterogeneity in the molecular size and charge of GPBP observed during progressive purification was minimal when GPBP was saturated with ferric ions before the separation procedures. These experiments indicate that granulocyte/pollen binding is a hitherto unrecognized property of transferrin which appears to be unrelated to iron transport and raises the possibility that transferrin might have a physiological role in the removal of certain organic matter. Images PMID:6690479

  5. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  6. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  7. Pollen tetrads in the detection of environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Although pollen is a very sensitive indicator of environmental mutagenesis, it is also sensitive to nonmutagenic environmental stress. By analyzing pollen tetrads, rather than individual pollen grains, it is possible to distinguish between mutagenic and nonmutagenic influences. Another advantage of using pollen tetrads in mutagenicity studies is that it is possible to discriminate between pre- and post-pachytene mutations. This eliminates the mutant sector problem of a single mutational event giving rise to a large number of mutant cells. Methods of analyzing pollen tetrads are described.

  8. Pollen wall development: the associated enzymes and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Zhang, Z; Cao, J

    2013-03-01

    Pollen grains are surrounded by a sculpted wall, which protects male gametophytes from various environmental stresses and microbial attacks, and also facilitates pollination. Pollen wall development requires lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, and some key genes and proteins that participate in these processes have recently been identified. Here, we summarise the genes and describe their functions during pollen wall development via several metabolic pathways. A working model involving substances and catalytic enzyme reactions that occur during pollen development is also presented. This model provides information on the complete process of pollen wall development with respect to metabolic pathways. PMID:23252839

  9. Extensive Pollen Flow but Few Pollen Donors and High Reproductive Variance in an Extremely Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Aparicio, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (Nep) and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73–93%), fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229–412 m). However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (Nep = 4.3–10.2) and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14%) and strong spatial genetic structure (Sp = 0.012), probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment. PMID:23152842

  10. Lipids in pollen - They are different.

    PubMed

    Ischebeck, Till

    2016-09-01

    During evolution, the male gametophyte of Angiosperms has been severely reduced to the pollen grain, consisting of a vegetative cell containing two sperm cells. This vegetative cell has to deliver the sperm cells from the stigma through the style to the ovule. It does so by producing a pollen tube and elongating it to many centimeters in length in some species, requiring vast amounts of fatty acid and membrane lipid synthesis. In order to optimize this polar tip growth, a unique lipid composition in the pollen has evolved. Pollen tubes produce extraplastidial galactolipids and store triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, probably needed as precursors of glycerolipids or for acyl editing. They also possess special sterol and sphingolipid moieties that might together form microdomains in the membranes. The individual lipid classes, the proteins involved in their synthesis as well as the corresponding Arabidopsis knockout mutant phenotypes are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27033152

  11. The Beauty and Biology of Pollen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay-Poole, Scott T.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes: basic features of pollen grains (shapes, apertures, layering of wall, exine sculpturing); strategies for pollination (anemophily--wind transported, zoophily--animal transported); and the structures specialized for each process. Gives instructions for using scanning electron microscope photographs and for collecting, identifying, and…

  12. Pollen analyses of tarnished plant bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild host plants play an important role for tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris, especially when cultivated crops are not flowering. Knowledge of native habitats is important for managing this insect pest. Although pollen has been used to characterize dispersal and food sources of many inse...

  13. VEGETATION AND POLLEN RELATIONSHIP IN EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between the vegetation and modern pollen assemblages in eastern Canada is summarized and analyzed using isopoll maps, ordination, and cluster analysis. he major vegetation zones recognized in the region are the shrub tundra, forest tundra (divided into shrub and ...

  14. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

  15. Pollen Production, Microsporangium Dehiscence and Pollen Flow in Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex D. Don)

    PubMed Central

    KHANDURI, V. P.; SHARMA, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Microsporangium dehiscence, pollen production and dispersal were studied in Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) during 1998 and 1999. Microsporangium dehiscence showed diurnal periodicity and was found to be related to air temperature and relative air humidity, with a strobilus taking 2 d to dehisce completely in warmer conditions and 3 d in cooler ones. The frequency of flowering in C. deodara was highly variable during the two successive years; however, cyclical production of pollen grains was observed in 50 % of the trees. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air was found between 1200 and 1600 h, and this period was also noted to be the best time for pollination. Studying migration of pollen grains from isolated single trees in three directions showed that migration was not uniform in all directions. Long‐distance transport of pollen grains was observed in the downhill direction. However, in the uphill and horizontal directions grains could travel only up to 97·5 and 195·1 m, respectively, and the frequency of pollen grains to the source frequency at these distances was only 1·9 and 2·5 %, respectively. The results suggest that an isolation barrier of 190 m may be considered as a minimum for the management of deodar seed orchards. PMID:12099533

  16. Arabidopsis COG Complex Subunits COG3 and COG8 Modulate Golgi Morphology, Vesicle Trafficking Homeostasis and Are Essential for Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingxin; Li, Pengxiang; Gao, Caiji; Ding, Yu; Lan, Zhiyi; Shi, Zhixuan; Rui, Qingchen; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Zhao, Yanxue; Wu, Chengyun; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yan; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally regulated membrane trafficking events incorporate membrane and cell wall materials into the pollen tube apex and are believed to underlie the rapid pollen tube growth. In plants, the molecular mechanisms and physiological functions of intra-Golgi transport and Golgi integrity maintenance remain largely unclear. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex has been implicated in tethering of retrograde intra-Golgi vesicles in yeast and mammalian cells. Using genetic and cytologic approaches, we demonstrate that T-DNA insertions in Arabidopsis COG complex subunits, COG3 and COG8, cause an absolute, male-specific transmission defect that can be complemented by expression of COG3 and COG8 from the LAT52 pollen promoter, respectively. No obvious abnormalities in the microgametogenesis of the two mutants are observed, but in vitro and in vivo pollen tube growth are defective. COG3 or COG8 proteins fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) label the Golgi apparatus. In pollen of both mutants, Golgi bodies exhibit altered morphology. Moreover, γ-COP and EMP12 proteins lose their tight association with the Golgi. These defects lead to the incorrect deposition of cell wall components and proteins during pollen tube growth. COG3 and COG8 interact directly with each other, and a structural model of the Arabidopsis COG complex is proposed. We believe that the COG complex helps to modulate Golgi morphology and vesicle trafficking homeostasis during pollen tube tip growth. PMID:27448097

  17. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  18. Seasonal appearance of grass pollen allergen in natural, pauci-micronic aerosol of various size fractions. Relationship with airborne grass pollen concentration.

    PubMed

    Spieksma, F T; Nikkels, B H; Dijkman, J H

    1995-03-01

    In a study during the 1993 grass pollen season at Leiden, the relationship between atmospheric pollen allergen carried by five size fractions of pauci-micronic (few microns) particles and the grass pollen count was investigated. Sampling was carried out on dry days, and atmospheric pollen allergen in the particle fractions was assessed by a RAST-inhibition assay while grass pollen quantities were measured with a volumetric pollen trap. It appears that the atmospheric presence of grass pollen allergen in all size fractions is restricted mainly to the period of presence of grass pollen grains. Before and after the grass pollen season atmospheric grass pollen allergen quantities are generally very low. It is concluded that a routinely performed grass pollen count is a reliable measurement for the estimation of the amount of atmospheric grass pollen allergen, also in the pauci-micronic particle fraction. PMID:7788570

  19. Proteomic analyses of apoplastic proteins from germinating Arabidopsis thaliana pollen

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Weina; Song, Yun; Zhang, Cuijun; Zhang, Yafang; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guo, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Pollen grains play important roles in the reproductive processes of flowering plants. The roles of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination and in pollen tube growth are comparatively less well understood. To investigate the functions of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination, the global apoplastic proteins of mature and germinated Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains were prepared for differential analyses by using 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) saturation labeling techniques. One hundred and three proteins differentially expressed (p value ≤ 0.01) in pollen germinated for 6h compare with un-germination mature pollen, and 98 spots, which represented 71 proteins, were identified by LC-MS/MS. By bioinformatics analysis, 50 proteins were identified as secreted proteins. These proteins were mainly involved in cell wall modification and remodeling, protein metabolism and signal transduction. Three of the differentially expressed proteins were randomly selected to determine their subcellular localizations by transiently expressing YFP fusion proteins. The results of subcellular localization were identical with the bioinformatics prediction. Based on these data, we proposed a model for apoplastic proteins functioning in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. These results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth. PMID:21798377

  20. Towards a street-level pollen concentration and exposure forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; Krol, Maarten; van Vliet, Arnold; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pollen are an increasing source of nuisance for people in industrialised countries and are associated with significant cost of medication and sick leave. Citizen pollen warnings are often based on emission mapping based on local temperature sum approaches or on long-range atmospheric model approaches. In practise, locally observed pollen may originate from both local sources (plants in streets and gardens) and from long-range transport. We argue that making this distinction is relevant because the diurnal and spatial variation in pollen concentrations is much larger for pollen from local sources than for pollen from long-range transport due to boundary layer processes. This may have an important impact on exposure of citizens to pollen and on mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the partitioning of pollen into local and long-range origin categories. Our objective is to study how the concentrations of pollen from different sources vary temporally and spatially, and how the source region influences exposure and mitigation strategies. We built a Hay Fever Forecast system (HFF) based on WRF-chem, Allergieradar.nl, and geo-statistical downscaling techniques. HFF distinguishes between local (individual trees) and regional sources (based on tree distribution maps). We show first results on how the diurnal variation of pollen concentrations depends on source proximity. Ultimately, we will compare the model with local pollen counts, patient nuisance scores and medicine use.

  1. Meteorological variables connected with airborne ragweed pollen in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Makra, L; Juhász, M; Borsos, E; Béczi, R

    2004-09-01

    About 30% of the Hungarian population has some type of allergy, 65% of them have pollen sensitivity, and at least 60% of this pollen sensitivity is caused by ragweed. The short (or common) ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia = Ambrosia elatior) has the most aggressive pollen of all. Clinical investigations prove that its allergenic pollen is the main reason for the most massive, most serious and most long-lasting pollinosis. The air in the Carpathian Basin is the most polluted with ragweed pollen in Europe. The aim of the study is to analyse how ragweed pollen concentration is influenced by meteorological elements in a medium-sized city, Szeged, Southern Hungary. The data basis consists of daily ragweed pollen counts and averages of 11 meteorological parameters for the 5-year daily data set, between 1997 and 2001. The study considers some of the ragweed pollen characteristics for Szeged. Application of the Makra test indicates the same period for the highest pollen concentration as that established by the main pollination period. After performing factor analysis for the daily ragweed pollen counts and the 11 meteorological variables examined, four factors were retained that explain 84.4% of the total variance of the original 12 variables. Assessment of the daily pollen number was performed by multiple regression analysis and results based on deseasonalised and original data were compared. PMID:15103548

  2. Pollen clumping and wind dispersal in an invasive angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Chamecki, Marcelo; Brush, Grace S; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2009-09-01

    Pollen dispersal is a fundamental aspect of plant reproductive biology that maintains connectivity between spatially separated populations. Pollen clumping, a characteristic feature of insect-pollinated plants, is generally assumed to be a detriment to wind pollination because clumps disperse shorter distances than do solitary pollen grains. Yet pollen clumps have been observed in dispersion studies of some widely distributed wind-pollinated species. We used Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed; Asteraceae), a successful invasive angiosperm, to investigate the effect of clumping on wind dispersal of pollen under natural conditions in a large field. Results of simultaneous measurements of clump size both in pollen shedding from male flowers and airborne pollen being dispersed in the atmosphere are combined with a transport model to show that rather than being detrimental, clumps may actually be advantageous for wind pollination. Initial clumps can pollinate the parent population, while smaller clumps that arise from breakup of larger clumps can cross-pollinate distant populations. PMID:21622356

  3. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  4. An electronic pollen detection method using Coulter counting principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhe, Jiang; Chandra, Santanu; Hu, Jun

    A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry ® Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the micro particles was thus recorded and analyzed. The experimental results showed that tree pollens and grass pollens display distinctive behaviors. The phenomena may be attributed to the differences in the surface characteristics of the pollens and is potentially useful for counting and differentiating different micro particles.

  5. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  6. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  7. Evaluation of modern cotton harvest systems on irrigated cotton: Yarn quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of harvest methods (cotton picker vs. cotton stripper) on yarn quality from irrigated cotton harvested on the High Plains of Texas with modern equipment was measured using multiple cultivars from six sites over three years. Few differences were detected in carded yarn quality between har...

  8. Design and evaluation of a source sampling system for cotton harvesters - Seed cotton separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers in some states across the US cotton belt are facing increased regulatory pressure with regard to air quality permit compliance and reducing fugitive PM emissions. Little accurate emission factor data from cotton picking operations are available for use in the air pollution regulator...

  9. Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen.

    PubMed

    Heslop-Harrison, J; Heslop-Harrison, Y

    1985-02-01

    Earlier reports have indicated that the pollen of Eucalyptus is mechanically robust and unusually resistant to the osmotic stress imposed by immersion in water. We have investigated some of the features of the germination mechanism in the pollen of E. rhodantha with a view to clarifying the role of pollen-wall specializations in determining this resistance. Cultured in vitro, the pollen showed erratic germination, with a scatter of germination times up to 24 h. This was associated with variation between individual grains in the rate of hydration and dispersal of the pectins of the oncus, the thickened outer component of the intine present at each aperture. The oncus is itself differentiated, with a refractive outer layer lying within a sporopollenin operculum and itself overlying the protein-bearing layer of the intine. The outer layer, interpreted as a compacted pectin, undergoes only slow dissolution in aqueous media after the lifting of the operculum, and it is this that apparently protects the grain from the effects of short-term osmotic stress. The rate of dissolution varies between grains, possibly as a consequence of minor differences in developmental rate in the final stages of differentiation in the anther, and this contributes to the wider scatter of germination times. The dehydrated pollen gave one-third of the potential germination after 24 h exposure to 60 degrees C, and a small proportion survived 24 h at 70 degrees C. This degree of heat tolerance must primarily reflect properties of the protoplast of the vegetative cell, not examined in the present study; but the wall specializations may well provide a guard against extreme desiccation, and it is noteworthy that the function of the germination mechanism is not prejudiced by exposure to high temperatures. PMID:4019590

  10. Transcriptional Profiling in Cotton Associated with Bacillus Subtilis (UFLA285) Induced Biotic-stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  11. Estimating soil organic carbon sequestration throughout the Cotton Belt with the soil conditioning index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic C sequestration can be a significant driver of how conservation management systems are adopted by producers and promoted by government agencies. Simulation of various tillage, crop rotation, and cover cropping conditions across the cotton growing region of the southeastern USA would al...

  12. Variations and trends of Fagaceae pollen in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Arca, Bachisio; Vargiu, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze variations in the start and the end dates of pollen season, date of maximum concentration peak, pollen season duration, pollen concentration value and Seasonal Pollen Index of airborne Fagaceae pollen series recorded in Sassari, Northern Italy, and to evaluate their relation to meteorological data. Daily pollen concentration data were measured from 1986 to 2008 in a urban area of northern Sardinia (Italy) using a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. The date of the peak occurrence was defined as the day when the cumulated daily pollen values reached the 50 % of the total annual pollen concentration. Meteorological data were recorded during the same period by an automatic weather station. Cumulative Degree days were calculated, for each year, from different starting dates using the daily averaging method. The correlation between meteorological variables and the different characteristics of pollen seasons was analyzed using Spearman's correlation tests. In the city of Sassari the Fagaceae airborne pollen content was mainly due to Quercus. The main pollen season took place from April to June. The longest pollen season appeared in the year 2002. The cumulative counts varied over the years, with a mean value of 5,336 pollen grains, a lowest total of 550 in 1986 and a highest total of 8,678 in 2001. Daily pollen concentrations presented positive correlation with temperature, and negative with relative humidity (p<0,0001) and with rainfall. In addition, Cumulative Degree days were significantly correlated with the dates of maximum concentration peak (p<0,0001).

  13. Drought, pollen and nectar availability, and pollination success.

    PubMed

    Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V

    2016-06-01

    Pollination success of animal-pollinated flowers depends on rate of pollinator visits and on pollen deposition per visit, both of which should vary with the pollen and nectar "neighborhoods" of a plant, i.e., with pollen and nectar availability in nearby plants. One determinant of these neighborhoods is per-flower production of pollen and nectar, which is likely to respond to environmental influences. In this study, we explored environmental effects on pollen and nectar production and on pollination success in order to follow up a surprising result from a previous study: flowers of Ipomopsis aggregata received less pollen in years of high visitation by their hummingbird pollinators. A new analysis of the earlier data indicated that high bird visitation corresponded to drought years. We hypothesized that drought might contribute to the enigmatic prior result if it decreases both nectar and pollen production: in dry years, low nectar availability could cause hummingbirds to visit flowers at a higher rate, and low pollen availability could cause them to deposit less pollen per visit. A greenhouse experiment demonstrated that drought does reduce both pollen and nectar production by I. aggregata flowers. This result was corroborated across 6 yr of variable precipitation and soil moisture in four unmanipulated field populations. In addition, experimental removal of pollen from flowers reduced the pollen received by nearby flowers. We conclude that there is much to learn about how abiotic and biotic environmental drivers jointly affect pollen and nectar production and availability, and how this contributes to pollen and nectar neighborhoods and thus influences pollination success. PMID:27459771

  14. Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. Results 5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ≥ 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. Conclusion The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable. PMID:22165847

  15. Genetic diversity in pollen abiotic stress tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been investigated by cotton breeders throughout the public and private sectors. The primary focus of these studies has been the evaluation of abiotic stress responses during the development of the flower prior to anthesis. Sterility in...

  16. Genetic Diversity in Pollen Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been investigated by cotton breeders throughout the public and private sectors. The primary focus of these studies has been the evaluation of abiotic stress responses during the development of the flower prior to anthesis. Sterility in...

  17. Nitric Oxide Participates in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Germination and Tube Growth Partly via cGMP In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu-Ge, Qiang; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS)-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro) accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control) or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis. PMID:23272244

  18. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  19. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  20. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever. PMID:26105678

  1. Development of personal pollen information—the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmenta, Maximilian; Bastl, Katharina; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Pollen allergies affect a large part of the European population and are considered likely to increase. User feedback indicates that there are difficulties in providing proper information and valid forecasts using traditional methods of aerobiology due to a variety of factors. Allergen content, pollen loads, and pollen allergy symptoms vary per region and year. The first steps in challenging such issues have already been undertaken. A personalized pollen-related symptom forecast is thought to be a possible answer. However, attempts made thus far have not led to an improvement in daily forecasting procedures. This study describes a model that was launched in 2013 in Austria to provide the first available personal pollen information. This system includes innovative forecast models using bi-hourly pollen data, traditional pollen forecasts based on historical data, meteorological data, and recent symptom data from the patient's hayfever diary. Furthermore, it calculates the personal symptom load in real time, in particular, the entries of the previous 5 days, to classify users. The personal pollen information was made available in Austria on the Austrian pollen information website and via a mobile pollen application, described herein for the first time. It is supposed that the inclusion of personal symptoms will lead to major improvements in pollen information concerning hay fever sufferers.

  2. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  3. Development of personal pollen information-the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers.

    PubMed

    Kmenta, Maximilian; Bastl, Katharina; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Pollen allergies affect a large part of the European population and are considered likely to increase. User feedback indicates that there are difficulties in providing proper information and valid forecasts using traditional methods of aerobiology due to a variety of factors. Allergen content, pollen loads, and pollen allergy symptoms vary per region and year. The first steps in challenging such issues have already been undertaken. A personalized pollen-related symptom forecast is thought to be a possible answer. However, attempts made thus far have not led to an improvement in daily forecasting procedures. This study describes a model that was launched in 2013 in Austria to provide the first available personal pollen information. This system includes innovative forecast models using bi-hourly pollen data, traditional pollen forecasts based on historical data, meteorological data, and recent symptom data from the patient's hayfever diary. Furthermore, it calculates the personal symptom load in real time, in particular, the entries of the previous 5 days, to classify users. The personal pollen information was made available in Austria on the Austrian pollen information website and via a mobile pollen application, described herein for the first time. It is supposed that the inclusion of personal symptoms will lead to major improvements in pollen information concerning hay fever sufferers. PMID:24357491

  4. A strong inhibitor of gene expression in the 5' untranslated region of the pollen-specific LAT59 gene to tomato.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1997-11-01

    Promoter sequences that direct pollen-specific expression have been previously identified in the LAT59 (for late anther tomato) gene. Here, we show that the LAT59 sequences encoding the 5' untranslated region inhibit expression of reporter genes by > 20-fold in transient expression experiments and up to 300-fold after stable transformation. Inhibition occurred in somatic cells as well as in pollen. Our results indicate that the inhibitor still functions after pollen germination and therefore does not modulate the level of the LAT59 protein during pollen development. The presence of the leader sequence dramatically decreased mRNA accumulation but without affecting translation rate and mRNA stability. We believe that the leader inhibits transcription. We mapped the inhibitor to a region in the leader that coincides with a putative stem-loop and present evidence that this stem-loop participates in inhibition. PMID:9401125

  5. A strong inhibitor of gene expression in the 5' untranslated region of the pollen-specific LAT59 gene to tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1997-01-01

    Promoter sequences that direct pollen-specific expression have been previously identified in the LAT59 (for late anther tomato) gene. Here, we show that the LAT59 sequences encoding the 5' untranslated region inhibit expression of reporter genes by > 20-fold in transient expression experiments and up to 300-fold after stable transformation. Inhibition occurred in somatic cells as well as in pollen. Our results indicate that the inhibitor still functions after pollen germination and therefore does not modulate the level of the LAT59 protein during pollen development. The presence of the leader sequence dramatically decreased mRNA accumulation but without affecting translation rate and mRNA stability. We believe that the leader inhibits transcription. We mapped the inhibitor to a region in the leader that coincides with a putative stem-loop and present evidence that this stem-loop participates in inhibition. PMID:9401125

  6. Intercellular communication in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen discovered via AHG3 transcript movement from the vegetative cell to sperm

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yi, Jun; Boavida, Leonor C.; Chen, Yuan; Becker, Jörg D.; Köhler, Claudia; McCormick, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    An Arabidopsis pollen grain (male gametophyte) consists of three cells: the vegetative cell, which forms the pollen tube, and two sperm cells enclosed within the vegetative cell. It is still unclear if there is intercellular communication between the vegetative cell and the sperm cells. Here we show that ABA-hypersensitive germination3 (AHG3), encoding a protein phosphatase, is specifically transcribed in the vegetative cell but predominantly translated in sperm cells. We used a series of deletion constructs and promoter exchanges to document transport of AHG3 transcripts from the vegetative cell to sperm and showed that their transport requires sequences in both the 5′ UTR and the coding region. Thus, in addition its known role in transporting sperm during pollen tube growth, the vegetative cell also contributes transcripts to the sperm cells. PMID:26466609

  7. The Arabidopsis cytosolic Acyl-CoA-binding proteins play combinatory roles in pollen development.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Yeung, Edward C; Ye, Zi-Wei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2015-02-01

    In Arabidopsis, six acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) have been identified and they have been demonstrated to function in plant stress responses and development. Three of these AtACBPs (AtACBP4-AtACBP6) are cytosolic proteins and all are expressed in floral organs as well as in other tissues. The roles of cytosolic AtACBPs in floral development were addressed in this study. To this end, a T-DNA insertional knockout mutant of acbp5 was characterized before use in crosses with the already available acbp4 and acbp6 T-DNA knockout mutants to examine their independent and combinatory functions in floral development. The single-gene knockout mutations did not cause any significant phenotypic changes, while phenotypic deficiencies affecting siliques and pollen were observed in the double mutants (acbp4acbp6 and acbp5acbp6) and the acbp4acbp5acbp6 triple mutant. Vacuole accumulation in the acbp4acbp6, acbp5acbp6 and acbp4acbp5acbp6 pollen was the most severe abnormality occurring in the double and triple mutants. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed exine and oil body defects in the acbp4acbp5acbp6 mutant, which also displayed reduced ability in in vitro pollen germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS) driven from the various AtACBP promoters indicated that AtACBP6pro::GUS expression overlapped with AtACBP4pro::GUS expression in pollen grains and with AtACBP5pro::GUS expression in the microspores and tapetal cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the three cytosolic AtACBPs play combinatory roles in acyl-lipid metabolism during pollen development. PMID:25395473

  8. Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S

    2002-01-01

    Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is

  9. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 Is Essential for Pollen Wall Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhu, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ARF17) is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The arf17 mutant exhibited a male-sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall-patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of the wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by the expression of DR5-driven green fluorescent protein, which is an synthetic auxin response reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression. PMID:23580594

  10. The Quaternary fossil-pollen record and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.C. . Research and Collections Center)

    1993-03-01

    Fossil pollen provide one of the most valuable records of vegetation and climate change during the recent geological past. Advantages of the fossil-pollen record are that deposits containing fossil pollen are widespread, especially in areas having natural lakes, that fossil pollen occurs in continuous stratigraphic sequences spanning millennia, and that fossil pollen occurs in quantitative assemblages permitting a multivariate approach for reconstructing past vegetation and climates. Because of stratigraphic continuity, fossil pollen records climate cycles on a wide range of scales, from annual to the 100 ka Milankovitch cycles. Receiving particular emphasis recently are decadal to century scale changes, possible from the sediments of varved lakes, and late Pleistocene events on a 5--10 ka scale possibly correlating with the Heinrich events in the North Atlantic marine record or the Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the Greenland ice-core record. Researchers have long reconstructed vegetation and climate by qualitative interpretation of the fossil-pollen record. Recently quantitative interpretation has developed with the aid of large fossil-pollen databases and sophisticated numerical models. In addition, fossil pollen are important climate proxy data for validating General Circulation Models, which are used for predicting the possible magnitude future climate change. Fossil-pollen data also contribute to an understanding of ecological issues associated with global climate change, including questions of how and how rapidly ecosystems might respond to abrupt climate change.

  11. Role of Lipid Metabolism in Plant Pollen Exine Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Xijia

    2016-01-01

    Pollen plays important roles in the life cycle of angiosperms plants. It acts as not only a biological protector of male sperms but also a communicator between the male and the female reproductive organs, facilitating pollination and fertilization. Pollen is produced within the anther, and covered by the specialized outer envelope, pollen wall. Although the morphology of pollen varies among different plant species, the pollen wall is mainly comprised of three layers: the pollen coat, the outer exine layer, and the inner intine layer. Except the intine layer, the other two layers are basically of lipidic nature. Particularly, the outer pollen wall layer, the exine, is a highly resistant biopolymer of phenylpropanoid and lipidic monomers covalently coupled by ether and ester linkages. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying pollen coat formation and exine patterning remain largely elusive. Herein, we summarize the current genetic, phenotypic and biochemical studies regarding to the pollen exine development and underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms mainly obtained from monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming to extend our understandings of plant male reproductive biology. Genes, enzymes/proteins and regulatory factors that appear to play conserved and diversified roles in lipid biosynthesis, transportation and modification during pollen exine formation, were highlighted. PMID:27023241

  12. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  13. Anther evolution: pollen presentation strategies when pollinators differ.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria Clara; Wilson, Paul; Keller, Sarah J; Wolfe, Andrea D; Thomson, James D

    2006-02-01

    Male-male competition in plants is thought to exert selection on flower morphology and on the temporal presentation of pollen. Theory suggests that a plant's pollen dosing strategy should evolve to match the abundance and pollen transfer efficiency of its pollinators. Simultaneous pollen presentation should be favored when pollinators are infrequent or efficient at delivering the pollen they remove, whereas gradual dosing should optimize delivery by frequent and wasteful pollinators. Among Penstemon and Keckiella species, anthers vary in ways that affect pollen release, and the morphology of dried anthers reliably indicates how they dispense pollen. In these genera, hummingbird pollination has evolved repeatedly from hymenopteran pollination. Pollen production does not change with evolutionary shifts between pollinators. We show that after we control for phylogeny, hymenopteran-adapted species present their pollen more gradually than hummingbird-adapted relatives. In a species pair that seemed to defy the pattern, the rhythm of anther maturation produced an equivalent dosing effect. These results accord with previous findings that hummingbirds can be more efficient than bees at delivering pollen. PMID:16670987

  14. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  15. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. PMID:25524442

  16. Nicotianamine Functions in the Phloem-Based Transport of Iron to Sink Organs, in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Mara; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Abadía, Javier; Bauer, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The metal chelator nicotianamine promotes the bioavailability of Fe and reduces cellular Fe toxicity. For breeding Fe-efficient crops, we need to explore the fundamental impact of nicotianamine on plant development and physiology. The quadruple nas4x-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana cannot synthesize any nicotianamine, shows strong leaf chlorosis, and is sterile. To date, these phenotypes have not been fully explained. Here, we show that sink organs of this mutant were Fe deficient, while aged leaves were Fe sufficient. Upper organs were also Zn deficient. We demonstrate that transport of Fe to aged leaves relied on citrate, which partially complemented the loss of nicotianamine. In the absence of nicotianamine, Fe accumulated in the phloem. Our results show that rather than enabling the long-distance movement of Fe in the phloem (as is the case for Zn), nicotianamine facilitates the transport of Fe from the phloem to sink organs. We delimit nicotianamine function in plant reproductive biology and demonstrate that nicotianamine acts in pollen development in anthers and pollen tube passage in the carpels. Since Fe and Zn both enhance pollen germination, a lack of either metal may contribute to the reproductive defect. Our study sheds light on the physiological functions of nicotianamine. PMID:22706286

  17. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  18. Honey loading for pollen collection: regulation of crop content in honeybee pollen foragers on leaving hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Mitsuhata-Asai, Akiko; Sasaki, Masami

    2014-07-01

    Before foraging honeybees leave the hive, each bee loads its crop with some amount of honey "fuel" depending on the distance to the food source and foraging experience. For pollen collection, there is evidence that foragers carry additional honey as "glue" to build pollen loads. This study examines whether pollen foragers of the European honeybee Apis mellifera regulate the size of the crop load according to food-source distances upon leaving the hive and how foraging experience affects load regulation. The crop contents of bees foraging on crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica, which has no nectary, were larger than those foraging on nectar from other sources, confirming a previous finding that pollen foragers carry glue in addition to fuel honey from the hive. Crop contents of both waggle dancers and dance followers showed a significant positive correlation with waggle-run durations. These results suggest that bees carry a distance-dependent amount of fuel honey in addition to a fixed amount of glue honey. Crop contents on leaving the hive were statistically larger in dancers than followers. Based on these results, we suggest that pollen foragers use information obtained through foraging experience to adjust crop contents on leaving the hive.

  19. Comprehensive cell-specific protein analysis in early and late pollen development from diploid microsporocytes to pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Ischebeck, Till; Valledor, Luis; Lyon, David; Gingl, Stephanie; Nagler, Matthias; Meijón, Mónica; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen development in angiosperms is one of the most important processes controlling plant reproduction and thus productivity. At the same time, pollen development is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations, including temperature, drought, and nutrition. Therefore, pollen biology is a major focus in applied studies and breeding approaches for improving plant productivity in a globally changing climate. The most accessible developmental stages of pollen are the mature pollen and the pollen tubes, and these are thus most frequently analyzed. To reveal a complete quantitative proteome map, we additionally addressed the very early stages, analyzing eight stages of tobacco pollen development: diploid microsporocytes, meiosis, tetrads, microspores, polarized microspores, bipolar pollen, desiccated pollen, and pollen tubes. A protocol for the isolation of the early stages was established. Proteins were extracted and analyzed by means of a new gel LC-MS fractionation protocol. In total, 3817 protein groups were identified. Quantitative analysis was performed based on peptide count. Exceedingly stage-specific differential protein regulation was observed during the conversion from the sporophytic to the gametophytic proteome. A map of highly specialized functionality for the different stages could be revealed from the metabolic activity and pronounced differentiation of proteasomal and ribosomal protein complex composition up to protective mechanisms such as high levels of heat shock proteins in the very early stages of development. PMID:24078888

  20. Plant pollen content in the air of Lublin (central-eastern Poland) and risk of pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Pollen monitoring was carried out in Lublin in 2001-2012 by the volumetric method using a Hirst-type spore trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Daily pollen concentrations considerably differed in the particular years. The pollen counts with the biggest variability were observed in the first half of a year when woody plants flowering. The highest annual pollen index were noted for the following taxa: Betula, Urtica, Pinaceae, Poaceae and Alnus. Betula annual total showed the greatest diversity in the study years. The number of days on which the pollen concentration exceeded the threshold values, thereby inducing allergies, was determined for the taxa producing the most allergenic pollen. The above-mentioned taxa primarily included the following: Poaceae, in the case of which the highest number of days with the risk of occurrence of pollen allergy was found (35), Betula (18), and Artemisia (10). The following taxa: Alnus (14 days), Populus (11 days), Fraxinus (10 days), and Quercus (8 days), were also characterized by a large number of days on which their pollen concentrations exceeded the threshold values. The occurrence of periods of high concentration of particular pollen types were also noted. Risk of pollen allergy appeared the earliest at the beginning of February during Alnus and Corylus blooming. High concentrations of other woody plants were recorded from the last ten days of March to about 20 May, and of herbaceous plants from the first/last half of May-beginning of October. PMID:25528903